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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Meteorologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.524]   [H-I: 14]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0894-0525
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Has the prediction of the South China Sea summer monsoon improved since
           the late 1970s?
    • Authors: Yi Fan; Ke Fan; Baoqiang Tian
      Pages: 833 - 852
      Abstract: Based on the evaluation of state-of-the-art coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) from the ENSEMBLES (Ensemble-based Predictions of Climate Changes and Their Impacts) and DEMETER (Development of a European Multimodel Ensemble System for Seasonal to Interannual Prediction) projects, it is found that the prediction of the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) has improved since the late 1970s. These CGCMs show better skills in prediction of the atmospheric circulation and precipitation within the SCSSM domain during 1979–2005 than that during 1960–1978. Possible reasons for this improvement are investigated. First, the relationship between the SSTs over the tropical Pacific, North Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean, and SCSSM has intensified since the late 1970s. Meanwhile, the SCSSM-related SSTs, with their larger amplitude of interannual variability, have been better predicted. Moreover, the larger amplitude of the interannual variability of the SCSSM and improved initializations for CGCMs after the late 1970s contribute to the better prediction of the SCSSM. In addition, considering that the CGCMs have certain limitations in SCSSM rainfall prediction, we applied the year-to-year increment approach to these CGCMs from the DEMETER and ENSEMBLES projects to improve the prediction of SCSSM rainfall before and after the late 1970s.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6052-8
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • The role of nonlinear forcing singular vector tendency error in causing
           the “spring predictability barrier” for ENSO
    • Authors: Wansuo Duan; Peng Zhao; Junya Hu; Hui Xu
      Pages: 853 - 866
      Abstract: With the Zebiak–Cane model, the present study investigates the role of model errors represented by the nonlinear forcing singular vector (NFSV) in the “spring predictability barrier” (SPB) phenomenon in ENSO prediction. The NFSV-related model errors are found to have the largest negative effect on the uncertainties of El Ni˜no prediction and they can be classified into two types: the first is featured with a zonal dipolar pattern of SST anomalies (SSTA), with the western poles centered in the equatorial central–western Pacific exhibiting positive anomalies and the eastern poles in the equatorial eastern Pacific exhibiting negative anomalies; and the second is characterized by a pattern almost opposite to the first type. The first type of error tends to have the worst effects on El Ni˜no growth-phase predictions, whereas the latter often yields the largest negative effects on decaying-phase predictions. The evolution of prediction errors caused by NFSVrelated errors exhibits prominent seasonality, with the fastest error growth in spring and/or summer; hence, these errors result in a significant SPB related to El Ni˜no events. The linear counterpart of NFSVs, the (linear) forcing singular vector (FSV), induces a less significant SPB because it contains smaller prediction errors. Random errors cannot generate an SPB for El Ni˜no events. These results show that the occurrence of an SPB is related to the spatial patterns of tendency errors. The NFSV tendency errors cause the most significant SPB for El Ni˜no events. In addition, NFSVs often concentrate these large value errors in a few areas within the equatorial eastern and central–western Pacific, which likely represent those areas sensitive to El Ni˜no predictions associated with model errors. Meanwhile, these areas are also exactly consistent with the sensitive areas related to initial errors determined by previous studies. This implies that additional observations in the sensitive areas would not only improve the accuracy of the initial field but also promote the reduction of model errors to greatly improve ENSO forecasts.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6011-4
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Projection of summer precipitation over the Yangtze–Huaihe River basin
           using multimodel statistical downscaling based on canonical correlation
    • Authors: Dan Wu; Zhihong Jiang; Tingting Ma
      Pages: 867 - 880
      Abstract: By using observational daily precipitation data over the Yangtze–Huaihe River basin, ERA-40 data, and the data from eight CMIP5 climate models, statistical downscaling models are constructed based on BP-CCA (combination of empirical orthogonal function and canonical correlation analysis) to project future changes of precipitation. The results show that the absolute values of domain-averaged precipitation relative errors of most models are reduced from 8%–46% to 1%–7% after statistical downscaling. The spatial correlations are all improved from less than 0.40 to more than 0.60. As a result of the statistical downscaling multimodel ensemble (SDMME), the relative error is improved from–15.8% to–1.3%, and the spatial correlation increases significantly from 0.46 to 0.88. These results demonstrate that the simulation skill of SDMME is relatively better than that of the multimodel ensemble (MME) and the downscaling of most individual models. The projections of SDMME reveal that under the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario, the projected domain-averaged precipitation changes for the early (2016–2035), middle (2046–2065), and late (2081–2100) 21st century are–1.8%, 6.1%, and 9.9%, respectively. For the early period, the increasing trends of precipitation in the western region are relatively weak, while the precipitation in the east shows a decreasing trend. Furthermore, the reliability of the projected changes over the area east of 115 ◦ E is higher than that in the west. The stations with significant increasing trends are primarily located over the western region in both the middle and late periods, with larger magnitude for the latter. Stations with high reliability mainly appear in the region north of 28.5 ◦ N for both periods.