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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Meteorologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.524]   [H-I: 14]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0894-0525
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Observed trends in various aspects of compound heat waves across China
           from 1961 to 2015
    • Authors: Yi Li; Yihui Ding; Weijing Li
      Pages: 455 - 467
      Abstract: Abstract Based on combined thresholds of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, a compound heat wave is defined, and then changes in multiple aspects of such heat waves in China are estimated between 1961 and 2015. Our results intriguingly indicate that severe compound heat waves in northern China are characterized by excessively high intensity within short duration, while long duration determines great disaster-causing potential of severe events in the south. In the past few decades, large areas of China have experienced longer, stronger, and more frequent compound heat waves. Northern China has witnessed dramatic intensity increases, with a maximum amplification over 5°C decade–1; while remarkable lengthening in duration has been mostly recorded in the south, with a maximum trend over 1 day decade–1. The spatial extent affected by compound heat waves has significantly expanded since the 1960s, with the largest expanding rate over 6% decade–1 detected in North China and Northeast China. These systematic assessments serve to deepen our understanding of observed changes in compound heat waves across China, and may further shed some light on future adaptations and mitigations against an increasingly warming climate.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6150-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Physical processes responsible for the interannual variability of sea ice
           concentration in Arctic in boreal autumn since 1979
    • Authors: Lei Zhang; Tim Li
      Pages: 468 - 475
      Abstract: Abstract Arctic sea ice concentration (ASIC) in boreal autumn exhibits prominent interannual variability since 1979. The physical mechanism responsible for the year-to-year variation of ASIC is investigated through observational data analyses and idealized numerical modeling. It is found that the ASIC interannual variability is closely associated with the anomalous meridional circulations over the Northern Hemisphere, which is further linked with the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. A tropics-wide SST cooling anomaly leads to an enhanced meridional SST gradient to the north of the equator in boreal summer, generating strengthened and northward shifting Hadley circulation over the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, the meridional circulations are enhanced and pushed poleward, leading to an enhanced descending motion at the North Pole, surrounded by an ascending motion anomaly; the surface outflow turns into easterly anomalies, opposing the mean-state winds. As a result, positive cloudiness and weakened surface wind speed emerge, which reduce ASIC through changes in the surface latent heat flux and the downward longwave radiation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6105-7
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Variations of winter precipitation over southeastern China in association
           with the North Atlantic Oscillation
    • Authors: Maoyuan Lou; Chao Li; Shifeng Hao; Juan Liu
      Pages: 476 - 489
      Abstract: Abstract The synoptic-scale winter precipitation variations over southeastern China (22°–32°N, 105°–125°E) and their association with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during 1951–2007 are investigated in this paper. The variability of wintertime precipitation is characterized by meridional displacement of its maximum center. Two precipitation regimes, with maximum centers located over the Yangtze and Pearl River basins, are identified via cluster analysis. Time-lagged analyses suggest that the two precipitation regimes are connected with the decaying phases of positive NAO (NAO+) events of different amplitudes. A strong (medium) NAO+ event is defined as one when the maximum amplitude of the NAO index exceeds 1.0 (in the range of 0.7–1.0) for at least 4 consecutive days and drops to less than 0.3 within 7 days following the peak index. After the peak of a strong NAO+, southerly winds expand northward to the Yangtze River (about 30°N), a northeast–southwest-tilted trough migrates to east of Lake Baikal, and cold air intrudes into central eastern China; thus, precipitation is strengthened over the Yangtze River basin where warm and cold air masses converge. In comparison, during the decaying phase of medium NAO+ events, the southerly winds are relatively weak, and precipitation tends to be enhanced at lower latitudes (around 25°N). Further analysis indicates that downstream Rossby-wave propagation may account for the latitudinal expansion of the southerly wind anomalies over the eastern coastal area of China during the decaying phase of NAO+ events of different strengths.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6103-9
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Sensitivity of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to the
           dynamical framework in an ocean general circulation model
