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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Physiologiae Plantarum
  [SJR: 0.551]   [H-I: 39]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1861-1664 - ISSN (Online) 0137-5881
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Physiological responses to drought stress in wild relatives of wheat:
           implications for wheat improvement
    • Authors: Alireza Pour-Aboughadareh; Jafar Ahmadi; Ali Ashraf Mehrabi; Alireza Etminan; Mohammad Moghaddam; Kadambot H. M. Siddique
      Abstract: Abstract Wild progenitors of common wheat are a potential source of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. We conducted a glasshouse pot experiment to study genotypic differences in response to drought stress in a collection of 180 accessions of Aegilops and Triticum along with one tolerant and one sensitive control variety. Several physiological traits and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated. Our findings indicated that drought significantly reduced shoot fresh (59.45%) and dry (50.83%) weights, stomatal conductance (41.52%) and maximum photosynthetic capacity (41.06%), but increased initial fluorescence (28.10%). Drought stress also decreased the chlorophyll content, relative water content and maximum quantum efficiency by 14.90, 12.13 and 11.42%, respectively. Principal component analysis of the 182 individuals identified three components that explained 57.61 and 61.68% of the total variation in physiological and photosynthetic traits under control and stress conditions, respectively. When grouped into the 12 species tested, the three top components explained 78.22% of the total variation under drought. The means comparison, stress tolerance index and biplot analysis identified five accessions with superior tolerance to drought. Remarkably, four species of wild relatives—Ae. cylindrica (DC genome), Ae. crassa (DM genome), Ae. caudata (C genome) and T. urartu (Au genome)—responded well to drought stress with a lower percentage decline for most traits and high values for the first two components. The potential of these species offers further opportunities for analysis at the molecular and cellular levels to confront with drought stress through a physiological mechanism.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2403-z
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Chemical composition of horse-chestnut ( Aesculus ) leaves and their
           susceptibility to chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella Deschka &
    • Authors: Maja Paterska; Hanna Bandurska; Joanna Wysłouch; Marta Molińska-Glura; Krzysztof Moliński
      Abstract: Abstract For over 20 years, trees of Aesculus spp. have been attacked by the larvae of Cameraria ohridella, which causes damage to the leaves. It has been observed that members of the genus Aesculus are characterized by diverse susceptibility to C. ohridella. Four specimens of the Aesculus genus which differ in susceptibility to this leaf miner—Aesculus turbinata (susceptible), Aesculus × neglecta (resistant) and two specimens of Aesculus hippocastanum (relatively susceptible and relatively resistant)—were examined. The levels of substances which may function as attractants (chloroplast pigments, anthocyanins), deterrents or repellents (flavonols, phenols), or a source of nutrients (free α-amino acids and carbohydrates) were determined in leaves of these four trees during two growing seasons. The results showed that the more pest-susceptible A. turbinata had, in both growing seasons, significantly higher levels of leaf carbohydrates and anthocyanins than the resistant Ae. × neglecta. Thus, anthocyanins and carbohydrates may be the traits which affect oviposition preference and favor the feeding of C. ohridella in the susceptible Ae. turbinata. The relatively susceptible specimen of Ae. hippocastanum contained slightly higher carbohydrate and anthocyanin levels than the relatively resistant one, but only in one growing season. Therefore, it does not explain the causes of their different susceptibility to the pest. The concentration of phenolics in the susceptible Ae. turbinata tree and the relatively susceptible Ae. hippocastanum individual was higher than in the resistant Ae. × neglecta and relatively resistant Ae. hippocastanum, respectively. This may suggest that leaf phenolic composition, but not overall concentration, is responsible for different susceptibility of examined trees of Aesculus spp. to the horse-chestnut leaf miner. The present results also demonstrate that the determined chemical compounds do not constitute a complete description of the biochemical relationships between C. ohridella and the examined horse-chestnut trees.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2404-y
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Gene expression analysis in drought tolerant and susceptible black pepper
