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Showing 1 - 200 of 2345 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)

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Journal Cover Acta Meteorologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.524]   [H-I: 14]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0894-0525
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • The 2016 summer floods in China and associated physical mechanisms: A
           comparison with 1998
    • Authors: Yuan Yuan; Hui Gao; Weijing Li; Yanju Liu; Lijuan Chen; Bin Zhou; Yihui Ding
      Pages: 261 - 277
      Abstract: The characteristics of droughts and floods in China during the summers (May–August) of 2016 and 1998 were compared in great detail, together with the associated atmospheric circulations and external-forcing factors. Following results are obtained. (1) The precipitation was mostly above normal in China in summer 2016, with two main rainfall belts located in the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and North China. Compared with 1998, a similar rainfall belt was located over the YRV, with precipitation 100% and more above normal. However, the seasonal processes of Meiyu were different. A typical “Secondary Meiyu” occurred in 1998, whereas dry conditions dominated the YRV in 2016. (2) During May–July 2016, the Ural high was weaker than normal, but it was stronger than normal in 1998. This difference resulted from fairly different distributions of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the North Atlantic Ocean during the preceding winter and spring of the two years. (3) Nonetheless, tropical and subtropical circulation systems were much more similar in May–July of 2016 and 1998. The circulation systems in both years were characterized by a stronger than normal and more westward-extending western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), a weaker than normal East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and anomalous convergence of moisture flux in the mid and lower reaches of the YRV. These similar circulation anomalies were attributed to the similar tropical SSTA pattern in the preceding seasons, i.e., the super El Niño and strong warming in the tropical Indian Ocean. (4) Significant differences in the circulation pattern were observed in August between the two years. The WPSH broke up in August 2016, with its western part being combined with the continental high and persistently dominating eastern China. The EASM suddenly became stronger, and dry conditions prevailed in the YRV. On the contrary, the EASM was weaker in August 1998 and the “Secondary Meiyu” took place in the YRV. The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) was extremely active in August 2016 and stayed in western Pacific for 25 days. It triggered frequent tropical cyclone activities and further influenced the significant turning of tropical and subtropical circulations in August 2016. In contrast, the MJO was active over the tropical Indian Ocean in August 1998, conducive to the maintenance of a strong WPSH. Alongside the above oceanic factors and atmospheric circulation anomalies, the thermal effect of snow cover over the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau from the preceding winter to spring in 2016 was much weaker than that in 1998. This may explain the relatively stronger EASM and more abundant precipitation in North China in 2016 than those in 1998.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6192-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Upper-ocean dynamical features and prediction of the super El Niño in
           2015/16: A comparison with the cases in 1982/83 and 1997/98
    • Authors: Hong-Li Ren; Run Wang; Panmao Zhai; Yihui Ding; Bo Lu
      Pages: 278 - 294
      Abstract: The 2015/16 super El Niño event has been widely recognized as comparable to the 1982/83 and 1997/98 El Niño events. This study examines the main features of upper-ocean dynamics in this new super event, contrasts them to those in the two historical super events, and quantitatively compares the major oceanic dynamical feedbacks based on a mixed-layer heat budget analysis of the tropical Pacific. During the early stage, this new event is characterized by an eastward propagation of SST anomalies and a weak warm-pool El Niño; whereas during its mature phase, it is characterized by a weak westward propagation and a westward-shifted SST anomaly center, mainly due to the strong easterly wind and cold upwelling anomalies in the far eastern Pacific, as well as the westward anomalies of equatorial zonal current and subsurface ocean temperature. The heat budget analysis shows that the thermocline feedback is the most crucial process inducing the SST anomaly growth and phase transition of all the super events, and particularly for this new event, the zonal advective feedback also exerts an important impact on the formation of the strong warming and westward-shifted pattern of SST anomalies. During this event, several westerly wind burst events occur, and oceanic Kelvin waves propagate eastwards before being maintained over eastern Pacific in the mature stage. Mean-while, there is no evidence for westward propagation of the off-equatorial oceanic Rossby waves though the discharging process of equatorial heat during the development and mature stages. The second generation El Niño prediction system of the Beijing Climate Center produced reasonable event real-time operational prediction during 2014–16, wherein the statistical prediction model that considers the preceding oceanic precursors plays an important role in the multi-method ensemble prediction of this super.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6194-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • A special MJO event with a double Kelvin wave structure
