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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Entomology and Zoology
  [SJR: 0.554]   [H-I: 34]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0003-6862 - ISSN (Online) 1347-605X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Insecticidal activities of methyleugenol and β-asarone, from the herbal
           medicines Saishin and Sekishōkon, and other alkoxy-propenyl-benzene
           derivatives against the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne
           (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
    • Authors: Toshihiro Imai; Ryota Masuda
      Pages: 183 - 188
      Abstract: Abstract The principal insecticidal compounds from the herbal medicines Saishin, the root of Asarum sieboldii Miquel, and Sekishōkon, the rhizome of Acorus gramineus Soland, were isolated by successive silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The active components, which work against larvae of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), were identified as methyleugenol (4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene) and β-asarone {1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-[(Z)-prop-1-enyl]benzene} by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. These two compounds share some structural features, such as a benzene ring with o-dimethoxy groups and a propenyl group in the opposite position. Consequently, the insecticidal activities of 20 structurally related compounds were tested to evaluate their structure–activity relationship. We found myristicin (5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzene) exhibited comparable insecticidal activity to methyleugenol and β-asarone, but the other tested compounds were less active. The lack of insecticidal activity of compounds with a hydrogen, hydroxy, or acetoxy substituent in place of one methoxy group indicates that o-dimethoxy groups are essential for insecticidal activity. The position and configuration of a double bond in the propenyl side chain affected the toxicity, but there was a lack of consistency in the structure–activity relationship for this.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0466-8
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Influence of olive variety on biological parameters of Bactrocera oleae
           (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Nikos Garantonakis; Kyriaki Varikou; Athanasia Birouraki
      Pages: 189 - 196
      Abstract: Abstract A study was carried out on the impact of several olive Olea europaea L. (Lamiales: Oleaceae) varieties (Amfissis, Arbequina, Branquita de Elvas, Carolea, Kalamon, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla, Mastoidis, Moroccan Picholine, Picholine and Sourani) on the performance of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Measurements were made over a period of three successive years monitoring the biological parameters of B. oleae (weight of pupa, percentage of emergence, sex ratio, adult size and ovarian maturity) on the varieties of olive tree noted above. These measurements were taken as indices of developmental performance for B. oleae on the olive varieties. The results showed that B. oleae exhibited the highest performance when it was nurtured on the varieties Manzanilla, Moroccan Picholine, Leccino and Picholine rather than Koroneiki. Specifically, the mean weight of the pupae as well as the length of the developed adults was significantly higher than in those individuals that developed in smaller fruits such as Koroneiki. There were significantly higher recorded percentages of emerged adults (up to 80%), with a tendency to produce more female than male adults, while the developed females produced a significantly higher number of eggs. The highest olive fly performance was shown by individuals developing in Leccino and Carolea, with the females developing in Carolea showing the best reproductive performance compared with all the other varieties. These findings may be of ecological significance, and explain to some extent the observed variability in fruit infestation among olive varieties in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0467-7
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Mitochondrial sequence polymorphism in Chinese populations of Hylobitelus
           xiaoi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    • Authors: Haiyan Zhang; Shengli Zhang; Yang Zhang; Linping Zhang; Dong Li; Longxi He; Fenggang Luan
      Pages: 247 - 253
      Abstract: Abstract The Chinese weevil, Hylobitelus xiaoi Zhang, is a major pest affecting the pine industry throughout southern China, but its dispersal is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate its dispersal by assessing the genetic structure of seven geographical populations, using the distribution of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b). A 1212-bp fragment of the two mitochondrial genes was sequenced for 70 individuals from seven geographical populations. The gene sequences included 861 conserved sites, 351 variable sites, 254 parsim-info sites, and 97 singleton sites. These polymorphic sites defined 24 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.825. Nucleotide diversity was low (0.04568). The differentiation parameter (0.619) was much greater than the coefficient of genetic differentiation (0.285). An analysis of molecular variance suggested that most of the variation was due to within-population differences (61.68%). This molecular data also demonstrated that there is significant divergence among the seven sampled populations of H. xiaoi. This is probably due to habitat fragmentation, preventing effective gene flow between sites. Our molecular evidence supports the view that the Chinese weevil is a native pest, and that outbreaks of H. xiaoi are caused by large plantations of the exotic slash pine.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0473-9
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The influence of geographic population, age, and mating status on the
           flight activity of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:
           Erebidae) in China
    • Authors: Fan Yang; Youqing Luo; Juan Shi
      Pages: 265 - 270
      Abstract: Abstract The gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) is a highly polyphagous herbivore that defoliates a wide variety of tree species. The influence of age and mating status on the flight activity of females was assessed in seven geographically isolated populations from China. We examined flight activity of tethered females using a computer-linked flight mill in the laboratory and found that age significantly influenced flight parameters, including total flight distance, time, and speed. Flight distance peaked in the youngest females (at 1 day of age) and declined with age. No significant differences in flight parameters were found between unmated and mated females. Females from Guizhou showed the strongest flight activity among all seven populations. The total flight distances, flight times, and maximum flight speeds at 1 day of age were 7.50 ± 2.28 km, 2.17 ± 0.51 h, and 6.18 ± 0.51 km/h, respectively. These results provide valuable information regarding the scale and speed of dispersal in hotspots and can improve the management and control of forest damage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0475-7