           ( Piper nigrum L.) in response to water deficit stress
    • Authors: K. Johnson George; Neema Malik; I. P. Vijesh Kumar; K. S. Krishnamurthy
      Abstract: Abstract Drought or water deficit stress is one of the main environmental stresses affecting plants, resulting in reduced productivity and crop loss. Black pepper, a major spice cultivated across the globe, is drought sensitive and water stress often results in plant death. The present study compared the difference in physiological parameters: relative water content (RWC) and cell membrane leakage, and also analyzed the differential expression of 11 drought responsive genes in drought tolerant and drought sensitive black pepper genotypes. Tolerant black pepper genotype exhibited significantly higher RWC and lower cell membrane leakage 10 days after stress induction than the sensitive genotype. The relative expressions of the 11 selected drought responsive genes were normalized against ubiquitin and RNA-binding protein which was identified as the most stable reference genes in black pepper under the present experimental condition using the RefFinder software. Dehydrin showed the highest transcript accumulation in both the black pepper genotypes under drought stress condition and the relative expression of the gene was higher in the tolerant genotype compared to the susceptible. Similar pattern of higher relative expression was also observed in the stress responsive gene, osmotin. The membrane protein aquaporin and the transcription factor bZIP were relatively down-regulated in the tolerant genotype. The differential expression of these important drought responsive genes in tolerant genotype of black pepper indicates its further usefulness in developing varieties with improved water stress tolerance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2398-5
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Environmental conditions modulate plasticity in the physiological
           responses of three plant species of the Neotropical savannah
    • Authors: Vinícius Coelho Kuster; Silvana Aparecida Barbosa de Castro; Fernando Henrique Aguiar Vale
      Abstract: Abstract Plasticity in plants could be changed due to abiotic factors, tending to increase fitness across environments. In the Neotropical savannah, a strong water deficit during the dry season is one of the main factors limiting the plasticity in physiological responses of plants. The present study aims to assess the plasticity in physiological responses and vegetative phenology of three plant species of the Neotropical savannah (Cerrado in Brazil) during the dry and the rainy seasons. The three species, Byrsonima verbascifolia, Roupala montana, and Solanum lycocarpum, occur in Serra do Cipó in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The development and vegetative phenology of individuals of these three species were evaluated over the course of 1 year. In February 2012 (rainy season) and August 2012 (dry season), stomatal conductance (g s), water potential (Ψ), photosynthetic quantum yield, and concentration of leaf photosynthetic pigments were measured. The relative distance among the physiological parameters of all individuals within each season was measured using the relative distance plasticity index. B. verbascifolia has pronounced senescence in July and lost leaves completely by the early September, while R. montana and S. lycocarpum have green leaves throughout the year. The three studied species had greater control of stomatal opening during the dry season. S. lycocarpum and R. montana had negative water potential values in the dry season and in the middle of the day in both seasons. In the dry season, the three species exhibited a decrease in F v/F m, with values between 0.7 and 0.75. The relative distance plasticity index varied from 0 to 1. R. montana demonstrated the greatest plasticity and S. lycocarpum had lower plasticity. Then, a seasonal effect on physiological response was observed in all three model-species, with lower values for leaf water potential and stomatal conductance, and increased photoinhibition, in the dry season. Ecophysiological traits, such as stomatal conductance and leaf water potential, exhibited the greatest plasticity. In addition, there was a seasonal effect on the plasticity in physiological responses of the three plants species of the Neotropical savannah. The results are contradicting the idea that water restriction in the dry season would reduce the plasticity in most species of the Neotropical savannah.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2399-4
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Co 2+ in three barley
           genotypes under different Co 2+ levels
