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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Meteorologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.524]   [H-I: 14]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0894-0525
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • An overview of mineral dust modeling over East Asia
    • Authors: Siyu Chen; Jianping Huang; Yun Qian; Chun Zhao; Litai Kang; Ben Yang; Yong Wang; Yuzhi Liu; Tiangang Yuan; Tianhe Wang; Xiaojun Ma; Guolong Zhang
      Pages: 633 - 653
      Abstract: Abstract East Asian dust (EAD) exerts considerable impacts on the energy balance and climate/climate change of the earth system through its influence on solar and terrestrial radiation, cloud properties, and precipitation efficiency. Providing an accurate description of the life cycle and climate effects of EAD is therefore critical to better understanding of climate change and socioeconomic development in East Asia and even worldwide. Dust modeling has undergone substantial development since the late 1990s, associated with improved understanding of the role of EAD in the earth system. Here, we review the achievements and progress made in recent decades in terms of dust modeling research, including dust emissions, long-range transport, radiative forcing (RF), and climate effects of dust particles over East Asia. Numerous efforts in dust/EAD modeling have been directed towards furnishing more sophisticated physical and chemical processes into the models on higher spatial resolutions. Meanwhile, more systematic observations and more advanced retrieval methods for instruments that address EAD related science issues have made it possible to evaluate model results and quantify the role of EAD in the earth system, and to further reduce the uncertainties in EAD simulations. Though much progress has been made, large discrepancies and knowledge gaps still exist among EAD simulations. The deficiencies and limitations that pertain to the performance of the EAD simulations referred to in the present study are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6142-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Observational characteristics of cloud radiative effects over three arid
           regions in the Northern Hemisphere
    • Authors: Jiandong Li; Tianhe Wang; Ammara Habib
      Pages: 654 - 664
      Abstract: Abstract Cloud–radiation processes play an important role in regional energy budgets and surface temperature changes over arid regions. Cloud radiative effects (CREs) are used to quantitatively measure the aforementioned climatic role. This study investigates the characteristics of CREs and their temporal variations over three arid regions in central Asia (CA), East Asia (EA), and North America (NA), based on recent satellite datasets. Our results show that the annual mean shortwave (SW) and net CREs (SWCRE and NCRE) over the three arid regions are weaker than those in the same latitudinal zone of the Northern Hemisphere. In most cold months (November–March), the longwave (LW) CRE is stronger than the SWCRE over the three arid regions, leading to a positive NCRE and radiative warming in the regional atmosphere–land surface system. The cold-season mean NCRE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) averaged over EA is 4.1 W m–2, with a positive NCRE from November to March, and the intensity and duration of the positive NCRE is larger than that over CA and NA. The CREs over the arid regions of EA exhibit remarkable annual cycles due to the influence of the monsoon in the south. The TOA LWCRE over arid regions is closely related to the high-cloud fraction, and the SWCRE relates well to the total cloud fraction. In addition, the relationship between the SWCRE and the low-cloud fraction is good over NA because of the considerable occurrence of low cloud. Further results show that the interannual variation of TOA CREs is small over the arid regions of CA and EA, but their surface LWCREs show certain decreasing trends that correspond well to their decreasing total cloud fraction. It is suggested that combined studies of more observational cloud properties and meteorological elements are needed for indepth understanding of cloud–radiation processes over arid regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6166-7
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Interannual variability of summertime outgoing longwave radiation over the
           Maritime Continent in relation to East Asian summer monsoon anomalies
    • Authors: Qi Xu; Zhaoyong Guan
      Pages: 665 - 677
