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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Entomology and Zoology
  [SJR: 0.554]   [H-I: 34]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0003-6862 - ISSN (Online) 1347-605X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Prediction models for the abundance of overwintered adult brown-winged
           green bugs, Plautia stali (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), using male flower
           production of sugi, Cryptomeria japonica (Pinales: Cupressaceae), and
           aggregation-pheromone-trap captures
    • Authors: Toru Ohtani; Tosaku Mihira; Toshiyuki Kawana; Shigeki Fukushima; Ken Shimizu
      Pages: 369 - 377
      Abstract: Abstract The abundance of the adult brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, varies annually. During outbreaks, P. stali causes severe damage to various fruit crops. Therefore, predicting its abundance beforehand is important. In this study, we constructed multiple regression models to predict the abundance of overwintered adult P. stali in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, by using the accumulated aggregation-pheromone-trap captures of P. stali and the male flower production of sugi Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don, which relates to cone production, from 1998 to 2016. The abundance of overwintered adults in the present year can be predicted by male C. japonica flower production and the abundance of P. stali adults in the previous year. The models are highly precise and can calculate estimates in August for the abundance in the next year, which is far enough in advance for the application of control measures. These models also indicate intraspecific competition for food resources in P. stali.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0488-x
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Electroporation-mediated RNA interference reveals a role of the
           multicopper oxidase 2 gene in dragonfly cuticular pigmentation
    • Authors: Genta Okude; Ryo Futahashi; Ryouka Kawahara-Miki; Kazutoshi Yoshitake; Shunsuke Yajima; Takema Fukatsu
      Pages: 379 - 387
      Abstract: Abstract Dragonflies are colorful insects, and recent RNA sequencing studies have identified a number of candidate genes potentially involved in their color pattern formation and color vision. However, functional aspects of such genes have not been assessed due to the lack of molecular genetic tools applicable to dragonflies. We established an electroporation-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) procedure using the tiny dragonfly Nannophya pygmaea Rambur, 1842 (Odonata: Libellulidae) that targets the multicopper oxidase 2 gene (MCO2; also known as laccase2 gene) responsible for cuticular pigmentation in many insects. RNA sequencing of N. pygmaea and genomic survey of the dragonfly Ladona fulva identified four multicopper oxidase family genes: MCO1, MCO2, MCO3 and multicopper oxidase-related protein gene (MCORP). In N. pygmaea, MCO2 was specifically expressed around the cuticular pigmentation period, whereas MCO1 was constantly expressed. MCORP was expressed at adult stages, and MCO3 was scarcely expressed. When we applied in vivo electroporation, final instar larvae injected with MCO2 small interfering RNA became adults with patchy unpigmented regions. RNAi without in vivo electroporation did not affect cuticular pigmentation, suggesting that dragonflies do not show a systemic RNAi response. These results indicate that MCO2 is required for cuticular pigmentation across diverse insects, and highlight the usefulness of the electroporation-mediated RNAi method in dragonflies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0489-9
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Haplotype diversity of mt COI in the fall webworm Hyphantria cunea
           (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in introduced regions in China, Iran, Japan,
           Korea, and its homeland, the United States
    • Authors: Fan Yang; Jalal Jalali Sendi; R. C. Johns; Makio Takeda
      Pages: 401 - 406
      Abstract: Abstract Hyphantria cunea (Drury) has colonized many countries outside its native range of North America and has become a model species for studies of the colonization and subsequent adaptation of agricultural pests. Molecular genetic analyses can clarify the origin and subsequent adaptations to non-native habitats. Using the mitochondrial COI gene, we examined the genetic relationships between invasive populations (China, Iran, Japan, and Korea) and native populations (i.e., the United States). The Jilin (China) and Guilan (Iran) populations showed nine previously unknown haplotypes that differed from those found in the south–central United States, suggesting multiple colonization events and different regions of invasion. A dominant mtDNA haplotype in populations in the United States was shared by all of the populations investigated, suggesting that H. cunea with that haplotype have successfully colonized China, Iran, Japan, and Korea.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0491-2
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Acrididae: Orthoptera) do not lay
           eggs in old sand: Why'
    • Authors: Seiji Tanaka; Ryohei Sugahara
      Abstract: Abstract Schistocerca gregaria sometimes refuse to lay eggs into the “old sand” that is kept in their cages for several days. We investigated why they rejected the old sand for oviposition. Locusts exclusively laid eggs into new sand when presented together with old sand, indicating that the old sand contained an oviposition-inhibiting (OI) factor. We examined whether this factor was derived from locust feces or fed grass (Bromus catharticus). Locusts laid all eggs into the sand with grass when presented together with sand containing feces. In contrast, few eggs were laid into the sand with grass when clean sand was offered at the same time, suggesting that the OI factor originated from the grass and was concentrated in the feces. The OI factor was efficiently extracted from feces with water compared with ethanol and acetone. OI activity was detected by extraction of feces with water for 1 min, although a longer extraction time yielded higher activity. The water extract of feces retained OI activity after boiling. None of the eggs which were buried in sand containing fecal extract hatched, whereas most of the eggs buried in clean sand or sand containing grass extract hatched, showing a correlation between OI activity and a lethal effect on eggs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0518-8
       