    • Authors: Jonas Lwalaba Wa Lwalaba; Gerald Zvobgo; Mulembo Mwamba; Imrul Mosaddek Ahmed; Robert Prince Mundende Mukobo; Guoping Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract The toxicity of many heavy metals in plants is closely associated with its subcellular distribution and chemical forms. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cobalt (Co2+) were investigated using 3 barley genotypes differing in Co2+ toxicity resistance, namely Yan66 (resistant), Ea 52 (sensitive), and Humai 4 (moderate), under two Co2+ levels (25 and 100 µM). Higher Co2+ level in cultural solution significantly increased Co2+ accumulation in all subcellular fractions, with vacuole and cell wall having higher concentration. In comparison with 25 µM Co2+, 100 µM Co2+ treatment caused significant increase of Co2+ concentration in the forms of F-NaCl (extracted with 1 M NaCl), F-Ac (extracted with 2% HAc), F-HCl (extracted by 0.6 M HCl), and F-residue (residue forms) in both shoots and roots. There was a significant difference among genotypes in Co2+ subcellular distribution and chemical forms, with Ea52 accumulating more Co2+ in organelles and Yan66 accumulating more Co2+ in vacuole and cell wall. Moreover, the inorganic form of Co2+ extracted with 80% ethanol (F-ethanol) and water-soluble form (F-H2O) were significantly increased in Ea52, while Yan66 accumulated more Co2+ in the forms of low-bioavailable molecules (F-NaCl, F-HAc, and F-HCl). The results suggest that the vacuolar sequestration and cell wall deposition of Co2+ is a key resistant mechanism for genotype Yan66.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2400-2
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis enhances tolerance to low phosphorous through
           expression of phosphate transporter genes in masson pine ( Pinus
           massoniana )
    • Authors: Ting Zhang; Xiao-Peng Wen; Gui-Jie Ding
      Abstract: Abstract Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis promotes the growth of masson pine (Pinus massoniana) in low-phosphorus (low-P) conditions; however, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been fully described. Here, we cloned four members of the Pht1 phosphate transporter protein family (GenBank accession: AMR43649.1 to AMR43652.1) encoding phosphate transporters in masson pine (PmPTs) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and characterized them in Boletus edulis and Pisolithus tinctorius colonized plants under low-P stress. PmPT1 to PmPT4 encoded 548, 548, 535, 535 amino acid polypeptides, respectively, containing the typical domain of the Pi:H+ symporter (PHS-transporter). Homology multiple sequence alignment indicated that these PmPTs were highly similar to phosphate transporters from other species. The polypeptides were characterized by high hydropathicity and contained 12 putative intra-membrane regions and 1 cytoplasmic loop. The temporal and spatial expression profiles showed higher expression of these PmPTs in ectomycorrhiza (ECM)-inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones. In addition, expressions of these PmPT members shared a similar pattern and might be intensively activated by low-P stress or inhibited under P excess. Interestingly, the ECM-colonized plants accumulated more phosphate compared to non-ECM-colonized specimens when exposed to low-P. Therefore, enhanced low-P tolerance in ECM-inoculated masson pine to low-P stress was at least partially dependent on the up-regulation of phosphate transporter genes, reflecting that the intimate interaction between plants and ECM fungi resulted in the improvement of P nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2392-y
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Analysis of genetic diversity among medicinal therapist Trigonella foenum
           - graecum L. genotypes through RAPD and SSR markers
    • Authors: Annu Sindhu; Suresh Kumar Tehlan; Ashok Chaudhury
      Abstract: Abstract Trigonella is recognized as a medicinal therapist throughout the globe due to its multifaceted rare medicinal properties. It is indigenous from Iran to Northern India but has gained global acceptance towards cultivation and consumption for its yellow-to-amber colored seed which substantially contributes to food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industry. Genetic diversity serves as an excellent tool for developing improved crop varieties with breeder preferred traits. Unfortunately, very little information available on variability existing in commercial Trigonella genotypes considerably impedes the crop improvement. In this study, ninety Trigonella genotypes belonging to most productive North Indian states were subjected to multilocus genotyping using RAPD (49) and SSR (13) primers and detected an average of 55.60 and 50.16% polymorphism, respectively. The percentage polymorphism range (RAPD, 16.7–90.90; SSR, 33.30–66.66) average band informativeness (RAPD, 0.182–0.85; SSR, 0.21–0.91) and resolving power (RAPD, 0.95–9.984; SSR, 1.68–7.28) obtained revealed the wide range of diversity prevailing among these genotypes. Hierarchical clustering of genotypes in nine different clusters showed Trigonella’s genetic variability has wide genetic distribution across different agro-climatic zones. No consistency was observed while grouping Trigonella varieties based on eco-geographical region. Eventually, knowledge of these genetic differences significantly contributes in designing intra-specific crosses with potential interest to spice breeding programs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic diversity using SSR molecular markers in Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2395-8