    • Authors: Xiaolan Li; Yongqiang Yu; Hailong Liu; Pengfei Lin
      Pages: 490 - 501
      Abstract: Abstract The horizontal coordinate systems commonly used in most global ocean models are the spherical latitude–longitude grid and displaced poles, such as a tripolar grid. The effect of the horizontal coordinate system on Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is evaluated by using an OGCM (ocean general circulation model). Two experiments are conducted with the model—one using a latitude–longitude grid (referred to as Lat_1) and the other using a tripolar grid (referred to as Tri). The results show that Tri simulates a stronger North Atlantic deep water (NADW) than Lat_1, as more saline water masses enter the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian (GIN) seas in Tri. The stronger NADW can be attributed to two factors. One is the removal of the zonal filter in Tri, which leads to an increasing of the zonal gradient of temperature and salinity, thus strengthening the north geostrophic flow. In turn, it decreases the positive subsurface temperature and salinity biases in the subtropical regions. The other may be associated with topography at the North Pole, because realistic topography is applied in the tripolar grid while the latitude–longitude grid employs an artificial island around the North Pole. In order to evaluate the effect of the filter on AMOC, three enhanced filter experiments are carried out. Compared to Lat_1, an enhanced filter can also augment NADW formation, since more saline water is suppressed in the GIN seas, but accumulated in the Labrador Sea, especially in experiment Lat_2_S, which is the experiment with an enhanced filter on salinity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6109-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Using the inverse of expected error variance to determine weights of
           individual ensemble members: Application to temperature prediction
    • Authors: Xiaogong Sun; Jinfang Yin; Yan Zhao
      Pages: 502 - 513
      Abstract: Abstract The inverse of expected error variance is utilized to determine weights of individual ensemble members based on the THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) forecast datasets. The weights of all ensemble members are thus calculated for summer 2012, with the NCEP final operational global analysis (FNL) data as the truth. Based on the weights of all ensemble members, the variable weighted ensemble mean (VWEM) of temperature of summer 2013 is derived and compared with that from the simple equally weighted ensemble mean. The results show that VWEM has lower root-mean-square error (RMSE) as well as absolute error, and has improved the temperature prediction accuracy. The improvements are quite notable over the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas; specifically, a relative improvement rate of RMSE of more than 24% in 2-m temperature is demonstrated. Moreover, the improvement rates vary slightly with the prediction lead-time (24–96 h). It is suggested that the VWEM approach be employed in operational ensemble prediction to provide guidance for weather forecasting and climate prediction.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6047-0
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Analysis of the structure of different Tibetan Plateau vortex types
    • Authors: Xinyuan Feng; Changhai Liu; Guangzhou Fan; Jie Zhang
      Pages: 514 - 529
      Abstract: Abstract Knowledge of the structure of the Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) is of considerable importance for understanding the generation and development mechanisms of this mesoscale system. However, our understanding of vortex structures and our ability to classify them on a physical basis is limited due to insufficient observations. The highresolution new-generation NCEP-CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) dataset is used in the present paper to investigate the general structural features of various types of mature TPV through classification and composite structure analysis. Results indicate that the dynamic and thermodynamic structures show regional and seasonal dependency, as well as being influenced by attributes of translation, associated precipitation, and the South Asian high (SAH). The common precipitating TPV (type I), frequently occurring in the west–east-oriented zonal region between 33° and 36°N, is a notably low-level baroclinic and asymmetric system. It resides within a large-scale confluent zone and preferentially travels eastward, potentially moving out of the plateau. The heavy rain vortex (type II) corresponds to a deep vortex circulation occurring in midsummer. The low-level baroclinic sub-category (type IIa) is associated with a low-level jet and mainly originates in the area 32°–35°N, 86°–94°E, preferentially moving east of 90°E and even away from the plateau; meanwhile, the nearly upright sub-category (type IIb), which has a cold center at low levels and a warm center at mid–upper levels, is a quasi-stationary and quasi-symmetric system favorably occurring west of 92°E. A western-pattern SAH exists in the upper troposphere for these two sub-categories. The springtime dry vortex in the western plateau (type III) is warm and shallow (approximately 100 hPa deep), and zonal circulation dominates the large-scale environmental flows in the middle and upper troposphere. The precipitating vortex in the southern plateau occurring during July–August (type IV) is not affected by northerly flow at low levels. It is vertically aligned and controlled by a banded SAH.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6123-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Analysis of the mechanism underlying Tibetan Plateau vortex frequency
