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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Entomology and Zoology
  [SJR: 0.554]   [H-I: 34]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0003-6862 - ISSN (Online) 1347-605X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Influence of olive variety on biological parameters of Bactrocera oleae
           (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Nikos Garantonakis; Kyriaki Varikou; Athanasia Birouraki
      Pages: 189 - 196
      Abstract: A study was carried out on the impact of several olive Olea europaea L. (Lamiales: Oleaceae) varieties (Amfissis, Arbequina, Branquita de Elvas, Carolea, Kalamon, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla, Mastoidis, Moroccan Picholine, Picholine and Sourani) on the performance of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Measurements were made over a period of three successive years monitoring the biological parameters of B. oleae (weight of pupa, percentage of emergence, sex ratio, adult size and ovarian maturity) on the varieties of olive tree noted above. These measurements were taken as indices of developmental performance for B. oleae on the olive varieties. The results showed that B. oleae exhibited the highest performance when it was nurtured on the varieties Manzanilla, Moroccan Picholine, Leccino and Picholine rather than Koroneiki. Specifically, the mean weight of the pupae as well as the length of the developed adults was significantly higher than in those individuals that developed in smaller fruits such as Koroneiki. There were significantly higher recorded percentages of emerged adults (up to 80%), with a tendency to produce more female than male adults, while the developed females produced a significantly higher number of eggs. The highest olive fly performance was shown by individuals developing in Leccino and Carolea, with the females developing in Carolea showing the best reproductive performance compared with all the other varieties. These findings may be of ecological significance, and explain to some extent the observed variability in fruit infestation among olive varieties in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0467-7
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
  • A method for rearing the yellow-spotted longicorn beetle, Psacothea
           hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), to stabilize the last larval instar
    • Authors: Keisuke Nagamine; Yukio Ishikawa; Sugihiko Hoshizaki
      Pages: 345 - 347
      Abstract: The larvae of Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) grown continuously under a long day in the laboratory pupate after the 4th, 5th, or 6th instar. This developmental polymorphism has complicated studies on the control of metamorphosis in P. hilaris. Since pupation in P. hilaris is known to be suppressed under a short day, a change in the photoperiod from a short to a long day with appropriate timing may assist in obtaining physiologically homogeneous larvae that pupate at the next molt. When the photoperiod was changed from 12-h light:12-h dark to 15-h light:9-h dark at the beginning of the 5th instar, the pupation rate at the next (5th) molt reached 90%, which was significantly higher than the proportion of larvae that pupated after the 5th instar when the larvae were grown continuously under a long day (52%). This rearing technique will expedite studies on the control of metamorphosis in P. hilaris.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-016-0465-9
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 2 (2017)
  • Molecular characterization and phylogenetic comparisons of three Mayetiola
           species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infesting cereals in Tunisia
    • Authors: Amira Cherif; Natsuko Kinoshita; DeMar Taylor; Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa
      Abstract: Species from the genus Mayetiola are observed in the main cereal cultures of Tunisia. Some researchers have studied M. destructor that attacks wheat and M. hordei that attacks barley. However, a third important species observed in oat, M. avenae, has not been studied and is not well documented in Tunisia. A method to easily separate the species is needed to clarify the occurrences of these gall midge species. This study aimed to first distinguish between the three species of gall midges by molecular characterization and second to reveal the phylogenetic relationships within and between the three species of Mayetiola collected from 5 different regions of northern Tunisia. To achieve these purposes, two regions of the mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, and the 16S rRNA gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. For each marker, a set of 75 individuals were used for DNA analysis. Phylogenetic trees were created using the DNA sequences of all samples from the 3 species. Results showed significant separation of the three different species into dissimilar clades. Each clade contained only specimens from the same species. Differences were observed between DNA sequences of the same species. The differences within the same species were not representative of geographical variations but coexisted within a population Therefore, using the COI and 16S rRNA genes as markers can clearly separate M. avenae, M. destructor and M. hordei.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0507-y
