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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Agricultural Research
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2249-720X - ISSN (Online) 2249-7218
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Effect of Rainfall Variability on Rice Yield in North Eastern Hills of
           India: A Case Study
    • Authors: Deotrephy K. Dkhar; S. M. Feroze; Ram Singh; Lala I. P. Ray
      Pages: 341 - 346
      Abstract: Abstract Meghalaya, one of the Seven Sisters States located in the North Eastern Himalayan region of India, is known for two high-rainfall places, i.e. Sohra and Mawsynram, but the state often faces water crisis during the post-monsoon season. Weekly, monthly and seasonal rainfalls were analysed for the state by calculating mean, coefficient of variance, extreme value, etc. To estimate the effect of rainfall on rice yield regression model was applied. The month of August receives highest average rainfall of 1108.30 mm, but the inter year variation is very high (CV = 49.69%). Increasing linear trends were observed for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon over the study period. The quantum of June rainfall (0.75%) and monsoon maximum temperature (13.35%) has a positive and significant impact on yield of kharif rice, whereas the quantum of August rainfall (−0.46%) has a negative and significant impact on the yield of rice.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0276-4
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Multifaceted Rhizobacteria-Mediated Growth Augmentation in Chickpea
    • Authors: Poonam Kumari; Veena Khanna; Prafull Kumar
      Pages: 368 - 377
      Abstract: Abstract Sixty-nine rhizobacteria isolated from chickpea rhizosphere were screened for their antagonistic potential against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris under in vitro condition. Of these, 30 isolates inhibited growth of the pathogen and 13 potent antagonists were assessed for their functionality traits. Among the antagonistic traits exhibited by antagonists, production of diffusible antimetabolites insured its inhibitory effect on growth of test fungus as well as spore germination on solid media. Inhibition of fungus biomass in broth-based dual culture was revealed by 11 antagonists, while metabolic extracts of 5 isolates reduced the radial proliferation on solid media. Implication of biocidal volatiles in antagonism was demonstrated by 11 isolates; 3 produced cyanogenic volatiles, while all were ammonia producers. Investigation for hydrolytic activity demonstrated production of chitinase by 4 isolates and β-1,4-glucanase by 11, while all were protease and amylase producers. Revealing the dual potential of bioantagonists, all the isolates tested positive for IAA and salicylic acid production, 7 for siderophore production while 10 were P-solubilizers and 8 Zn-solubilizers. Under glass house condition, bacterization of chickpea seeds with potential isolate Ps14c alone and in consortium with Mesorhizobium ciceris reduced wilt incidence in pots (soil amended with F. oxysporum) to 48 and 28%, respectively, as compared to uninoculated control (74%) and also recorded appreciable increase in growth parameters. Present investigation clearly reveals the potential of rhizobacteria for use as bioinoculants.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0275-5
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Quantitative Separation of Nitrogen and Non-Nitrogen Rotation Benefits for
           Maize Following Velvet Bean Under Selected Soil Management Practices
    • Authors: I. M. Uzoh; S. E. Obalum; C. A. Igwe; R. C. Abaidoo
      Pages: 378 - 388
      Abstract: Abstract It is increasingly known that factors other than legume-fixed nitrogen contribute to rotation benefit (yield advantage of legume/cereal over cereal/cereal). The contributions of nitrogen and such other factors were quantified to guide soil fertility management in legume/cereal systems. Under greenhouse conditions, the effects of returning first crop’s residue to the soil, crop sequence (velvet/maize, maize/maize) and nitrogen-fertilizer level on yield of second maize were used to separate rotation benefits into nitrogen and non-nitrogen factors, while the corresponding effects of crop sequence, mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus-targeted fertilization in a parallel experiment were used to disaggregate the non-nitrogen effects. Crop residue and velvet/maize had positive effects on soil nitrogen and maize yield. Nitrogen fertilizer had optimal effects at 60 kg ha−1, while phosphorus enhanced maize yields the most when no essential nutrient was limiting. Rotation benefit was lower without (13.59%) than with (33.27%) residue. Non-nitrogen rotation benefit was 37.5%. Relative contributions of nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, mycorrhiza and not-considered factors were, respectively, 34, 9, 6, 21 and 30% without residue and 68, 4, 3, 10 and 15% with residue. Crop residue management has, therefore, a strong underlying influence on legume-to-cereal rotation benefit and the relative contribution of its components.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0272-8