    • Authors: Lili Zhu; Tim Li
      Pages: 295 - 308
      Abstract: The second Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) event during the field campaign of the Dynamics of the MJO/Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability in the Year 2011 (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) exhibi ted an unusual double rainband structure. Using a wavenumber-frequency spectral filtering method, we unveil that this double rainband structure arises primarily from the Kelvin wave component. The zonal phase speed of the double rainbands is about 7.9 degree per day in the equatorial Indian Ocean, being in the range of convectively coupled Kelvin wave phase speeds. The convection and circulation anomalies associated with the Kelvin wave component are characterized by two anomalous convective cells, with low-level westerly (easterly) and high (low) pressure anomalies to the west (east) of the convective centers, and opposite wind and pressure anomalies in the upper troposphere. Such a zonal wind–pressure phase relationship is consistent with the equatorial free-wave dynamics. While the free-atmospheric circulation was dominated by the first baroclinic mode vertical structure, moisture and vertical motion in the boundary layer led the convection. The convection and circulation structures derived based on the conventional MJO filter show a different characteristic. For example, the phase speed is slower (about 5.9 degree per day), and there were no double convective branches. This suggests that MJO generally involves multi-scales and it is incomplete to extract its signals by using the conventional filtering technique.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6004-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Blocking features for two types of cold events in East Asia
    • Authors: Zuowei Xie; Cholaw Bueh
      Pages: 309 - 320
      Abstract: Cold air outbreaks (CAOs) always hit East Asia during boreal winter and have significant impacts on human health and public transport. The amplitude and route of CAOs are closely associated with blocking circulations over the Eurasian continent. Two categories of CAOs are recognized, namely, the ordinary cold wave events (CWEs) and the extensive and persistent extreme cold events (EPECEs), with the latter having even stronger impacts. The blocking features associated with these two types of CAOs and their differences are investigated in this study on the intraseasonal timescale. What these two CAOs do have in common is that they are both preceded by the intensification and recurrence of a blocking high over the midlatitude North Atlantic. The difference between these events is primarily reflected on the spatial scale and duration of the corresponding blocking high. During the CWEs, blocking occurs around the Ural Mountains, and exhibits a regional feature. The resulting cold air temperature persists for only up to 8 days. In contrast, during the EPECEs, the blocking region is quite extensive and is not only confined around the Ural Mountains but also extends eastward into Northeast Asia in a southwest–northeast orientation. As a result, the cold air tends to accumulate over a large area and persists for a much longer time. The blocking activity is primarily induced by an increased frequency and eastward extension of the synoptic anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking (AWB). Compared with the CWEs, characterized by a regional and short-lived synoptic AWB frequency, the EPECEs tend to be accompanied by more recurrent and eastward extensions of the synoptic AWB.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6076-8
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Propagation and mechanisms of the quasi-biweekly oscillation over the
           Asian summer monsoon region
    • Authors: Meirong Wang; Jun Wang; Anmin Duan
      Pages: 321 - 335
      Abstract: The propagation and underlying mechanisms of the boreal summer quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO) over the entire Asian monsoon region are investigated, based on ECMWF Interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data, GPCP precipitation data, and an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Statistical analyses indicate that the QBWO over the Asian monsoon region derives its main origin from the equatorial western Pacific and moves northwestward to the Bay of Bengal and northern India, and then northward to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) area, with a baroclinic vertical structure. Northward propagation of the QBWO is promoted by three main mechanisms: barotropic vorticity, boundary moisture advection, and surface sensible heating (SSH). It is dominated by the barotropic vorticity effect when the QBWO signals are situated to the south of 20°N. During the propagation taking place farther north toward the TP, the boundary moisture advection and SSH are the leading mechanisms. We use an AGCM to verify the importance of SSH on the northward propagation of the QBWO. Numerical simulations confirm the diagnostic conclusion that the equatorial western Pacific is the source of the QBWO. Importantly, the model can accurately simulate the propagation pathway of the QBWO signals over the Asian monsoon region. Simultaneously, sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the SSH over northern India and the southern slope of the TP greatly contributes to the northward propagation of the QBWO as far as the TP area.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6131-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Changes in temporal concentration property of summer precipitation in