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Changes in defense allomone compositions of Eutrichodesmus elegans and
           Eutrichodesmus armatus (Polydesmida: Haplodesmidae) during different
           stages of their life cycles
    • Authors: Yasumasa Kuwahara; Tsutomu Tanabe; Yasuhira Asano
      Pages: 305 - 312
      Abstract: Abstract A mixture of E- and Z-(2-nitrovinyl)benzenes is a known allomone of two adult haplodesmid millipedes, Eutrichodesmus elegans (Miyosi) (Polydesmida: Haplodesmidae) and Eutrichodesmus armatus (Miyosi), as is (2-nitroethyl)benzene in E. armatus. However, the proportions of these compounds have not yet been studied in detail at the nymph stage. In the present study, the ratios of these three nitro compounds were shown to change during ontogenetic development. (2-Nitroethyl)benzene was newly detected as the second major component of the mixture in both species at stage I, just after eggs hatched (mean 43.0% in E. armatus and 7.8% in E. elegans), decreasing rapidly to less than 0.1% during growth. These changes occurred in a species-specific manner; field-collected E. armatus maintained a characteristic mixture of E- and Z-(2-nitrovinyl)benzenes (59.9–98.2 and 40.0–1.4%, respectively) during all stages including the adult stage. On the other hand, E. elegans contained E-(2-nitrovinyl)benzene as the major component (98.7–99.7%) with Z-(2-nitrovinyl)benzene as a trace component (less than 1.2%), while a minute amount of (2-nitroethyl)benzene was always retained during all nymph and adult stages. No volatiles were detected in eggs before hatching, and sequential changes of composition were observed among the three compounds after emergence in both species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0478-z
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Relationship between temperature and development rate of Copitarsia
           incommoda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Bolivian Andes
    • Authors: F. Rebaudo; Q. Struelens; F. Callizaya Condori; R. Quispe
      Pages: 313 - 320
      Abstract: Abstract The relationship between temperature and development rate of Copitarsia incommoda Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of the quinoa crop in the Andes, was investigated using eight constant temperatures from 5.1 to 34.6 °C, on an artificial diet under laboratory conditions. We used a Gauss model to fit the survival rate, and the Holling type III, the Wang, and the Sharpe and DeMichele models to fit the different development rates for each life stage, among 25 models investigated and compared. Optimum temperatures for survival were between 13.2 and 27.1 °C, and optimum temperatures for development were between 19.1 and 31.9 °C. We used the development rate models with a large-scale temperature database to predict and map the risk of outbreaks once C. incommoda invades, using the number of generations per year, revealing that the pest was univoltine or bivoltine in most Bolivian regions of quinoa production. While temperatures from this database underestimate the temperatures experienced by the pest, this study provides a new insight into C. incommoda physiology, which should be a key factor in designing integrated pest management strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0480-5
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A method for rearing the yellow-spotted longicorn beetle, Psacothea
           hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), to stabilize the last larval instar
    • Authors: Keisuke Nagamine; Yukio Ishikawa; Sugihiko Hoshizaki
      Pages: 345 - 347
      Abstract: Abstract The larvae of Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) grown continuously under a long day in the laboratory pupate after the 4th, 5th, or 6th instar. This developmental polymorphism has complicated studies on the control of metamorphosis in P. hilaris. Since pupation in P. hilaris is known to be suppressed under a short day, a change in the photoperiod from a short to a long day with appropriate timing may assist in obtaining physiologically homogeneous larvae that pupate at the next molt. When the photoperiod was changed from 12-h light:12-h dark to 15-h light:9-h dark at the beginning of the 5th instar, the pupation rate at the next (5th) molt reached 90%, which was significantly higher than the proportion of larvae that pupated after the 5th instar when the larvae were grown continuously under a long day (52%). This rearing technique will expedite studies on the control of metamorphosis in P. hilaris.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0465-9
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii on non-target
           organisms, water bugs (Heteroptera: Corixidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae)
    • Authors: Olga E. Belevich; Yury A. Yurchenko; Viktor V. Glupov; Vadim Yu. Kryukov
      Abstract: The influence of the fungus Metarhizium robertsii Bischoff, Rehner and Humber on the mortality of four water bug species, Cymatia coleoptrata (Fabricius), Sigara assimilis (Fieber), Ilyocoris cimicoides cimicoides (Linnaeus), and Notonecta reuteri Hungerford, and bloodsucking mosquito Anopheles messeae Falleroni, was investigated under various concentrations of conidia and different treatment types. We found that the mortality of adults of the water bug species was similar or higher than that of A. messeae, with C. coleoptrata and S. assimilis being more susceptible to M. robertsii than N. reuteri, I. c. cimicoides, and the mosquito A. messeae. Treatment with dry conidia at concentrations of 5 × 104 and 5 × 105 conidia/ml caused higher mortality of the water bug species than did treatment at the same concentrations with conidia in an aqueous suspension. In contrast, higher concentrations (5 × 106 conidia/ml) led to higher mortality after treatment with the aqueous suspension, relative to treatment with dry conidia. Our studies showed that water bugs exhibited the classical development of a mycosis with hemocoel colonization, mummification, and conidia formation on cadavers directly on the surface of the water. Possible changes in invertebrate communities in aquatic ecosystems after treatment with Metarhizium are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0494-z
       