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Phenotypic variation between high and low elevation populations of Rumex
           nepalensis in the Himalayas is driven by genetic differentiation
    • Authors: Rupali Jandrotia; Probir Kumar Pal; Sanjay Kumar; Surender Kumar Vats
      Abstract: Abstract Rumex nepalensis, one of several plant species distributed across wide elevation gradient in Himalayas, was studied for difference in seed traits, phenology and photosynthetic characteristics in four populations from 800 m (sub-tropical population: SP), 1300 m (sub-temperate population: STP), 2200 m (temperate population: TP) and 4000 m (alpine population: AP) elevations above mean sea level. Seeds of AP were larger in size and germinated faster at 15 °C than at 25 °C compared to those from lower elevations. Seed raised four populations of the species studied under ex situ conditions of greenhouse showed that AP emerged late but was able to complete its post flowering phenophases much earlier, such that its life cycle was reduced by 14 days compared to SP. Ex-situ and in situ studies in the native habitat for all populations showed AP and SP to differed significantly in most of the photosynthetic traits, thus indicating the two populations to be genetically different. Further studies are required to understand how different genotypes of R. nepalensis would respond to atmospheric warming.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2396-7
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Metabolic signatures altered by in vitro temperature stress in Ajuga
           bracteosa Wall. ex. Benth.
    • Authors: Rehana Rani; Mubarak Ali Khan; Waqas Khan Kayani; Sami Ullah; Ijaz Naeem; Bushra Mirza
      Abstract: Abstract To elucidate how biosynthesis of plant metabolites is affected by temperature, metabolite profiles from in vitro regenerated plants raised under different temperature regimes of 10, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C were obtained using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to identify key metabolites. Several bin masses were detected by PCA loading scatter plots which separated the samples. In-house bin program selectively manifested the putative known metabolites depending on % total ions count and intensity of selected bins in the plant samples. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were harvested to highest levels (12.9 mg GAE/g DW and 9.3 mg QE/g DW), respectively, at 15 °C. Besides, pinoresinol (lignan), some of the vital amino acids such as serine, methionine, histidine and glutamine were found to be at higher amount in plants raised at 15 °C. Significant phenylpropanoids like cinnamic acid, caffeic acid and quercitol were detected at a higher concentration in plants raised at 15 °C as compared to other treatments. However, phosphoenolpyruvate, and oxalosuccinate (intermediates of the pentose phosphate pathway) were accumulated the most in plants raised at 30 °C and they were detected with lowest values at 10 °C. Glucose and deoxy-xylose 5 phosphate (intermediates of TCA cycle) were found in higher amounts at temperature treatments of 15 and 25 °C, respectively. We conclude that a low-temperature treatment (15 °C) results in a stress-induced accumulation of a variety of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2394-9
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Exogenous spermidine alleviates fruit granulation in a Citrus cultivar (
           Huangguogan ) through the antioxidant pathway
    • Authors: Bo Xiong; Shuang Ye; Xia Qiu; Ling Liao; Guochao Sun; Jinyu Luo; Lin Dai; Yi Rong; Zhihui Wang
      Abstract: Abstract The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating fruit granulation in the grafted seedlings of a Citrus cultivar (Huangguogan) was investigated. Granulation resulted in increased electrical conductivity, cell membrane permeability, and total pectin, soluble pectin, cellulose, and lignin contents. However, it decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, as well as the (Spd + Spm):Put ratio. The application of exogenous Spd onto Huangguogan seedlings significantly increased proline and ascorbate contents, but decreased the H2O2 and O 2 −· levels, which suggested that exogenous Spd provided some protection from oxidative damage. In addition, exogenous Spd decreased cell membrane permeability and MDA content, and increased the (Spd + Spm):Put ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, were increased in Spd-treated seedlings affected by fruit granulation, resulting in a decrease in oxidative stress levels. The protective effects of Spd were reflected by a decrease in superoxide levels through osmoregulation, increased proline and ascorbate contents, and increased antioxidant activities. Our observations reveal the importance of exogenous Spd in alleviating citrus fruit granulation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2397-6