  • Forced hot-air treatment against Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
           in papaya
    • Authors: Bo Liu; Baishu Li; Guoping Zhan; Tao Zha; Yuejin Wang; Chen Ma
      Abstract: The Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock, was treated with hot-water immersion and forced hot air to develop a phytosanitary heat treatment schedule. Hot-water immersion tests were conducted with 12- and 24-h-old eggs and with first and third instar larvae to compare the relative thermotolerances of this fruit fly among these life stages. The 24-h-old eggs, the most thermotolerant among the four life stages tested, were subjected to time and temperature tests using cage-infested papaya fruits in a forced hot-air chamber. Heating the papayas to a minimum core temperature of 47.7 °C (95% confidence interval 47.2–48.3 °C) was estimated to induce probit-nine mortality based on a probit analysis of the data. Confirmatory tests in which papayas infested with 24-h-old eggs were heated to a minimum fruit core temperature of 47.2 °C that was maintained for 0–30 min followed by hydrocooling to a fruit core temperature of ≈25 °C resulted in the complete mortality of an estimated treated population of 43,425 eggs aged 24 h (99.9931% mortality at the 95% confidence level). Therefore, heating the papaya fruits to a core temperature of 47.2 °C for a minimum dwell time of 30 min, which was the longest dwell time in the confirmatory tests, may serve as a phytosanitary heat treatment schedule for the control of B. papayae in papaya fruits.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0501-4
  • Identification and virulence characterization of entomopathogenic fungus
           Lecanicillium attenuatum against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
           (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    • Authors: Dengke Wang; Jianxin Deng; Yangfang Pei; Tian Li; Zhenyu Jin; Ling Liang; Wenkai Wang; Liangde Li; Xiaolin Dong
      Abstract: An entomopathogenic fungal strain was originally isolated on artificial medium from the corpse of a pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) collected at Jingzhou, China (N30°21′18.15″, E112°08′41.63″). Based on tests of the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, it was considered to be a strain of Lecanicillium attenuatum Zare & W. Gams. Therefore, the strain was designated L. attenuatum YZU 151121. The activity of the biological agents under study was determined at 26 °C and 90% relative humidity. The number of A. pisum killed was increased by increasing the concentration of L. attenuatum. The results demonstrated that L. attenuatum YZU 151121 showed a high efficacy against 3rd-instar nymphs (LC50 = 2.91 ± 0.365 × 105 conidia/ml) and adults (LC50 = 3.12 ± 0.398 × 106 conidia/ml) after 6 days of exposure. Crude extract from this strain was tested for contact toxicity and showed high activity in 3rd-instar nymphs and adults, with LC50 values of 251.34 ± 49.54 and 315.46 ± 87.66 mg/l, respectively. In addition, crude extract at a concentration of 200 mg/l could significantly reduce fecundity in adults. These results revealed that the strain YZU 151121 may be useful in biopesticides for controlling pea aphid.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0503-2
  • Nutrient allocation for somatic maintenance and worker production by the
           queen of the Japanese black carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus
           (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: Naoto Idogawa; Mamoru Watanabe; Tomoyuki Yokoi
      Abstract: Because queens of claustral colony-founding ants raise their first workers without foraging outside the nest, the number of first workers produced depends on the nutrient reserves of the queen when she begins to establish the colony. Although a low mortality rate of queens may be expected because they seal themselves off in the nest chambers, they do face a risk of starvation. Therefore, the queens must allocate nutrients for somatic maintenance and worker production, including the feeding of larvae. However, there are few reports on the nutrient consumption of queens. To clarify the nutrient resource utilization of claustral colony-founding queens, newly mated queens of the Japanese black carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus (Mayr), were collected just after the nuptial flight and reared in an incubator at 25 °C in the dark. The non-lipid mass and lipid mass of the queens were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 52 days after the nuptial flight. A significant decline in the non-lipid mass was found in the queens after hatching of larvae. In contrast, the lipid mass of the queen decreased soon after the nuptial flight. The results indicate that the somatic maintenance of the founding queens relies exclusively on lipids, while other nutrients, such as protein, may be used for feeding the larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0505-0
  • Review of the invasive yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina nigrithorax
