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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Agricultural Research
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2249-720X - ISSN (Online) 2249-7218
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Response of AquaCrop Model to Different Irrigation Schedules for Irrigated
           Cabbage
    • Authors: G. S. Pawar; M. U. Kale; J. N. Lokhande
      Pages: 73 - 81
      Abstract: Agricultural sector faces the challenge to produce more food with less water by increasing crop water productivity. As such, the question of improving the present level of crop water productivity in general and for irrigation in particular assumes a great significance in perspective water resource planning. This study was undertaken to improve water productivity, i.e., ‘more crop per drop.’ In this study response of cabbage to different irrigation schedules under mulch and non-mulch condition using calibrated AquaCrop model was evaluated. AquaCrop is a crop model that simulates yield response to water developed by FAO and is appropriate to consider effects where water is the limiting factor for crop production. AquaCrop was calibrated for cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), a leafy vegetable. Simulations were carried out for the period November 27, 2013, to February 19, 2014 with T1, T2, T3 (treatments irrigation scheduling at 50 % moisture depletion of available water capacity under black, silver, and no polyethylene mulch with drip irrigation) and T4, T5, T6 (irrigation scheduling at 100 % evapotranspiration under black, silver, and no polyethylene mulch with drip irrigation). The model provided excellent simulation of canopy and yield. The harvest index was observed as 80 % for cabbage. Formulated Schedule with S1, S2, S3, S4, and S5 (irrigation schedule at 110, 90, 80, 70, and 60 % ETc) and S6, S7, S8, S9, and S10 (mulch + Irrigation schedule at 110, 90, 80, 70 and 60 % ETc). S8 saved 25.19 % water with only 4.63 % reduction in the yield of cabbage head compared to control and resulted in water use efficiency as 6.05 kg m−3. Thus S8 is recommended to be used for cabbage production, to water productivity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-016-0238-2
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of Chickpea-Spices Intercropping Productivity Using Competitive
           Indices Under Irrigated Conditions of Haryana
    • Authors: Ratneswar Poddar; Rajib Kundu; Satish Kumar
      Abstract: A study was undertaken for using Umbelliferous spices, coriander, fenugreek and fennel as intercrop with chickpea in 2:1, 3:1 and 4:2 row ratios, each separately with their respective sole treatments during the winter season 2010–2011, to determine the effect of different intercropping systems on productivity and competitive functions. The yield of chickpea increased progressively with the increase in number of rows of chickpea in every intercropping system. All the intercropping systems produced higher land equivalent ratio (LER) than their respective sole cropping. Chickpea and fennel (4:2 row ratio) recorded higher benefit in terms of monetary advantage index (MAI) (Rs. 6990 ha−1), income equivalent ratio (IER) (2.03), system productivity index (SPI) or intercropping advantages (IA) among the all the intercropping systems. All the three spices performed as a dominant component, while chickpea was suppressed, and higher competition was noticed when coriander was taken as an intercrop, while competition was less in chickpea and fennel intercropping system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0260-z
       
  • Design and Experiment of a Peanut Shelling Machine
    • Authors: Qun Sun; Chong Wang; Zhenyou Wang; Ying Zhao; Chunjiang Bao
      Abstract: Peanut is an important economic crop and there are strict requirements for the degree of damage to peanut seed, seed coat and germ, which are difficult to guarantee by an ordinary sheller. Manual operation often cannot satisfy modern agricultural production due to heavy labor intensity, low efficiency and work quality. For the above reasons, a suitable peanut shelling machine is needed to replace manual operation and conventional sheller. A peanut shelling machine has been designed, which imitated manual peanut peeling method. The mechanical structure of the peanut shelling machine consists of a frame, a feeding mechanism, a pneumatic gripper and peanut shelling positioning mechanism. The control system is composed of a MCU, LCD 12864 liquid-crystal display, and keys. Experimental results showed that, the peanut shelling rate is 20/min and the success rate is 92.3%. Furthermore, it provided a new approach to achieve automatic peanut shelling operation and well-satisfied agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0265-7
       
