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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

 Agricultural ResearchJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.276 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 5      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2249-720X - ISSN (Online) 2249-7218 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2351 journals]
• Development, Testing and Optimization of a Screw Press Oil Expeller for
Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Seeds
• Authors: Olugbenga Abiola Fakayode; Emmanuel Atoo Ajav
Abstract: A screw press moringa oil expeller was developed and evaluated in terms of oil expression efficiency (OEE), material balance efficiency (MBE) and expression loss (EL). Four different models were fitted to the output variables. Maximum OEE of 81.66% was obtained at moisture content of 11% wet basis, heating temperature of 80 °C, heating time of 30 min and applied pressure of 20 MPa. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the OEE was 0.77. Predicted optimum OEE of 80.62% at moisture content of 11.30% wet basis, temperature of 85.55 °C, time of 27.17 min and pressure of 19.64 MPa was obtained with a desirability of 0.867. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental value was 80.74%. Deviations between experimental and predicted values were low and statistically insignificant which implies the model chosen can effectively predict the OEE. Maximum MBE and EL were 95.47 and 4.53%, respectively, which shows a better conversion of input (seeds) to output (oil and cake) materials with minimal losses along the production line. However, it was observed that the mean is a better predictor for the MBE and EL than any of the models considered as the experimental values obtained were very close and statistically insignificant.
PubDate: 2018-07-13
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0342-6

• Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Fungal Endophytes of Asparagus
racemosus Willd
• Authors: Kanika Chowdhary; Nutan Kaushik
Abstract: Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. In the present work, 60 asymptomatic fungi representing nine different genera were isolated from 286 plant tissues of Asparagus racemosus. Fungal endophytes were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing. Penicillium sp. was the most dominant fungus. Tissue specificity was observed by principal component analysis. Cluster analysis revealed correlation between fungal species abundance and mean temperature. Highest Shannon diversity was recorded in leaf tissues ( $${H^\prime }$$  = 1.279) from Delhi in 2010. Pielou’s evenness index was highest in stem tissues sampled from Hyderabad in the first survey. Of the total number of isolates examined, 12% of fungal endophytes demonstrated antifungal activity against the causal agents of four distinctive plant diseases (grey mould, stem rot, root rot and wilting, i.e. Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively) in dual-culture bioassay. Penicillium sp. (isolate ARDS-2.3) and Aspergillus oryzae (isolate ARHS-1.1) displayed most effective antifungal activity with IC50 value ranging from 0.381 to 0.955 mg/ml against the broad-spectrum phytopathogens investigated.
PubDate: 2018-07-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0341-7

• Design and Development of Self-Propelled Garlic Harvester
• Authors: Qun Sun; Yongxiang Sui; Ling Zhao; Jialin Hou; Chong Wang; Chengqiang Ying; Jinyong Shangguan
Abstract: Aiming at the current issues involved in garlic harvest in China, such as low mechanization degree, high labor intensity and low efficiency problems, a garlic harvester was designed to realize fully mechanized harvest of single-row planted garlic. The designed garlic harvester included frame, holding and feeding mechanism, clamping and conveying mechanism, digging mechanism, dust removal mechanism, limit cutting mechanism, material guiding and gathering mechanism and transmission mechanism. According to physical characteristics of garlic stems, innovative techniques such as chain-type clamping and conveying mechanism, garlic stem positioning and separating mechanism were proposed. Through simulation and field experiments, parameters such as chain speed, moving knife rotational speed and holding angle were determined and optimized. The experimental results indicated that the self-propelled single-row garlic harvester was able to well accomplish garlic digging, conveying, dust removal, stem cutting and garlic gathering processes. The production efficiency was 453.33 m2/h and the garlic damage rate was 0.43%, which the production needs and improves the efficiency of garlic harvest.
PubDate: 2018-07-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0340-8