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6030-1
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Mechanisms for the formation of Northeast China cold vortex and its
           activities and impacts: An overview
    • Authors: Yi Lian; Baizhu Shen; Shangfeng Li; Gang Liu; Xu Yang
      Pages: 881 - 896
      Abstract: In the mid 20th century, great efforts were made to investigate the formation process of high-latitude cold vortex, which is regarded as a major weather system in the atmospheric circulation. In the late 1970s, Chinese researchers noticed that the Northeast China cold vortex (NECV) is an active and frequently occurring weather system over Northeast Asia, which is generated under specific conditions of topography and land–sea thermal contrast on the local and regional scales. Thereby, the NECV study was broadened to include synoptic situations, mesoscale and dynamic features, the heavy rain process, etc. Since the 21st century, in the context of the global warming, more attention has been paid to studies of the mechanisms that cause the NECV variations during spring and early summer as well as the climatic impacts of the NECV system. Note that the NECV activity, frequent or not, not only affects local temperature and precipitation anomalies, but also regulates the amount of precipitation over northern China, the Huai River basin, and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. The NECV influence can even reach the Guangdong–Guangxi region. However, compared to the achievements for the blocking system study, theoretical studies with regard to the NECV system are still insufficient. Research activities regarding the mechanisms for the NECV formation, particularly theoretical studies using linear or weak nonlinear methods need to be strengthened in the future. Meanwhile, great efforts should be made to deepen our understanding of the relations of the NECV system to the oceanic thermal forcing, the low-frequency atmospheric variations over mid–high latitudes, and the global warming.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6003-4
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Simulation of tropical cyclogenesis in association with large-scale
           cyclonic circulation over the western North Pacific
    • Authors: Xi Cao; Guanghua Chen; Xiao Xiao
      Pages: 897 - 914
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the difference in tropical cyclone (TC) formation in different cyclonic circulation locations using a mesoscale model on a beta plane. A weak initial vortex is imposed at different positions in a cyclonic circulation. Numerical experiments indicate that the tropical disturbances located in the center and northeastern parts of the cyclonic circulation are favorable to TC formation, while those located in the south of the cyclonic circulation are unfavorable. Since the asymmetric circulation induced by the beta effect peaks in the northeastern quadrant of the vortex, when the initial vortex is placed in the southern part of the cyclonic circulation, the vortex begins to develop in the south due to the effect of the westerly wind of the cyclonic circulation. The westerly wind of the cyclonic circulation gradually decreases and the vortex is contributed mainly by the beta effect afterwards. Thus, establishment of the convection–circulation–moisture positive feedback is delayed, unfavorable to TC rapid development. On the contrary, when the initial vortex is placed in the northern part of the cyclonic circulation, the superposition of the beta gyres and easterly wind of the cyclonic circulation induces stronger wavenumber-1 wind in the northeastern part of the vortex. The greater asymmetric wind is closely associated with the symmetric wind through energy conversion, thus accelerating a positive feedback and facilitating vortex development into a stronger TC. Meanwhile, when the initial vortex is placed in the center and eastern parts of the cyclonic circulation, the vortex develops a little slower than when it is placed in the northern part, but stronger than when placed in the southern part.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-5086-2
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Climatology of transverse shear lines related to heavy rainfall over the
           Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer
    • Authors: Xia Zhang; Xiuping Yao; Jiali Ma; Zhuoga Mima
      Pages: 915 - 926