           (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in Japan and its possible chemical control
    • Authors: Shigeki Kishi; Koichi Goka
      Abstract: The distribution of the invasive yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina nigrithorax Buysson, is expanding in Europe and Asia. In Japan, this species was first detected on Tsushima Island, near Korea, in 2012. Because the rapid expansion of its distribution has raised public concern, the Japanese Ministry of the Environment added this hornet to the list of invasive alien species in 2015. In this paper, to contribute to the development of control techniques for this hornet, we present its phylogeny and life history. We then report its global expansion history and present status. Last, we review case studies of chemical control of vespine wasps and discuss effective techniques to control the hornet on Tsushima, where many Asian honeybee hives are kept. Successful case studies with Vespula wasps suggest the possibility of toxic baiting for the control of V. velutina nigrithorax.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0506-z
  • Mate-searching behavior of the black chafer Holotrichia kiotonensis
           (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): identification of a sex pheromone, and male
           orientation behavior controlled by olfactory and visual cues
    • Authors: Masahiro Oike; Shoko Kanayama; Sadao Wakamura
      Abstract: In the black chafer Holotrichia kiotonensis Brenske (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), mating behavior was observed between 1940 and 2010 hours at < 0.1 lx in both the laboratory and the field. In the laboratory, an ether extract of female abdominal glands induced a series of pre-mating behaviors such as short-distance orientation and abdominal bending. When the extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, the active fraction was eluted with 50% ether in hexane and 100% ether. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed that both active fractions contained anthranilic acid (2-amino-benzoic acid) as a major compound. The amount of this compound was determined to be ca. 600 ng/female by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with a fluorescence detector. In the field, male chafers were observed to land on cotton balls impregnated with 10 mg of authentic anthranilic acid. When a white ball treated with anthranilic acid was placed 2–10 cm away from an untreated black ball, males were observed to land significantly more frequently on the latter. These results suggest that males could recognize white balls below 0.1 lx and landed on black balls. When a treated black ball was placed beside an untreated black ball, more males landed on the former. The difference was significant when the distance between the two lures was 5 or 10 cm, but not significant when it was 2 cm. These observations demonstrated that anthranilic acid was the sex-attractant pheromone for the black chafer H. kiotonensis and that the males located and landed on a pheromone source by using olfaction in conjunction with visual orientation. The importance of visual orientation in this nocturnal species is discussed in comparison with the congeneric diurnal species Holotrichia loochooana loochooana.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0504-1
  • Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), developmental and
           reproductive capacity on white clover, Trifolium repens (Rosales:
           Leguminosae), in northeast China
    • Authors: Xiaohui Chen; Yanjie Fan; Wei Zhang; Zhenqi Tian; Jian Liu; Kuijun Zhao
      Abstract: Nymphs of Aphis glycines Matsumura were individually reared to adults in the laboratory on detached leaf discs of Trifolium repens L. (white clover) mounted on agar medium. Adults of A. glycines were fed T. repens within small clip cages in the field. Development, reproduction and intrinsic rates of increase of A. glycines were studied. These data were compared to those of controls fed known host plants including cultivated soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. and the wild soybean species Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc. The results demonstrated that nymphs of A. glycines successfully developed into adults and reproduced efficiently when reared on T. repens in the laboratory. The lower development temperature threshold for nymphs fed T. repens was estimated as 8.27 °C, and the effective cumulative temperature for A. glycines development from nymph to adult was 90.91 degree-days. Adults of A. glycines could also survive on T. repens in the field, but only a few nymphs were produced.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0500-5
  • Identification and functional characterization of the sex-determining gene
           doublesex in the sawfly, Athalia rosae  (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)
    • Authors: Shotaro Mine; Megumi Sumitani; Fugaku Aoki; Masatsugu Hatakeyama; Masataka G. Suzuki