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Biological Control and Plant Growth-Promotion Traits of Streptomyces
           Species Under Greenhouse and Field Conditions in Chickpea
    • Authors: G. Alekhya; S. Gopalakrishnan
      Pages: 410 - 420
      Abstract: Abstract Thirty-five isolates of actinomycetes were characterized for their antagonistic potential against phyto-pathogens of chickpea by dual-culture and metabolite production assays. The seven most promising isolates of Streptomyces were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promoting traits under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the seven isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures between 20 and 40 °C, pH between 7 and 11 and saline concentrations up to 4%; all the isolates were highly tolerant to fungicide Bavistin, three isolates were moderately tolerant to Captan and all the isolates were susceptible to Thiram, Benlate and Ridomil. All the seven isolates of Streptomyces produced siderophore, chitinase (except isolate CAI-133), cellulase, lipase, protease (except isolates BCA-689 and CAI-133), hydrocyanic acid (except isolate CAI-133), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. The greenhouse studies revealed that the isolates of Streptomyces enhanced the plant growth by promoting root length and weight, nodule numbers, shoot weight, pod numbers and pod weight over the un-inoculated control. Under field conditions, the Streptomyces treated plots increased the nodule numbers, root weight, stover yield and grain yield over the un-inoculated control plots. In the rhizosphere, the Streptomyces were also found to enhance the total nitrogen, available phosphorus and organic carbon compared to un-inoculated control. The colonizing capability of the Streptomyces on the roots of chickpea was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic analysis. All the isolates were identified as Streptomyces species by 16S rDNA analysis; five of the seven isolates clustered in one clade, whereas the other two belonged to two different clades in phylogenetic analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0278-2
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Fatty Acids Composition and Oxidation Kinetic Parameters of Purslane (
           Portulaca oleracea ) Seed Oil
    • Authors: Seyedeh Razieh Jalali Mousavi; Razieh Niazmand
      Pages: 421 - 426
      Abstract: Abstract Purslane seed oil (PSO) was evaluated for fatty acids composition and lipid oxidation. Results showed that linoleic acid (C18:2, 33.63%), α-linolenic acid (C18:3, 26.77%), palmitic acid (C16, 16.43%), and oleic acid (C18:1, 16.36%) were the dominant fatty acids in the PSO. The saturated fatty acids of the PSO amounted to 21.09% of the total fatty acids, while the unsaturated fatty acids amounted to 78.9%. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of purslane seed water–methanolic extract at different concentrations varied significantly, ranging from 15.41 to 79.06%. PSO was oxidized at three temperatures (353, 363, and 373 K) under Rancimat test conditions. Reaction rate constants (k), activation energies (E a), Q 10 number, activation enthalpy (ΔH ++), and activation entropy (ΔS ++) for oxidative stability of PSO were calculated according to the activated complex theory and Arrhenius equation. The k, E a, Q 10, ΔH ++, and ΔS ++ for PSO ranged from 0.031 to 0.186 h−1, 93.46, 2.37, 90.54 kJ mol−1, and −18.62 J K−1 mol−1, respectively. Lipid oxidation rates were greatly dependent on temperature. According to fatty acid composition and high polyunsaturated fatty acids (61.88%) of PSO, it has a high E a, ΔH ++, and ΔS ++.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0271-9
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Protected Fat as Ca-Soap and Formaldehyde-Treated Full-Fat
           Soybean in the Finisher Diet of Lambs on Growth Performance, Carcass
           Traits and Fatty Acid Profile
    • Authors: Randhir Singh Bhatt; A. Sahoo; Lalit Kumar Soni; Y. P. Gadekar
      Pages: 427 - 435
      Abstract: Abstract Effect of feeding Ca-soap and formaldehyde-treated full-fat soybean (FFS) on growth, carcass traits and fatty acid profile of thirty male finisher (3 months) lambs of native Malpura breed was evaluated. Lambs were equally divided into two groups and fed on two isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, one with Ca-soap 6 percent (T1) and the other with equivalent fat added through FFS (T2). Lambs were slaughtered at 6 months of age. Carcass traits and proximate composition were comparable in both the dietary groups. There were increased C16:0 and C18:1n9t fatty acids in Ca-soap-incorporated diet, whereas C15:1, C18:2n6c and C18:3n3 fatty acids were higher in FFS-supplemented diet. The fatty acid profile of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle revealed higher (P < 0.05) content of C14:0, C16:0, C18:2n6c fatty acids in FFS, whereas C18:3n3 fatty acid was higher (P < 0.05) in Ca-soap-supplemented diet. Saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ω-3 fatty acids were higher (P < 0.05) in Ca-soap, while monounsaturated fatty acids were higher (P < 0.05) in FFS-supplemented diet. This leads to higher PUFA: SFA ratio in Ca-soap-supplemented diet as compared to FFS. Adipose tissues of lambs fed Ca-soap showed higher (P < 0.05) contents of C18:2n6c and C18:3n3, whereas lambs fed FFS had higher C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9t and C18:1n9c fatty acids. Thus, feeding of Ca-soap compared to FFS-supplemented diet could preferentially modulate PUFA, ω6 and ω3 fatty acid in LD muscle fat as well as adipose tissue for the benefit of human consumption.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0273-7