      Abstract: Abstract The Maritime Continent (MC) is under influences of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Anomalous convective activities over the MC have significant impacts on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and climate in China. In the present study, the variation in convective activity over the MC in boreal summer and its relationship to EASM anomalies are investigated based on regression analysis of NCEP–NCAR reanalysis and CMAP [Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation] data, with a focus on the impacts of ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The most significant interannual variability of convective activity is found over 10°S–10°N, 95°–145°E, which can be roughly defined as the key area of the MC (hereafter, KMC). Outgoing longwave radiation anomaly (OLRA) exhibits 3- to 7-yr periodicities over the KMC, and around 70% of the OLRA variance can be explained by the ENSO signal. However, distinct convection and precipitation anomalies still exist over this region after the ENSO and IOD signals are removed. Abnormally low precipitation always corresponds to positive OLRA over the KMC when negative diabatic heating anomalies and anomalous cooling of the atmospheric column lead to abnormal descending motion over this region. Correspondingly, abnormal divergence occurs in the lower troposphere while convergence occurs in the upper troposphere, triggering an East Asia–Pacific/Pacific–Japan (EAP/PJ)-like anomalous wave train that propagates northeastward and leads to a significant positive precipitation anomaly from the Yangtze River valley in China to the islands of Japan. This EAP/PJ-like wave pattern becomes even clearer after the removal of the ENSO signal and the combined effects of ENSO and IOD, suggesting that convective anomalies over the KMC have an important impact on EASM anomalies. The above results provide important clues for the prediction of EASM anomalies and associated summer precipitation anomalies in China.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6178-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Statistical modeling of CMIP5 projected changes in extreme wet spells over
           China in the late 21st century
    • Authors: Lianhua Zhu; Yun Li; Zhihong Jiang
      Pages: 678 - 693
      Abstract: Abstract The observed intensity, frequency, and duration (IFD) of summer wet spells, defined here as extreme events with one or more consecutive days in which daily precipitation exceeds a given threshold (the 95th percentile), and their future changes in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in the late 21st century over China, are investigated by using the wet spell model (WSM) and by extending the point process approach to extreme value analysis. Wet spell intensity is modeled by a conditional generalized Pareto distribution, frequency by a Poisson distribution, and duration by a geometric distribution, respectively. The WSM is able to realistically model summer extreme rainfall spells during 1961–2005, as verified with observations at 553 stations throughout China. To minimize the impact of systematic biases over China in the global climate models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), five best GCMs are selected based on their performance to reproduce observed wet spell IFD and average precipitation during the historical period. Furthermore, a quantile–quantile scaling correction procedure is proposed and applied to produce ensemble projections of wet spell IFD and corresponding probability distributions. The results show that in the late 21st century, most of China will experience more extreme rainfall and less low-intensity rainfall. The intensity and frequency of wet spells are projected to increase considerably, while the duration of wet spells will increase but to a much less extent. The IFD changes in RCP8.5 are in general much larger than those in RCP4.5.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6792-0
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Climate characteristics of abnormal double-blocking activities over the
           Ural Mountains and Sea of Okhotsk
    • Authors: Gang Liu; Tao Wang; Xueyan Yang; Yishu Wang; Xu Yang; Yan Cui
      Pages: 694 - 707
      Abstract: Abstract By using NCEP–NCAR daily reanalysis data for June–August of 1948–2009, the synoptic situation of the doubleblocking high pressure process over the Ural Mountains–Sea of Okhotsk region was identified objectively, and the climatic characteristics and dynamic mechanism during the double blockings were also investigated. The results suggest that the Urals–Okhotsk double-blocking high experienced obviously an abrupt change around 1977. After the change, the occurrence frequency and number of sustained days of the blocking high reduced significantly. Moreover, the zonal spacing between the Urals blocking and the Okhotsk blocking also decreased, while their meridional locations did not change much. The double blockings became strengthened in general, and the blocking high over the Sea of Okhotsk extended northward evidently. However, during the process without double-blocking activities, the intensity and location of the double-blocking high showed no noticeable variation before and after the abrupt change. In addition, dynamic diagnosis shows that after the abrupt change, the energy of the double-blocking high mainly propagated vertically from low to high levels, and transferred horizontally from low to high latitudes; whereas, previously, before the abrupt change, this occurred from high to low latitudes. Meanwhile, the development of a low pressure system was fueled between the double blockings, which meant that the double-blocking activity was beneficial to the maintenance and development of the Northeast China cold vortex. In short, diagnosis of the wave energy has provided us with a better explanation of the life cycle characteristics of this double-blocking phenomenon before and after 1977.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6048-z
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Developing the science product algorithm testbed for Chinese
           