  • Effect of Different Wastewaters on Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Soils
           of North Karnataka, India
    • Authors: H. Jogan; G. S. Dasog; S. A. Satyareddi; M. Hebbara; C. R. Patil
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bio-methanated distillery spentwash, paper mill, soft drink factory and domestic sewage wastewaters on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in red, lateritic, and black soils of north Karnataka. Application of wastewaters from different sources influenced the carbon and nitrogen fractions across treated soils. Water-soluble carbon, labile carbon and organic carbon were significantly higher in bio-methanated distillery spentwash-treated soils. Wide variations in nitrogen fractions NH4 +–N, NO3 −–N were recorded under the influence of different wastewaters across the treated soils. Irrespective of the soil types, content of organic carbon and nitrogen fractions followed the order bio-methanated distillery spentwash > paper mill > domestic wastewater ≥ soft drink factory wastewater. Higher values of carbon and nitrogen fractions were observed in the surface layers (0–15 cm) in comparison with lower depths. Enumeration of the bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, N2-fixers and P-solubilizers indicated higher microbial load in bio-methanated spentwash application followed by paper mill wastewater application. Microbial load was highly concentrated in the surface layer (0–15 cm) across the soils and wastewaters evaluated. The bacterial count in treated soils was double that of fresh water-treated soils. Among the soils used in the study, maximum bacteria, actinomycetes and P-solubilizers count were recorded in black soil under the influence of the bio-methanated spentwash.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0262-x
       
  • Long-Term Impact of Cyclic Use of Sodic and Canal Waters for Irrigation on
           Soil Properties and Crop Yields in Cotton–Wheat Rotation in a Semiarid
           Climate
    • Authors: O. P. Choudhary
      Abstract: A 12-year field experiment (1996–2008) was conducted on a sandy loam soil under semiarid climate to study the impact of use of sodic water (SW) and canal water (CW) in various cyclic modes in a cotton–wheat rotation. Treatments included irrigation with CW and SW (residual sodium carbonate 10 meq L−1) and different variants of cyclic modes of CW and SW irrigation. Irrigation with SW caused increase in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) that resulted in reduced cotton and wheat yields. The mean yield reduction after 6 years was more for seed-cotton (28%) than for wheat (15%); yield reduction in cotton and wheat after 12 years was 35 and 22%, respectively. Cyclic irrigation of CW and SW resulted in lower pH, EC and ESP than under SW irrigation and increased mean yields of both crops. Cyclic treatments starting with CW involving one SW (2CW:SW, CW:SW) or starting with one SW followed by 2CW irrigations (SW:2CW) produced optimum (>90% yields relative to CW) wheat and seed-cotton yields after 6 years. These cyclic modes could sustain optimum crop yields even after 12 years. Reduction in cotton yield after 6 years was more (18%) than in wheat (10%) in cyclic modes starting with SW involving one CW (SW:CW, 2SW:CW). However, extent of reduction in seed-cotton (25%) and wheat yields (17%) after 12 years made these treatments unsustainable on long-term basis. Based on sustainable yield index and buildup of sodicity, 2CW:SW treatment was found to be the most sustainable among various cyclic modes for the cotton–wheat rotation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0259-5
       
  • Design, Development and Field Evaluation of Manual-Operated Applicators
           for Deep Placement of Fertilizer in Puddled Rice Fields
    • Authors: Md. Abdul Wohab; Yam Kanta Gaihre; A. T. M. Ziauddin; M. A. Hoque
      Abstract: Deep placement of urea increases nitrogen use efficiency, rice yields, and farm profitability compared to conventional broadcast urea. However, labor shortages for deep placement pose constraints for wider adoption. Therefore, two types of manual-operated applicators, an “injector-type” (non-continuous operation) and “push-type single row” (continuous operation), were designed during 2011–2015 to deep-place fertilizer briquettes in puddled rice fields. The design of the single-row applicator was improved from a double-row design developed earlier by the Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute. In particular, the width of the furrow opener and skid was modified to ensure the precision placement of urea briquettes (UB) to 5–7-cm soil depth and coverage of the briquettes with soil. The single-row applicator has two cage wheels and one fertilizer hopper; the double-row applicator featured one cage wheel and two hoppers. This modification reduced the weight of the single-row applicator to 4.5 kg compared to the 10.0-kg double-row applicator. The injector-type applicator, which has four mechanisms—feeding, metering, delivery, and placement—weighs 1.5 kg. Field testing across different sites and seasons showed that the push-type applicator significantly reduced the labor requirement to 15–20 h/ha compared to the injector-type applicator or hand placement (28–50 h/ha). Applicators consistently placed UB at proper depth (5–7 cm) and spacing under most rice field conditions. Grain yields of applicator-placed UB were similar to hand-placed UB. There was no significant difference in grain yields between the two applicators when compared to yields achieved following hand placement.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0267-5
       