• The Effects of Crop Establishment Method, Soil–Water Regime and
Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Sustainability of Rice Yield
in North-Eastern India
• Authors: A. K. Singh; Mandira Chakraborti
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in rice fields of the mid-tropical plain zone of north-eastern India with an aim to develop options through integrated management of soil, water, nutrition and plant for sustainable rice production. The experimental fields were managed in three transects by growing rice under the system of rice intensification (SRI), integrated crop management (ICM) and conventional rice culture (CRC) with fertiliser treatments of NPK100–100–100; NPK100–100–100 + FYM; and NPK50–50–50 + FYM + biofertiliser. The results reveal that the SRI and ICM systems of rice culture give a good yield with better water use efficiency. The quantity of water required for producing one kilogram of rice was 1498 L in SRI and 1535 L in ICM compared to 1883 L in CRC. The requirement of fertiliser under SRI and ICM methods of transplanted rice was less than half of the fertiliser requirement of the CRC method. The soil–water regime, crop establishment method and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices significantly influenced the sustainability yield indices (85–99%) of rice in this climate scenario.
PubDate: 2018-07-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0336-4

• Effect of Bioslurry on the Yield of Wheat and Rice in the Wheat–Rice
Cropping System
• Authors: M. A. Haque; M. Jahiruddin; M. S. Islam; M. M. Rahman; M. A. Saleque
Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the integrated use of chemical fertilizers with organic manure in the wheat–rice cropping systems in Bangladesh. The experiment involved a sole chemical fertilizer treatment, four treatments based on the integrated plant nutrition system (IPNS) with 5 t ha−1 cowdung (CD) and cowdung bioslurry, 3 t ha−1 poultry manure (PM) and poultry manure bioslurry and a control. The wheat crop received manures and/or bioslurries, and its residual effect was evaluated for succeeding T. Aman crop. Poultry manure bioslurry, poultry manure, cowdung bioslurry, and cowdung gave 11.7, 8.9, 5.4, and 3.1% respective increase in total system productivity over sole chemical fertilizer (46% N, as urea, 20% P as triple superphosphate, 50% K as muriate of potash and 18% S as gypsum). Bioslurries supplied greater amount of nutrients compared to their respective original state of soil which influenced nutrient uptake of the test crop. Cowdung bioslurry is recommended as a substitute of 24–32% N, 52–91% P, 18–24% K and 50–73% S and that for poultry manure bioslurry of 19–21% N, 87–94% P, 12–14% K and 49–61% S of the recommended nutrient rate. The plant analysis showed that total N, P, K, and S contents improved significantly by integrated use of CD and PM bioslurry with IPNS based chemical fertilizers. Total system productivity (TSP) was significantly influenced by different treatments which ranged from 3.43 to 7.88 t ha−1 in 2011 and 3.66 to 7.82 t ha−1 in 2012.
PubDate: 2018-06-28
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0333-7

• Comparison of Non-linear Growth Models to Describe the Growth Behaviour of
Deccani Sheep
• Authors: Yogesh C. Bangar; Vinu S. Lawar; Ravindra G. Nimase; Charudatta A. Nimbalkar
Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the most suitable of the six frequently used non-linear growth models, viz. Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Richards, logistic, Gompertz and negative exponential, to describe the growth curve of 146 Deccani male and female sheep maintained at ICAR—Network Project on Sheep Improvement, MPKV, Rahuri (India). The monthly body weights were collected from birth to 18 months of age for the period of January 2014 to June 2016. Sex-wise modelling of growth curve showed that females had lower maturity weights, but reached maturity earlier than males. The Brody model provided highest adjusted R2 value and the lowest value of the root means square error, Akaike’s information criterion and Bayesian information criterion as compared to other models. The Richards model showed the closeness in results of goodness of fit criteria with Brody model; however, Brody model was preferred as it was simpler (three parameters compared to four of Richards).
PubDate: 2018-06-26
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0338-2