    • Authors: Min Min; Chunqiang Wu; Chuan Li; Hui Liu; Na Xu; Xiao Wu; Lin Chen; Fu Wang; Fenglin Sun; Danyu Qin; Xi Wang; Bo Li; Zhaojun Zheng; Guangzhen Cao; Lixin Dong
      Pages: 708 - 719
      Abstract: Abstract Fengyun-4A (FY-4A), the first of the Chinese next-generation geostationary meteorological satellites, launched in 2016, offers several advances over the FY-2: more spectral bands, faster imaging, and infrared hyperspectral measurements. To support the major objective of developing the prototypes of FY-4 science algorithms, two science product algorithm testbeds for imagers and sounders have been developed by the scientists in the FY-4 Algorithm Working Group (AWG). Both testbeds, written in FORTRAN and C programming languages for Linux or UNIX systems, have been tested successfully by using Intel/g compilers. Some important FY-4 science products, including cloud mask, cloud properties, and temperature profiles, have been retrieved successfully through using a proxy imager, Himawari-8/Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), and sounder data, obtained from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder, thus demonstrating their robustness. In addition, in early 2016, the FY-4 AWG was developed based on the imager testbed—a near real-time processing system for Himawari-8/AHI data for use by Chinese weather forecasters. Consequently, robust and flexible science product algorithm testbeds have provided essential and productive tools for popularizing FY-4 data and developing substantial improvements in FY-4 products.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6161-z
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Assimilation of HY-2A scatterometer ambiguous winds based on feature
           thinning
    • Authors: Boheng Duan; Weimin Zhang; Xiaoqun Cao; Yi Yu; Haijin Dai
      Pages: 720 - 730
      Abstract: Abstract This paper focuses on the data assimilation methods for sea surface winds, based on the level-2B HY-2A satellite microwave scatterometer wind products. We propose a new feature thinning method, which is herein used to screen scatterometer winds while maintaining the key structure of the wind field in the process of data thinning for highresolution satellite observations. We also accomplish feeding the ambiguous wind solutions directly into the data assimilation system, thus making better use of the retrieved information while simplifying the assimilation process of the scatterometer products. A numerical simulation experiment involving Typhoon Danas shows that our method gives better results than the traditional approach. This method may be a valuable alternative for operational satellite data assimilation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6165-8
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Assimilation of total lightning data using the three-dimensional
           variational method at convection-allowing resolution
    • Authors: Rong Zhang; Yijun Zhang; Liangtao Xu; Dong Zheng; Wen Yao
      Pages: 731 - 746
      Abstract: Abstract A large number of observational analyses have shown that lightning data can be used to indicate areas of deep convection. It is important to assimilate observed lightning data into numerical models, so that more small-scale information can be incorporated to improve the quality of the initial condition and the subsequent forecasts. In this study, the empirical relationship between flash rate, water vapor mixing ratio, and graupel mixing ratio was used to adjust the model relative humidity, which was then assimilated by using the three-dimensional variational data assimilation system of the Weather Research and Forecasting model in cycling mode at 10-min intervals. To find the appropriate assimilation time-window length that yielded significant improvement in both the initial conditions and subsequent forecasts, four experiments with different assimilation time-window lengths were conducted for a squall line case that occurred on 10 July 2007 in North China. It was found that 60 min was the appropriate assimilation time-window length for this case, and longer assimilation window length was unnecessary since no further improvement was present. Forecasts of 1-h accumulated precipitation during the assimilation period and the subsequent 3-h accumulated precipitation were significantly improved compared with the control experiment without lightning data assimilation. The simulated reflectivity was optimal after 30 min of the forecast, it remained optimal during the following 42 min, and the positive effect from lightning data assimilation began to diminish after 72 min of the forecast. Overall, the improvement from lightning data assimilation can be maintained for about 3 h.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6133-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Improving the extreme rainfall forecast of Typhoon Morakot (2009) by
           assimilating radar data from Taiwan Island and mainland China
    • Authors: Xuwei Bao; Dan Wu; Xiaotu Lei; Leiming Ma; Dongliang Wang; Kun Zhao; Ben Jong-Dao Jou
      Pages: 747 - 766