           China during 1961–2010 based on a new index
    • Authors: Hui Li; Panmao Zhai; Er Lu; Wei Zhao; Yang Chen; Huan Wang
      Pages: 336 - 349
      Abstract: Based on the property of entropy, a new index Q was defined to measure the temporal concentration property of summertime daily rainfall in China, based on daily precipitation data collected at 553 observation stations in China during 1961–2010. Furthermore, changes in the temporal concentration property of summer precipitation in China were investigated. The results indicate that the regions with larger Q values were located in most parts of Northwest China and the north of the Yellow River, where daily precipitation tended to become temporally concentrated during the study period. On the contrary, smaller Q values were found in eastern Tibetan Plateau, southeastern Northwest China, and most parts of Southwest and South China. The most obvious increasing trend of Q index was found in South China and most parts of Southwest China, where precipitation showed a temporal concentration trend. However, a decreasing trend of Q index was found in Northwest China, the Tibetan Plateau, and the north of the Huaihe River. Variations of the Q index and the summer rainfall total during 1961–2010 in China both exhibited an increasing trend, implying larger temporal variability in rainfall attributes. It is illustrated that the summer precipitation in general became more temporally concentrated with more intense rainfall events and wetter days.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6020-y
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Observation of wind shear during evening transition and an estimation of
           submicron aerosol concentrations in Beijing using a Doppler wind lidar
    • Authors: Yong Chen; Junling An; Xiquan Wang; Yele Sun; Zifa Wang; Jing Duan
      Pages: 350 - 362
      Abstract: The wind speed and direction measured over six months by a Doppler wind lidar (Windcube-8) were compared with wind cup anemometers mounted on the 325-m Beijing meteorological tower (BMT). Five mountain–plain wind cases characterized by wind direction shear were selected based on the high-frequency (1.1 s) wind profile of the Windcube-8 and analyzed with 1-h mesoscale surface weather charts. Also analyzed was the relationship between in-situ PM1 (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm) concentrations measured at 260 m on BMT and the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the co-located Windcube-8. The results showed that the 10-min averaged wind speed and direction were highly correlated (R = 0.96–0.99) at three matched levels (80, 140, and 200 m). The evening transition duration was 1–3 h, with an average wind speed of 1 m s–1 at 80 m above the ground. In addition, there was a zero horizontal-wind-speed zone along the wind direction shear line, and in one case, the wind speed was characterized by a Kelvin–Helmholtz gravity wave. The variability of the PM1 concentrations was captured by the CNR of the Windcube-8 in a fair weather period without the long-range transport of dust.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6036-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effects of optimized root water uptake parameterization schemes on water
           and heat flux simulation in a maize agroecosystem
    • Authors: Fu Cai; Huiqing Ming; Na Mi; Yanbing Xie; Yushu Zhang; Rongping Li
      Pages: 363 - 377
      Abstract: As root water uptake (RWU) is an important link in the water and heat exchange between plants and ambient air, improving its parameterization is key to enhancing the performance of land surface model simulations. Although different types of RWU functions have been adopted in land surface models, there is no evidence as to which scheme most applicable to maize farmland ecosystems. Based on the 2007–09 data collected at the farmland ecosystem field station in Jinzhou, the RWU function in the Common Land Model (CoLM) was optimized with scheme options in light of factors determining whether roots absorb water from a certain soil layer (W x ) and whether the baseline cumulative root efficiency required for maximum plant transpiration (W c ) is reached. The sensibility of the parameters of the optimization scheme was investigated, and then the effects of the optimized RWU function on water and heat flux simulation were evaluated. The results indicate that the model simulation was not sensitive to W x but was significantly impacted by W c . With the original model, soil humidity was somewhat underestimated for precipitation-free days; soil temperature was simulated with obvious interannual and seasonal differences and remarkable underestimations for the maize late-growth stage; and sensible and latent heat fluxes were overestimated and underestimated, respectively, for years with relatively less precipitation, and both were simulated with high accuracy for years with relatively more precipitation. The optimized RWU process resulted in a significant improvement of CoLM’s performance in simulating soil humidity, temperature, sensible heat, and latent heat, for dry years. In conclusion, the optimized RWU scheme available for the CoLM model is applicable to the simulation of water and heat flux for maize farmland ecosystems in arid areas.