           difference between strong and weak MJO periods
    • Authors: Guoping Li; Fuhu Zhao
      Pages: 530 - 539
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the NCEP/DOE reanalysis data, OLR data from NOAA, Australian Meteorological Bureau real-time multivariate MJO index, and Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) statistical data from the Chengdu Institute of Plateau Meteorology, are used to discuss the modulation of the TPV by the MJO, through applying the wavelet analysis and composite analysis. The results show that: (1) The MJO plays an important role in modulating the TPV, as the number of TPVs generated in strong MJO periods is three times that in weak periods. (2) During strong (weak) MJO periods, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is in control of a low-frequency, low-pressure cyclone (high-pressure, anticyclone) system, and thus the atmospheric circulation conditions over the plateau are conducive (inconducive) to the generation of TPVs. (3) During strong (weak) MJO periods, southerly (northerly) winds prevail in the east of the TP, while northerly (southerly) winds in the west. Over the northern part of the TP, easterly (westerly) flow is predominant, while westerly (easterly) flow prevails over the south, thus conducive (inconducive) to the formation of cyclonic circulation (i.e., TPVs) at low altitude over the TP. (4) In strong MJO periods, water vapor is relatively less abundant over most of the TP, inconducive to the generation of TPVs; however, moisture transported by the south branch trough and the low-frequency, high-pressure anticyclone system from the Bay of Bengal, are very important for the development of TPVs. As the strength of the MJO changes continuously during its eastward propagation, the intensity of tropical convection and vertical circulation structures of the tropical atmosphere also change accordingly. Alternation between favorable and unfavorable conditions for the generation of TPVs occurs, thus resulting in significant frequency differences of TPVs between strong and weak MJO periods.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6041-6
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Differences in atmospheric heat source between the Tibetan Plateau–South
           Asia region and the southern Indian Ocean and their impacts on the Indian
           summer monsoon outbreak
    • Authors: Yiwei Zhang; Guangzhou Fan; Wei Hua; Yongli Zhang; Bingyun Wang; Xin Lai
      Pages: 540 - 554
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the NCEP–NCAR daily reanalysis data are used to investigate the characteristics of the atmospheric heat source/sink (AHSS) over South Asia (SA) and southern Indian Ocean (SIO). The thermal differences between these two regions and their influence on the outbreak of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) are explored. Composite analysis and correlation analysis are applied. The results indicate that the intraseasonal variability of AHSS is significant in SA but insignificant in the SIO. Large inland areas in the Northern Hemisphere still behave as a heat sink in March, similar to the situation in winter. Significant differences are found in the distribution of AHSS between the ocean and land, with distinct land–ocean thermal contrast in April, and the pattern presents in the transitional period right before the ISM onset. In May, strong heat centers appear over the areas from the Indochina Peninsula to the Bay of Bengal and south of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which is a typical pattern of AHSS distribution during the monsoon season. The timing of SA–SIO thermal difference turning positive is about 15 pentads in advance of the onset of the ISM. Then, after the thermal differences have turned positive, a pre-monsoon meridional circulation cell develops due to the near-surface heat center and the negative thermal contrast center, after which the meridional circulation of the ISM gradually establishes. In years of early (late) conversion of the SA–SIO thermal difference turning from negative to positive, the AHSS at all levels over the TP and SIO converts later (earlier) than normal and the establishment of the ascending and descending branches of the ISM’s meridional circulation is later (earlier) too. Meanwhile, the establishment of the South Asian high over the TP is later (earlier) than normal and the conversion of the Mascarene high from winter to summer mode occurs anomalously late (early). As a result, the onset of the ISM is later (earlier) than normal. However, the difference in vorticity between early and late conversion only shows in the changes of strong vorticity centers’ location in the upper and lower troposphere.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6042-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Relationship between atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau and