  • Synchrony in the hatching of eggs in the desert locust Schistocerca
           gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): egg condition influences hatching time
           in the laboratory and under simulated field temperatures
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined the time of hatching of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria Forskål (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the laboratory to test the effect of eggs within a pod versus individualized eggs. The pod organization of eggs is thought to play a role in controlling hatching time and to facilitate synchronous hatching at constant temperatures. In the present study, we examined the hatching times of eggs in a pod and individualized eggs under 24-h thermocycles and simulated field temperatures. We tested two patterns of thermocycles consisting of a 12-h thermoperiod (35 or 30 °C) and 12-h cryoperiod (low temperature period; 30 or 25 °C), and two patterns of field temperatures observed in a natural habitat, Mauritania, in May and September. The majority of eggs hatched during low temperature periods in all patterns tested. In addition, the variances of hatching times for individualized eggs were significantly greater than for egg pods in which a clear peak of time of hatching was observed. We show that egg condition influences hatching time under thermocycles of constant and fluctuating temperatures in the laboratory, and may play a role in the adaptive time of hatching.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0517-9
       
  • Transcriptome sequencing and estimation of DNA methylation level in the
           subsocial wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattodea:
           Cryptocercidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract The wood-feeding cockroach genus Cryptocercus is a subsocial and sister group of the eusocial cockroaches, i.e., termites. Although Cryptocercus is a key taxon for understanding the evolution of eusociality in the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites), few genetic resources are available for comparative genetic analyses. In this study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing of Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder using next-generation sequencing technology to generate a massive genetic resource. By transcriptome sequencing and subsequent de novo transcriptome assembly, we obtained 132,191 contigs. The assembled transcriptome contained almost all of the conserved core eukaryote or insect genes. Furthermore, juvenile hormone- and DNA methylation-related genes that are considered to be key genes for the caste polyphenism in eusocial insects, were identified from the transcriptome assembly. In addition, the ratio of the observed (O) cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) content to the expected (E) one (CpG O/E), which is a proxy for the DNA methylation level, was calculated for coding regions extracted from the assembly. The CpG O/E values were less than 1 in most of the coding regions, and the frequency distribution of the CpG O/E values was bimodal rather than unimodal. These results indicate that most C. punctulatus genes are involved in DNA methylation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0519-7
       
  • Biological studies of Agalliana ensigera (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a
           leafhopper associated with several crop diseases in South America
    • Authors: Tomás Pérez Grosso; María Catalano; Luis Conci; Eduardo G. Virla
      Abstract: Abstract Agalliana ensigera Oman (Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae) occurs frequently in several crops and has been involved in the epidemiology, or at least mentioned, as a vector of several diseases. Its biology was unknown and its nymphs had not yet been described. Here, we provide information on behavioral and biological parameters including descriptions of its immature stages. A. ensigera was able to complete its entire life cycle on alfalfa. Eggs were laid individually beneath the epidermis, in the stem internodes, in either mature or young tissues. Females had a pre-ovipositional period of around 5 days, and the average duration of the egg stage was 11 days. The nymphal period ranged 14–31 days, with an average of 22 days. A period of high mortality was recognized from emergence to day 10. Adult longevity averaged 16.5 days, but some individuals survived up to 96 days. The sex ratio was about 1.2:1 females to males. Females lived longer than males. Data on behavior and new distributional records and host plants are also provided.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0511-2
       