      Abstract: Abstract This study examined the impact of an improved initial field through assimilating ground-based radar data from mainland China and Taiwan Island to simulate the long-lasting and extreme rainfall caused by Morakot (2009). The vortex location and the subsequent track analyzed through the radial velocity data assimilation (VDA) are generally consistent with the best track. The initial humidity within the radar detecting region and Morakot’s northward translation speed can be significantly improved by the radar reflectivity data assimilation (ZDA). As a result, the heavy rainfall on both sides of Taiwan Strait can be reproduced with the joint application of VDA and ZDA. Based on sensitivity experiments, it was found that, without ZDA, the simulated storm underwent an unrealistic inward contraction after 12-h integration, due to underestimation of humidity in the global reanalysis, leading to underestimation of rainfall amount and coverage. Without the vortex relocation via VDA, the moister (drier) initial field with (without) ZDA will produce a more southward (northward) track, so that the rainfall location on both sides of Taiwan Strait will be affected. It was further found that the improvement in the humidity field of Morakot is mainly due to assimilation of high-value reflectivity (strong convection) observed by the radars in Taiwan Island, especially at Kenting station. By analysis of parcel trajectories and calculation of water vapor flux divergence, it was also found that the improved typhoon circulation through assimilating radar data can draw more water vapor from the environment during the subsequent simulation, eventually contributing to the extreme rainfall on both sides of Taiwan Strait.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6007-8
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Influences of the Three Gorges Dam in China on precipitation over
           surrounding regions
    • Authors: Yan Li; Weican Zhou; Xianyan Chen; Dexian Fang; Qianqian Zhang
      Pages: 767 - 773
      Abstract: Abstract Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in China on the regional pattern and annual amount of precipitation around the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) are examined by comparing observations before and after the operation of TGD (1984–2003 and 2004–13). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the annual precipitation anomalies clearly indicates that the land-use change associated with the construction of TGD has not significantly changed the precipitation pattern. To investigate the impacts of TGD on the rainfall amount, we compare the relative variations of atmospheric variables related to precipitation formation in three spatial bands: over TGR, near TGR, and far from TGR. It is found that the differences in annual rainfall over TGD between the two periods before and after the operation of TGD are small, suggesting a weak impact of TGD on the rainfall amount. The TGD water level increased from 66 m before June 2003 to 175 m after 2010, and this may have slightly reduced precipitation on the local scale.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6177-4
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Reconstructing missing hourly real-time precipitation data using a novel
           intermittent sliding window period technique for automatic weather station
           data
    • Authors: Nagaraja Hema; Krishna Kant
      Pages: 774 - 790
      Abstract: Abstract Precipitation is the most discontinuous atmospheric parameter because of its temporal and spatial variability. Precipitation observations at automatic weather stations (AWSs) show different patterns over different time periods. This paper aims to reconstruct missing data by finding the time periods when precipitation patterns are similar, with a method called the intermittent sliding window period (ISWP) technique—a novel approach to reconstructing the majority of non-continuous missing real-time precipitation data. The ISWP technique is applied to a 1-yr precipitation dataset (January 2015 to January 2016), with a temporal resolution of 1 h, collected at 11 AWSs run by the Indian Meteorological Department in the capital region of Delhi. The acquired dataset has missing precipitation data amounting to 13.66%, of which 90.6% are reconstructed successfully. Furthermore, some traditional estimation algorithms are applied to the reconstructed dataset to estimate the remaining missing values on an hourly basis. The results show that the interpolation of the reconstructed dataset using the ISWP technique exhibits high quality compared with interpolation of the raw dataset. By adopting the ISWP technique, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in the estimation of missing rainfall data—based on the arithmetic mean, multiple linear regression, linear regression, and moving average methods—are reduced by 4.2%, 55.47%, 19.44%, and 9.64%, respectively. However, adopting the ISWP technique with the inverse distance weighted method increases the RMSE by 0.07%, due to the fact that the reconstructed data add a more diverse relation to its neighboring AWSs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6084-8
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for gridded bias removal in
           surface temperature forecasts
    • Authors: Seyedeh Atefeh Mohammadi; Majid Azadi; Morteza Rahmani
      Pages: 791 - 799