• Response of Lentil ( Lens culinaries ) to Post-rice Residual Soil Moisture
Under Contrasting Tillage Practices
• Authors: P. K. Bandyopadhyay; S. Halder; K. Mondal; K. C. Singh; R. Nandi; P. K. Ghosh
Abstract: Soil moisture stress and excessive soil wetness are the main abiotic factors limiting lentil (Lens culinaries Medik) growth and productivity in the humid tropics. Field experiments were conducted during the post-monsoon to winter seasons (November–March) of 2012–2013 to 2013–2014 on a clay loam soil (Aeric Haplaquept) of Eastern India to cultivate rainfed lentil, utilizing the carry-over soil moisture and residual soil fertility, in rice fallow during post-rainy season. Our objective was to determine the effects of three tillage treatments, viz. No tillage with standing rice stubbles (NT), minimum tillage with standing rice stubbles (MT) and conventional tillage (CT), imposed on post-rice soil conditions, on the root-zone soil moisture storage, actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of lentil, actual time and intensity of crop stress exposed, as well as growth, seed yield, and water use efficiency of lentil. The soil moisture storage within the root-zone was 17.1–18.6 cm for NT and MT and 13.8–14.3 cm for CT during the time of sowing and the values declined to 7.5–10.0 cm during harvesting of lentil. Treatment CT declined > 40% of its readily available water at pod-formation stage. Soil moisture storage depletion from sowing to maturity at 0–40 cm depth was found 4.8, 3.4 and 6.9 cm under NT, MT, and CT, respectively. The leaf relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll concentration, crop growth rate (CGR) and biomass were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in NT and MT than CT. Leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and RWC varied significantly (P < 0.05) at critical crop growth periods under different tillage as compared to soil moisture stress. The ratio of CGR to LAI was 1.5 times more under NT and MT than under CT. The ETa was 11.41, 11.16 and 10.28 cm, respectively, for CT, NT and MT with a mean seed yield of 938, 1292 and 1225 kg ha−1 across both the years. Treatments NT and MT had significantly (P < 0.05) higher water use efficiency producing 35.3 kg ha−1 more seed yield per cm of water as compared with CT. The increase in yield was primarily ascribed to the favourable soil moisture content, which increased the plant growth rate (96% as compared with CT), thereby helping the crop to overcome the terminal drought during the later stages of the growth of lentil. Contrasting tillage practices modified the crop coefficient (Kc) values by altering evaporation and transpiration coefficients with mean Kc values for initial, development, mid-season and maturity stages were 0.32, 0.43, 1.12 and 0.39, respectively, under post-rice residual soil moisture. Our study concluded that when long-duration puddled-transplanted monsoon rice (~ 150 days) was the preceding crop in rice fallow situations, NT and MT are better alternatives to CT for the production of lentil.
PubDate: 2018-06-26
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0337-3

• Analysing Dry-Seeded Rice Responses to Planting Time and Irrigation
Regimes in a Subtropical Environment Using ORYZA2000 Model
• Authors: S. Nisar; V. K. Arora
Abstract: Irrigated rice is a luxurious consumer of water. Dry-seeded rice culture is an option that saves water, but may entail loss in crop yield implying a trade-off of productivity and water conservation. This study evaluates the water balance and productivity response of dry-seeded rice to management interventions using ORYZA2000 model. The database was generated from field studies involving combinations of planting dates and irrigation regimes. The performance of the model in simulating phenology, biomass, water use and yield was reasonable within the experimental conditions. The normalized root mean square of deviation (RMSDn) for simulated and measured harvest-time biomass and grain yield was 12 and 16%, while RMSDn for progressive soil water content and water use was less than 10%. Scenario analysis using historical weather data showed that rice planted on June 16 had minimum variance in potential yield (5.4%) compared to earlier (June 1) or later (July 1) planting. The evapotranspiration (ET)-based water productivity (WPET) was greater for June 16 and July 1 than June 1 planting. Loss of yield and WPET with reduction in irrigation frequency were least on June 16 rice implying this as optimal planting time of rice in the study region.
PubDate: 2018-06-25
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0331-9