  • Identification and sex expression profiling of odorant-binding protein
           genes in Trichogramma japonicum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) using
           RNA-Seq
    • Authors: Jia-Dong Wu; Zhao-Can Shen; Hai-Qing Hua; Fan Zhang; Yuan-Xi Li
      Abstract: Abstract Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is a biological control agent that parasitizes the eggs of many lepidopteran insects. The control efficiency is closely related to the ability of the parasitoid to use chemical volatiles in searching for hosts, and the odorant binding proteins (OBPs) may serve as a first step in the perception of these chemical cues. Understanding the ability of Trichogramma to detect relevant host odorant cues might help to design better strategies to control target lepidopteran insect pests. In the present study, we assembled the transcriptome of T. japonicum using Illumina sequencing technology and identified 15 putative OBP genes. All the OBP genes have complete open reading frames and contain six conserved cysteines. In addition, sex-biased expression was found in eight OBP genes by using quantitative real-time PCR, which suggested different functions of these genes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Hymenoptera OBP genes were divided into Classic, Minus-C, and Double Minus-C subfamilies. All the identified OBP genes of T. japonicum belong to the Classic subfamily. These results provide an important foundation for a better understanding of the complex chemoreception system of T. japonicum.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0516-x
       
  • Non-destructive direct polymerase chain reaction (direct PCR) greatly
           facilitates molecular identification of spider mites (Acari:
           Tetranychidae)
    • Authors: Hironori Sakamoto; Tetsuo Gotoh
      Abstract: Abstract Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) include serious agricultural pests and some species have spread globally as invasive species.. For this reason, rapid and simple identification of spider mite species is necessary for agricultural field and plant quarantine inspection. DNA sequence-based molecular techniques can rapidly identify spider mites. However, extracting DNA from minute invertebrates is difficult, expensive and time consuming. Here, we describe a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in which the whole body of a spider mite adult is non-destructively soaked in PCR solution. The mite is then removed intact and can be used as a voucher specimen, leaving the PCR solution as the template and avoiding the need for a DNA extraction kit. For this study, we used six common spider mite species from four genera [Tetranychus urticae Koch (red form), Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida, Tetranychus parakanzawai Ehara, Oligonychus gotohi Ehara, Eotetranychus smithi Pritchard & Baker and Panonychus citri (McGregor)]. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was amplified with a universal primer pair from all individuals examined and sequenced. This method shortened the time for molecular identification from 9 to 5 h and eliminated the cost of commercial kits for DNA extraction [ca. 600 yen (~5.3 USD) per sample].
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0512-1
       
  • Short and flat grass preferred by adults of the endangered dragonfly
           Sympetrum pedemontanum elatum (Odonata: Libellulidae)
    • Authors: Wataru Higashikawa; Mayumi Yoshimura; Tsuyoshi Yagi; Kaoru Maeto
      Abstract: Abstract Sympetrum pedemontanum (Müller in Allioni) (Odonata: Libellulidae) is widely distributed across the Eurasian continent and its neighboring islands. However, the populations of its subspecies S. pedemontanum elatum (Selys) in Japan have been rapidly decreasing with the loss of habitats in rural and suburban areas since the 1970s. For the conservation of this subspecies, which is now listed as endangered in many prefectures, it is important to understand the habitat preferences of the adults. Previous studies indicate that adult males of this species tend to fly on the flat surface of rice paddy fields. Thus, we hypothesized that they preferred short and flat grass. Field experiments in the Sakasegawa River, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, showed that adult S. p. elatum significantly preferred the trimmed grass of Phragmites japonicus to untreated shaggy grass, regardless of sex. Our results indicate the importance of grass management for the conservation of this species, not only in and around paddy fields but also in fluvial habitats, which are abundant in Japan.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0514-z
       
  • Varietal differences in ovicidal response to the white-backed planthopper
           Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) and susceptibility to
           Southern rice black - streaked dwarf virus in rice
    • Authors: Tomomi Towata; Keiichiro Matsukura; Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura; Masaya Matsumura
      Abstract: Abstract The recent spread of Oryza sativa L. (rice) ssp. indica-derived cultivars in East and Southeast Asia increases the risk of white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) outbreaks. We compared the degree of ovicidal response to S. furcifera and susceptibility to SRBSDV among two Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, two Oryza sativa ssp. indica and one Oryza sativa ssp. indica-derived rice cultivars. The ovicidal response of the O. sativa ssp. indica-derived cultivar was significantly higher than that of the tested O. sativa ssp. indica cultivars and was equivalent to that of the O. sativa ssp. japonica cultivars that we used, supporting previous findings that the ovicidal response is higher in O. sativa ssp. japonica cultivars than in O. sativa ssp. indica cultivars and is a quantitative trait controlled by a few relevant genes. Contrary to the varied ovicidal response, the SRBSDV infection rate among the cultivars and the height of SRBSDV-infected plants between most pairs of cultivars did not differ significantly, although twisting of the leaf tips, a typical symptom of SRBSDV, was not observed in the O. sativa ssp. japonica cultivars. These results indicate that damage by S. furcifera and SRBSDV can occur in O. sativa ssp. japonica as well as in O. sativa ssp. indica and O. sativa ssp. indica-derived cultivars; therefore, in the cultivation of O. sativa ssp. japonica, measures should also be taken against white-backed planthopper during high levels of emergence.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0515-y
       
