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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agricultural Research
  [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2249-720X - ISSN (Online) 2249-7218
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Characterization of Submerged Tolerant Elite Rice Genotypes Having
           Improved Physiological Traits and Oxidative Defense System grown under
           Rainfed Lowland Ecosystem of Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains
    • Authors: S. K. Dwivedi; N. Bhakta; Santosh Kumar; J. S. Mishra
      Pages: 207 - 213
      Abstract: Abstract An experiment was conducted in 2014 and 2015 kharif season to evaluate the performance of rice genotypes under submerged condition on the basis of morpho-physiological traits and yield attributes. The study revealed that rice var. Swarna Sub 1 exhibited the highest survival (91.2%), whereas var. IR42 as susceptible check showed the least survival (4.2%) under submergence. Among the tested genotypes, IR 10F365, IR 11F216 and IR 11F239 with the respective survival values of 81.4, 80.0 and 78.1%, respectively, were found to be at par with the var. Swarna Sub 1 after 16 days of complete submergence at vegetative stage. Moreover, physiological traits like chlorophyll, sugar content and anti-oxidative system (SOD and CAT) were higher in tolerant genotypes as compared to susceptible ones. Less reduction in the content of sugar, chlorophyll, SOD and CAT activity was observed in genotypes IR 10F365, IR 11F216 and IR 11F239 along with var. Swarna Sub 1 (tolerant check) after submergence, while in susceptible genotypes IR 09L311, IR 08L216 and IR 55423-01 the reduction in sugar and chlorophyll content was higher just after submergence. Apart from physiological traits, tolerance genotypes have higher yield and yield attributing character as compared to susceptible genotypes. Thus, the study revealed that not only var. Swarna Sub 1 even few more elite rice lines found superior in terms of submergence tolerance and yield.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0258-6
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Island Ecosystems Host Rich Diversity in Coconut ( Cocos nucifera ):
           Evidences from Minicoy Island, India
    • Authors: B. A. Jerard; M. K. Rajesh; Regi Jacob Thomas; V. Niral; K. Samsudeen
      Pages: 214 - 226
      Abstract: Abstract Oceanic island ecosystems present immense opportunities for the study of species evolution due to their isolated geographical nature and presence of highly rich species diversity. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of four distinct coconut groups, viz. Giant, Ordinary, Micro and Mini Micro types of Minicoy Island, India, was carried out using morphological traits and microsatellite markers. The morphological data set, analysed using principal component analysis, revealed high genetic variability for fruit component traits. The occurrence of Laccadive Mini Micro Tall palms, bearing the smallest coconuts in the world, was observed in the island. The nuts of these palms had a low copra content of 5 g/nut, but high oil content of around 73%. A total of 70 alleles were detected among the four distinct coconut groups of the Island using 19 polymorphic microsatellite markers with a mean of 3.68 alleles per locus. The fixation index ranged from 0.153 to 0.424 indicating highly variable levels of inbreeding in these populations. Pair-wise population matrix formed by Nei’s genetic identity showed that Laccadive Mini Micro Tall was genetically distinct from all other groups. The study revealed the presence of rich coconut diversity in islands and highlights the importance of exploration and conservation of such diverse accessions with rare genes for utilizing them in crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0264-8
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessment of Chickpea-Spices Intercropping Productivity Using Competitive
           Indices Under Irrigated Conditions of Haryana
    • Authors: Ratneswar Poddar; Rajib Kundu; Satish Kumar
      Pages: 241 - 247
      Abstract: Abstract A study was undertaken for using Umbelliferous spices, coriander, fenugreek and fennel as intercrop with chickpea in 2:1, 3:1 and 4:2 row ratios, each separately with their respective sole treatments during the winter season 2010–2011, to determine the effect of different intercropping systems on productivity and competitive functions. The yield of chickpea increased progressively with the increase in number of rows of chickpea in every intercropping system. All the intercropping systems produced higher land equivalent ratio (LER) than their respective sole cropping. Chickpea and fennel (4:2 row ratio) recorded higher benefit in terms of monetary advantage index (MAI) (Rs. 6990 ha−1), income equivalent ratio (IER) (2.03), system productivity index (SPI) or intercropping advantages (IA) among the all the intercropping systems. All the three spices performed as a dominant component, while chickpea was suppressed, and higher competition was noticed when coriander was taken as an intercrop, while competition was less in chickpea and fennel intercropping system.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0260-z