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Discrimination of Unfermented Pu’er Tea Aroma of Different Years
           Based on Electronic Nose
    • Authors: Wen Peng; Lan Wang; Ye Qian; Ting Chen; Bing Dai; Bo Feng; Baijuan Wang
      Pages: 436 - 442
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the unknown tea samples were discriminated in which year it is produced, by detecting Pu’er unfermented tea aroma of different years with electronic nose. Winmuster software has been adopted to analyze its principal component analysis (PCA), sensor difference contribution rate (loading), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least square method (PLS). The result showed that the distinction degree of PCA was 96.492%, which can separate the Pu’er unfermented tea aroma of different years. Loading analysis showed that the sensors of No.8 and No.9 made the greatest contribution to the first and second principal components of aroma. LDA analysis indicated that electronic nose can differentiate the aroma of unfermented Pu’er tea with the same type in different years. PLS results of discrimination agreed well with the reality by conducting random tea samples test. The study showed that electronic nose has odor sensors that the smell will be digital; it can not only discriminate aroma of unfermented tea, but also locate the year of unknown unfermented tea quickly.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0277-3
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Statistical Models for Evaluating
           Genotype × Environment Interaction in Rainfed Safflower
    • Authors: Khoshnood Alizadeh; Reza Mohammadi; Abdollah Shariati; Masoud Eskandari
      Pages: 455 - 465
      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to compare the several statistical models, i.e., joint regression analysis (JRA), additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and genotype and genotype × environment (GE) interaction (GGE) biplot, for analyzing of GE interaction for grain yield of rainfed safflower multi-environment trials. The effectiveness of each model was compared for identifying the best performing genotypes across environments, identifying the best genotypes for mega-environment differentiation and evaluating the yield and stability performance. Grain yield data of 13 cold-tolerant safflower breeding lines along with a check cultivar grown in three rainfed research stations for two cropping seasons were used. Environment (E) main effect accounted for 57.1% of total variation, compared to 8.8 and 34.1% for G and GE interaction effects, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis indicated that the three methods (GGE biplot, AMMI analysis and JRA) were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) in ranking of genotypes for static (biological) stability, suggesting that they can be used interchangeably. All three methods identified genotypes G4 and G9 as the most stable genotypes with low-yielding performance, and the breeding line G3 as high-yielding stable genotype across environments. Based on the results, the Maragheh was an ideal test location with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability. The main conclusions were the similarity between the dominant genotypes in the three models. The GGE biplot was more versatile and flexible and provided a better understanding of GE interaction than the other methods. Positive increase in yield and yield stability is attributable predominately to genetic improvement in safflower breeding lines. The breeding line 415/338 could serve as a good genetic source for both high yielding and stability in safflower breeding programs for highland cold rainfed areas of Iran.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0279-1
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of Chickpea-Spices Intercropping Productivity Using Competitive
           Indices Under Irrigated Conditions of Haryana
    • Authors: Ratneswar Poddar; Rajib Kundu; Satish Kumar
      Pages: 241 - 247
      Abstract: Abstract A study was undertaken for using Umbelliferous spices, coriander, fenugreek and fennel as intercrop with chickpea in 2:1, 3:1 and 4:2 row ratios, each separately with their respective sole treatments during the winter season 2010–2011, to determine the effect of different intercropping systems on productivity and competitive functions. The yield of chickpea increased progressively with the increase in number of rows of chickpea in every intercropping system. All the intercropping systems produced higher land equivalent ratio (LER) than their respective sole cropping. Chickpea and fennel (4:2 row ratio) recorded higher benefit in terms of monetary advantage index (MAI) (Rs. 6990 ha−1), income equivalent ratio (IER) (2.03), system productivity index (SPI) or intercropping advantages (IA) among the all the intercropping systems. All the three spices performed as a dominant component, while chickpea was suppressed, and higher competition was noticed when coriander was taken as an intercrop, while competition was less in chickpea and fennel intercropping system.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0260-z