  • Symbiotic bacteria associated with gut symbiotic organs and female genital
           accessory organs of the leaf beetle Bromius obscurus (Coleoptera:
           Chrysomelidae)
    • Authors: Kayoko Fukumori; Ryuichi Koga; Naruo Nikoh; Takema Fukatsu
      Abstract: Abstract Leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) constitute one of the most species-rich insect families, and live exclusively on leaves or other plant parts. Early histological works described the presence of symbiotic bacteria in gut-associated symbiotic organs of some chrysomelid species, but their microbiological nature has been poorly characterized except for those associated with reed beetles of the subfamily Donaciinae. Here we investigated symbiotic bacteria of the leaf beetle Bromius obscurus (L.) belonging to the subfamily Eumolpinae. Specific bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA and gyrB gene sequences were consistently obtained from the symbiotic organs, which radially surround the foregut-midgut junction, of all adult males and females examined. In adult females, the same sequences were also obtained from a pair of genital accessory organs, which are presumably for vertical symbiont transmission. Whole mount in situ hybridization specifically detected the symbiont in the gut symbiotic organs endocellularly and also in the female genital accessory organs extracellularly. In the gut symbiotic organs, the endocellular symbiont cells were small and rosette-like or aggregated and granule-like, whereas in the female genital organs the extracellular symbiont cells were of a condensed form. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the symbiont of B. obscurus constitutes a distinct lineage in the Gammaproteobacteria. Molecular evolutionary analysis has identified significantly accelerated molecular evolution and a highly adenine–thymine-biased nucleotide composition of the symbiont genes, presumably reflecting reductive evolution of the symbiont genome. These results suggest an intimate and stable host-symbiont association in B. obscurus, in which the symbiont may play some important, though hitherto unknown, biological roles in its herbivorous insect host.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0513-0
       
  • Mate-location flight of the red-necked longicorn beetle, Aromia bungii
           (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): an invasive pest lethal to Rosaceae trees
    • Authors: Midori Fukaya; Satoshi Kiriyama; Hiroe Yasui
      Abstract: Abstract The red-necked longicorn beetle, Aromia bungii (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which has recently invaded Japan, is a serious pest species. The larvae kill cherry and orchard Rosaceae trees, such as peach, plum, and apricot. To clarify their features for mate location, male and female flight behaviors were observed in wind tunnels with caged males and females as lures. In a small wind tunnel (50 cm in diameter, 2 m in length), both sexes showed takeoff behavior according to increasing airflow. The rate of female takeoff against the male lure, a live male in a wire-netting cage, tended to be higher than for other combinations. In a large wind tunnel (ca. 1.6 m in diameter, 4 m in length), both sexes ascended and showed momentary hovering and astatic flight. When male lure cages were placed windward in the wind tunnel, females showed “upwind flight,” while males did not. It is assumed that females were induced to fly upwind by a factor derived from live males, likely to be an airborne pheromone component.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0509-9
       
  • Identification and virulence characterization of entomopathogenic fungus
           Lecanicillium attenuatum against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
           (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    • Authors: Dengke Wang; Jianxin Deng; Yangfang Pei; Tian Li; Zhenyu Jin; Ling Liang; Wenkai Wang; Liangde Li; Xiaolin Dong
      Abstract: Abstract An entomopathogenic fungal strain was originally isolated on artificial medium from the corpse of a pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) collected at Jingzhou, China (N30°21′18.15″, E112°08′41.63″). Based on tests of the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, it was considered to be a strain of Lecanicillium attenuatum Zare & W. Gams. Therefore, the strain was designated L. attenuatum YZU 151121. The activity of the biological agents under study was determined at 26 °C and 90% relative humidity. The number of A. pisum killed was increased by increasing the concentration of L. attenuatum. The results demonstrated that L. attenuatum YZU 151121 showed a high efficacy against 3rd-instar nymphs (LC50 = 2.91 ± 0.365 × 105 conidia/ml) and adults (LC50 = 3.12 ± 0.398 × 106 conidia/ml) after 6 days of exposure. Crude extract from this strain was tested for contact toxicity and showed high activity in 3rd-instar nymphs and adults, with LC50 values of 251.34 ± 49.54 and 315.46 ± 87.66 mg/l, respectively. In addition, crude extract at a concentration of 200 mg/l could significantly reduce fecundity in adults. These results revealed that the strain YZU 151121 may be useful in biopesticides for controlling pea aphid.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0503-2
       