  • Evaluation of aggregation and alarm pheromones of Riptortus pedestris
           (Hemiptera: Alydidae) as a push–pull strategy in soybean fields
    • Authors: M. Mahbubur Rahman; Un Taek Lim
      Abstract: Aggregation pheromone traps designed to capture Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) have recently been found to reduce neither the bug population nor crop damage in soybean fields. To improve trap efficiency, we first evaluated the effect of installation distance from the soybean field (trap distance). Additionally, push (one repellent) and pull (trap distance) strategies were evaluated together in a soybean field. While installation of aggregation pheromone traps 1 m outside of the field did not reduce the R. pedestris population at all, when the traps were moved to 5 m outside of the field, the field density of R. pedestris decreased, although this never became lower than when aggregation pheromone traps were absent. When the alarm pheromone was evaluated together with trap distance as a pull–push strategy in a soybean field, no additional reduction of the bug population was found compared to when only trap distance was changed. The number of bugs caught inside the aggregation pheromone traps was highest when traps were placed 10 m outside the field from August to October. In conclusion, despite some positive effect of installation distance, traps used both with and without alarm pheromone failed to reduce the bug population to the level found when traps were not used.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0498-8
       
  • 1-Phenyl-2-pentanone and methyl salicylate: new defense allomone
           components and their content shift during ontogenetic development of the
           millipede Nedyopus tambanus mangaesinus (Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae)
    • Authors: Yasumasa Kuwahara; Masashi Morita; Yayoi Ichiki; Tsutomu Tanabe; Yasuhisa Asano
      Abstract: Twelve components were identified in hexane extracts of the polydesmid millipede Nedyopus tambanus mangaesinus (Attems, 1909) and their contents were examined at all stadia of ontogenetic development including two adult conditions (before and after hibernation). Two compounds, 1-phenyl-2-pentanone and methyl salicylate, were newly identified as components of the millipede together with six well-known polydesmoid compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, benzoyl cyanide, mandelonitrile, and mandelonitrile benzoate) and four phenols (phenol, p-cresol, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol). Benzaldehyde and benzoyl cyanide were distributed from nymphs at stadium I, and other components started to become detectable at more advanced stadia. The largest content (35.1%) of methyl salicylate was detected in nymphs at stadium I, together with benzaldehyde and benzoyl cyanide, implying the reinforcement of defensive functions during or after egg emergence. The content (18.8%) of 1-phenyl-2-pentanone reached a maximum in hibernated females among all stadia and conditions. Its female-biased distribution at the mating season (ca. 5.7-fold more than in males) implies its sexually related functions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0496-x
       