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Different acclimatization mechanisms of two grass pea cultivars to osmotic
           stress in in vitro culture
    • Authors: Barbara Piwowarczyk; Krzysztof Tokarz; Wojciech Makowski; Aneta Łukasiewicz
      Abstract: Abstract Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a legume crop known from its tolerance to various abiotic stresses, especially drought. In this study, we investigated: (1) the response of grass pea seedlings to osmotic stress generated in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG); (2) potential drought acclimatization mechanisms of two polish grass pea cultivars. Grass pea seeds of two cultivars were sown on media containing different PEG concentrations (0, 5.5, 11.0 mM) and cultivated for 14 days in controlled conditions. Plants’ dry matter increased under osmotic stress (regardless of PEG concentration). In turn, the highest dose of PEG caused a reduction in seedling growth in both cultivars. Furthermore, PEG caused the peroxidase activity increase in whole seedlings and catalase (CAT) activity in roots. However, differences between cultivars were noted in: CAT activity in shoots; while phenols and anthocyanin content as well as electrolyte leakage in shoots and roots. In turn, in both tested genotypes, accumulation of proline increased in shoots under osmotic stress. Obtained results indicate that the examined plants, although belonging to the same species, differ in acclimatization processes leading to elevated tolerance to osmotic stress.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2389-6
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Molecular cloning and expression analysis of two FAD2 genes from chia (
           Salvia hispanica )
    • Authors: Yufei Xue; Nengwen Yin; Baojun Chen; Feifei Liao; Aung Naing Win; Jiayi Jiang; Rui Wang; Xiaoyun Jin; Na Lin; Yourong Chai
      Abstract: Abstract FATTY ACID DESATURASE 2 (FAD2, EC, also known as delta-12 oleate desaturase, is a key enzyme for linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid biosynthesis. Chia (Salvia hispanica) seeds contain the highest known proportion of α-linolenic acid in any plant sources. In this study, two full-length FAD2 genes, named as ShFAD2-1 and ShFAD2-2, were isolated from S. hispanica based on RACE method. Both ShFAD2-1 and ShFAD2-2 proteins possess strong transmembrane helices, three histidine motifs and a C-terminal ER-located signal (YNNKL). Phylogenetic analysis showed that both ShFAD2-1 and ShFAD2-2 are grouped with constitutive plant FAD2s. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that ShFAD2-1 and ShFAD2-2 genes both encode a bio-functional delta-12 oleate desaturase. ShFAD2-2 was mainly expressed in flowers and early-stage seeds while ShFAD2-1 expression was almost constitutive in different organs. qRT-PCR results demonstrated that ShFAD2-1 and ShFAD2-2 show a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, whereas they also were differentially up-regulated or repressed by other abiotic stresses. This is the first cloning and function characterization of FAD2 from S. hispanica, which can provide insights into molecular mechanism of high ALA traits of S. hispanica and enrich our understanding of the roles of FAD2 genes in various abiotic stresses.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2390-0
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of culture container and carbohydrate content on in vitro slow
           growth storage of the cherry rootstock ‘Gisela ® 5’
    • Authors: Elif Aylin Ozudogru; Carla Benelli; Giuliano Dradi; Maurizio Lambardi
      Abstract: Abstract The present study investigated the effects of gas-tight and gas-permeable culture containers and different sucrose concentrations, as well as sucrose and mannitol combinations on the development of an effective in vitro slow growth storage protocol (at 4 °C, in darkness) for ‘Gisela®5’ shoot cultures. ‘Gisela®5’ is the most widely used cherry rootstock in Europe. This dwarf triploid hybrid has many advantages over the conventional cherry rootstocks. Optimizations for the cold storage of ‘Gisela®5’ in vitro shoot cultures included use of storage medium supplemented with 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 g L−1 sucrose and sucrose (15, 30 g L−1) and mannitol (15 g L−1) combinations, contained in gas-tight glass