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6037-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Connection between the Silk Road Pattern in July and the following January
           temperature over East Asia
    • Authors: Shengping He; Yang Liu; Huijun Wang
      Pages: 378 - 388
      Abstract: This study investigates a cross-seasonal influence of the Silk Road Pattern (SRP) in July and discusses the related mechanism. Both the reanalysis and observational datasets indicate that the July SRP is closely related to the following January temperature over East Asia during 1958/59–2001/02. Linear regression results reveal that, following a higher-than-normal SRP index in July, the Siberian high, Aleutian low, Urals high, East Asian trough, and meridional shear of the East Asian jet intensify significantly in January. Such atmospheric circulation anomalies are favorable for northerly wind anomalies over East Asia, leading to more southward advection of cold air and causing a decrease in temperature. Further analysis indicates that the North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) might play a critical role in storing the anomalous signal of the July SRP. The significant SSTAs related to the July SRP weaken in October and November, re-emerge in December, and strengthen in the following January. Such an SSTA pattern in January can induce a surface anomalous cyclone over North Pacific and lead to dominant convergence anomalies over northwestern Pacific. Correspondingly, significant divergence anomalies appear, collocated in the upper-level troposphere in situ. Due to the advection of vorticity by divergent wind, which can be regarded as a wave source, a stationary Rossby wave originates from North Pacific and propagates eastward to East Asia, leading to temperature anomalies through its influence on the large-scale atmospheric circulation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6064-z
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Stratospheric precursor of non-uniform variation in early spring surface
           temperature over Eurasia
    • Authors: Fei Li; Huijun Wang; Yongqi Gao
      Pages: 389 - 396
      Abstract: The stratospheric influences on the non-uniform variation in early spring (March–April, MA) surface temperature over Eurasia is investigated based on the ERA-Interim, NCEP-1, and NCEP-2 reanalysis data for the period 1980–2016. A lead–lag correlation is found between preceding winter (December–February, DJF) stratospheric polar vortex displacements (SPVD) and the MA west–east seesaw pattern in surface temperature over Eurasia. Further analysis reveals that the East Asian jet stream may act as a bridge linking DJF SPVD and MA surface temperature over Eurasia. A positive change in SPVD is associated with a decelerated polar jet stream and an accelerated East Asian jet stream in the troposphere in DJF. The East Asian jet stream signal can persist into MA. As a result, anomalous southerly/northerly winds prevail over western/eastern Eurasia, accounting for the west–east surface temperature seesaw over Eurasia.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6055-0
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • A possible abrupt change in summer precipitation over eastern China around
    • Authors: Yongjian Ren; Lianchun Song; Zunya Wang; Ying Xiao; Bing Zhou
      Pages: 397 - 408
      Abstract: Historical studies have shown that summer rainfall in eastern China undergoes decadal variations, with three apparent changes in the late 1970s, 1992, and the late 1990s. The present observational study indicates that summer precipitation over eastern China likely underwent a change in the late 2000s, during which the main spatial pattern changed from negative–positive–negative to positive–negative in the meridional direction. This change in summer precipitation over eastern China may have been associated with circulation anomalies in the middle/upper troposphere. A strong trough over Lake Baikal created a southward flow of cold air during 2009–15, compared with 1999–2008, while the westward recession of the western Pacific subtropical high strengthened the moisture transport to the north, creating conditions that were conducive for more rainfall in the north during this period. The phase shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the late 2000s led to the Pacific–Japan-type teleconnection wave train shifting from negative to positive phases, resulting in varied summer precipitation over eastern China.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6021-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • A new prediction model for grain yield in Northeast China based on spring