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Long-Term Impact of Cyclic Use of Sodic and Canal Waters for Irrigation on
           Soil Properties and Crop Yields in Cotton–Wheat Rotation in a Semiarid
           Climate
    • Authors: O. P. Choudhary
      Pages: 267 - 272
      Abstract: Abstract A 12-year field experiment (1996–2008) was conducted on a sandy loam soil under semiarid climate to study the impact of use of sodic water (SW) and canal water (CW) in various cyclic modes in a cotton–wheat rotation. Treatments included irrigation with CW and SW (residual sodium carbonate 10 meq L−1) and different variants of cyclic modes of CW and SW irrigation. Irrigation with SW caused increase in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) that resulted in reduced cotton and wheat yields. The mean yield reduction after 6 years was more for seed-cotton (28%) than for wheat (15%); yield reduction in cotton and wheat after 12 years was 35 and 22%, respectively. Cyclic irrigation of CW and SW resulted in lower pH, EC and ESP than under SW irrigation and increased mean yields of both crops. Cyclic treatments starting with CW involving one SW (2CW:SW, CW:SW) or starting with one SW followed by 2CW irrigations (SW:2CW) produced optimum (>90% yields relative to CW) wheat and seed-cotton yields after 6 years. These cyclic modes could sustain optimum crop yields even after 12 years. Reduction in cotton yield after 6 years was more (18%) than in wheat (10%) in cyclic modes starting with SW involving one CW (SW:CW, 2SW:CW). However, extent of reduction in seed-cotton (25%) and wheat yields (17%) after 12 years made these treatments unsustainable on long-term basis. Based on sustainable yield index and buildup of sodicity, 2CW:SW treatment was found to be the most sustainable among various cyclic modes for the cotton–wheat rotation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0259-5
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Different Wastewaters on Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Soils
           of North Karnataka, India
    • Authors: H. Jogan; G. S. Dasog; S. A. Satyareddi; M. Hebbara; C. R. Patil
      Pages: 273 - 280
      Abstract: Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bio-methanated distillery spentwash, paper mill, soft drink factory and domestic sewage wastewaters on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in red, lateritic, and black soils of north Karnataka. Application of wastewaters from different sources influenced the carbon and nitrogen fractions across treated soils. Water-soluble carbon, labile carbon and organic carbon were significantly higher in bio-methanated distillery spentwash-treated soils. Wide variations in nitrogen fractions NH4 +–N, NO3 −–N were recorded under the influence of different wastewaters across the treated soils. Irrespective of the soil types, content of organic carbon and nitrogen fractions followed the order bio-methanated distillery spentwash > paper mill > domestic wastewater ≥ soft drink factory wastewater. Higher values of carbon and nitrogen fractions were observed in the surface layers (0–15 cm) in comparison with lower depths. Enumeration of the bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, N2-fixers and P-solubilizers indicated higher microbial load in bio-methanated spentwash application followed by paper mill wastewater application. Microbial load was highly concentrated in the surface layer (0–15 cm) across the soils and wastewaters evaluated. The bacterial count in treated soils was double that of fresh water-treated soils. Among the soils used in the study, maximum bacteria, actinomycetes and P-solubilizers count were recorded in black soil under the influence of the bio-methanated spentwash.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0262-x
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Design and Experiment of a Peanut Shelling Machine
    • Authors: Qun Sun; Chong Wang; Zhenyou Wang; Ying Zhao; Chunjiang Bao
      Pages: 304 - 311
      Abstract: Abstract Peanut is an important economic crop and there are strict requirements for the degree of damage to peanut seed, seed coat and germ, which are difficult to guarantee by an ordinary sheller. Manual operation often cannot satisfy modern agricultural production due to heavy labor intensity, low efficiency and work quality. For the above reasons, a suitable peanut shelling machine is needed to replace manual operation and conventional sheller. A peanut shelling machine has been designed, which imitated manual peanut peeling method. The mechanical structure of the peanut shelling machine consists of a frame, a feeding mechanism, a pneumatic gripper and peanut shelling positioning mechanism. The control system is composed of a MCU, LCD 12864 liquid-crystal display, and keys. Experimental results showed that, the peanut shelling rate is 20/min and the success rate is 92.3%. Furthermore, it provided a new approach to achieve automatic peanut shelling operation and well-satisfied agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0265-7