           precipitation in the Sichuan–Chongqing region during summe
    • Authors: Xin Lai; Yuanfa Gong
      Pages: 555 - 566
      Abstract: Abstract NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data and a 47-yr daily precipitation dataset from a network of 42 rain gauges are used to analyze the atmospheric heat source (<Q 1>) anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its influence on the summer precipitation anomaly in the Sichuan–Chongqing region. Results show that the vertical advection of <Q 1> over the central TP is a major factor affecting summer precipitation in the Sichuan–Chongqing region. When the vertical advection of <Q 1> over the central TP is strengthened, the South Asian high shifts further than normal to the south and east, the western Pacific subtropical high shifts further than normal to the south and west, and the Indian low weakens. This benefits the transport of warm moist air from the low latitude oceans to the Sichuan–Chongqing region. Correspondingly, in the high latitudes, two ridges and one trough form, which lead to cool air moving southward. These two air masses converge over the Sichuan–Chongqing region, leading to significant precipitation. In contrast, when the vertical advection of <Q 1> over the central TP is weakened, the South Asian high moves to the north and west, the subtropical high moves eastward and northward, and the Indian low strengthens. This circulation pattern is unfavorable for warm air advection from the south to the Sichuan–Chongqing region, and the cool air further north cannot move southward because of the presence of two troughs and one ridge at high latitude. Thus, ascent over the Sichuan–Chongqing region is weakened, resulting in less precipitation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6045-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Error sensitivity analysis in 10–30-day extended range forecasting by
           using a nonlinear cross-prediction error model
    • Authors: Zhiye Xia; Lisheng Xu; Hongbin Chen; Yongqian Wang; Jinbao Liu; Wenlan Feng
      Pages: 567 - 575
      Abstract: Abstract Extended range forecasting of 10–30 days, which lies between medium-term and climate prediction in terms of timescale, plays a significant role in decision-making processes for the prevention and mitigation of disastrous meteorological events. The sensitivity of initial error, model parameter error, and random error in a nonlinear crossprediction error (NCPE) model, and their stability in the prediction validity period in 10–30-day extended range forecasting, are analyzed quantitatively. The associated sensitivity of precipitable water, temperature, and geopotential height during cases of heavy rain and hurricane is also discussed. The results are summarized as follows. First, the initial error and random error interact. When the ratio of random error to initial error is small (10–6–10–2), minor variation in random error cannot significantly change the dynamic features of a chaotic system, and therefore random error has minimal effect on the prediction. When the ratio is in the range of 10–1–2 (i.e., random error dominates), attention should be paid to the random error instead of only the initial error. When the ratio is around 10–2–10–1, both influences must be considered. Their mutual effects may bring considerable uncertainty to extended range forecasting, and de-noising is therefore necessary. Second, in terms of model parameter error, the embedding dimension m should be determined by the factual nonlinear time series. The dynamic features of a chaotic system cannot be depicted because of the incomplete structure of the attractor when m is small. When m is large, prediction indicators can vanish because of the scarcity of phase points in phase space. A method for overcoming the cut-off effect (m > 4) is proposed. Third, for heavy rains, precipitable water is more sensitive to the prediction validity period than temperature or geopotential height; however, for hurricanes, geopotential height is most sensitive, followed by precipitable water.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6098-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Optical properties of cirrus transition zones over China detected by
    • Authors: Hongke Cai; Yunfei Fu; Quanliang Chen; Xiao Feng; Xin Tie; Ranting Tao; Kepiao Xu
      Pages: 576 - 585
      Abstract: Abstract A transition zone near cirrus lateral boundaries can be detected by CALIOP (cloud–aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization). In the present study, for such transition zones over China, a number of optical properties, such as the backscatter coefficient and depolarization ratio, showed transitional characteristics between cirrus and clear sky. The stepped horizontal profile showed sharp changes in particle number and morphology between cirrus clouds and clear sky. The color ratio, however, was unable to show cirrus transition features because of the low signal-to-noise ratio. Typical ice particles presented a color ratio of 0.55–1.25 and a depolarization ratio of greater than 0.12, which were significantly higher than those of clear sky. Therefore, optical properties in transition took the form of stepwise horizontal profiles. The proportion of typical-featured particles also demonstrated a stepped horizontal profile similar to the optical characteristics, but the