  • Nutrient allocation for somatic maintenance and worker production by the
           queen of the Japanese black carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus
           (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: Naoto Idogawa; Mamoru Watanabe; Tomoyuki Yokoi
      Abstract: Abstract Because queens of claustral colony-founding ants raise their first workers without foraging outside the nest, the number of first workers produced depends on the nutrient reserves of the queen when she begins to establish the colony. Although a low mortality rate of queens may be expected because they seal themselves off in the nest chambers, they do face a risk of starvation. Therefore, the queens must allocate nutrients for somatic maintenance and worker production, including the feeding of larvae. However, there are few reports on the nutrient consumption of queens. To clarify the nutrient resource utilization of claustral colony-founding queens, newly mated queens of the Japanese black carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus (Mayr), were collected just after the nuptial flight and reared in an incubator at 25 °C in the dark. The non-lipid mass and lipid mass of the queens were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 52 days after the nuptial flight. A significant decline in the non-lipid mass was found in the queens after hatching of larvae. In contrast, the lipid mass of the queen decreased soon after the nuptial flight. The results indicate that the somatic maintenance of the founding queens relies exclusively on lipids, while other nutrients, such as protein, may be used for feeding the larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0505-0
       
  • Mate-searching behavior of the black chafer Holotrichia kiotonensis
           (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): identification of a sex pheromone, and male
           orientation behavior controlled by olfactory and visual cues
    • Authors: Masahiro Oike; Shoko Kanayama; Sadao Wakamura
      Abstract: Abstract In the black chafer Holotrichia kiotonensis Brenske (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), mating behavior was observed between 1940 and 2010 hours at < 0.1 lx in both the laboratory and the field. In the laboratory, an ether extract of female abdominal glands induced a series of pre-mating behaviors such as short-distance orientation and abdominal bending. When the extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, the active fraction was eluted with 50% ether in hexane and 100% ether. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed that both active fractions contained anthranilic acid (2-amino-benzoic acid) as a major compound. The amount of this compound was determined to be ca. 600 ng/female by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with a fluorescence detector. In the field, male chafers were observed to land on cotton balls impregnated with 10 mg of authentic anthranilic acid. When a white ball treated with anthranilic acid was placed 2–10 cm away from an untreated black ball, males were observed to land significantly more frequently on the latter. These results suggest that males could recognize white balls below 0.1 lx and landed on black balls. When a treated black ball was placed beside an untreated black ball, more males landed on the former. The difference was significant when the distance between the two lures was 5 or 10 cm, but not significant when it was 2 cm. These observations demonstrated that anthranilic acid was the sex-attractant pheromone for the black chafer H. kiotonensis and that the males located and landed on a pheromone source by using olfaction in conjunction with visual orientation. The importance of visual orientation in this nocturnal species is discussed in comparison with the congeneric diurnal species Holotrichia loochooana loochooana.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0504-1
       
  • Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), developmental and
           reproductive capacity on white clover, Trifolium repens (Rosales:
           Leguminosae), in northeast China
    • Authors: Xiaohui Chen; Yanjie Fan; Wei Zhang; Zhenqi Tian; Jian Liu; Kuijun Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract Nymphs of Aphis glycines Matsumura were individually reared to adults in the laboratory on detached leaf discs of Trifolium repens L. (white clover) mounted on agar medium. Adults of A. glycines were fed T. repens within small clip cages in the field. Development, reproduction and intrinsic rates of increase of A. glycines were studied. These data were compared to those of controls fed known host plants including cultivated soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. and the wild soybean species Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc. The results demonstrated that nymphs of A. glycines successfully developed into adults and reproduced efficiently when reared on T. repens in the laboratory. The lower development temperature threshold for nymphs fed T. repens was estimated as 8.27 °C, and the effective cumulative temperature for A. glycines development from nymph to adult was 90.91 degree-days. Adults of A. glycines could also survive on T. repens in the field, but only a few nymphs were produced.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0500-5
       