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Mass-Based Image Analysis for Evaluating Straw Cover Under High-Residue
           Farming Conditions in Rice–Wheat Cropping System
    • Authors: Eisa Belal; Cedric Okinda; Ding Qishuo; Zahir Talha
      Abstract: Abstract Estimation of crop residue distribution in paddy fields is extremely crucial especially in tight crop rotation areas that produce large volumes of straw causing germination problems in the following crop. Our objective was to develop an accurate and easy-to-handle field method to quantify the proportion of ground cover. Mass and cover relationships were investigated and analyzed to evaluate straw distribution on the soil surface, by comparing surface cover from three different combine harvesters in a rice–wheat (R–W) cropping system. For each harvester, straw distribution on the ground was measured and virtually reconstructed, and then the straw stacked layers analyzed. The mean straw mass distribution and percent surface cover measured in 2014 and 2015 ranged between 4200–12,000 kg/ha and 60–97%, respectively, for all the harvesters. Flat straw mass was higher than standing stubble mass in all treatments. The most important observation is that the distribution pattern of straw depended on instantaneous material feed rate through the harvester; the higher the feed rate, the poorer the straw distribution uniformity. The Xinjiang Ceres 4LZ-2.5 harvester outperformed all the other harvesters. These findings can improve the estimation of straw cover for tillage straw incorporation or no-till straw return fields and indicates that straw condition should be considered in mass-to-cover relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0287-1
       
  • Increasing Rates of Biochar Application to Soil Induce Stronger Negative
           Priming Effect on Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition
    • Authors: Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini; Marcelo Zacharias Moreira; Plínio Barbosa de Camargo; Rafaela Feola Conz; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri
      Abstract: Abstract Although the understanding of biochar stability in soil has improved in recent years, there is a lack of knowledge about how both the soil and biochar carbon (C) mineralisations are affected as a function of biochar amount applied to soil. Thus, increasing amounts of biochar were added to a Quartzipsamment in order to evaluate its priming effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition. We hypothesised that biochar will increase negative priming on native SOC mineralisation as function of its application rate to soil. The biochar was produced from sugarcane straw through slow pyrolysis at 450 °C, and a laboratory incubation was conducted for 90 days with the following treatments: soil-alone (C3 source), biochar-alone (C4 source) and soil with biochar at rates equivalent to 0.4% (T1), 0.8% (T2) and 1.9% (T3) (w/w). In the first day of incubation, biochar amendment reduced soil C mineralisation rates from 58 to 88% compared to the soil-alone as a function of increasing biochar application rates. This reduction was mainly attributed to the mineralisation of easily available substrates from incomplete pyrolysis, which were preferentially used by soil micro-organisms at early stages of incubation. This effect, however, subsided after 7 days of incubation and it was not sufficient to induce co-metabolism of SOC decomposition, which were 43% (T1)–71% (T3) lower compared to the control (soil-alone) after 90 days of incubation. This was reflected in the priming effect data, which confirmed the hypothesis that increasing application rates of biochar to soil induce stronger negative priming on SOM mineralisation. The predicted size of recalcitrant biochar C pool varied from 98.8% (T1) to 99.9% (T3) of the total biochar C with respective mean residence time of 454 and 1539 years. It was concluded that increasing rates of biochar application to soil induce stronger negative priming effect on SOC due to the higher proportional quantity of biochar labile C and preferential utilisation of this easily available C source by micro-organisms. However, the size and long residence time of the recalcitrant C pool of biochar confirm its stability in soil, thus being considered an opportunity for C sequestration in OC-poor soils. Additionally, this study draws encouraging perspectives on the evaluation of sugarcane straw as a chemical feedstock and an alternative biofuel through pyrolysis, providing appreciable amounts of a renewable product with a great potential for carbon storage.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0281-7
       
  • Camel Milk: An Important Natural Adjuvant
    • Authors: Raghvendar Singh; Gorakh Mal; Devendra Kumar; N. V. Patil; K. M. L. Pathak