      Abstract: Based on ERA-Interim data and precipitation data of 2474 stations in China during May–October from 1981 to 2013, transverse shear lines (TSLs) were identified, and their climatic characteristics and association with torrential rainfall events over the Tibetan Plateau and the region to its east during boreal summer were analyzed statistically, based on three criteria: the meridional shear of zonal wind, the relative vorticity, and the zero contour line of zonal wind. It was found that TSLs are generally west–east oriented over the Tibetan Plateau, with the highest occurrence frequency in June, and least occurrence in October. The high frequency axis of TSLs, parallel to the terrain of the Tibetan Plateau, shifts southward from May to August, and then slightly northward from September to October. The annual average TSL frequency is 65.3 days, and there are obvious interannual and interdecal variations of TSLs. The annual fluctuation of TSL frequency is most distinct in the 1980s, followed by the 2000s, with average frequency appearing during 1995–2000. It was found that the occurrence frequency of TSLs and that of heavy rainfall events over the Tibetan Plateau are stable during 1981–2013. However, the occurrence frequency of the heavy rainfall events resulting from TSLs is decreasing. More than 50% of the TSLs can lead to heavy rainfall, while 40% of the heavy rainfall events are caused by TSLs. TSLs are closely related to heavy rainfalls in the flooding season of June–August over the Tibetan Plateau.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6952-7
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Possible combined influences of absorbing aerosols and anomalous
           atmospheric circulation on summertime diurnal temperature range variation
           over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River
    • Authors: Jiaxi Cai; Zhaoyong Guan; Fenhua Ma
      Pages: 927 - 943
      Abstract: Based on the temperature data from the China Meteorological Administration, NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data, and the TOMS Aerosol Index (AI), we analyze the variations in the summertime diurnal temperature range (DTR) and temperature maxima in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLRYR) in China. The possible relationships between the direct warming effect of the absorbing aerosol and temperature variations are further investigated, although with some uncertainties. It is found that the summertime DTR exhibits a decreasing trend over the most recent 50 years, along with a slight increasing tendency since the 1980s. The trend of the maximum temperature is in agreement with those of the DTR and the absorbing aerosols. To investigate the causes of the large anomalies in the temperature maxima, composite analyses of the circulation anomalies are performed. When anomalous AI and anomalous maximum temperature over the MLRYR have the same sign, an anomalous circulation with a quasi-barotropic structure occurs there. This anomalous circulation is modulated by the Rossby wave energy propagations from the regions northwest of the MLRYR and influences the northwestern Pacific subtropical high over the MLRYR. In combination with aerosols, the anomalous circulation may increase the maximum temperature in this region. Conversely, when the anomalous AI and anomalous maximum temperature in the MLRYR have opposite signs, the anomalous circulation is not equivalently barotropic, which possibly offsets the warming effect of aerosols on the maximum temperature changes in this region. These results are helpful for a better understanding of the DTR changes and the occurrences of temperature extremes in the MLRYR region during boreal summer.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6006-1
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Characteristics of secondary circulations in the convective boundary layer
           over two-dimensional heterogeneous surfaces
    • Authors: Lidu Shen; Jianning Sun; Renmin Yuan; Peng Liu
      Pages: 944 - 960
      Abstract: Large-eddy simulations are conducted to investigate the impacts of the scale of chessboard-like heterogeneous surface heating and the background wind on secondary circulations (SCs) in the convective boundary layer (CBL). When the wind blows along the diagonal of the chessboard pattern, the cases with different heterogeneity length scales (λ = 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 km) and weak background wind (U = 2.5 m s −1) suggest that there exists a threshold for the roll-like SCs, which is satisfied when the heterogeneity length scale is 1.6 times the boundary layer height (λ = 1.6zi). During the CBL development, the SC intensity increases before this threshold is met, whereas it decreases thereafter. The cases with different background wind speeds (U = 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 m s −1) and relatively large heterogeneity length scale (λ = 4.8 km) show that the SCs are strengthened by larger wind speeds when the heterogeneity length scale is so large that the threshold cannot be met during the CBL development. Another case with wind direction along neither the diagonal nor the side of the chessboard pattern shows that the roll-like SCs can still be triggered, but the roll axes are orientated along the diagonal of the chessboard pattern rather than along the wind direction.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6016-z
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Observation and simulation of near-surface wind and its variation with
           topography in Urumqi, West China
    • Authors: Lili Jin; Zhenjie Li; Qing He; Qilong Miao; Huqiang Zhang; Xinghua Yang
      Pages: 961 - 982