      Abstract: Sexual fate of the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is determined by the complementary sex determination (CSD) mechanism as is the case in honeybees. However, to date, genes involved in sex determination have not been identified in this species. In this study, we attempted to identify orthologs of complementary sex-determiner (csd), feminizer (fem), and doublesex (dsx) from the A. rosae genome, all of which are crucial components of the sex determination cascade in the honeybee. As a result, we identified a sawfly ortholog of dsx (designated as Ardsx). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using total RNA extracted from male and female larvae identified three male-specific variants and three female-specific variants. Comparison between the full-length Ardsx cDNAs and the genomic sequence revealed that exon 5 was differentially spliced between the male- and female-specific variants. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Ardsx pre-mRNA was spliced alternatively in a sex-dependent manner at almost all the developmental stages. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Ardsx in males caused severe defects in the reproductive organs and, notably, induced development of the ovipository apparatus containing the dorsal pair of blades and the sheath. These males also showed abnormalities in testes and seminal vesicles and lacked mature sperm. The present study provides the first direct evidence that dsx is essential for sexual development in hymenopteran species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0502-3
  • Seasonal and yearly change in adult abundance of a predacious ladybird
           Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and the citrus whitefly
           Dialeurodes citri (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in citrus groves
    • Authors: Shuji Kaneko
      Abstract: Serangium japonicum Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) chiefly attacks whiteflies. This study monitored the adult occurrence of the ladybird and the citrus whitefly Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in citrus groves in central Japan using sticky traps, thereby examining temporal relationships in their abundance. Many S. japonicum adults were captured in a pesticide-free grove where D. citri adults were very abundant, with few adults in neighboring (organic, reduced pesticide, and conventional) groves harboring small numbers of D. citri. The whitefly adults exhibited a large peak in numbers in late May to early June. Two peaks of the ladybird adult numbers were detected in late May to early June and late June to mid-July, −6 to 7 days, and nearly 1 month after the peak in whitefly adult numbers, respectively. The ladybird adults found during the first peak period would be those that visited citrus trees mainly for oviposition, and the adults caught during the second peak period would be those that newly emerged after consuming immature whiteflies at the larval stage. Based on a yearly change in adult numbers in the pesticide-free grove, i.e., a large increase in S. japonicum numbers followed by a rapid decline in D. citri numbers, the ladybird’s role in controlling the whitefly is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0499-7
  • Exposure of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs and
           adults to high temperatures induces an aestivo-hibernal egg diapause: a
           strategy for surviving hot summers
    • Authors: Jian Wen; Ke-Wei Chen; Lang Fu; Yigen Chen
      Abstract: The predatory stink bug Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which is widely distributed in the subtropics and tropics, is a potential biological control agent for lepidopteran, coleopteran, and hemipteran pests. We investigated development of eggs oviposited by E. furcellata females subjected to various photoperiods (i.e., 8L:16D, 12L:12D, and 16L:8D) and temperature regimes (i.e., 26:26, 30:28, 32:30, 34:32, 35:33, and 36:34 °C; temperatures at light and dark phases, respectively) at different developmental stages. Exposure of E. furcellata nymphs and adults to different photoperiods and temperature regimes affected the development of eggs they subsequently oviposited. Temperatures greater than 30 °C induced diapause in a portion of the eggs, as evidenced by the delayed appearance of the black circle and the red spot, characteristics of early and late stage of embryonic development, respectively. The proportion of diapausing eggs generally increased with increasing temperature exposure, whereas it decreased with advancing developmental stage/age at which E. furcellata was subjected to the temperature regime. Although viability of diapausing eggs was lower than that of non-diapausing eggs, diapausing eggs survived longer under high temperatures. The trade-off between survivability and viability may be a strategy to survive unpredictability of summer temperatures.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0497-9
  • Effect of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii on non-target
           organisms, water bugs (Heteroptera: Corixidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae)
    • Authors: Olga E. Belevich; Yury A. Yurchenko; Viktor V. Glupov; Vadim Yu. Kryukov