relationship between the proportion and the optical characteristics was not uniform in the cirrus clouds, transition zone, and clear sky. Therefore, the optical changes in the transition zone were caused by not only the change in particle concentration, but also the change in the particles themselves. The probability density distribution of the transition-zone widths showed a positive skewness distribution, and transition zones with widths of 3–5 km occurred most frequently. Overall, transition-zone width decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing vertical and horizontal wind speeds. This trend demonstrated independence with the direction of the vertical and horizontal winds. These observations implied that the transitional features were caused by material exchange, such as entrainment and turbulent transport, near the cirrus lateral boundaries, and by the phase transformation of particles, such as sublimation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6044-3
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Retrieval of aerosol optical depth for Chongqing using the HJ-1 satellite
    • Authors: Zengwu Wang; Shiqi Yang; Qiaolin Zeng; Yongqian Wang
      Pages: 586 - 596
      Abstract: Abstract Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a common indicator applied in monitoring aerosols in the atmosphere. The hilly landscape and rapid economic growth of the megacity Chongqing have facilitated increased aerosol concentration, and it is meaningful to accurately retrieve AOD over Chongqing. The HJ-1A/B satellite of China carries a sensor/camera called the Charge Coupled Device (CCD), the spatial resolution of which meets the requirement for retrieving high resolution AOD. In this paper, analysis of the AOD retrievals from different methods using the HJ-1 satellite data revealed the most suitable algorithm. Through comparison with the AOD product of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the AOD retrieval results using enhanced vegetation index (EVI) to estimate dark pixels showed the highest correlation. The continental aerosol model was used to build a lookup table that was able to facilitate a good AOD retrieval for both city and rural areas. Finally, the algorithm that combined dark pixels, buffer areas, and the deep blue algorithm was found to be most suitable for AOD retrieval. The AOD retrieval results based on the HJ-1 data were consistent with MODIS products, and our algorithm yields reasonable results in most cases. The results were also compared with ground-based PM10 measurements synchronized with the overpass time of the HJ-1 satellite, and high correlation was found. The findings are relevant to other Chinese satellite data used for retrieving AOD on the same channels.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6102-x
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Regional meteorological patterns for heavy pollution events in Beijing
    • Authors: Ting You; Renguang Wu; Gang Huang; Guangzhou Fan
      Pages: 597 - 611
      Abstract: Abstract The present study investigates meteorological conditions for the day-to-day changes of particulate matter (PM) concentration in Beijing city during the period 2008–2015. The local relationship of PM concentration to surface air temperature, pressure, wind speed, and relative humidity displays seasonal changes and year-to-year variations. The average correlation coefficient with PM10 in spring, summer, fall, and winter is 0.45, 0.40, 0.38, and 0.30 for air temperature; –0.45, –0.05, –0.40, and –0.45 for pressure; 0.13, 0.04, 0.53, and 0.50 for relative humidity; and –0.18, –0.11, –0.45, and –0.33 for wind speed. A higher correlation with wind speed is obtained when wind speed leads by half a day. The heavily polluted and clean days, which are defined as the top and bottom 10% of the PM values, show obvious differences in the regional distribution of air temperature, pressure, and wind. Polluted days correspond to higher air temperature in all the four seasons, lower sea level pressure and anomalous southerly winds to the south and east of Beijing in spring, fall, and winter, and a northwest–southeast contrast in the pressure anomaly and anomalous southerly winds in summer. Higher relative humidity is observed on polluted days in fall and winter. The polluted days are preceded by an anomalous cyclone moving from the northwest, accompanied by lower pressure and higher air temperature, in all four seasons. This feature indicates the impacts of moving weather systems on local meteorological conditions for day-to-day air quality changes in Beijing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6143-1
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Characteristics and possible formation mechanisms of severe storms in the
           outer rainbands of Typhoon Mujiga (1522)
    • Authors: Bingyun Wang; Ming Wei; Wei Hua; Yongli Zhang; Xiaohang Wen; Jiafeng Zheng; Nan Li; Han Li; Yu Wu; Jie Zhu; Mingjun Zhang
      Pages: 612 - 624