  • Aseptic rearing procedure for the stinkbug Plautia stali (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) by sterilizing food-derived bacterial contaminants
    • Authors: Yudai Nishide; Naoko T. Onodera; Masahiko Tanahashi; Minoru Moriyama; Takema Fukatsu; Ryuichi Koga
      Abstract: Abstract The stinkbug Plautia stali Scott is a notorious agricultural pest whose posterior midgut hosts specific bacteria essential for its growth and survival, highlighted as an experimental model for symbiosis studies. Some symbiotic bacteria of P. stali are cultivable, found free-living in and acquired from the environment, and, furthermore, some free-living environmental bacteria are potentially capable of establishing symbiotic association with P. stali. In this context, it is expected that such environmental bacteria may occasionally contaminate and infect the experimental insects maintained in the laboratory, which could potentially affect the functional analyses of the symbiosis. Here we report that such contamination events do occur under a laboratory rearing conditions for P. stali. When symbiont-deprived newborn nymphs from surface-sterilized eggs were reared in sterilized plastic containers with autoclaved water, most of them died as nymphs presumably as a result of aposymbiosis, but only a small fraction could attain adulthood and the adult insects were all infected with γ-proteobacteria allied to Pantoea and Enterobacter. A variety of bacteria, mainly Bacillus and also Pantoea and Enterobacter, were detected from peanuts and soybeans provided as food for P. stali. Autoclaving of peanuts and soybeans eradicated these bacteria but negatively affected the host survival, whereas ethanol sterilization of peanuts and soybeans removed Pantoea and Enterobacter, but not Bacillus, without negative effects on the host survival. On the basis of these results, we established a practical procedure for aseptic rearing of P. stali, which will enable reliable and strict analyses of host–symbiont interactions in the model symbiotic system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0495-y
       
  • New record of an alien gall midge, Oligotrophus betheli (Diptera:
           Cecidomyiidae) on a North American Juniperus horizontalis (Cupressaceae)
           in Japan, with reference to its ecological traits and possibility of
           further dispersal and host range expansion
    • Authors: Junichi Yukawa; Hiroyuki Yoshimura; Kazunori Matsuo; Wanggyu Kim
      Abstract: Abstract On the basis of adult morphological features together with the profile of infestation on the host plant, we identify a gall midge that is responsible for the discoloration of young twig tips of Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Cupressaceae) in Japan to be Oligotrophus betheli Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Both O. betheli and J. horizontalis are native to North America. This is the sixth example of an alien gall midge on its alien host plant in Japan. Oligotrophus betheli is redescribed to offer some morphological characteristics that were not given previously. Information on the distribution, host range, life history pattern and daily activity of O. betheli is provided and the possibility of its further dispersal and host range expansion is discussed. A larval parasitoid is identified to the generic level and the effect of spiders that catch adult gall midges in their webs is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0492-1
       