  • Population Structure of Colletotrichum truncatum in Himachal Pradesh and
           Identification of Broad-Spectrum Resistant Sources in Capsicum
    • Authors: Abhishek Katoch; Prachi Sharma; Bilal Ahmad Padder; Prem Nath Sharma
      Abstract: Anthracnose disease of Capsicum caused by Colletotrichum truncatum (syn. C. capsici) is a catastrophic disease causing huge loss in productivity worldwide. Consequently, interest in elucidating its genetic structure has grown in recent decade. In the present study, six random amplified microsatellites were used to access the population structure of 94 isolates of C. truncatum from three agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh. Among the 104 reproducible fragments, 81.73% were polymorphic. Cluster analysis grouped 94 isolates into four groups with no congruence with geographical origin of isolates. Average gene diversity ranged between 0.38 and 0.45, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.39 to 0.44. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variability within the zones (99.53%). Screening of 194 genotypes of Capsicum against 94 C. truncatum isolates showed low-level resistance to the fungus. Some promising lines possessing resistance to more than 40 C. truncatum isolates were identified. These genotypes may harbor diverse resistance specificities and can be used to develop anthracnose-resistant genotypes in the State. This is the first resistance evaluation study where Capsicum genotypes were screened individually against a large number of isolates. The results suggest considerable evolutionary potential of pathogen that has enabled it to acquire pathogenicity genes (virulence factors) for infecting diverse host varieties over time and space.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0261-y
       
  • Characterization of Submerged Tolerant Elite Rice Genotypes Having
           Improved Physiological Traits and Oxidative Defense System grown under
           Rainfed Lowland Ecosystem of Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains
    • Authors: S. K. Dwivedi; N. Bhakta; Santosh Kumar; J. S. Mishra
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted in 2014 and 2015 kharif season to evaluate the performance of rice genotypes under submerged condition on the basis of morpho-physiological traits and yield attributes. The study revealed that rice var. Swarna Sub 1 exhibited the highest survival (91.2%), whereas var. IR42 as susceptible check showed the least survival (4.2%) under submergence. Among the tested genotypes, IR 10F365, IR 11F216 and IR 11F239 with the respective survival values of 81.4, 80.0 and 78.1%, respectively, were found to be at par with the var. Swarna Sub 1 after 16 days of complete submergence at vegetative stage. Moreover, physiological traits like chlorophyll, sugar content and anti-oxidative system (SOD and CAT) were higher in tolerant genotypes as compared to susceptible ones. Less reduction in the content of sugar, chlorophyll, SOD and CAT activity was observed in genotypes IR 10F365, IR 11F216 and IR 11F239 along with var. Swarna Sub 1 (tolerant check) after submergence, while in susceptible genotypes IR 09L311, IR 08L216 and IR 55423-01 the reduction in sugar and chlorophyll content was higher just after submergence. Apart from physiological traits, tolerance genotypes have higher yield and yield attributing character as compared to susceptible genotypes. Thus, the study revealed that not only var. Swarna Sub 1 even few more elite rice lines found superior in terms of submergence tolerance and yield.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0258-6
       
  • A Stock and Flow Based Framework to Identify Indicators for a Holistic
           Comparison of Farming Practices
    • Authors: K. M. Siva Muthuprakash; Om P. Damani
      Abstract: Traditionally, crop yield has been the main focus of agricultural policies and technological interventions. For designing appropriate agricultural interventions, a holistic set of indicators accounting for the short and long-term benefits and environmental impacts as well as socioeconomic sustainability of farmers is needed. In contrast with existing frameworks for assessing farming practices where the indicators are restricted to a preset attributes, we developed a stock and flow based framework for a systemic identification of both short and long-term indicators. While stock variables inside the system capture the stability and resilience of the system, indicators identified from various dimensions of the biophysical flows across the system–environment boundary capture the desirable outcomes and undesirable impacts. Our framework also aids in selection of appropriate proxy indicators for hard to measure primary indicators by tracing their forward and backward linkages rather than avoiding them due to their complexity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0266-6
       