           North Atlantic Oscillation and late-winter Bering Sea ice cover
    • Authors: Mengzi Zhou; Huijun Wang; Zhiguo Huo
      Pages: 409 - 419
      Abstract: Accurate estimations of grain output in the agriculturally important region of Northeast China are of great strategic significance for guaranteeing food security. New prediction models for maize and rice yields are built in this paper based on the spring North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Bering Sea ice cover index. The year-to-year increment is first forecasted and then the original yield value is obtained by adding the historical yield of the previous year. The multivariate linear prediction model of maize shows good predictive ability, with a low normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 13.9%, and the simulated yield accounts for 81% of the total variance of the observation. To improve the performance of the multivariate linear model, a combined forecasting model of rice is built by considering the weight of the predictors. The NRMSE of the model is 12.9% and the predicted rice yield explains 71% of the total variance. The corresponding cross-validation test and independent samples test further demonstrate the efficiency of the models. It is inferred that the statistical models established here by applying year-to-year increment approach could make rational prediction for the maize and rice yield in Northeast China before harvest. The present study may shed new light on yield prediction in advance by use of antecedent large-scale climate signals adequately.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6114-6
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Trends and uncertainties in surface air temperature over the Tibetan
           Plateau, 1951–2013
    • Authors: Wei Hua; Guangzhou Fan; Yiwei Zhang; Lihua Zhu; Xiaohang Wen; Yongli Zhang; Xin Lai; Binyun Wang; Mingjun Zhang; Yao Hu; Qiuyue Wu
      Pages: 420 - 430
      Abstract: Trends and uncertainties of surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are evaluated by using observations at 100 meteorological stations during the period 1951–2013. The sampling error variances of gridded monthly data are estimated for every month and every grid box of data. The gridded data and their sampling error variances are used to calculate TP averages, their trends, and associated uncertainties. It is shown that large sampling error variances dominate northern and western TP, while small variances appear over southern and eastern TP. Every month from January to December has a positive linear trend during the study period. February has the largest trend of 0.34 ± 0.18°C (10 yr)–1, and April the smallest at 0.15 ± 0.11°C (10 yr)–1. The uncertainties decrease steadily with time, implying that they are not large enough to alter the TP warming trend.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6013-x
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the trend uncertainty in summer ozone valley over the
           Tibetan Plateau in three reanalysis datasets
    • Authors: Dong Guo; Yucheng Su; Xiuji Zhou; Jianjun Xu; Chunhua Shi; Yu Liu; Weiliang Li; Zhenkun Li
      Pages: 431 - 437
      Abstract: Trend uncertainty in the ozone valley over the Tibetan Plateau (OVTP) and the South Asian high (SAH) during 1979–2009 in ERA-Interim (interim reanalysis data from the ECMWF), JRA-55 (55-yr reanalysis data from the Japan Meteorological Agency), and NCEP-CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) datasets was evaluated. The results showed that the NCEP-CFSR OVTP became strong in the summers of 1979–2009, whereas it became weak according to ERA-Interim and JRA-55. Satellite data merged with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) agreed with the OVTP trend of NCEP-CFSR. The OVTP strengthening in NCEP-CFSR may have been caused by SAH intensification, a rising tropopause, and increasing ozone over non-TP (non-Tibetan Plateau) areas (27°–37°N, < 75°E and > 105°E). Analogously, the OVTP weakening in ERA-Interim and JRA-55 may have been affected by weakening SAH, descending tropopause, and decreasing non-TP ozone.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6058-x
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Global financial crisis making a V-shaped fluctuation in NO 2 pollution
           over the Yangtze River Delta
    • Authors: Yin Du; Zhiqing Xie
      Pages: 438 - 447
      Abstract: The Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China’s main cultural and economic center, has become one of the most seriously polluted areas in the world with respect to nitrogen oxides (NOx), owing to its rapid industrialization and urbanization, as well as substantial coal consumption. On the basis of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) density data from ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) and ground-based observations, the effects of industrial fluctuations due to the financial crisis on local NO2 pollution were quantitatively assessed. The results were as follows. (1) A distinct V-shaped fluctuation of major industrial products, thermal generating capacity, electricity consumption, and tropospheric NO2 densities was associated with the global financial crisis from May 2007 to December 2009, with the largest