      Abstract: Abstract All numerical weather prediction (NWP) models inherently have substantial biases, especially in the forecast of near-surface weather variables. Statistical methods can be used to remove the systematic error based on historical bias data at observation stations. However, many end users of weather forecasts need bias corrected forecasts at locations that scarcely have any historical bias data. To circumvent this limitation, the bias of surface temperature forecasts on a regular grid covering Iran is removed, by using the information available at observation stations in the vicinity of any given grid point. To this end, the running mean error method is first used to correct the forecasts at observation stations, then four interpolation methods including inverse distance squared weighting with constant lapse rate (IDSW-CLR), Kriging with constant lapse rate (Kriging-CLR), gradient inverse distance squared with linear lapse rate (GIDS-LR), and gradient inverse distance squared with lapse rate determined by classification and regression tree (GIDS-CART), are employed to interpolate the bias corrected forecasts at neighboring observation stations to any given location. The results show that all four interpolation methods used do reduce the model error significantly, but Kriging-CLR has better performance than the other methods. For Kriging-CLR, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were decreased by 26% and 29%, respectively, as compared to the raw forecasts. It is found also, that after applying any of the proposed methods, unlike the raw forecasts, the bias corrected forecasts do not show spatial or temporal dependency.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6135-1
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Spatial and temporal changes in vapor pressure deficit and their impacts
           on crop yields in China during 1980–2008
    • Authors: Shuai Zhang; Fulu Tao; Zhao Zhang
      Pages: 800 - 808
      Abstract: Abstract Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is a widely used measure of atmospheric water demand. It is closely related to crop evapotranspiration and consequently has major impacts on crop growth and yields. Most previous studies have focused on the impacts of temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation on crop yields, but the impact of VPD is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatial and temporal changes in VPD and their impacts on yields of major crops in China from 1980 to 2008. The results showed that VPD during the growing period of rice, maize, and soybean increased by more than 0.10 kPa (10 yr)–1 in northeastern and southeastern China, although it increased the least during the wheat growing period. Increases in VPD had different impacts on yields for different crops and in different regions. Crop yields generally decreased due to increased VPD, except for wheat in southeastern China. Maize yield was sensitive to VPD in more counties than other crops. Soybean was the most sensitive and rice was the least sensitive to VPD among the major crops. In the past three decades, due to the rising trend in VPD, wheat, maize, and soybean yields declined by more than 10.0% in parts of northeastern China and the North China Plain, while rice yields were little affected. For China as a whole, the trend in VPD during 1980–2008 increased rice yields by 1.32%, but reduced wheat, maize, and soybean yields by 6.02%, 3.19%, and 7.07%, respectively. Maize and soybean in the arid and semi-arid regions in northern China were more sensitive to the increase in VPD. These findings highlight that climate change can affect crop growth and yield through increasing VPD, and water-saving technologies and agronomic management need to be strongly encouraged to adapt to ongoing climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6137-z
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Observed trends in various aspects of compound heat waves across China
           from 1961 to 2015
    • Authors: Yi Li; Yihui Ding; Weijing Li
      Pages: 455 - 467
      Abstract: Abstract Based on combined thresholds of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, a compound heat wave is defined, and then changes in multiple aspects of such heat waves in China are estimated between 1961 and 2015. Our results intriguingly indicate that severe compound heat waves in northern China are characterized by excessively high intensity within short duration, while long duration determines great disaster-causing potential of severe events in the south. In the past few decades, large areas of China have experienced longer, stronger, and more frequent compound heat waves. Northern China has witnessed dramatic intensity increases, with a maximum amplification over 5°C decade–1; while remarkable lengthening in duration has been mostly recorded in the south, with a maximum trend over 1 day decade–1. The spatial extent affected by compound heat waves has significantly expanded since the 1960s, with the largest expanding rate over 6% decade–1 detected in North China and Northeast China. These systematic assessments serve to deepen our understanding of observed changes in compound heat waves across China, and may further shed some light on future adaptations and mitigations against an increasingly warming climate.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6150-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Physical processes responsible for the interannual variability of sea ice