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • A Stock and Flow Based Framework to Identify Indicators for a Holistic
           Comparison of Farming Practices
    • Authors: K. M. Siva Muthuprakash; Om P. Damani
      Pages: 248 - 258
      Abstract: Abstract Traditionally, crop yield has been the main focus of agricultural policies and technological interventions. For designing appropriate agricultural interventions, a holistic set of indicators accounting for the short and long-term benefits and environmental impacts as well as socioeconomic sustainability of farmers is needed. In contrast with existing frameworks for assessing farming practices where the indicators are restricted to a preset attributes, we developed a stock and flow based framework for a systemic identification of both short and long-term indicators. While stock variables inside the system capture the stability and resilience of the system, indicators identified from various dimensions of the biophysical flows across the system–environment boundary capture the desirable outcomes and undesirable impacts. Our framework also aids in selection of appropriate proxy indicators for hard to measure primary indicators by tracing their forward and backward linkages rather than avoiding them due to their complexity.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0266-6
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Design, Development and Field Evaluation of Manual-Operated Applicators
           for Deep Placement of Fertilizer in Puddled Rice Fields
    • Authors: Md. Abdul Wohab; Yam Kanta Gaihre; A. T. M. Ziauddin; M. A. Hoque
      Pages: 259 - 266
      Abstract: Abstract Deep placement of urea increases nitrogen use efficiency, rice yields, and farm profitability compared to conventional broadcast urea. However, labor shortages for deep placement pose constraints for wider adoption. Therefore, two types of manual-operated applicators, an “injector-type” (non-continuous operation) and “push-type single row” (continuous operation), were designed during 2011–2015 to deep-place fertilizer briquettes in puddled rice fields. The design of the single-row applicator was improved from a double-row design developed earlier by the Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute. In particular, the width of the furrow opener and skid was modified to ensure the precision placement of urea briquettes (UB) to 5–7-cm soil depth and coverage of the briquettes with soil. The single-row applicator has two cage wheels and one fertilizer hopper; the double-row applicator featured one cage wheel and two hoppers. This modification reduced the weight of the single-row applicator to 4.5 kg compared to the 10.0-kg double-row applicator. The injector-type applicator, which has four mechanisms—feeding, metering, delivery, and placement—weighs 1.5 kg. Field testing across different sites and seasons showed that the push-type applicator significantly reduced the labor requirement to 15–20 h/ha compared to the injector-type applicator or hand placement (28–50 h/ha). Applicators consistently placed UB at proper depth (5–7 cm) and spacing under most rice field conditions. Grain yields of applicator-placed UB were similar to hand-placed UB. There was no significant difference in grain yields between the two applicators when compared to yields achieved following hand placement.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0267-5
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Long-Term Impact of Cyclic Use of Sodic and Canal Waters for Irrigation on
           Soil Properties and Crop Yields in Cotton–Wheat Rotation in a Semiarid
    • Authors: O. P. Choudhary
      Pages: 267 - 272
      Abstract: Abstract A 12-year field experiment (1996–2008) was conducted on a sandy loam soil under semiarid climate to study the impact of use of sodic water (SW) and canal water (CW) in various cyclic modes in a cotton–wheat rotation. Treatments included irrigation with CW and SW (residual sodium carbonate 10 meq L−1) and different variants of cyclic modes of CW and SW irrigation. Irrigation with SW caused increase in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) that resulted in reduced cotton and wheat yields. The mean yield reduction after 6 years was more for seed-cotton (28%) than for wheat (15%); yield reduction in cotton and wheat after 12 years was 35 and 22%, respectively. Cyclic irrigation of CW and SW resulted in lower pH, EC and ESP than under SW irrigation and increased mean yields of both crops. Cyclic treatments starting with CW involving one SW (2CW:SW, CW:SW) or starting with one SW followed by 2CW irrigations (SW:2CW) produced optimum (>90% yields relative to CW) wheat and seed-cotton yields after 6 years. These cyclic modes could sustain optimum crop yields even after 12 years. Reduction in cotton yield after 6 years was more (18%) than in wheat (10%) in cyclic modes starting with SW involving one CW (SW:CW, 2SW:CW). However, extent of reduction in seed-cotton (25%) and wheat yields (17%) after 12 years made these treatments unsustainable on long-term basis. Based on sustainable yield index and buildup of sodicity, 2CW:SW treatment was found to be the most sustainable among various cyclic modes for the cotton–wheat rotation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0259-5