      Abstract: Abstract To better understand how severe storms form and evolve in the outer rainbands of typhoons, in this study, we investigate the evolutionary characteristics and possible formation mechanisms for severe storms in the rainbands of Typhoon Mujigae, which occurred during 2–5 October 2015, based on the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data, conventional observations, and Doppler radar data. For the rainbands far from the inner core (eye and eyewall) of Mujigae (distance of approximately 70–800 km), wind speed first increased with the radius expanding from the inner core, and then decreased as the radius continued to expand. The Rankine Vortex Model was used to explore such variations in wind speed. The areas of strong stormy rainbands were mainly located in the northeast quadrant of Mujigae, and overlapped with the areas of high winds within approximately 300–550 km away from the inner core, where the strong winds were conducive to the development of strong storms. A severe convective cell in the rainbands developed into waterspout at approximately 500 km to the northeast of the inner core, when Mujigae was strengthening before it made landfall. Two severe convective cells in the rainbands developed into two tornadoes at approximately 350 km to the northeast of the inner core after Mujigae made landfall. The radar echo bands enhanced to 60 dBZ when mesocyclones occurred in the rainbands and induced tornadoes. The radar echoes gradually weakened after the mesocyclones weakened. The tops of parent clouds of the mesocyclones elevated at first, and then suddenly dropped about 20 min before the tornadoes appeared. Thereby, the cloud top variation has the potential to be used as an early warning of tornado occurrence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6043-4
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Testing and improving the performance of the Common Land Model: A case
           study for the Gobi landscape
    • Authors: Chao Wang; Zhigang Wei; Zhenchao Li; Tiangui Xiao; Xiaohang Wen
      Pages: 625 - 632
      Abstract: Abstract Land surface processes take place on the interface between the earth and atmosphere, exerting significant influences on the weather and climate. Correct modeling of these processes is important to numerical weather forecast and climate prediction. In order to obtain a more thorough understanding of the land surface processes over the Gobi landscape, we evaluated the performance of the Common Land Model (CoLM) at Dunhuang station in Gansu Province of China to determine whether the model formulation, driven by observational data, is capable of simulating surface fluxes over the underlying desert surface. In comparison with the enhanced observation data collected at Dunhuang station over the period 22–28 August 2008, the results showed that the surface albedo simulated by CoLM was larger than that in the observation, and the simulated surface temperature was lower than the observed. After the measured values were used to correct the surface albedo, the solar radiation absorbed by the ground surface was more consistent with the measurements. A new empirical relationship of the surface thermal exchange coefficient r ah was used to modify the thermal aerodynamic impedance. The simulated soil surface temperature became significantly closer to the observed value, and the simulated surface sensible heat as well as net radiative fluxes were also improved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6080-z
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 3 (2017)
  • Propagation and mechanisms of the quasi-biweekly oscillation over the
           Asian summer monsoon region
    • Authors: Meirong Wang; Jun Wang; Anmin Duan
      Pages: 321 - 335
      Abstract: Abstract The propagation and underlying mechanisms of the boreal summer quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO) over the entire Asian monsoon region are investigated, based on ECMWF Interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data, GPCP precipitation data, and an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Statistical analyses indicate that the QBWO over the Asian monsoon region derives its main origin from the equatorial western Pacific and moves northwestward to the Bay of Bengal and northern India, and then northward to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) area, with a baroclinic vertical structure. Northward propagation of the QBWO is promoted by three main mechanisms: barotropic vorticity, boundary moisture advection, and surface sensible heating (SSH). It is dominated by the barotropic vorticity effect when the QBWO signals are situated to the south of 20°N. During the propagation taking place farther north toward the TP, the boundary moisture advection and SSH are the leading mechanisms. We use an AGCM to verify the importance of SSH on the northward propagation of the QBWO. Numerical simulations confirm the diagnostic conclusion that the equatorial western Pacific is the source of the QBWO. Importantly, the model can accurately simulate the propagation pathway of the QBWO signals over the Asian monsoon region. Simultaneously, sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the SSH over northern India and the southern slope of the TP greatly contributes to the northward propagation of the QBWO as far as the TP area.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6131-5
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Stratospheric precursor of non-uniform variation in early spring surface
           temperature over Eurasia
    • Authors: Fei Li; Huijun Wang; Yongqi Gao
      Pages: 389 - 396