      Abstract: The influence of the fungus Metarhizium robertsii Bischoff, Rehner and Humber on the mortality of four water bug species, Cymatia coleoptrata (Fabricius), Sigara assimilis (Fieber), Ilyocoris cimicoides cimicoides (Linnaeus), and Notonecta reuteri Hungerford, and bloodsucking mosquito Anopheles messeae Falleroni, was investigated under various concentrations of conidia and different treatment types. We found that the mortality of adults of the water bug species was similar or higher than that of A. messeae, with C. coleoptrata and S. assimilis being more susceptible to M. robertsii than N. reuteri, I. c. cimicoides, and the mosquito A. messeae. Treatment with dry conidia at concentrations of 5 × 104 and 5 × 105 conidia/ml caused higher mortality of the water bug species than did treatment at the same concentrations with conidia in an aqueous suspension. In contrast, higher concentrations (5 × 106 conidia/ml) led to higher mortality after treatment with the aqueous suspension, relative to treatment with dry conidia. Our studies showed that water bugs exhibited the classical development of a mycosis with hemocoel colonization, mummification, and conidia formation on cadavers directly on the surface of the water. Possible changes in invertebrate communities in aquatic ecosystems after treatment with Metarhizium are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0494-z
  • Evaluation of aggregation and alarm pheromones of Riptortus pedestris
           (Hemiptera: Alydidae) as a push–pull strategy in soybean fields
    • Authors: M. Mahbubur Rahman; Un Taek Lim
      Abstract: Aggregation pheromone traps designed to capture Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) have recently been found to reduce neither the bug population nor crop damage in soybean fields. To improve trap efficiency, we first evaluated the effect of installation distance from the soybean field (trap distance). Additionally, push (one repellent) and pull (trap distance) strategies were evaluated together in a soybean field. While installation of aggregation pheromone traps 1 m outside of the field did not reduce the R. pedestris population at all, when the traps were moved to 5 m outside of the field, the field density of R. pedestris decreased, although this never became lower than when aggregation pheromone traps were absent. When the alarm pheromone was evaluated together with trap distance as a pull–push strategy in a soybean field, no additional reduction of the bug population was found compared to when only trap distance was changed. The number of bugs caught inside the aggregation pheromone traps was highest when traps were placed 10 m outside the field from August to October. In conclusion, despite some positive effect of installation distance, traps used both with and without alarm pheromone failed to reduce the bug population to the level found when traps were not used.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0498-8
  • 1-Phenyl-2-pentanone and methyl salicylate: new defense allomone
           components and their content shift during ontogenetic development of the
           millipede Nedyopus tambanus mangaesinus (Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae)
    • Authors: Yasumasa Kuwahara; Masashi Morita; Yayoi Ichiki; Tsutomu Tanabe; Yasuhisa Asano
      Abstract: Twelve components were identified in hexane extracts of the polydesmid millipede Nedyopus tambanus mangaesinus (Attems, 1909) and their contents were examined at all stadia of ontogenetic development including two adult conditions (before and after hibernation). Two compounds, 1-phenyl-2-pentanone and methyl salicylate, were newly identified as components of the millipede together with six well-known polydesmoid compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, benzoyl cyanide, mandelonitrile, and mandelonitrile benzoate) and four phenols (phenol, p-cresol, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol). Benzaldehyde and benzoyl cyanide were distributed from nymphs at stadium I, and other components started to become detectable at more advanced stadia. The largest content (35.1%) of methyl salicylate was detected in nymphs at stadium I, together with benzaldehyde and benzoyl cyanide, implying the reinforcement of defensive functions during or after egg emergence. The content (18.8%) of 1-phenyl-2-pentanone reached a maximum in hibernated females among all stadia and conditions. Its female-biased distribution at the mating season (ca. 5.7-fold more than in males) implies its sexually related functions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0496-x
  • Aseptic rearing procedure for the stinkbug Plautia stali (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) by sterilizing food-derived bacterial contaminants
    • Authors: Yudai Nishide; Naoko T. Onodera; Masahiko Tanahashi; Minoru Moriyama; Takema Fukatsu; Ryuichi Koga