• Effect of Soil Amendments and Land Use Systems on Surface Cracks, Soil
Properties and Crop Yield in a Vertisol
• Authors: J. Somasundaram; R. K. Singh; S. N. Prasad; Ashok Kumar; Shakir Ali; N. K. Sinha; R. S. Chaudhary; M. Mohanty; B. L. Lakaria; M. Sankar; Rattan Lal
Abstract: Soil cracks can enhance water recharge through preferential flow during the rainy season and enhanced evaporation loss during the post-rainy season. Despite their significance, a limited information is available on the management of surface cracks in Vertisols. The frequency, size, and rate of development of cracks greatly affect the movement of soil water and nutrient and exchange of gases in the soil profile and also influence plant growth processes in Vertisols. To find out the suitable soil amendments and land use for reducing the rate of crack formation in medium-deep black soils of the region, a 4-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different soil amendments and land uses on surface cracks, soil properties and crop yields on Vertisols under semiarid conditions. Field experiment consisted of three different land uses [i.e., agriculture [intercropping of sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.) + pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) at 1:1 ratio], grassland (dhaman grass—Cenchrus ciliaris L.), fallow land (no cultivation fallow)] as main plots with four different soil amendments [i.e., S0—control, S1—fly ash @ 10 Mg ha−1, S2—crop residue (wheat straw) @ 5 Mg ha−1, S3—gypsum (100% of gypsum requirement), S4—FYM @ 5 Mg ha−1] as subplots. The data showed that application of soil amendments had a beneficial effect on soil properties such soil pH, available nutrients, labile C and total organic carbon and stocks. In the 0–15-cm layer, SOC stocks varied from 15.17 to 20.04; 16.13–20.67; 14.25–19.58 Mg ha−1 for agriculture, grassland and fallow land, respectively. The labile C and total organic carbon contents were in the order of grassland > agriculture > fallow land. Further, soil under grassland system recorded the higher mean weight diameter than that under crop and fallow land. Among different soil amendments applied, wheat straw and FYM had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on soil aggregation. Application of amendments increased soil moisture content by 5.7–12.6; 2.2–13.3; 9.0–17.3% over control (no soil amendments) for agriculture, grassland and fallow land use system, respectively. Among different land uses, crack volume reduction was in the order of grassland (− 7  to − 44%) > agriculture (− 7 to − 18%) > fallow land (− 2 to − 23%). Wheat straw application registered the lowest crack volume followed by that under FYM, fly ash and gypsum, regardless of the land use systems. Crop and grass biomass yields were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the application of soil amendments. Application soil amendments not only reduced crack volume but also favorably influenced soil properties and crop yields in Vertisols.
PubDate: 2018-06-23
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0334-6

• The Past and Present of Irrigation Services in Turkey
• Authors: Cengiz Koç
Abstract: Irrigation is the utilization of water being applied to the soil for assisting in the growing of crops. Irrigation is quite important for the World in general and it plays a crucial role in growth and development at local, national, and international levels. The regions, which have been called the cradle of civilization since ancient times, have always been established near the water basins. Furthermore, various civilizations have developed in the lands where the irrigation gave life to these lands. Irrigation has created a new basis on which civilizations have risen and as a result it has deeply influenced their social development. Civilizations have been born and turned into ashes due to the development and collapse of their irrigation systems, while other civilizations have lived on for thousands of years with their sustained irrigation systems. It is essential to comprehend the history of irrigation development as it assists in augmenting knowledge about the traditional irrigation systems. While many people may dismiss traditional irrigation systems; similar concepts are even used today quite successfully. The past experience related to traditional irrigation systems can also give us valuable insight for modern systems. Such lessons that enrich our current design and operation alternatives must be explored. This study has examined the role and importance of irrigation, historical irrigation structures and approaches in irrigation management in the ancient civilizations established in the world and in the Anatolian peninsula, the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey. Remarkable developments have been made for irrigation services in Turkey, especially during the period of Republic. Approximately, 66% of the 8.5 million hectares of agricultural land which are economically irrigable in Turkey are irrigated currently. Furthermore, irrigation works of remaining 2.92 million hectares of land have been carried out.
PubDate: 2018-06-23
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0332-8

• Adoption of Modern Maize Varieties in India: Insights Based on Expert
Elicitation Methodology
• Authors: S. Pavithra; Christian Boeber; Showkat Ahmad Shah; S. P. Subash; P. S. Birthal; Surabhi Mittal
Abstract: Adoption of modern varieties of maize, characterised by higher genetic potential, is desirable from the viewpoint of increasing the maize yield level. At present, there is no well-structured and organised system for documenting the popular crop varieties and their area coverage in India. The present study attempts to fill such knowledge gaps by documenting the major maize varieties and estimating the adoption rates under the same, using the expert elicitation methodology. The study finds that maize cultivation in the traditional growing states and tribal belts is mainly dominated by the cultivation of local varieties and composites with a low seed replacement rate, especially during kharif season. Most widely cultivated maize varieties in India were P-3501, NK-6240, P-3396 and N-K30. Among the public sector varieties JM-216, JVM-421, African Tall, Narmada Moti and GM-6 were widely cultivated. The private sector maize varieties are dominating in those states where maize is mainly cultivated for commercial purpose such as feed and other industries. General resistance to diseases, lodging tolerance, grain colour, high shelling recovery and good storage life are some of the preferred attributes of the popular varieties. Several promising varieties from the public sector have not reached the farmers’ fields due to non-availability of seed. On the other hand, private sector maize hybrids have successfully diffused to farmers’ fields owning to strong marketing initiatives. Public sector varieties need to be brought under an efficient seed production system along with an effective transfer of hybrid maize cultivation technology to boost the maize yield levels and production in India.
PubDate: 2018-06-21
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0330-x