  • Effect of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii on non-target
           organisms, water bugs (Heteroptera: Corixidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae)
    • Authors: Olga E. Belevich; Yury A. Yurchenko; Viktor V. Glupov; Vadim Yu. Kryukov
      Abstract: Abstract The influence of the fungus Metarhizium robertsii Bischoff, Rehner and Humber on the mortality of four water bug species, Cymatia coleoptrata (Fabricius), Sigara assimilis (Fieber), Ilyocoris cimicoides cimicoides (Linnaeus), and Notonecta reuteri Hungerford, and bloodsucking mosquito Anopheles messeae Falleroni, was investigated under various concentrations of conidia and different treatment types. We found that the mortality of adults of the water bug species was similar or higher than that of A. messeae, with C. coleoptrata and S. assimilis being more susceptible to M. robertsii than N. reuteri, I. c. cimicoides, and the mosquito A. messeae. Treatment with dry conidia at concentrations of 5 × 104 and 5 × 105 conidia/ml caused higher mortality of the water bug species than did treatment at the same concentrations with conidia in an aqueous suspension. In contrast, higher concentrations (5 × 106 conidia/ml) led to higher mortality after treatment with the aqueous suspension, relative to treatment with dry conidia. Our studies showed that water bugs exhibited the classical development of a mycosis with hemocoel colonization, mummification, and conidia formation on cadavers directly on the surface of the water. Possible changes in invertebrate communities in aquatic ecosystems after treatment with Metarhizium are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0494-z
       
  • Evaluation of aggregation and alarm pheromones of Riptortus pedestris
           (Hemiptera: Alydidae) as a push–pull strategy in soybean fields
    • Authors: M. Mahbubur Rahman; Un Taek Lim
      Abstract: Abstract Aggregation pheromone traps designed to capture Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) have recently been found to reduce neither the bug population nor crop damage in soybean fields. To improve trap efficiency, we first evaluated the effect of installation distance from the soybean field (trap distance). Additionally, push (one repellent) and pull (trap distance) strategies were evaluated together in a soybean field. While installation of aggregation pheromone traps 1 m outside of the field did not reduce the R. pedestris population at all, when the traps were moved to 5 m outside of the field, the field density of R. pedestris decreased, although this never became lower than when aggregation pheromone traps were absent. When the alarm pheromone was evaluated together with trap distance as a pull–push strategy in a soybean field, no additional reduction of the bug population was found compared to when only trap distance was changed. The number of bugs caught inside the aggregation pheromone traps was highest when traps were placed 10 m outside the field from August to October. In conclusion, despite some positive effect of installation distance, traps used both with and without alarm pheromone failed to reduce the bug population to the level found when traps were not used.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0498-8
       
  • Aseptic rearing procedure for the stinkbug Plautia stali (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) by sterilizing food-derived bacterial contaminants
    • Authors: Yudai Nishide; Naoko T. Onodera; Masahiko Tanahashi; Minoru Moriyama; Takema Fukatsu; Ryuichi Koga
      Abstract: Abstract The stinkbug Plautia stali Scott is a notorious agricultural pest whose posterior midgut hosts specific bacteria essential for its growth and survival, highlighted as an experimental model for symbiosis studies. Some symbiotic bacteria of P. stali are cultivable, found free-living in and acquired from the environment, and, furthermore, some free-living environmental bacteria are potentially capable of establishing symbiotic association with P. stali. In this context, it is expected that such environmental bacteria may occasionally contaminate and infect the experimental insects maintained in the laboratory, which could potentially affect the functional analyses of the symbiosis. Here we report that such contamination events do occur under a laboratory rearing conditions for P. stali. When symbiont-deprived newborn nymphs from surface-sterilized eggs were reared in sterilized plastic containers with autoclaved water, most of them died as nymphs presumably as a result of aposymbiosis, but only a small fraction could attain adulthood and the adult insects were all infected with γ-proteobacteria allied to Pantoea and Enterobacter. A variety of bacteria, mainly Bacillus and also Pantoea and Enterobacter, were detected from peanuts and soybeans provided as food for P. stali. Autoclaving of peanuts and soybeans eradicated these bacteria but negatively affected the host survival, whereas ethanol sterilization of peanuts and soybeans removed Pantoea and Enterobacter, but not Bacillus, without negative effects on the host survival. On the basis of these results, we established a practical procedure for aseptic rearing of P. stali, which will enable reliable and strict analyses of host–symbiont interactions in the model symbiotic system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0495-y
       
 
 
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