  • Genetic differentiation of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Figitidae)
           from East and Southeast Asia
    • Authors: Fumiaki Y. Nomano; Nazuki Kasuya; Akira Matsuura; Awit Suwito; Hideyuki Mitsui; Matthew L. Buffington; Masahito T. Kimura
      Abstract: Abstract Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) is a Drosophila parasitoid that has often been misidentified as G. xanthopoda (Ashmead) in recent studies. This study aims to clarify genetic differentiation of G. brasiliensis based on the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene and three nuclear DNA regions, the inter-transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) and putative 60S ribosomal protein L37 (RpL37), as well as crossing experiments. Four lineages are recognized in individuals assigned as G. basiliensis by morphology, (1) individuals occurring in Japan and probably South Korea, (2) individuals from a small subtropical island of Japan, Iriomote-jima, (3) individuals from temperate lowlands of Japan and high altitude areas of Southeast Asia, and (4) individuals occurring widely in Asia, America, Hawaii and Africa. The first lineage is a specialist of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), a pest of fresh fruit, and also the fourth lineage has a capacity to parasitize this pest species. The first, third and fourth lineages occur sympatrically at least in Tokyo. The third and fourth lineages differed in mate choice and host use to some extent, but post-mating isolation between them was almost absent.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0493-0
       
  • Soldiers are differentiated from male larval stages in incipient colonies
           of Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Isoptera: Termitidae)
    • Authors: Kouhei Toga; Chieka Minakuchi; Kiyoto Maekawa
      Abstract: Abstract In phylogenetically ancestral taxa of termites (the so-called lower termites), at least one soldier emerges and is maintained longitudinally in each incipient colony. However, in apical taxa (the so-called higher termites), the developmental pathway and regulation of soldiers in incipient colonies currently remain unknown. We therefore examined soldier and worker development in incipient colonies of higher termites (Nasutitermes takasagoensis Shiraki). Developmental stages and castes were successfully discriminated by head width in incipient colonies 4 months after colony foundation. Furthermore, differences were observed in the number of bristles on antennae between first- and second-instar larvae. In N. takasagoensis, there was more than one soldier in each incipient colony 4 months after its foundation. Presoldiers in the incipient colonies were differentiated from an earlier instar (male second-instar larvae), whereas, in mature colonies, they were differentiated from male third instars (= minor workers). The developmental period of the former (7 days) was markedly shorter than that of the latter (14 days). All female second-instar larvae molted into workers. The developmental processes shown here are useful for obtaining a clearer understanding of the mechanisms of soldier/worker differentiation in higher termites.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0485-0
       
  • Do the amount of sex pheromone and frequency of calling behavior in
           females affect the mate-searching behavior of males in Dasylepida
           ishigakiensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)'
    • Authors: Hiroe Yasui; Nao Fujiwara-Tsujii; Seiji Tanaka; Sadao Wakamura; Norio Arakaki
      Abstract: Abstract The white grub beetle Dasylepida ishigakiensis Niijima et Kinoshita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a serious sugarcane pest on the Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan. Because this beetle stays underground for most of its lifetime, mating disruption using a synthetic sex pheromone has been suggested as a promising control measure. The amount of pheromone (2-butanol) released by the females is known to decrease drastically as they repeat calling each day. In this study, we determined the response of males to different concentrations of (R)-2-butanol, both in the laboratory and in the field. Males showed typical pre-mating behaviors and they were attracted to (R)-2-butanol even at a concentration 1/100 of the amount typically emitted by a female during the 1st period of calling. We examined whether female attractiveness to males was reduced with the frequency of calling, by counting the number of males attracted to females that had called during zero to five periods beforehand. Our results indicated that a high level of female attractiveness was maintained even after three periods of calling. Based on these findings, we propose that releasing synthetic sex pheromone shortly before the start of the mating season and into the late mating season may be optimal for disrupting the mating of this beetle.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0487-y
       