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effect of Different Wastewaters on Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Soils
           of North Karnataka, India
    • Authors: H. Jogan; G. S. Dasog; S. A. Satyareddi; M. Hebbara; C. R. Patil
      Pages: 273 - 280
      Abstract: Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bio-methanated distillery spentwash, paper mill, soft drink factory and domestic sewage wastewaters on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in red, lateritic, and black soils of north Karnataka. Application of wastewaters from different sources influenced the carbon and nitrogen fractions across treated soils. Water-soluble carbon, labile carbon and organic carbon were significantly higher in bio-methanated distillery spentwash-treated soils. Wide variations in nitrogen fractions NH4 +–N, NO3 −–N were recorded under the influence of different wastewaters across the treated soils. Irrespective of the soil types, content of organic carbon and nitrogen fractions followed the order bio-methanated distillery spentwash > paper mill > domestic wastewater ≥ soft drink factory wastewater. Higher values of carbon and nitrogen fractions were observed in the surface layers (0–15 cm) in comparison with lower depths. Enumeration of the bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, N2-fixers and P-solubilizers indicated higher microbial load in bio-methanated spentwash application followed by paper mill wastewater application. Microbial load was highly concentrated in the surface layer (0–15 cm) across the soils and wastewaters evaluated. The bacterial count in treated soils was double that of fresh water-treated soils. Among the soils used in the study, maximum bacteria, actinomycetes and P-solubilizers count were recorded in black soil under the influence of the bio-methanated spentwash.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0262-x
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Population Structure of Colletotrichum truncatum in Himachal Pradesh and
           Identification of Broad-Spectrum Resistant Sources in Capsicum
    • Authors: Abhishek Katoch; Prachi Sharma; Bilal Ahmad Padder; Prem Nath Sharma
      Pages: 296 - 303
      Abstract: Abstract Anthracnose disease of Capsicum caused by Colletotrichum truncatum (syn. C. capsici) is a catastrophic disease causing huge loss in productivity worldwide. Consequently, interest in elucidating its genetic structure has grown in recent decade. In the present study, six random amplified microsatellites were used to access the population structure of 94 isolates of C. truncatum from three agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh. Among the 104 reproducible fragments, 81.73% were polymorphic. Cluster analysis grouped 94 isolates into four groups with no congruence with geographical origin of isolates. Average gene diversity ranged between 0.38 and 0.45, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.39 to 0.44. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variability within the zones (99.53%). Screening of 194 genotypes of Capsicum against 94 C. truncatum isolates showed low-level resistance to the fungus. Some promising lines possessing resistance to more than 40 C. truncatum isolates were identified. These genotypes may harbor diverse resistance specificities and can be used to develop anthracnose-resistant genotypes in the State. This is the first resistance evaluation study where Capsicum genotypes were screened individually against a large number of isolates. The results suggest considerable evolutionary potential of pathogen that has enabled it to acquire pathogenicity genes (virulence factors) for infecting diverse host varieties over time and space.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0261-y
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Design and Experiment of a Peanut Shelling Machine
    • Authors: Qun Sun; Chong Wang; Zhenyou Wang; Ying Zhao; Chunjiang Bao
      Pages: 304 - 311
      Abstract: Abstract Peanut is an important economic crop and there are strict requirements for the degree of damage to peanut seed, seed coat and germ, which are difficult to guarantee by an ordinary sheller. Manual operation often cannot satisfy modern agricultural production due to heavy labor intensity, low efficiency and work quality. For the above reasons, a suitable peanut shelling machine is needed to replace manual operation and conventional sheller. A peanut shelling machine has been designed, which imitated manual peanut peeling method. The mechanical structure of the peanut shelling machine consists of a frame, a feeding mechanism, a pneumatic gripper and peanut shelling positioning mechanism. The control system is composed of a MCU, LCD 12864 liquid-crystal display, and keys. Experimental results showed that, the peanut shelling rate is 20/min and the success rate is 92.3%. Furthermore, it provided a new approach to achieve automatic peanut shelling operation and well-satisfied agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0265-7