jars and gas-permeable ‘Star Pac™’ bags. Cold storage was prolonged to 12 months, during which in every 3 months, cultures were evaluated. Possibility of 16 month-cold storage in gas-tight glass jars was also explored, during which gas chromatographic analysis was performed for the detection of CO2 and ethylene accumulation for the first 5 months of cold storage. Our results showed that both the 12- and 16-month conservations were possible, especially when 45 or 60 g L−1 sucrose was supplemented to storage medium, contained in glass jars. Mannitol inclusion to the storage medium was also effective to reduce the metabolic activity of the shoot cultures during storage; however, it did not have a significant positive influence on shoot quality in post-conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2372-2
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the GRAS family
           proteins in Medicago truncatula
    • Authors: Lili Song; Lei Tao; Huiping Cui; Lei Ling; Changhong Guo
      Abstract: Abstract The GRAS gene family performs a variety of functions in plant growth and development processes, and they also play essential roles in plant response to environmental stresses. Medicago truncatula is a diploid plant with a small genome used as a model organism. Despite the vital role of GRAS genes in plant growth regulation, few studies on these genes in M. truncatula have been conducted to date. Using the M. truncatula reference genome data, we identified 68 MtGRAS genes, which were classified into 16 groups by phylogenetic analysis, located on eight chromosomes. The structure analysis indicated that MtGRAS genes retained a relatively constant exon–intron composition during the evolution of the M. truncatula genome. Most of the closely related members in the phylogenetic tree had similar motif compositions. Different motifs distributed in different groups of the MtGRAS genes were the sources of their functional divergence. Twenty-eight MtGRAS genes were expressed in six tissues, namely root, bud, blade, seedpod, nodule, and flower tissues, suggesting their putative function in many aspects of plant growth and development. Nine MtGRAS genes were upregulated under cold, freezing, drought, ABA, and salt stress treatments, indicating that they play vital roles in the response to abiotic stress in M. truncatula. Our study provides valuable information that can be utilized to improve the quality and agronomic benefits of M. truncatula and other plants.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2393-x
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Evaluation of malathion-induced cytogenetical effects and oxidative stress
           in plants using Allium test
    • Authors: Divya Singh; Bijoy Krishna Roy
      Abstract: Abstract The present study emphasized to explore the toxicity effect of malathion on plants using Allium test. The experiments explored the mitotic inhibition, growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes in roots of Allium cepa at different concentrations (50, 125, 250 and 375 ppm) of malathion under different exposure periods (3, 9 and 18 h). The results revealed that all concentrations of malathion were capable to decline the root growth. Malathion-induced mitotic alterations varying from reduction in mitotic index (MI), relative division rate (RDR) and phase distribution along with large number of chromosomal aberrations. These changes were of varying degree depending on the concentration and treatment period. The roots treated with malathion (375 ppm) showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) higher levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase than the control, while the activity of peroxidase was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) low. At 375 ppm malathion, malondialdehyde content was significantly high (p ≤ 0.05) that was increased with the treatment period. Findings concluded that variations in mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, alterations in malondialdehyde content and activities of antioxidant enzyme could serve as the useful indicators for monitoring the effects of malathion exposures in the real scenario. Superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme play vital roles in the antioxidant defence mechanisms under malathion toxicity. According to the data on the malondialdehyde content show malathion to be capable of producing superoxide radicals indirectly, and to result in membrane damage and oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2391-z
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • Cassava postharvest physiological deterioration: a complex phenomenon
           involving calcium signaling, reactive oxygen species and programmed cell