• DNA Fingerprinting for Identification of Rice Varieties and Seed Genetic
Purity Assessment
• Authors: Vanisri Satturu; Durga Rani; Swathi Gattu; Jamal Md; Sreedhar Mulinti; Ranjit Kumar Nagireddy; Ramprasad Eruvuri; Raviteja Yanda
Abstract: Maintenance of seed purity is an important skill-demanding aspect in seed production and multiplication. DNA fingerprinting allows identification of plant genotypes with high precision and stability as it is not influenced by environment, epistatic interactions and pleiotropic effects. DNA barcodes, the unique pattern of SSR polymorphism from the allelic variation data were developed for 14 visually similar varieties of medium grained rice and eight varieties of long slender grain types, having high market demand. Single-tube multiplex assays and DNA barcodes were generated using the available data on 32 markers for medium slender and 35 markers for long slender varieties to make variety identification easy and precise, which can supplement traditional standard practices in determining purity and certification.
PubDate: 2018-06-15
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0324-8

• Effect of No-Till and Raised-Bed Planting on Soil Moisture Conservation
and Productivity of Summer Maize ( Zea mays ) in Eastern Himalayas
• Abstract: Productivity of summer maize (Zea mays) is relatively low in hill ecosystem of north-eastern region (NER) of India due to scanty rainfall, lack of irrigation and low residual soil moisture. Conservation tillage along with suitable land management system can improve the soil moisture regime and performance of maize. Field experiment was conducted for 2 years (2012 and 2013) with six combinations of tillage and land configuration practices, viz. CT–FB: conventional tillage (CT) with flatbed planting (FB), CT–RF: CT with ridge and furrow planting (RF), CT–RB: CT with raised-bed planting (RB), NT–FB: no-till (NT) with FB, NT–RF: NT with RF and NT–RB: NT with RB. Results revealed that significantly higher soil moisture content (22.8–23.4% and 21.0–25.3%) was found in NT–RB system as compared those under CT–FB (19.0–19.4% and 17.0–21.2%) at 0–60 cm soil depth in both years 2012 and 2013, respectively, at all the period of moisture estimation. The NT–RB system being on a par with NT–RF recorded significantly higher root length, rooting density, leaf area index and biomass accumulation as compared to other treatments. The average (2 years) maximum number of cobs ha−1 (63,518 cobs per plant), cob weight (272 g per cob), green cob (11.2 M ha−1) and fodder yield (50.5 Mg ha−1) were also recorded under NT–RB system. So, it is recommended to grow summer maize under NT–RB system for higher soil moisture conservation, improved plant growth and subsequently good fodder and green cob yield in the hills of NER.
PubDate: 2018-06-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0308-8

• Impact of Establishment Techniques and Maturity Duration of Pigeon Pea
Cultivars on Yield, Water Productivity and Properties of Soil
• Abstract: India is the leading country with respect to area and production of pulse crop pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). However, the productivity of this crop is too low and almost static for the last five decades due to cultivation of long-duration cultivars that are prone to climatic variations causing temporary water logging, drought and frost. Proper selection of the cultivar and use of appropriate crop establishment may help in enhancing productivity. Therefore, a field investigation was carried out for 3 consecutive years to determine the impact of establishment techniques on cultivars of two maturity durations—long (250–280 days; cv. JA-4) and short (130–145 days; cv. ICPL-88039), grown using the conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), zero tillage (ZT) and broad bed furrow (BBF). The BBF method significantly improved the growth, biological yield, harvest index ratio, water productivity and physicochemical properties compared to the CT, MT and ZT. The yield of pigeon pea seed and stalk under the BBF increased 9.9 and 4.1% compared to the CT. The short-duration cultivar produced higher yield (16.8%) in frost-affected year (2012–2013) but was at par with the long-duration cultivar during the normal climatic condition year (2013–2015). Overall, the short-duration cultivar produced significantly higher yield. Land use efficiency and total water use were significantly higher for the long-duration cultivar a compared to the short-duration cultivar, whereas production efficiency and water productivity were higher for the short-duration cultivar. Compared to the other tillage practices, BBF showed significantly higher organic carbon and infiltration rate but decreased pH. The trend of infiltration rate was in the order BBF > ZT > MT > CT. The bulk density of surface (0–15 cm) and sub-surface (15–30 cm) layers were significantly lower under the BBF compared to the other tillage practices. Maximum increment of available N, P, K and S in surface soil (0–15 cm) was recorded under the BBF. For the short-duration maturity cultivar of pigeon pea the BBF method appeared beneficial in terms of assured higher yield, improved water productivity and physicochemical properties of soil under variable climatic conditions in Central India.
PubDate: 2018-06-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0309-7