      Abstract: Near-surface wind measurements obtained with five 100-m meteorology towers, 39 regional automatic stations, and simulations by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to investigate the spatial structure of topography-driven flows in the complex urban terrain of Urumqi, China. The results showed that the wind directions were mainly northerly and southerly within the reach of 100 m above ground in the southern suburbs, urban area, and northern suburbs, which were consistent with the form of the Urumqi gorge. Strong winds were observed in southern suburbs, whereas the winds in the urban, northern suburbs, and northern rural areas were weak. Static wind occurred more frequently in the urban and northern rural areas than in the southern suburbs. In the southern suburbs, wind speed was relatively high throughout the year and did not show significant seasonal variations. The average annual wind speed in this region varied among 1.9–5.5, 1.1–3.6, 1.2–4.3, 1.2–4.3, and 1.1–3.5 m s −1 within the reach of 100 m above ground at Yannanlijiao, Shuitashan, Liyushan, Hongguangshan, and Midong, respectively. The flow characteristics comprised more airflows around the mountain, where the convergence and divergence were dominated by the terrain in eastern and southwestern Urumqi. Further analysis showed that there was a significant mountain–valley wind in spring, summer, and autumn, which occurred more frequently in spring and summer for 10–11 h in urban and northern suburbs. During daytime, there was a northerly valley wind, whereas at night there was a southerly mountain wind. The conversion time from the mountain wind to the valley wind was during 0800–1000 LST (Local Standard Time), while the conversion from the valley wind to the mountain wind was during 1900–2100 LST. The influence of the mountain–valley wind in Urumqi City was most obvious at 850 hPa, according to the WRF model.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6012-3
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Comparison of the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of
           different staple crops in the agro-pastoral ecotone of North China
    • Authors: Jianzhao Tang; Jing Wang; Di He; Mingxia Huang; Zhihua Pan; Xuebiao Pan
      Pages: 983 - 997
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare the impacts of climate change on the potential productivity and potential productivity gaps of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and spring wheat (Triticumaestivum Linn) in the agro-pastoral ecotone (APE) of North China. A crop growth dynamics statistical method was used to calculate the potential productivity affected by light, temperature, precipitation, and soil fertility. The growing season average temperature increased by 0.47, 0.48, and 0.52°C per decade (p < 0.05) for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively, from 1981 to 2010. Meanwhile, the growing season solar radiation showed a decreasing trend (p < 0.05) and the growing season precipitation changed non-significantly across APE. The light–temperature potential productivity increased by 4.48% per decade for sunflower but decreased by 1.58% and 0.59% per decade for potato and spring wheat. The climate–soil potential productivity reached only 31.20%, 27.79%, and 20.62% of the light–temperature potential productivity for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The gaps between the light–temperature and climate–soil potential productivity increased by 6.41%, 0.97%, and 1.29% per decade for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The increasing suitability of the climate for sunflower suggested that the sown area of sunflower should be increased compared with potato and spring wheat in APE under future climate warming.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6023-0
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Evaluation of weather research and forecasting model parameterizations
           under sea-breeze conditions in a North Sea coastal environment
    • Authors: Nadir Salvador; Neyval Costa Reis; Jane Meri Santos; Taciana Toledo de Almeida Albuquerque; Ayres Geraldo Loriato; Hervé Delbarre; Patrick Augustin; Anton Sokolov; Davidson Martins Moreira
      Pages: 998 - 1018
      Abstract: Three atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes and two land surface models that are used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, version 3.4.1, were evaluated with numerical simulations by using data from the north coast of France (Dunkerque). The ABL schemes YSU (Yonsei University), ACM2 (Asymmetric Convective Model version 2), and MYJ (Mellor–Yamada–Janjic) were combined with two land surface models, Noah and RUC (Rapid Update Cycle), in order to determine the performances under sea-breeze conditions. Particular attention is given in the determination of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL), which is very important in air pollution scenarios. The other physics parameterizations used in the model were consistent for all simulations. The predictions of the sea-breeze dynamics output from the WRF model were compared with observations taken from sonic detection and ranging, light detection and ranging systems and a meteorological surface station to verify that the model had reasonable accuracy in predicting the behavior of local circulations. The temporal comparisons of the vertical and horizontal wind speeds and wind directions predicted by the WRF model showed that all runs detected the passage of the sea-breeze front. However, except for the combination of MYJ and Noah, all runs had a time delay compared with the frontal passage measured by the instruments. The proposed study shows that the synoptic wind attenuated the intensity and penetration of the sea breeze. This provided changes in the vertical mixing in a short period of time and on soil temperature that could not be detected by the WRF model simulations with the computational grid used. Additionally, among the tested schemes, the combination of the localclosure MYJ scheme with the land surface Noah scheme was able to produce the most accurate ABL height compared with observations, and it was also able to capture the TIBL.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6019-9