  • Island Ecosystems Host Rich Diversity in Coconut ( Cocos nucifera ):
           Evidences from Minicoy Island, India
    • Authors: B. A. Jerard; M. K. Rajesh; Regi Jacob Thomas; V. Niral; K. Samsudeen
      Abstract: Oceanic island ecosystems present immense opportunities for the study of species evolution due to their isolated geographical nature and presence of highly rich species diversity. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of four distinct coconut groups, viz. Giant, Ordinary, Micro and Mini Micro types of Minicoy Island, India, was carried out using morphological traits and microsatellite markers. The morphological data set, analysed using principal component analysis, revealed high genetic variability for fruit component traits. The occurrence of Laccadive Mini Micro Tall palms, bearing the smallest coconuts in the world, was observed in the island. The nuts of these palms had a low copra content of 5 g/nut, but high oil content of around 73%. A total of 70 alleles were detected among the four distinct coconut groups of the Island using 19 polymorphic microsatellite markers with a mean of 3.68 alleles per locus. The fixation index ranged from 0.153 to 0.424 indicating highly variable levels of inbreeding in these populations. Pair-wise population matrix formed by Nei’s genetic identity showed that Laccadive Mini Micro Tall was genetically distinct from all other groups. The study revealed the presence of rich coconut diversity in islands and highlights the importance of exploration and conservation of such diverse accessions with rare genes for utilizing them in crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0264-8
       
  • Validation of Seed Weight-Associated SSR Markers and Their Usefulness in
           Distinguishing Chickpea Genotypes According to Seed Size
    • Authors: Vaishali V. Borse; Pawan L. Kulwal; Laxman B. Mhase; Ashok S. Jadhav
      Abstract: Chickpea is an important cool-season grain legume. High-quality seed has the potential to attract premium prices. Hence, the breeding for desirable quality traits, including seed size and weight, is important. A set of 27 chickpea genotypes comprising 14 small and 13 large seeded, representing desi and Kabuli types, were used in the present study. A total of 43 SSR markers which were earlier reported to be associated with 100-seed weight and yield-contributing traits following QTL mapping in unrelated genetic background were used for validation purpose. Out of 43 SSR primers, 33 showed polymorphism amplifying 135 alleles. Neighbor joining-based analysis separated small- and large-seeded genotypes into two broad groups. These markers could distinguish small-seeded chickpea from that of large-seeded ones as well as desi types from that of Kabuli types, thereby validating all these QTL-linked markers in different genetic backgrounds. Fifteen of these primers also amplified 20 unique alleles in 13 chickpea genotypes and can be useful in molecular characterization and identification of specific genotype which has now become mandatory under Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights’ Act of India.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0256-8
       
  • Electrophoretic Separation of Humic Acids Isolated from Tropical Soils
           Through Modified Denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
    • Authors: Divya Pandey; Abhijit Sarkar; S. B. Agrawal; Madhoolika Agrawal
      Abstract: Electrophoretic separation of humic acids obtained from soil was attempted through denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (dn-PAGE) by modifying the known methods. The modifications of sample preparation and gel composition led to significant improvement in both visibility and intensity of humic acid profile. The comparative profile showed a similar nature of humic acid components in all the samples and the commercial standard. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra indicated the presence of carboxyl and carbonyl functional groups and aliphatic chains in humic acid samples. The modified method facilitated better separation of humic acid. The results of the present study indicate the potential of dn-PAGE for electrophoretic separation of different components of humic acids.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0255-9
       
  • Assessment of Water Retention Performance of Pectin-Based Nanocarriers for
           Controlled Irrigation in Agriculture
    • Authors: Raineesh Sharma; Jaya Bajpai; A. K. Bajpai; Somen Acharya; Bhuvanesh Kumar; R. K. Singh
      Abstract: This paper describes synthesis and characterization of calcium-crosslinked nanocarriers of pectin biopolymer and examines their possible applications in controlled irrigation in agriculture. Nanocarriers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for structural characterization, while the size and surface morphology of the particles was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The water sorption capacities of nanocarriers were investigated under the influence of various experimental factors such as varying amounts of biopolymer and crosslinker, different pH and temperatures of the swelling media. The capacity of the nanocarriers to retain imbibed water was judged by conducting their deswelling experiments. The so-prepared water-loaded nanocarriers were applied to soil, and soil pot experiments were conducted to see their water-releasing potential. Soil pot studies indicated that a judicious combination of soil with pectin-like hydrophilic polymers can be used in arid and semi-arid areas to enhance the drought tolerance of plants by providing sustained irrigation. The effect of different amounts of nanocarriers was studied to evaluate the moisture retention properties of the soil.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0257-7
       