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
  • Mass-Based Image Analysis for Evaluating Straw Cover Under High-Residue
           Farming Conditions in Rice–Wheat Cropping System
    • Authors: Eisa Belal; Cedric Okinda; Ding Qishuo; Zahir Talha
      Abstract: Abstract Estimation of crop residue distribution in paddy fields is extremely crucial especially in tight crop rotation areas that produce large volumes of straw causing germination problems in the following crop. Our objective was to develop an accurate and easy-to-handle field method to quantify the proportion of ground cover. Mass and cover relationships were investigated and analyzed to evaluate straw distribution on the soil surface, by comparing surface cover from three different combine harvesters in a rice–wheat (R–W) cropping system. For each harvester, straw distribution on the ground was measured and virtually reconstructed, and then the straw stacked layers analyzed. The mean straw mass distribution and percent surface cover measured in 2014 and 2015 ranged between 4200–12,000 kg/ha and 60–97%, respectively, for all the harvesters. Flat straw mass was higher than standing stubble mass in all treatments. The most important observation is that the distribution pattern of straw depended on instantaneous material feed rate through the harvester; the higher the feed rate, the poorer the straw distribution uniformity. The Xinjiang Ceres 4LZ-2.5 harvester outperformed all the other harvesters. These findings can improve the estimation of straw cover for tillage straw incorporation or no-till straw return fields and indicates that straw condition should be considered in mass-to-cover relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0287-1
  • Increasing Rates of Biochar Application to Soil Induce Stronger Negative
           Priming Effect on Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition
    • Authors: Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini; Marcelo Zacharias Moreira; Plínio Barbosa de Camargo; Rafaela Feola Conz; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri
      Abstract: Abstract Although the understanding of biochar stability in soil has improved in recent years, there is a lack of knowledge about how both the soil and biochar carbon (C) mineralisations are affected as a function of biochar amount applied to soil. Thus, increasing amounts of biochar were added to a Quartzipsamment in order to evaluate its priming effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition. We hypothesised that biochar will increase negative priming on native SOC mineralisation as function of its application rate to soil. The biochar was produced from sugarcane straw through slow pyrolysis at 450 °C, and a laboratory incubation was conducted for 90 days with the following treatments: soil-alone (C3 source), biochar-alone (C4 source) and soil with biochar at rates equivalent to 0.4% (T1), 0.8% (T2) and 1.9% (T3) (w/w). In the first day of incubation, biochar amendment reduced soil C mineralisation rates from 58 to 88% compared to the soil-alone as a function of increasing biochar application rates. This reduction was mainly attributed to the mineralisation of easily available substrates from incomplete pyrolysis, which were preferentially used by soil micro-organisms at early stages of incubation. This effect, however, subsided after 7 days of incubation and it was not sufficient to induce co-metabolism of SOC decomposition, which were 43% (T1)–71% (T3) lower compared to the control (soil-alone) after 90 days of incubation. This was reflected in the priming effect data, which confirmed the hypothesis that increasing application rates of biochar to soil induce stronger negative priming on SOM mineralisation. The predicted size of recalcitrant biochar C pool varied from 98.8% (T1) to 99.9% (T3) of the total biochar C with respective mean residence time of 454 and 1539 years. It was concluded that increasing rates of biochar application to soil induce stronger negative priming effect on SOC due to the higher proportional quantity of biochar labile C and preferential utilisation of this easily available C source by micro-organisms. However, the size and long residence time of the recalcitrant C pool of biochar confirm its stability in soil, thus being considered an opportunity for C sequestration in OC-poor soils. Additionally, this study draws encouraging perspectives on the evaluation of sugarcane straw as a chemical feedstock and an alternative biofuel through pyrolysis, providing appreciable amounts of a renewable product with a great potential for carbon storage.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0281-7