• Enhanced Techniques of Soil Washing for the Remediation of Heavy
Metal-Contaminated Soils
• Authors: Xu Yang; Xinyu Mao; Xiaohou Shao; Fengxiang Han; Tingting Chang; Hengji Qin; Minhui Li
Abstract: Soil washing has been developed as one of the ex situ traditional remediation methods for heavy metal polluted soils. It has been found to be effective in metal extraction. However, due to the distribution and speciation in soils, most metal(loid)s are present in less mobile forms which limit the washing efficiency. Therefore, methods are studied to enhance the washing performance by increasing the metals solubility and availability. This paper introduces some currently used methods and technologies, including the optimization of washing variables, lowering soil pH, application of assisted amendments and integration of electro-kinetic remediation and ultrasonication to enhance the removal of metals. In addition, it also suggests some further studies.
PubDate: 2018-04-13
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0302-1

• Genetic Study of Horticultural Traits in Bell Pepper ( Capsicum annuum
var. grossum ) Through Generation Mean Analysis
• Authors: Jyoti Devi; Sonia Sood
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out at CSK HPKV, Palampur (Himachal Pradesh, India), to study gene action for important horticultural traits in bell pepper and to develop desirable breeding material from the segregating generations. In this study six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2) of four crosses, viz, EC-464107 × Kandaghat Selection (C1), EC-464115 × Kandaghat Selection (C2), EC-464107 × EC-464115 (C3) and EC-464107 × Sweet Happy-I (C4), were evaluated. The results of the scaling tests revealed that additive-dominance model was inadequate in all the crosses for all the traits studied. For total fruits per plant, the magnitude of dominance [h] gene effects and additive × additive [i] gene interactions were positive and higher coupled with duplicate epistasis in the crosses C1, C2 and C4. This suggested the exploitation of heterosis breeding as well as the selection of desirable segregants through the pedigree method in these crosses. For total fruit yield per plant, all the four cross combinations revealed positive and relatively higher magnitude of dominance [h] gene effects along with complementary gene action in the cross C3 and duplicate type of epistasis (but low magnitude) in the cross C4. This suggested the usefulness of exploiting hybrid vigor in these crosses. Studies on the extent of heterosis suggested that the F1 hybrid EC-464107 × SH-I (C4) was the most consistent for earliness, while the cross EC-464107 × KS (C1) was more reliable for high fruit yield and can further be evaluated for yield and quality traits as well as resistance to bacterial wilt.
PubDate: 2018-04-13
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0298-6

• Carbon Footprint of Crop Cultivation Process Under Semiarid Conditions
• Authors: A. S. Devakumar; R. Pardis; V. Manjunath
Abstract: Agriculture is one of the major sectors that get affected as well as cause climate change. Arid and semiarid regions of the world are expected to become more vulnerable to climate change. Thus, in order to develop appropriate mitigation or adaptive strategies, carbon footprint analysis of agriculture sector becomes crucial. Emissions resulting from the cultivation process depend on the inputs used and the environmental conditions. The present study is an effort to analyze the carbon footprint of agriculture crops cultivated in the state of Karnataka with 80% land under rainfed agriculture under semiarid tropical conditions. About 5.37 terra grams of carbon equivalent (TgCE) was found to occur annually. Cereals contributed 5.04 TgCE/year of which 78% comes from rice, as it emits methane in addition to CO2 and NO2. Possible approaches to reduce methane emission are discussed including the possibility of replacing the area under rice with other crops without affecting the dietary as well as peoples preferences. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer use in the cultivation process accounts for 72% of the total emissions. Combining pulse crops effectively in conventional practices of crop rotation and mixed cropping systems can help in reducing emissions. Manual agriculture followed due to small land holdings facilitates low energy use (8%) under rainfed agriculture, resulting in low carbon input. Irrigated agriculture recorded 4.19 TgCE/year which is almost 3.5 times more than the rainfed agriculture practice. Among the two cropping seasons, Kharif season which is the major cropping season recorded 3.85 TgCE/year against 1.52 TgCE/year during Rabi season. Most tropical regions with fragmented land, low carbon emission as well as with the low productivity need to be treated differently.
PubDate: 2018-04-03
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0315-9