  • Agriculture and Poverty Responses to High Agricultural Commodity Prices
    • Authors: Saeed Solaymani
      Abstract: A rise in global agricultural commodity prices negatively affects the wellbeing of poor people, especially in developing countries and inversely for a decline in prices of these commodities. On the other hand, they may gain or lose from high or low prices especially those groups that work in production of these commodities. This study, by applying a computable general equilibrium approach, aims to investigate the impacts of high and low agricultural commodity prices on agricultural sector and poverty across nine household groups in an unemployment situation of factors of production. It is found that, as a whole, a 45% increase and decrease in agricultural commodity prices negatively influences the economic performance of Malaysia, in real terms, by 0.24 and 0.91%, respectively. While high agricultural price stimulates the investment and export of agricultural sectors and aggregate household consumption, lower agricultural commodity prices declines investment and export in these sectors and causes a decrease in aggregate household consumption. Although both high- and low-price scenarios increase the poverty level of all household groups, with greater magnitude for lower-price scenario, all rural household groups compared to urban groups experience more increase in their poverty.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0253-y
       
  • Site-Specific Fertilizer Nitrogen Management Using Optical Sensor in
           Irrigated Wheat in the Northwestern India
    • Authors: Bijay-Singh; Varinderpal-Singh; Yadvinder-Singh; H. S. Thind; Ajay Kumar; O. P. Choudhary; R. K. Gupta; Monika Vashistha
      Abstract: An optical sensor-based fertilizer nitrogen (N) management strategy that relies on visible and near-infrared spectral response from plant canopies was evaluated for irrigated wheat in the northwestern India. GreenSeeker™ optical sensor-guided fertilizer N dose, computed from an estimate of potential yield and response index, takes into account both the temporal and field-to-field variabilities and is applied only once after measuring in-season spectral response from the crop canopy. Seven field experiments were conducted in four wheat seasons to decide whether to apply the optical sensor-guided fertilizer N dose at 2nd or 3rd irrigation stage and to work out the appropriate N management before applying it. Robust relationships between in-season sensor-based estimates of yield and actual wheat yields were observed both at 2nd (R 2 = 0.64) and 3rd (R 2 = 0.86) irrigation stages of the crop. GreenSeeker-based fertilizer N management resulted in high yield levels and high N-use efficiency. Application of 30 kg N ha−1 at planting and 45 kg N ha−1 at 1st irrigation was found to be the appropriate N management before applying the GreenSeeker-guided dose at 2nd irrigation stage. Grain yields obtained by following sensor-guided N management were at par with those observed with the blanket recommendation of 120 kg N ha−1, but with greater recovery efficiency (by 6.7–16.2%) and agronomic efficiency [by 4.7–9.4 kg grain (kg N applied)−1]. The major outcome of this study was that applying a moderate amount of fertilizer N at planting and enough fertilizer N to meet the high N demand during the period between crown root initiation stage and maximum tillering stage before applying a sensor-guided fertilizer N dose at 2nd irrigation stage results not only in high yields but also in high fertilizer N-use efficiency in irrigated wheat.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0251-0
       
  • Genotypic Variation of Microelements Concentration in Sesame ( Sesamum
           indicum L.) Mini Core Collection
    • Authors: Sarita K. Pandey; Eshita Majumder; Tapash Dasgupta
      Abstract: Evaluation of germplasm for mineral content and selecting varieties with high quantities of essential minerals and incorporating those varieties in breeding program can assist in developing mineral-efficient crops with higher yield which can accumulate minerals from marginal soil. Sesame an oldest oilseed crop is a popular food with medicinal value although its production is often focussed in marginal and sub-marginal lands. In the present study, 60 sesame genotypes of diverse origin collected from Bangladesh, Bulgaria, India and USA were examined in the acid-digested samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr and Co contents. All elements except Cr were found to be highly variable among genotypes. A significant discrimination showed that elements content in the sesame seeds was a seed coat coloured specific character. High-yielding developed varieties of India contain high Zn but low Fe concentration in seed. The concentration of mineral elements in black-seeded genotypes was significantly higher than those in white seeded. The indigenous collections were found to be a good reservoir of mineral elements. Correlation study among trace elements and yield attributes indicated that though Fe and Zn were not correlated significantly with yield and its components, but the two elements were interrelated. Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability and heritability were high for Fe and Zn. The study suggests that observed large genetic variability for element concentrations in the genotypes provides good prospects to breed improved sesame cultivars with elevated levels of micronutrients to mitigate mineral deficiency.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0252-z
       