  • Trypsinized Cry1Fa and Vip3Aa have no detrimental effects on the adult
           green lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
    • Authors: Intazar Ali; Shuai Zhang; Muhammad Iqbal; Samina Ejaz; Jin-jie Cui
      Abstract: Abstract An exposure bioassay was established for green lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) adults using a suitable artificial diet and honey–water solution (20%) to assess the toxicity of trypsinized Cry1Fa and Vip3Aa. Lethal and sub-lethal life table parameters were unaffected after C. pallens adults were given honey–water solutions containing Cry1Fa and Vip3Aa (50 µg/ml) and an artificial diet. In contrast, life table parameters of C. pallens adults were significantly affected when boric acid was mixed with the honey–water solution as a positive control. The uptake, temporal stability and bioactivity of Cry1Fa and Vip3Aa before and after C. pallens access to honey–water were confirmed using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a bioactivity verification bioassay. The results prove that trypsinized Cry1Fa and Vip3Aa are safe for C. pallens adults, thus it is speculated that transgenic crops expressing Cry1Fa and Vip3Aa have no detrimental effects on lacewings and are compatible with biological control programs. This study describes a robust experimental design for evaluating the potential toxicity of alkaline gut-activated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins on C. pallens adults which can be used to determine the potential toxicity of other Bt proteins on this species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0483-2
       
  • Erratum to: The number of stripes on the compound eyes reflects each
           instar in Acromantis satsumensis (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae)
    • Authors: Hiroshi Nakamine; Kazuhisa Yamasaki; Hideshi Naka
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0484-1
       
  • Assessment of genetic diversity and differentiation of Liposcelis
           bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) in China using inter-simple
           sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting
    • Authors: En-Tao Sun; Yi-Nan Wang; Kang Wang; Shu-Jun Xu; Dan-Yang Nan; Wen-Jie Chen; Ying-Ying Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) is a widely distributed pest that can cause considerable economic losses and pose human health risks. Rapid development of insecticide resistance has made L. bostrychophila increasingly difficult to control. To obtain information potentially useful for pest management, genetic diversity and differentiation of L. bostrychophila from five geographic locations in China was studied using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). A total of 104 loci were found by ISSR markers and amplified using 9 selected primers. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 91.4%. Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity (He) indicated high genetic diversity at the species level. Population differentiation (Gst = 0.484) was average in these populations. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) indicated that genetic variation was mainly distributed within populations. Gene flow (Nm = 0.534) was moderate. Cluster analysis showed that genotypes isolated from the same locations displayed higher genetic similarity and permitted the grouping of isolates of L. bostrychophila into three distinct clusters. The correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance was not significant.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0472-x
       
  • Molecular evaluation of diamide resistance in diamondback moth
           (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) populations using quantitative sequencing
    • Authors: S. Sonoda; K. Inukai; S. Kitabayashi; S. Kuwazaki; A. Jouraku
      Abstract: Abstract A method to estimate proportions of the G4946E mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene, a major mechanism of diamide insecticide resistance, was developed for Plutella xylostella Linnaeus populations using quantitative sequencing (QS). Using the QS-based method, the relationship between proportions of the G4946E mutation and mortalities for diamide (flubendiamide) was examined using field-collected populations. Results showed that the populations might be classifiable as diamide resistant.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0482-3
       
  • Establishment and yearly/seasonal occurrence of the exotic coccidophagous
           ladybird Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in citrus
           groves in Shizuoka City, central Japan: a 5-year survey on adult numbers
    • Authors: Shuji Kaneko
      Abstract: Abstract Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird native to Australia, preying on mealybugs and soft scales, and has been utilized worldwide as a biological control agent. It has long been recognized that C. montrouzieri that was introduced into the main island of Japan had failed to become established. The present study monitored yearly and seasonal occurrence of C. montrouzieri adults in citrus groves at Shizuoka Prefectural Fruit Tree Research Center in Shizuoka City, central Japan in 2008–2012 by using sticky traps and beating citrus trees. Adults of C. montrouzieri were continuously captured for 5 and 4 years in a pesticide-free citrus grove and a neighboring reduced-pesticide grove, respectively. Larvae of C. montrouzieri were observed consuming a cottony scale, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell, on citrus trees. These results provide unequivocal evidence for the ladybird’s establishment in central Japan. The number of trapped ladybird adults exhibited four peaks a year: in mid-April, early to late June, mid-August, and late September to early October. Adult numbers in each grove varied largely across years, showing a great increase followed by a rapid decline during a period of 4 years. Factors affecting the seasonal/yearly occurrence of C. montrouzieri adults in citrus groves are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0471-y
       
 
 
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