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • A comparative assessment of temperature data from different sources for
           Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
    • Authors: Atul Kant Piyoosh; Sanjay Kumar Ghosh
      Pages: 1019 - 1032
      Abstract: A comparative study of extreme temperature parameters from different sources is carried out by examining standardized anomalies, trends, correlation, and equivalence of datasets. Maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) for Dehradun, from two different sources such as computed and gridded data from Climatic Research Unit (CRU) and observed data from India Meteorological Department (IMD) are used for 1901–2012. The CRU data are compared initially with IMD, by graphical assessment of standardized anomalies. Subsequently, change points are identified by using Cumulative Sum (CUSUM)-chart technique for trend analysis. The magnitude and significance of trends are determined by applying Sen’s slope test, and on the basis of these, trends are compared. Further, correlation analysis is carried out and datasets are tested for equivalence by using Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test. The result shows that annual standardized anomalies of CRU data follow the pattern of annual standardized anomalies of IMD data. The CRU data exhibit similar trends and are well correlated with IMD dataset. Moreover, CRU anomaly data are identical with IMD anomaly data in the recent decades. High resolution gridded CRU data have open access and may be more useful due to its spatio-temporal continuity for land areas of the world.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6031-0
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Spatial and temporal variability of snow depth derived from passive
           microwave remote sensing data in Kazakhstan
    • Authors: Shamshagul Mashtayeva; Liyun Dai; Tao Che; Zhanay Sagintayev; Saltanat Sadvakasova; Marzhan Kussainova; Danara Alimbayeva; Meerzhan Akynbekkyzy
      Pages: 1033 - 1043
      Abstract: Snow cover plays an important role in the hydrological cycle and water management in Kazakhstan. However, traditional observations do not meet current needs. In this study, a snow depth retrieval equation was developed based on passive microwave remote sensing data. The average snow depth in winter (ASDW), snow cover duration (SCD), monthly maximum snow depth (MMSD), and annual average snow depth (AASD) were derived for each year to monitor the spatial and temporal snow distributions. The SCD exhibited significant spatial variations from 30 to 250 days. The longest SCD was found in the mountainous area in eastern Kazakhstan, reaching values between 200 and 250 days in 2005. The AASD increased from the south to the north and maintained latitudinal zonality. The MMSD in most areas ranged from 20 to 30 cm. The ASDW values ranged from 15 to 20 cm in the eastern region and were characterized by spatial regularity of latitudinal zonality. The ASDW in the mountainous area often exceeded 20 cm.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-5109-z
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2016)
  • Interannual variability of summer rainfall over the northern part of China
           and the related circulation features
    • Authors: Cholaw Bueh; Yan Li; Dawei Lin; Yi Lian
      Pages: 615 - 630
      Abstract: In this study, interannual variability of summer rainfall over the northern part of China (NPC) and associated circulation patterns were investigated by using long-term (1961–2013) observational and reanalysis data. Two important NPC rainfall modes were identified by empirical orthogonal function analysis: the first is characterized by an almost uniformly distributed rainfall anomaly over most parts of the NPC, while the second shows rainfall variability in Northeast China (NEC) and its out-of-phase relationship with that in North China (NC) and the northern part of Northwest China. The results also suggest that the NPC summer rainfall anomalies are also closely associated with those in some other parts of China. It is revealed that the circumglobal teleconnection pattern associated with the anomalous Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the Polar/Eurasia (PEA) pattern work in concert to constitute the typical circulation pattern of the first rainfall mode. The cooperative engagement of the anomalous ISM circulation and the PEA pattern is fundamental in transporting water vapor to the NPC. The study emphasizes that the PEA pattern is essential for the water vapor transport to the NPC through the anomalous midlatitude westerly. In the second NPC rainfall mode, the typical circulation pattern is characterized by the anomalous surface Okhotsk high and the attendant lower tropospheric circulation anomaly over NEC. The circulation anomaly over NEC leads to a redistribution of water vapor fluxes over the NPC and constitutes an out-of-phase relationship between the rainfall anomalies over NEC and NC.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-5111-5