           concentration in Arctic in boreal autumn since 1979
    • Authors: Lei Zhang; Tim Li
      Pages: 468 - 475
      Abstract: Abstract Arctic sea ice concentration (ASIC) in boreal autumn exhibits prominent interannual variability since 1979. The physical mechanism responsible for the year-to-year variation of ASIC is investigated through observational data analyses and idealized numerical modeling. It is found that the ASIC interannual variability is closely associated with the anomalous meridional circulations over the Northern Hemisphere, which is further linked with the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. A tropics-wide SST cooling anomaly leads to an enhanced meridional SST gradient to the north of the equator in boreal summer, generating strengthened and northward shifting Hadley circulation over the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, the meridional circulations are enhanced and pushed poleward, leading to an enhanced descending motion at the North Pole, surrounded by an ascending motion anomaly; the surface outflow turns into easterly anomalies, opposing the mean-state winds. As a result, positive cloudiness and weakened surface wind speed emerge, which reduce ASIC through changes in the surface latent heat flux and the downward longwave radiation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6105-7
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Variations of winter precipitation over southeastern China in association
           with the North Atlantic Oscillation
    • Authors: Maoyuan Lou; Chao Li; Shifeng Hao; Juan Liu
      Pages: 476 - 489
      Abstract: Abstract The synoptic-scale winter precipitation variations over southeastern China (22°–32°N, 105°–125°E) and their association with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during 1951–2007 are investigated in this paper. The variability of wintertime precipitation is characterized by meridional displacement of its maximum center. Two precipitation regimes, with maximum centers located over the Yangtze and Pearl River basins, are identified via cluster analysis. Time-lagged analyses suggest that the two precipitation regimes are connected with the decaying phases of positive NAO (NAO+) events of different amplitudes. A strong (medium) NAO+ event is defined as one when the maximum amplitude of the NAO index exceeds 1.0 (in the range of 0.7–1.0) for at least 4 consecutive days and drops to less than 0.3 within 7 days following the peak index. After the peak of a strong NAO+, southerly winds expand northward to the Yangtze River (about 30°N), a northeast–southwest-tilted trough migrates to east of Lake Baikal, and cold air intrudes into central eastern China; thus, precipitation is strengthened over the Yangtze River basin where warm and cold air masses converge. In comparison, during the decaying phase of medium NAO+ events, the southerly winds are relatively weak, and precipitation tends to be enhanced at lower latitudes (around 25°N). Further analysis indicates that downstream Rossby-wave propagation may account for the latitudinal expansion of the southerly wind anomalies over the eastern coastal area of China during the decaying phase of NAO+ events of different strengths.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6103-9
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Using the inverse of expected error variance to determine weights of
           individual ensemble members: Application to temperature prediction
    • Authors: Xiaogong Sun; Jinfang Yin; Yan Zhao
      Pages: 502 - 513
      Abstract: Abstract The inverse of expected error variance is utilized to determine weights of individual ensemble members based on the THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) forecast datasets. The weights of all ensemble members are thus calculated for summer 2012, with the NCEP final operational global analysis (FNL) data as the truth. Based on the weights of all ensemble members, the variable weighted ensemble mean (VWEM) of temperature of summer 2013 is derived and compared with that from the simple equally weighted ensemble mean. The results show that VWEM has lower root-mean-square error (RMSE) as well as absolute error, and has improved the temperature prediction accuracy. The improvements are quite notable over the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas; specifically, a relative improvement rate of RMSE of more than 24% in 2-m temperature is demonstrated. Moreover, the improvement rates vary slightly with the prediction lead-time (24–96 h). It is suggested that the VWEM approach be employed in operational ensemble prediction to provide guidance for weather forecasting and climate prediction.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6047-0
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Optical properties of cirrus transition zones over China detected by
           CALIOP
    • Authors: Hongke Cai; Yunfei Fu; Quanliang Chen; Xiao Feng; Xin Tie; Ranting Tao; Kepiao Xu
      Pages: 576 - 585