  • A Farmer-Led Approach to Achieving a Malnutrition-Free India
    • Authors: Nitya Rao; M. S. Swaminathan
      Abstract: Overcoming the widespread malnutrition prevailing in the country has become a priority task. Based on the experience of the green revolution, it is clear that a farmer-led approach is essential for achieving the goal of freedom from malnutrition. Also there is need for concurrent action in the following five areas—overcoming undernutrition, protein hunger as well as hidden hunger caused by micronutrient malnutrition, attention to clean drinking water and sanitation, and finally ensuring safe handling of food at the post-harvest level to avoid mycotoxins. If we are to achieve our goal of ending malnutrition in the country, it is essential that agriculture, nutrition and health are attended to in an interactive way.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-016-0240-8
       
  • Estimating Water Balance of Small Reservoirs in Arid Regions: A Case Study
           from Kachchh, India
    • Authors: Deepesh Machiwal; Devi Dayal; Sanjay Kumar
      Abstract: Quantification of hydrological processes is necessary for management of small reservoirs especially in arid regions characterized by hot climate, scanty rainfall magnitudes and large rainfall variability. This study focuses on estimating inflow and outflow components of a small reservoir situated in arid Kachchh region of Gujarat, India, by developing a water balance model. Daily reservoir water levels were monitored for years 2012 and 2013. All water balance components, i.e. rainwater directly falling into reservoir, surface runoff, irrigation extractions, and evaporation and percolation, were either measured or estimated. Results indicated that rainfall has a fair control on amount of harvested runoff water. In year 2012, meagre rainfall (79 mm) could store 925 m3 of water with 66 cm depth. In contrast, reservoir water levels were at 2.85 m depth in year 2013 with full capacity of 24,879 m3 when rainfall totalled to 291 mm. The mean percolation rate (0.14 cm h−1), determined from 24-h long-term infiltration tests, revealed that full storage will get depleted within 85 days. A major portion (51%) of storage was lost through evaporation and percolation, and only 21% stored water could be utilized for supplemental irrigation. This finding suggested that suitable measures need to be adopted to check evaporation and seepage losses from the reservoirs in arid regions for improved agricultural productivity. Moreover, results of this study may be useful for water resources managers and decision-makers to develop appropriate operational strategies for the reservoirs in the study area as well as in other arid regions of the world.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-016-0243-5
       
  • Influence of Chromium Contamination on Carbon Mineralization and Enzymatic
           Activities in Vertisol
    • Abstract: Chromium (Cr) contamination may affect different biochemical process in the soil. In a laboratory experiment, graded doses of hexavalent chromium were applied to a clay loam soil to investigate the impact on carbon (C) mineralization rate and the enzymatic activities at various time intervals. The maximum reduction in C mineralization was noticed at 100 mg/kg Cr at 45 days after incubation. Initially, the C mineralization rate was high but decreased at faster rate with lapse of time. It was observed that increasing the Cr concentration from 0 to 100 mg/kg resulted in reduction in dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate activities to the extent of 70, 63 and 41%, respectively. Among the enzymes, dehydrogenase activity was more sensitive to Cr toxicity. In conclusion, Cr toxicity negatively affected the microbial mediated C mineralization and enzymatic activities, which may adversely affect nutrient transformation in the soil and deterioration of soil health.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-016-0242-6
       
  • Path Loss Estimation for Wireless Underground Sensor Network in
           Agricultural Application
    • Authors: Xiaoqing Yu; Wenting Han; Zenglin Zhang
      Abstract: Path loss models are used to estimate the path loss between transmitter and receiver in applications that involve transmission of electromagnetic waves. This paper describes the wireless underground sensor networks, which communicates within the soil and is different from the terrestrial wireless sensor network. An integrated study of electromagnetic waves propagation for a wireless underground sensor network is described in this paper. Here, path loss model and signal strength are presented, because of electromagnetic waves attenuation in the soil medium. Tests were conducted at various soil volumetric water contents and node deployment depths using three different frequencies, when soil consists of 0% sands, 35% silt and 15% clay. The results showed that radio signal path loss was minimum when frequency and moisture content are low. The experimental results revealed that a 20% increase in the soil moisture content increased the path loss by more than 30%.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-016-0239-1
       
 
 
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