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2016)
  • Interdecadal variations of cold air activities in Northeast China during
    • Authors: Shangfeng Li; Dabang Jiang; Yi Lian; Yaoxian Yao
      Pages: 645 - 661
      Abstract: Based on the daily mean temperature data of CN05.2 from 1961 to 2012, cold events (CEs) are first divided into two categories according to their duration: strong cold events (SCEs) and weak cold events (WCEs). Then, the characteristics of CEs, SCEs, and WCEs during springtime are investigated. The results indicate that in the pre-1990s epoch, ENSO and Arctic Oscillation events in the previous winter are closely related to SCEs in the following spring. The multidecadal variations of CEs, SCEs, and WCEs are obvious. The intensity trend for SCEs is significantly negative, but it seems less apparent for WCEs. Further analysis reveals that when both SCEs and WCEs occur, a typical East Asian trough in the 850- hPa wind field, whose northwesterly wind component invades Northeast China (NEC) and causes freezing days, can be found in every decade. For the SCEs, a cold vortex, with its center located over Okhotsk and northeasterly current affecting NEC, is found as an additional feature. For the WCEs, the cold vortex is located in Karafuto and its northwesterly airflow intrudes into NEC. As for the difference between SCEs and WCEs, the northwestern flow is weaker while the northeastern counterpart is stronger during the SCEs, in all decades. In the Takaya–Nakamura flux and divergence fields, for the SCEs, a divergence center exists over NEC; and over its downstream regions, a stronger divergence center appears, not like a wave train. However, the opposite is the case for the WCEs; moreover, the wave train appears clearly during the WCEs, which means that the wave energy can propagate and dissipate more easily during WCEs.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-5912-6
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2016)
  • Impact of multi-scale oscillations at high and low latitudes on two
           persistent heavy rainfall events in the middle and lower reaches of the
           Yangtze River
    • Authors: Pinhong Hui; Juan Fang
      Pages: 662 - 677
      Abstract: To investigate the multi-scale features in two persistent heavy rainfall (PHR) events in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLRYR) in June of 1982 and 1998, this study examines the impact of multi-scale oscillations in the north and south of 30°N on the PHR events by performing sensitivity experiments with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. It is found that the 60-day lowpass perturbation made a trivial contribution to the MLRYR precipitation during the PHR event in 1982. This PHR event resulted mainly from the combined effects of 30–60-day oscillation at low latitudes and 10–30-day oscillation at both high and low latitudes. The southwesterly anomalies associated with the 30–60-day anticyclonic anomaly over the northwestern Pacific facilitated moisture transport from the ocean to the MLRYR and enhanced the low-level convergence and ascending motion in the MLRYR. This similarly occurred in the 10–30-day oscillation as well. Moreover, the 10–30-day anomalies at high latitudes played a role in strengthening the large-scale low-level convergence over the MLRYR. The PHR event in 1998 was mainly related to the 60-day oscillation at both high and low latitudes and 30–60-day oscillation at low latitudes. The 60-day low-pass filtered anomalous cyclone at high latitudes in the north of 30°N contributed to the development of low-level convergence and ascending motion in northern MLRYR while the anomalous anticyclone at low latitudes in the south of 30°N not only increased the moisture in the MLRYR but also preconditioned the dynamical factors favorable for PHR over the whole area. The 30–60-day perturbations located north and south of 30°N worked together producing positive moisture anomaly in the MLRYR. In addition, the anomalous circulation in the south of 30°N tended to favor the development of ascending motion and low-level convergence in the MLRYR.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6082-2
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2016)
  • Effects of the upstream temperature anomaly on freezing rain and
           snowstorms over Southern China in early 2008
    • Authors: Qunjie Zuo; Shouting Gao; Xiaogong Sun
      Pages: 694 - 705
      Abstract: By using ERA-Interim data, the temperature anomaly of the freezing rain and snowstorm event that occurred from 11 to 22 January 2008 in southern China was analyzed. During this period, diabatic heating and temperature advection caused the temperature to increase anomalously over the Tibetan Plateau. The anomalously high temperature moving from the Tibetan Plateau to southern China played several roles. First, the upper-level subtropical jet over China was split into two parts in the north–south direction, which affected the development of freezing rain in southern China; second, a ridge formed because of the warmer air moving to China, which hindered the transport of cold air from its upstream blocking high, forced the cold air to gather behind the ridge, and facilitated the severe cold air outbreak in the later period of the event; third, an inversion layer formed because of the lower-level cold air and upper-level warmer air over southern China, which was conducive to the development of the event over southern China; and finally, because of the temperature anomaly, opposite wind directions appeared at the lower levels (below 700 hPa), which helped transport of warm-moist and cold-dry air to the event area.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-5253-5