      Abstract: Abstract A transition zone near cirrus lateral boundaries can be detected by CALIOP (cloud–aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization). In the present study, for such transition zones over China, a number of optical properties, such as the backscatter coefficient and depolarization ratio, showed transitional characteristics between cirrus and clear sky. The stepped horizontal profile showed sharp changes in particle number and morphology between cirrus clouds and clear sky. The color ratio, however, was unable to show cirrus transition features because of the low signal-to-noise ratio. Typical ice particles presented a color ratio of 0.55–1.25 and a depolarization ratio of greater than 0.12, which were significantly higher than those of clear sky. Therefore, optical properties in transition took the form of stepwise horizontal profiles. The proportion of typical-featured particles also demonstrated a stepped horizontal profile similar to the optical characteristics, but the relationship between the proportion and the optical characteristics was not uniform in the cirrus clouds, transition zone, and clear sky. Therefore, the optical changes in the transition zone were caused by not only the change in particle concentration, but also the change in the particles themselves. The probability density distribution of the transition-zone widths showed a positive skewness distribution, and transition zones with widths of 3–5 km occurred most frequently. Overall, transition-zone width decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing vertical and horizontal wind speeds. This trend demonstrated independence with the direction of the vertical and horizontal winds. These observations implied that the transitional features were caused by material exchange, such as entrainment and turbulent transport, near the cirrus lateral boundaries, and by the phase transformation of particles, such as sublimation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6044-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Regional meteorological patterns for heavy pollution events in Beijing
    • Authors: Ting You; Renguang Wu; Gang Huang; Guangzhou Fan
      Pages: 597 - 611
      Abstract: Abstract The present study investigates meteorological conditions for the day-to-day changes of particulate matter (PM) concentration in Beijing city during the period 2008–2015. The local relationship of PM concentration to surface air temperature, pressure, wind speed, and relative humidity displays seasonal changes and year-to-year variations. The average correlation coefficient with PM10 in spring, summer, fall, and winter is 0.45, 0.40, 0.38, and 0.30 for air temperature; –0.45, –0.05, –0.40, and –0.45 for pressure; 0.13, 0.04, 0.53, and 0.50 for relative humidity; and –0.18, –0.11, –0.45, and –0.33 for wind speed. A higher correlation with wind speed is obtained when wind speed leads by half a day. The heavily polluted and clean days, which are defined as the top and bottom 10% of the PM values, show obvious differences in the regional distribution of air temperature, pressure, and wind. Polluted days correspond to higher air temperature in all the four seasons, lower sea level pressure and anomalous southerly winds to the south and east of Beijing in spring, fall, and winter, and a northwest–southeast contrast in the pressure anomaly and anomalous southerly winds in summer. Higher relative humidity is observed on polluted days in fall and winter. The polluted days are preceded by an anomalous cyclone moving from the northwest, accompanied by lower pressure and higher air temperature, in all four seasons. This feature indicates the impacts of moving weather systems on local meteorological conditions for day-to-day air quality changes in Beijing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6143-1
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Testing and improving the performance of the Common Land Model: A case
           study for the Gobi landscape
    • Authors: Chao Wang; Zhigang Wei; Zhenchao Li; Tiangui Xiao; Xiaohang Wen
      Pages: 625 - 632
      Abstract: Abstract Land surface processes take place on the interface between the earth and atmosphere, exerting significant influences on the weather and climate. Correct modeling of these processes is important to numerical weather forecast and climate prediction. In order to obtain a more thorough understanding of the land surface processes over the Gobi landscape, we evaluated the performance of the Common Land Model (CoLM) at Dunhuang station in Gansu Province of China to determine whether the model formulation, driven by observational data, is capable of simulating surface fluxes over the underlying desert surface. In comparison with the enhanced observation data collected at Dunhuang station over the period 22–28 August 2008, the results showed that the surface albedo simulated by CoLM was larger than that in the observation, and the simulated surface temperature was lower than the observed. After the measured values were used to correct the surface albedo, the solar radiation absorbed by the ground surface was more consistent with the measurements. A new empirical relationship of the surface thermal exchange coefficient r ah was used to modify the thermal aerodynamic impedance. The simulated soil surface temperature became significantly closer to the observed value, and the simulated surface sensible heat as well as net radiative fluxes were also improved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6080-z
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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