      Abstract: The stinkbug Plautia stali Scott is a notorious agricultural pest whose posterior midgut hosts specific bacteria essential for its growth and survival, highlighted as an experimental model for symbiosis studies. Some symbiotic bacteria of P. stali are cultivable, found free-living in and acquired from the environment, and, furthermore, some free-living environmental bacteria are potentially capable of establishing symbiotic association with P. stali. In this context, it is expected that such environmental bacteria may occasionally contaminate and infect the experimental insects maintained in the laboratory, which could potentially affect the functional analyses of the symbiosis. Here we report that such contamination events do occur under a laboratory rearing conditions for P. stali. When symbiont-deprived newborn nymphs from surface-sterilized eggs were reared in sterilized plastic containers with autoclaved water, most of them died as nymphs presumably as a result of aposymbiosis, but only a small fraction could attain adulthood and the adult insects were all infected with γ-proteobacteria allied to Pantoea and Enterobacter. A variety of bacteria, mainly Bacillus and also Pantoea and Enterobacter, were detected from peanuts and soybeans provided as food for P. stali. Autoclaving of peanuts and soybeans eradicated these bacteria but negatively affected the host survival, whereas ethanol sterilization of peanuts and soybeans removed Pantoea and Enterobacter, but not Bacillus, without negative effects on the host survival. On the basis of these results, we established a practical procedure for aseptic rearing of P. stali, which will enable reliable and strict analyses of host–symbiont interactions in the model symbiotic system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0495-y
  • New record of an alien gall midge, Oligotrophus betheli (Diptera:
           Cecidomyiidae) on a North American Juniperus horizontalis (Cupressaceae)
           in Japan, with reference to its ecological traits and possibility of
           further dispersal and host range expansion
    • Authors: Junichi Yukawa; Hiroyuki Yoshimura; Kazunori Matsuo; Wanggyu Kim
      Abstract: On the basis of adult morphological features together with the profile of infestation on the host plant, we identify a gall midge that is responsible for the discoloration of young twig tips of Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Cupressaceae) in Japan to be Oligotrophus betheli Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Both O. betheli and J. horizontalis are native to North America. This is the sixth example of an alien gall midge on its alien host plant in Japan. Oligotrophus betheli is redescribed to offer some morphological characteristics that were not given previously. Information on the distribution, host range, life history pattern and daily activity of O. betheli is provided and the possibility of its further dispersal and host range expansion is discussed. A larval parasitoid is identified to the generic level and the effect of spiders that catch adult gall midges in their webs is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0492-1
  • Genetic differentiation of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Figitidae)
           from East and Southeast Asia
    • Authors: Fumiaki Y. Nomano; Nazuki Kasuya; Akira Matsuura; Awit Suwito; Hideyuki Mitsui; Matthew L. Buffington; Masahito T. Kimura
      Abstract: Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) is a Drosophila parasitoid that has often been misidentified as G. xanthopoda (Ashmead) in recent studies. This study aims to clarify genetic differentiation of G. brasiliensis based on the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene and three nuclear DNA regions, the inter-transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) and putative 60S ribosomal protein L37 (RpL37), as well as crossing experiments. Four lineages are recognized in individuals assigned as G. basiliensis by morphology, (1) individuals occurring in Japan and probably South Korea, (2) individuals from a small subtropical island of Japan, Iriomote-jima, (3) individuals from temperate lowlands of Japan and high altitude areas of Southeast Asia, and (4) individuals occurring widely in Asia, America, Hawaii and Africa. The first lineage is a specialist of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), a pest of fresh fruit, and also the fourth lineage has a capacity to parasitize this pest species. The first, third and fourth lineages occur sympatrically at least in Tokyo. The third and fourth lineages differed in mate choice and host use to some extent, but post-mating isolation between them was almost absent.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0493-0
  • Erratum to: The number of stripes on the compound eyes reflects each
           instar in Acromantis satsumensis (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae)
    • Authors: Hiroshi Nakamine; Kazuhisa Yamasaki; Hideshi Naka
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0484-1
  • Molecular evaluation of diamide resistance in diamondback moth
           (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) populations using quantitative sequencing
    • Authors: S. Sonoda; K. Inukai; S. Kitabayashi; S. Kuwazaki; A. Jouraku
      Abstract: A method to estimate proportions of the G4946E mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene, a major mechanism of diamide insecticide resistance, was developed for Plutella xylostella Linnaeus populations using quantitative sequencing (QS). Using the QS-based method, the relationship between proportions of the G4946E mutation and mortalities for diamide (flubendiamide) was examined using field-collected populations. Results showed that the populations might be classifiable as diamide resistant.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13355-017-0482-3
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