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2016)
  • Effects of surface drag on upper-level frontogenesis within a developing
           baroclinic wave
    • Authors: Yi Zhang; Zhemin Tan; Kekuan Chu
      Pages: 706 - 718
      Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of surface drag on upper-level front with a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic mesoscale numerical model (MM5). To this end, a new and simple potential vorticity intrusion (PVI) index is proposed to quantitatively describe the extent and path that surface drag affects upper-level front. From a PV perspective, the formation of the upper-level front is illustrated as the tropopause folding happens from the stratosphere. The PVI index shows a good correlation with the minimum surface pressure, and tends to increase with the deepening of the surface cyclone and upper-level front. The surface drag acts to damp and delay the development of upper-level front, which could reduce the growth rate of the PVI index. However, the damping presents different effects in different development stages. It is the most significant during the rapid development stage of the surface cyclone. Compared with no surface drag cases, the tropopause is less inclined to intrude into the troposphere due to the surface drag. Positive feedback between the surface cyclone and upper-level front could accelerate the development of the frontal system.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6018-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2016)
  • Mesoscale observational analysis of lifting mechanism of a warm-sector
           convective system producing the maximal daily precipitation in China
           mainland during pre-summer rainy season of 2015
    • Authors: Mengwen Wu; Yali Luo
      Pages: 719 - 736
      Abstract: A long-lived, quasi-stationary mesoscale convective system (MCS) producing extreme rainfall (maximum of 542 mm) over the eastern coastal area of Guangdong Province on 20 May 2015 is analyzed by using high-resolution surface observations, sounding data, and radar measurements. New convective cells are continuously initiated along a mesoscale boundary at the surface, leading to formation and maintenance of the quasi-linear-shaped MCS from about 2000 BT 19 to 1200 BT 20 May. The boundary is originally formed between a cold dome generated by previous convection and southwesterly flow from the ocean carrying higher equivalent potential temperature (θ e) air. The boundary is subsequently maintained and reinforced by the contrast between the MCS-generated cold outflow and the oceanic higher-θ e air. The cold outflow is weak (wind speed ≤ 5 m s −1), which is attributable to the characteristic environmental conditions, i.e., high humidity in the lower troposphere and weak horizontal winds in the middle and lower troposphere. The low speed of the cold outflow is comparable to that of the near surface southerly flow from the ocean, resulting in very slow southward movement of the boundary. The boundary features temperature contrasts of 2–3°C and is roughly 500-m deep. Despite its shallowness, the boundary appears to exert a profound influence on continuous convection initiation because of the very low level of free convection and small convection inhibition of the near surface oceanic air, building several parallel rainbands (of about 50-km length) that move slowly eastward along the MCS and produce about 80% of the total rainfall. Another MCS moves into the area from the northwest and merges with the local MCS at about 1200 BT. The cold outflow subsequently strengthens and the boundary moves more rapidly toward the southeast, leading to end of the event in 3 h.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6089-8
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2016)
  • Momentum budget diagnosis and the parameterization of subgrid-scale
           orographic drag in global GRAPES
    • Authors: Qiying Chen; Xueshun Shen; Jian Sun; Kun Liu
      Pages: 771 - 788
      Abstract: The initial tendency approach is used to diagnose systematic errors in global GRAPES (Global/Regional Assimilation Prediction System), including overly strong westerlies in the northern midlatitudes, cold/warm bias dipoles in the vicinity of the tropopause, and excessively strong southerlies in downstream regions of the Tibetan Plateau. This approach, involving the use of the assimilation system, focuses on the first few time steps of numerical weather forecasts to identify the deficiencies in diabatic forcing. The results show that there is insufficient diabatic dissipation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes and the lower troposphere of most latitudes, which results from the absence of a parameterization of subgrid orographic drag in global GRAPES. A scheme to parameterize the effects of these drags is therefore tested and the experiments indicate that the newly introduced scheme reduces zonal momentum budget residuals, weakens the northern midlatitude westerlies and southerlies in the downstream regions of the Tibetan Plateau, decreases the cold/warm bias dipoles, and leads to improved objective verification scores.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-016-6033-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 5 (2016)
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