  • Camel Milk: An Important Natural Adjuvant
    • Authors: Raghvendar Singh; Gorakh Mal; Devendra Kumar; N. V. Patil; K. M. L. Pathak
      Abstract: Abstract One humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) breeds, indigenous to India, have been shown to have good genetic potential to produce milk. Camel milk not only is cost-effective in terms of feed conversion but also has additional advantage of longer lactation period and unique adaptation mechanisms for warm arid and semiarid regions. The key features of camel milk in comparison with other milk are low fat with high content of unsaturated and long-chain fatty acid. The proteins are rich in lactoferrin and lysozymes, but deficient in β-lactoglobulin. It has higher percentage of total salts, free calcium, protective proteins and vitamin C, and some of the microminerals, viz iron, copper and zinc. Physicochemical properties of camel milk are also unique and useful for food processing. The shelf life of raw camel milk is 8–9 h, which can be extended up to 18–20 h through activation of camel lactoperoxidase system. Heat stability of camel milk is shown to be highest at pH 6.8, and it ferments relatively slowly compared to the cattle milk. The camel milk is successfully processed for producing a variety of products, such as fermented milk (‘lassi’), soft cheese, flavored milk and ‘kulfee’ (a kind of ice cream). Camel milk has been traditionally used in different regions of the world as natural adjuvant for managing a variety of human diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0284-4
  • Performance of Coated Extra-Large Hulled Confectionary Sunflower Kernels
           for Precision Planting
    • Authors: Harjot Sidhu; Ewumbua Monono; Ganesh Bora; Dennis Wiesenborn
      Abstract: Abstract Extra-large (XL) confectionary sunflower seeds are too large to plant with current precision planters, and a high proportion of seed does not emerge upon planting. Hulling the XL seeds and then coating the kernels has been proposed to improve the viability and plantability of these seeds. Therefore, the objectives were to evaluate the effect of various coating materials and buildup levels, develop lab methods to measure the viability and plantability of coated kernels, and evaluate the impact of seed lubricants on plantability of coated kernels. In this study, eight types of coating materials were applied to sunflower kernels by seed-coating companies, or in house at buildup levels ranging from 8 to 50% resulting in 20 different treatments, and the coated kernels were then evaluated for viability and plantability. The pre-planting germination test results ranged from 72 to 92% among all coated kernel treatments; however, germination was reduced by 6% on average after passage through the planter test stand. The singulation of all the coated kernels improved by up to 24% compared to the XL seed. Singulation of polymer-coated kernels was comparable to large seed. Addition of lubricant to the coated kernels significantly increased the overall singulation and post-planting germination of the coated kernels by 4 and 3%, respectively. Overall, this study showed that coating of kernel—together with the use of a seed lubricant—substantially increased singulation compared to XL seeds, while retaining the kernel viability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0285-3
  • Yield and Soil Organic Matter Dynamics as Affected by the Long-Term Use of
           Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Under Rice–Wheat Cropping System in
           Subtropical Mollisols
    • Authors: Pawan Kumar Pant; Shri Ram; Veer Singh
      Abstract: Abstract Effect of long-term application of fertilizer NPK alone or in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) to an annual rice–wheat cropping system (initiated in 1971) on a typic Hapludoll soil was studied on the physical and chemical properties as well as soil organic carbon fractions. Results revealed that continuous cropping of rice–wheat over the period of 42 cycles without NPK fertilizers reduced grain yields of rice and wheat by 80.0 and 45.4% over its initial level of 6.3 and 2.2 t ha−1, respectively. Application of 100% NPK (120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O) + FYM @ 10 t ha−1 produced the highest grain yield of rice of 5.2 t ha−1 and wheat of 4.7 t ha−1. Conjoint use of 100% NPK and FYM increased the organic carbon content by 7.4 and 10.1% in soil after rice and wheat harvest, respectively, over initial level of 1.48%, and it decreased by 39.2–44.6% and 36.8–49.1% in other NPK fertilizers treatments. In the control treatment, organic C was reduced it to about one-third of the value recorded at initiation of the experiment. In the absence of P, K, S, and Zn addition, continuous cropping drastically reduced their availability in soil over the years. However, no perceptible change in pH was observed. Physical properties were improved with integrated use of fertilizers and manure. Total organic carbon and its different active and passive pools C fractions in soil were influenced significantly with fertilizer management practices and were positively correlated with yields and most of the soil properties. Among soil properties, available K and hydraulic conductivity were found to be more closely correlated with soil C fractions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0282-6
  • Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on the Lipid Oxidative Stability and
           Storage Quality of Restructured Mutton Blocks Containing Colocasia
           esculenta, a Novel Binding Agent
    • Authors: H. M. Dilnawaz; Sunil Kumar; Z. F. Bhat
      Abstract: Abstract The study was undertaken to explore the possibility of utilization of Colocasia esculenta as a novel binding agent for restructured meat products. Restructured mutton blocks were used as a model and prepared by incorporating different levels of C. esculenta, viz. 1, 3 and 5%, and optimized at 3% level on the basis of various quality parameters. The binding agent proposed here suggests a high improvement in binding in addition to various functional properties. Restructured mutton blocks containing optimum level of C. esculenta (3%) were further treated with green coffee bean extract (GCB) as a novel natural preservative and assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated conditions (4 ± 1 °C). Products containing GCB extract (1%) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher acceptability with significantly (P < 0.05) lower TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) (mg malondialdehyde/kg) and FFA free fatty acid (% oleic acid) values. The restructured mutton blocks containing GCB extract (1%) also showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values for various microbiological characteristics like total plate count (log cfu/g) and psychrophilic count (log cfu/g). The results showed herein indicate a promising industrial application of C. esculenta (3%) as a binding agent for restructured meat products and green coffee bean extract (1%) as a novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0283-5
  • Genetic Divergence Among Post-rainy Season-Grown Sorghum Local Landraces
           and Varieties for Morphological and Yield Traits
    • Authors: Ashok Badigannavar; G. Girish; T. R. Ganapathi
      Abstract: Abstract Post-rainy season-cultivated sorghum lines are local landraces, known for their grain quality and used exclusively for human consumption. Because of their importance, the present study was undertaken to estimate genetic diversity for morphological and yield-contributing traits at two locations. The ANOVA for days to flower, stem diameter, panicle width, yield per plant and 100 seed weight showed significant differences among 85 sorghum landraces and 15 popular varieties. Mean squares for all the traits were significantly affected by genotypes (G), environments (E) and G × E interaction. Relatively high broad-sense heritability was observed for grain yield at BARC, Mumbai (E1), and panicle length at ARS, Gulbarga (E2) locations, respectively. Significant positive correlations between panicle width and grain yield (0.23**) and between seed weight and grain yield (0.22**) were observed. Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance grouped all the genotypes into five clusters with PC-6 emerging as a distinct variety. Promising landraces identified in this study would serve as genetic resources for recombination breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0268-4
  • Effect of Honey on Quality Characteristics of Mutton Spread
    • Authors: Suman Talukder; Sanjod Kumar Mendiratta; Tarun Pal Singh; Ashish Kumar; Rajiv Ranjan Kumar; Arvind Soni
      Abstract: Abstract Mutton spread with improved nutritional and functional quality was developed. Control formulation of mutton spread was standardized with 30% mutton powder. Two different cooking regimes, viz. braising (BMS) and steaming (SMS), were applied to prepare control spread and were compared for sensory attributes; on the basis sensory scores, braising cooking method was selected. Three different levels (3, 4 and 5%) of honey-incorporated treatments (T-I, T-II and T-III, respectively) were formulated and compared with pre-standardized control for physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes. Cooking yield and moisture content increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas protein content decreased (P < 0.05) with the increasing levels of honey. Scores of sensory attributes like appearance, flavor, juiciness, after taste, adhesivability and overall acceptability were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for T-II (4% honey) as compared to control. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes, T-II was adjudged optimum. Further, a comparative study for texture attributes and antioxidant profile was done between control and T-II. Firmness and work of shear showed higher values for T-II as compared to control. Total phenolics content, reducing power assay and antiradical scavenging activity values were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T-II as compared to control. Products were stored at (4 ± 1) °C for period of 21 days and studied at 7 days interval. T-II showed significantly lower (P < 0.05) total plate count and thio-barbituric acid reacting substances during entire storage. On the basis of overall attributes, it was concluded that incorporation of honey in mutton spread improved the shelf life and quality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0269-3