      Abstract: Abstract One humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) breeds, indigenous to India, have been shown to have good genetic potential to produce milk. Camel milk not only is cost-effective in terms of feed conversion but also has additional advantage of longer lactation period and unique adaptation mechanisms for warm arid and semiarid regions. The key features of camel milk in comparison with other milk are low fat with high content of unsaturated and long-chain fatty acid. The proteins are rich in lactoferrin and lysozymes, but deficient in β-lactoglobulin. It has higher percentage of total salts, free calcium, protective proteins and vitamin C, and some of the microminerals, viz iron, copper and zinc. Physicochemical properties of camel milk are also unique and useful for food processing. The shelf life of raw camel milk is 8–9 h, which can be extended up to 18–20 h through activation of camel lactoperoxidase system. Heat stability of camel milk is shown to be highest at pH 6.8, and it ferments relatively slowly compared to the cattle milk. The camel milk is successfully processed for producing a variety of products, such as fermented milk (‘lassi’), soft cheese, flavored milk and ‘kulfee’ (a kind of ice cream). Camel milk has been traditionally used in different regions of the world as natural adjuvant for managing a variety of human diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0284-4
       
  • Performance of Coated Extra-Large Hulled Confectionary Sunflower Kernels
           for Precision Planting
    • Authors: Harjot Sidhu; Ewumbua Monono; Ganesh Bora; Dennis Wiesenborn
      Abstract: Abstract Extra-large (XL) confectionary sunflower seeds are too large to plant with current precision planters, and a high proportion of seed does not emerge upon planting. Hulling the XL seeds and then coating the kernels has been proposed to improve the viability and plantability of these seeds. Therefore, the objectives were to evaluate the effect of various coating materials and buildup levels, develop lab methods to measure the viability and plantability of coated kernels, and evaluate the impact of seed lubricants on plantability of coated kernels. In this study, eight types of coating materials were applied to sunflower kernels by seed-coating companies, or in house at buildup levels ranging from 8 to 50% resulting in 20 different treatments, and the coated kernels were then evaluated for viability and plantability. The pre-planting germination test results ranged from 72 to 92% among all coated kernel treatments; however, germination was reduced by 6% on average after passage through the planter test stand. The singulation of all the coated kernels improved by up to 24% compared to the XL seed. Singulation of polymer-coated kernels was comparable to large seed. Addition of lubricant to the coated kernels significantly increased the overall singulation and post-planting germination of the coated kernels by 4 and 3%, respectively. Overall, this study showed that coating of kernel—together with the use of a seed lubricant—substantially increased singulation compared to XL seeds, while retaining the kernel viability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0285-3
       
  • Yield and Soil Organic Matter Dynamics as Affected by the Long-Term Use of
           Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Under Rice–Wheat Cropping System in
           Subtropical Mollisols
    • Authors: Pawan Kumar Pant; Shri Ram; Veer Singh
      Abstract: Abstract Effect of long-term application of fertilizer NPK alone or in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) to an annual rice–wheat cropping system (initiated in 1971) on a typic Hapludoll soil was studied on the physical and chemical properties as well as soil organic carbon fractions. Results revealed that continuous cropping of rice–wheat over the period of 42 cycles without NPK fertilizers reduced grain yields of rice and wheat by 80.0 and 45.4% over its initial level of 6.3 and 2.2 t ha−1, respectively. Application of 100% NPK (120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O) + FYM @ 10 t ha−1 produced the highest grain yield of rice of 5.2 t ha−1 and wheat of 4.7 t ha−1. Conjoint use of 100% NPK and FYM increased the organic carbon content by 7.4 and 10.1% in soil after rice and wheat harvest, respectively, over initial level of 1.48%, and it decreased by 39.2–44.6% and 36.8–49.1% in other NPK fertilizers treatments. In the control treatment, organic C was reduced it to about one-third of the value recorded at initiation of the experiment. In the absence of P, K, S, and Zn addition, continuous cropping drastically reduced their availability in soil over the years. However, no perceptible change in pH was observed. Physical properties were improved with integrated use of fertilizers and manure. Total organic carbon and its different active and passive pools C fractions in soil were influenced significantly with fertilizer management practices and were positively correlated with yields and most of the soil properties. Among soil properties, available K and hydraulic conductivity were found to be more closely correlated with soil C fractions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0282-6
       
  • Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on the Lipid Oxidative Stability and