anomalies 1.5 times more than standard deviations at the height of the crisis period from November 2008 to February 2009. (2) Among all industrial sectors, thermal power plants were mainly responsible for fluctuations in local NO2 pollution during the crisis period. Thermal generating capacity had its greatest decrease of 12.10% at the height of the crisis compared with that during November 2007–February 2008, leading to local tropospheric NO2 density decreasing by 16.97%. As the crisis appeased, thermal generating capacity increased by 29.63% from November 2009 to February 2010, and tropospheric NO2 densities correspondingly increased by 30.07%. (3) Among all industrial sectors in the YRD, the thermal power sector has the greatest coal consumption of about 65.96%. A decline in thermal power of about 10% can induce a decrease of about 30% in NOx emissions and NO2 densities, meaning that a relative small fluctuation in industrial production can lead to a large decrease in tropospheric NO2 densities over industrially developed areas like the YRD region. Since electricity is mainly obtained from local coal-burning thermal plants without NOx-processing equipment, installing NOx-removal devices for all thermal power plants is an important and feasible way of controlling local NOx pollution at present.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6053-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Statistical estimation of high-resolution surface air temperature from
           MODIS over the Yangtze River Delta, China
    • Authors: Yi Shi; Zhihong Jiang; Liangpeng Dong; Suhung Shen
      Pages: 448 - 454
      Abstract: High-resolution surface air temperature data are critical to regional climate modeling in terms of energy balance, urban climate change, and so on. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) to estimate air temperature at a high resolution over the Yangtze River Delta region, China. It is found that daytime LST is highly correlated with maximum air temperature, and the linear regression coefficients vary with the type of land surface. The air temperature at a resolution of 1 km is estimated from the MODIS LST with linear regression models. The estimated air temperature shows a clear spatial structure of urban heat islands. Spatial patterns of LST and air temperature differences are detected, indicating maximum differences over urban and forest regions during summer. Validations are performed with independent data samples, demonstrating that the mean absolute error of the estimated air temperature is approximately 2.5°C, and the uncertainty is about 3.1°C, if using all valid LST data. The error is reduced by 0.4°C (15%) if using best-quality LST with errors of less than 1 K. The estimated high-resolution air temperature data have great potential to be used in validating high-resolution climate models and other regional applications.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6073-y
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Amplification of the solar signal in the summer monsoon rainband in China
           by synergistic actions of different dynamical responses
    • Authors: Liang Zhao; Jingsong Wang; Haiwen Liu; Ziniu Xiao
      Pages: 61 - 72
      Abstract: A rainband meridional shift index (RMSI) is defined and used to statistically prove that the East Asian summer monsoon rainband is usually significantly more northward in the early summer of solar maximum years than that of solar minimum years. By applying continuous wavelet transform, cross wavelet transform, and wavelet coherence, it is found that throughout most of the 20th century, the significant decadal oscillations of sunspot number (SSN) and the RMSI are phase-locked and since the 1960s, the SSN has led the RMSI slightly by approximately 1.4 yr. Wind and Eliassen–Palm (EP) flux analysis shows that the decadal meridional oscillation of the June rainband likely results from both a stronger or earlier onset of the tropical monsoon and poleward shift of the subtropical westerly jet in high-solar months of May and June. The dynamical responses of the lower tropical monsoon and the upper subtropical westerly jet to the 11-yr solar cycle transmit bottom-up and top-down solar signals, respectively, and the synergistic actions between the monsoon and the jet likely amplify the solar signal at the northern boundary of the monsoon to some extent.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6046-6
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 1 (2017)
  • Winter AO/NAO modifies summer ocean heat content and monsoonal circulation
           over the western Indian Ocean
    • Authors: Dao-Yi Gong; Dong Guo; Sang Li; Seong-Joong Kim
      Pages: 94 - 106