• Effect of Seasons on Subsequent Production Behavior of Small Size Potato
Mini-tubers
• Authors: Ashwani K. Sharma; Tanuja Buckseth; R. K. Singh
Abstract: For the effective utilization of healthy and precious planting material, one-time multiplication of extremely small mini-tubers of potato under protected conditions is an alternative option to improve the size of progeny tubers for making them suitable for field multiplication. With this objective, the extremely small potato mini-tubers, viz. < 1, 1–2 and 2–3 g, produced during Kharif and autumn seasons were evaluated for their production behavior and health status under polyhouse (aphid proof) conditions of northwestern India (2700 m above mean sea level) during 2012 and 2013. The study revealed that mini-tubers produced during both the seasons had almost similar production potential and can be multiplied simultaneously without any special treatment. The number of tubers/m2 was more with mini-tubers grown in Kharif season than the autumn ones, but the yield was similar with the mini-tubers from both the seasons. However, plant vigor, number of tubers and yield were significantly affected by the grade of mini-tubers. The ELISA test of 5% plants raised from the mini-tubers from both the seasons revealed 100% healthy stocks in all the grades of mini-tubers.
PubDate: 2018-04-03
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0325-7

• Assessing Breeding Potential of Three-Way Cross and Double-Cross Hybrids
in Chilli ( Capsicum annuum )
• Authors: T. Lakshmi Pathy; A. Mohan Rao; S. Ramesh
Abstract: Assessing breeding potential of multi-parent crosses is essential in order to isolate inbreds with broad genetic base. Five parental lines of chilli were used to produce ten single-cross hybrids in diallel design. These ten single crosses were in turn used to produce 15 double-cross hybrids and 30 three-way cross hybrids. The breeding potential of these three-way cross and double-cross hybrids was assessed for fruit yield per plant in terms of quantitative traits means, variances and their ability to produce transgressive segregants. Rank sums were also calculated based on individual means and variance. The hybrids which showed better values for all these parameters were compared and inferred that (Byadagikaddi × Gouribidanur) × (CCA 9907-9611 × Tiwari) and (CCA 9907-9611 × Tiwari) × PBC 483 have highest breeding potential and hence can be utilized for further improvement.
PubDate: 2018-04-02
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0318-6

• Genetic Control of Inheritance of Fruit Quality Attributes in Tomato (
Solanum lycopersicum )
• Authors: Jiregna Tasisa; Wassu Mohammed; Shimelis Hussien; Vasantha Kumar
Abstract: The experiment comprised of seven tomato inbred lines (two processing and five fresh market) and 21 F1 hybrids produced by crossing of them in a 7 × 7 half diallel fashion excluding the reciprocals. The study was conducted at the Haramaya University, Ethiopia during July 2015 to June 2016 to analyze the genetics of inheritance of some physical and chemical quality traits. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used to conduct the experiment. Among the studied characters, only shape index and titratable acidity fulfilled the additive–dominance hypothesis. Therefore, non-allelic gene interaction could be involved in the inheritance of the characters which did not fit the model. The parental line Roma VF contained mostly recessive genes with increasing effects for shape index, and the parental lines Marglobe and Eshete contained mostly recessive genes with the increasing effects for titratable acidity. Therefore, employing these lines in hybridization for shape index and titratable acidity improvement could be ineffective, since the rapid increased frequency of recessive alleles which is the cause of loss of vigor could be resulted in advancing generation.
PubDate: 2018-03-12
DOI: 10.1007/s40003-018-0314-x

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