      Abstract: Abstract The stratospheric influences on the non-uniform variation in early spring (March–April, MA) surface temperature over Eurasia is investigated based on the ERA-Interim, NCEP-1, and NCEP-2 reanalysis data for the period 1980–2016. A lead–lag correlation is found between preceding winter (December–February, DJF) stratospheric polar vortex displacements (SPVD) and the MA west–east seesaw pattern in surface temperature over Eurasia. Further analysis reveals that the East Asian jet stream may act as a bridge linking DJF SPVD and MA surface temperature over Eurasia. A positive change in SPVD is associated with a decelerated polar jet stream and an accelerated East Asian jet stream in the troposphere in DJF. The East Asian jet stream signal can persist into MA. As a result, anomalous southerly/northerly winds prevail over western/eastern Eurasia, accounting for the west–east surface temperature seesaw over Eurasia.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6055-0
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • A possible abrupt change in summer precipitation over eastern China around
    • Authors: Yongjian Ren; Lianchun Song; Zunya Wang; Ying Xiao; Bing Zhou
      Pages: 397 - 408
      Abstract: Abstract Historical studies have shown that summer rainfall in eastern China undergoes decadal variations, with three apparent changes in the late 1970s, 1992, and the late 1990s. The present observational study indicates that summer precipitation over eastern China likely underwent a change in the late 2000s, during which the main spatial pattern changed from negative–positive–negative to positive–negative in the meridional direction. This change in summer precipitation over eastern China may have been associated with circulation anomalies in the middle/upper troposphere. A strong trough over Lake Baikal created a southward flow of cold air during 2009–15, compared with 1999–2008, while the westward recession of the western Pacific subtropical high strengthened the moisture transport to the north, creating conditions that were conducive for more rainfall in the north during this period. The phase shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the late 2000s led to the Pacific–Japan-type teleconnection wave train shifting from negative to positive phases, resulting in varied summer precipitation over eastern China.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6021-2
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the trend uncertainty in summer ozone valley over the
           Tibetan Plateau in three reanalysis datasets
    • Authors: Dong Guo; Yucheng Su; Xiuji Zhou; Jianjun Xu; Chunhua Shi; Yu Liu; Weiliang Li; Zhenkun Li
      Pages: 431 - 437
      Abstract: Abstract Trend uncertainty in the ozone valley over the Tibetan Plateau (OVTP) and the South Asian high (SAH) during 1979–2009 in ERA-Interim (interim reanalysis data from the ECMWF), JRA-55 (55-yr reanalysis data from the Japan Meteorological Agency), and NCEP-CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) datasets was evaluated. The results showed that the NCEP-CFSR OVTP became strong in the summers of 1979–2009, whereas it became weak according to ERA-Interim and JRA-55. Satellite data merged with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) agreed with the OVTP trend of NCEP-CFSR. The OVTP strengthening in NCEP-CFSR may have been caused by SAH intensification, a rising tropopause, and increasing ozone over non-TP (non-Tibetan Plateau) areas (27°–37°N, < 75°E and > 105°E). Analogously, the OVTP weakening in ERA-Interim and JRA-55 may have been affected by weakening SAH, descending tropopause, and decreasing non-TP ozone.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6058-x
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
  • Statistical estimation of high-resolution surface air temperature from
           MODIS over the Yangtze River Delta, China
    • Authors: Yi Shi; Zhihong Jiang; Liangpeng Dong; Suhung Shen
      Pages: 448 - 454
      Abstract: Abstract High-resolution surface air temperature data are critical to regional climate modeling in terms of energy balance, urban climate change, and so on. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) to estimate air temperature at a high resolution over the Yangtze River Delta region, China. It is found that daytime LST is highly correlated with maximum air temperature, and the linear regression coefficients vary with the type of land surface. The air temperature at a resolution of 1 km is estimated from the MODIS LST with linear regression models. The estimated air temperature shows a clear spatial structure of urban heat islands. Spatial patterns of LST and air temperature differences are detected, indicating maximum differences over urban and forest regions during summer. Validations are performed with independent data samples, demonstrating that the mean absolute error of the estimated air temperature is approximately 2.5°C, and the uncertainty is about 3.1°C, if using all valid LST data. The error is reduced by 0.4°C (15%) if using best-quality LST with errors of less than 1 K. The estimated high-resolution air temperature data have great potential to be used in validating high-resolution climate models and other regional applications.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-017-6073-y
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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