  • Observation and Investigation of Starch Granules Within Wheat Pericarp and
    • Authors: Yankun Zheng; Xiong Fei; Xurun Yu
      Abstract: Abstract The pericarp and endosperm are two important wheat caryopsis sinks containing starch granules. In order to further clarify developmental characteristics of starch granules within wheat pericarp and endosperm, caryopses of hard and soft wheat at different days after pollination were used as experimental materials and their sections were observed with light and electron microscopy in this paper. The results indicated: (1) Pericarp parenchyma cells contained two types of starch granules: single-granule starch granules (ISG) and compound-granule starch granules (CSG). Pericarp parenchyma cells underwent degeneration from the part adjacent to cross cells to the part near the pericarp epidermis. Along with degeneration of pericarp parenchyma cells, CSG were transformed into ISG and all of ISG were gradually disintegrated. (2) There were denser chloroplasts present within the green pericarp cells around the vascular system in hard wheat than in soft wheat. (3) The tiny ISG appeared in aleurone cells at 9 days after pollination, but disappeared in the high-level differentiated aleurone cells. (4) ISG of the inner-layer endosperm transfer cells, sub-aleurone cells and the central starchy endosperm cells developed better in hard wheat than in soft wheat. This was probably because endosperm transfer cells had stronger nutrient transport function and the green pericarp cells provided more photosynthates for the endosperm in hard wheat than in soft wheat.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0270-x
  • Comparative Study of Hydropriming to Static Magnetic Field on Seedling
           Vigour and Enzyme Activity in Wheat Seed
    • Authors: Omvati Verma; Neha Joshi; Sunita T. Pandey; R. C. Srivastava; S. K. Guru
      Abstract: Abstract The seeds of wheat variety UP 2565 were invigorated with static magnetic fields of 100- and 200-mT intensities for 1 h and hydropriming for 16 h. Seedling vigour and enzyme activities of all invigorated seeds along with untreated control were conducted in the laboratory. Seedling vigour parameters were significantly higher in invigorated seeds than that of untreated seeds. Among invigorated seeds, hydroprimed seeds took minimum time to emerge than magnetically treated seeds. Similarly root length, shoot length, seedling vigour index were also significantly higher in hydroprimed seeds than magnetically treated seeds. The magnetic treatments led to a significant increase in shoot length, root length, seedling dry weight, vigour index and enzyme activity in comparison with untreated seeds. Alpha amylase activity was also 2.7, 1.8 and 1.3 times higher in hydroprimed, 100- and 200-mT static magnetic field treatments, respectively, over untreated seeds. Electrical conductivity of seed leachate was significantly reduced by hydropriming and static magnetic field treatments. At higher magnetic field, seedling vigour and enzyme activity were reduced.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0274-6
  • Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics Responses to Soil Fertility in the
           Agricultural Regions of China
    • Authors: D. L. Han; X. P. Zhu; H. T. Jia; P. J. Yu
      Abstract: Abstract Increasing the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in croplands can not only improve the soil fertility, but also mitigate climate warming. To evaluate the extent of soil organic carbon density (SOCD) and SOC stock, the examination and prediction of the changes in SOC are essential. Using a field denitrification–decomposition model simulates the dynamics of SOC in the cultivated layer (Ap horizon, all soil depths of sites were 0–30 cm) across all croplands in China. The model simulations results showed that the SOCD and stock approach 3.69 ± 1.09 kg C m−2 and 4.73 ± 1.39 Pg C for the 128.2 M ha croplands in 2040, respectively. Interestingly enough, changes in SOC content (ΔSOC) and soil total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus, and soil available potassium showed negative correlations (P < 0.01), while soil pH value had positive (P < 0.01) correlation with ΔSOC in the cultivated layer. Excess fertilizer can be a disadvantage for SOC accumulation, Chinese croplands have relatively low SOCD and used good amount of fertilizer in comparison with the global average, but the croplands could have great potentials for soil carbon stock under better agricultural “watershed” management practices.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0263-9
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