           Storage Quality of Restructured Mutton Blocks Containing Colocasia
           esculenta, a Novel Binding Agent
    • Authors: H. M. Dilnawaz; Sunil Kumar; Z. F. Bhat
      Abstract: Abstract The study was undertaken to explore the possibility of utilization of Colocasia esculenta as a novel binding agent for restructured meat products. Restructured mutton blocks were used as a model and prepared by incorporating different levels of C. esculenta, viz. 1, 3 and 5%, and optimized at 3% level on the basis of various quality parameters. The binding agent proposed here suggests a high improvement in binding in addition to various functional properties. Restructured mutton blocks containing optimum level of C. esculenta (3%) were further treated with green coffee bean extract (GCB) as a novel natural preservative and assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated conditions (4 ± 1 °C). Products containing GCB extract (1%) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher acceptability with significantly (P < 0.05) lower TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) (mg malondialdehyde/kg) and FFA free fatty acid (% oleic acid) values. The restructured mutton blocks containing GCB extract (1%) also showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values for various microbiological characteristics like total plate count (log cfu/g) and psychrophilic count (log cfu/g). The results showed herein indicate a promising industrial application of C. esculenta (3%) as a binding agent for restructured meat products and green coffee bean extract (1%) as a novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0283-5
       
  • Genetic Divergence Among Post-rainy Season-Grown Sorghum Local Landraces
           and Varieties for Morphological and Yield Traits
    • Authors: Ashok Badigannavar; G. Girish; T. R. Ganapathi
      Abstract: Abstract Post-rainy season-cultivated sorghum lines are local landraces, known for their grain quality and used exclusively for human consumption. Because of their importance, the present study was undertaken to estimate genetic diversity for morphological and yield-contributing traits at two locations. The ANOVA for days to flower, stem diameter, panicle width, yield per plant and 100 seed weight showed significant differences among 85 sorghum landraces and 15 popular varieties. Mean squares for all the traits were significantly affected by genotypes (G), environments (E) and G × E interaction. Relatively high broad-sense heritability was observed for grain yield at BARC, Mumbai (E1), and panicle length at ARS, Gulbarga (E2) locations, respectively. Significant positive correlations between panicle width and grain yield (0.23**) and between seed weight and grain yield (0.22**) were observed. Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance grouped all the genotypes into five clusters with PC-6 emerging as a distinct variety. Promising landraces identified in this study would serve as genetic resources for recombination breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0268-4
       
  • Effect of Honey on Quality Characteristics of Mutton Spread
    • Authors: Suman Talukder; Sanjod Kumar Mendiratta; Tarun Pal Singh; Ashish Kumar; Rajiv Ranjan Kumar; Arvind Soni
      Abstract: Abstract Mutton spread with improved nutritional and functional quality was developed. Control formulation of mutton spread was standardized with 30% mutton powder. Two different cooking regimes, viz. braising (BMS) and steaming (SMS), were applied to prepare control spread and were compared for sensory attributes; on the basis sensory scores, braising cooking method was selected. Three different levels (3, 4 and 5%) of honey-incorporated treatments (T-I, T-II and T-III, respectively) were formulated and compared with pre-standardized control for physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes. Cooking yield and moisture content increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas protein content decreased (P < 0.05) with the increasing levels of honey. Scores of sensory attributes like appearance, flavor, juiciness, after taste, adhesivability and overall acceptability were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for T-II (4% honey) as compared to control. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes, T-II was adjudged optimum. Further, a comparative study for texture attributes and antioxidant profile was done between control and T-II. Firmness and work of shear showed higher values for T-II as compared to control. Total phenolics content, reducing power assay and antiradical scavenging activity values were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T-II as compared to control. Products were stored at (4 ± 1) °C for period of 21 days and studied at 7 days interval. T-II showed significantly lower (P < 0.05) total plate count and thio-barbituric acid reacting substances during entire storage. On the basis of overall attributes, it was concluded that incorporation of honey in mutton spread improved the shelf life and quality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40003-017-0269-3
       
 
 
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