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the possible influence of boreal winter Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/ NAO) on the Indian Ocean upper ocean heat content in summer as well as the summer monsoonal circulation. The strong interannual co-variation between winter 1000-hPa geopotential height in the Northern Hemisphere and summer ocean heat content in the uppermost 120 m over the tropical Indian Ocean was investigated by a singular decomposition analysis for the period 1979–2014. The second paired-modes explain 23.8% of the squared covariance, and reveal an AO/NAO pattern over the North Atlantic and a warming upper ocean in the western tropical Indian Ocean. The positive upper ocean heat content enhances evaporation and convection, and results in an anomalous meridional circulation with ascending motion over 5°S–5°N and descending over 15°–25°N. Correspondingly, in the lower troposphere, significantly anomalous northerly winds appear over the western Indian Ocean north of the equator, implying a weaker summer monsoon circulation. The off-equator oceanic Rossby wave plays a key role in linking the AO/NAO and the summer heat content anomalies. In boreal winter, a positive AO/NAO triggers a down-welling Rossby wave in the central tropical Indian Ocean through the atmospheric teleconnection. As the Rossby wave arrives in the western Indian Ocean in summer, it results in anomalous upper ocean heating near the equator mainly through the meridional advection. The AO/NAO-forced Rossby wave and the resultant upper ocean warming are well reproduced by an ocean circulation model. The winter AO/NAO could be a potential season-lead driver of the summer atmospheric circulation over the northwestern Indian Ocean.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6175-6
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 1 (2017)
  • How the “best” CMIP5 models project relations of Asian–Pacific
           Oscillation to circulation backgrounds favorable for tropical cyclone
           genesis over the western North Pacific
    • Authors: Botao Zhou; Ying Xu
      Pages: 107 - 116
      Abstract: Based on the simulations of 32 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), the present study assesses their capacity to simulate the relationship of the summer Asian–Pacific Oscillation (APO) with the vertical zonal wind shear, low-level atmospheric vorticity, mid-level humidity, atmospheric divergence in the lower and upper troposphere, and western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) that are closely associated with the genesis of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific. The results indicate that five models can simultaneously reproduce the observed pattern with the positive APO phase accompanied by weak vertical zonal wind shear, strengthened vorticity in the lower troposphere, increased mid-level humidity, intensified low-level convergence and high-level divergence, and a northward-located WPSH over the western North Pacific. These five models are further used to project their potential relationship under the RCP8.5 scenario during 2050–2099. Compared to 1950–1999, the relationship between the APO and the vertical zonal wind shear is projected to weaken by both the multi-model ensemble and the individual models. Its linkage to the low-level vorticity, mid-level humidity, atmospheric divergence in the lower and upper troposphere, and the northward–southward movement of the WPSH would also reduce slightly but still be significant. However, the individual models show relatively large differences in projecting the linkage between the APO and the mid-level humidity and low-level divergence.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6088-4
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 1 (2017)
  • Interdecadal change in the Eurasia–Pacific anti-phase relation of
           atmospheric mass and its possible link with PDO
    • Authors: Qian Zhang; Zhaoyong Guan
      Pages: 126 - 141
      Abstract: Based on the known climatic shift that occurred in 1976, we divide the present study period into two epochs: epoch-I, for 1958–1976; and epoch-II, for 1977–2002. Using ERA-40 and the 20th century reanalysis data, we investigate the interdecadal change in the Eurasia–Pacific anti-phase relation (EPAR) pattern of atmospheric mass (AM) during boreal winter before and after 1976. It is found that anomalous AM over lands is highly and negatively correlated with anomalous AM over oceans in the Northern Hemisphere during the winter season. This correlation does not change much from epoch-I to epoch-II. However, the correlation pattern of surface air pressure anomalies with variations of anomalous AM over lands changes remarkably from epoch-I to epoch-II; the EPAR pattern emerges evidently in the later period, whereas it is not significant in epoch-I. The occurrence of the EPAR pattern in epoch-II may be attributable to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The PDO may modulate the EPAR pattern in two ways. Firstly, the interdecadal component of the PDO as a background may modulate the intensities of the Aleutian low, East Asian trough, and westerly flow, acting as a waveguide during the warm phase (epoch-II) of the PDO. Secondly, the interannual variations of sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific, in association with the PDO, may affect the interannual variations of AM, which facilitates the existence of the EPAR pattern in epoch-II only. With the teleconnection pattern having changed before and after 1976, winter climate anomalies, including rainfall and temperature, are found to be different in many regions in the Northern Hemisphere between epoch-I and epoch-II. All the results of the present work are meaningful for a better understanding of climate anomalies during boreal winter.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6079-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 1 (2017)
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