    • Authors: Astride S. M. Djabou; Luiz J. C. B. Carvalho; Qing X. Li; Nicolas Niemenak; Songbi Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is a complex physiological and biochemical process which involve many regulatory networks linked with specific proteins modulation and signaling transduction pathways. However, it is poorly understood regarding biological regulation, and the interactions among protein groups and signals to determine PPD syndrome in cassava storage roots. This review sheds some light on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium signaling transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD) in cassava PPD syndrome. A model for predicting crosstalk among calcium signaling, ROS and PCD is suggested to fine-tune PPD syndrome. This would clues to cassava molecular breeding to alleviate the PPD effects on the shelf-life.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2382-0
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 4 (2017)
  • A barley mutant with improved salt tolerance through ion homeostasis and
           ROS scavenging under salt stress
    • Authors: Davood Kiani; Hassan Soltanloo; Seyyede Sanaz Ramezanpour; Ali Asghar Nasrolahnezhad Qumi; Ahad Yamchi; Khalil Zaynali Nezhad; Elahe Tavakol
      Abstract: Abstract To investigate key regulatory components and genes with great impact on salt tolerance, near isogenic or mutant lines with distinct salinity tolerance are suitable genetic materials to simplify and dissect the complex genes networks. In this study, we evaluated responses of a barley mutant genotype (73-M4-30), in comparison with its wild-type background (Zarjou) under salt stress. Although the root growth of both genotypes was significantly decreased by exposure to sodium chloride (NaCl), the effect was greater in the wild type. The chlorophyll content decreased under salt stress for the wild type, but no change occurred in the mutant. The mutant maintained the steady-state level of [K+] and significantly lower [Na+] concentrations in roots and higher [K+]/[Na+] ratio in shoots under salt conditions. The catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) activity, and proline content were higher in the mutant than those in the wild type under controlled conditions. The soluble proline was higher after 24 h of salt stress in roots of the mutant but was higher after 96 h of salt stress in the wild type. The CAT and POD activity of the mutant increased under salt stress which was as a coincidence to lower levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. The ratio of dry-to-fresh weight of the roots increased for the mutant under salt stress which was as a result of the higher phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene expression and peroxidase activity and involved in cell wall lignification. Consequently, it seems that ion homeostasis and increased peroxidase activity have led to salt tolerance in the mutant’s genotype.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2359-z
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 3 (2017)
  • Contrasting effects of warming on pioneer and fibrous roots growth in
           Abies faxoniana seedlings at low and high planting density
    • Authors: Yuanbing Lu; Shuxin Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Shuming Peng; Baoli Duan
      Abstract: Key message Distinct differences in pioneer and fibrous roots acclimation to climate warming. This study was conducted to determine whether belowground parts of plants at different planting density differ in their responses to elevated temperature (ET). We investigated plant growth, pioneer and fibrous roots growth, root nonstructural carbohydrates, and root colonization of Abies faxoniana seedlings grown in environment-controlled chambers with two different planting densities. Warming has more pronounced positive effects at low density. Although ET did not affect total root biomass, fibrous roots biomass increased under ET at low planting density while pioneer roots biomass was unaffected by ET, indicating that this species may maintain the main framework of the root system with a high capability for water and N absorption under ET. ET increased root nonstructural carbohydrates concentration and ectomycorrhiza colonization in fibrous roots. Increased root nonstructural carbohydrates in response to ET might be associated with the increased roots ectomycorrhizal infection under ET. The present study provided experimental evidence of distinct differences in pioneer and fibrous roots acclimation to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2388-7
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 3 (2017)
  • Analysis of the impact of drought on selected morphological, biochemical
           and physiological traits of rye inbred lines
    • Authors: Ilona Czyczyło-Mysza; Beata Myśków
      Abstract: Abstract The complex nature of plant resistance to drought makes the process of selecting the appropriate genes that increase the resistance to drought very difficult. With the future in mind, the aim of our study was to search for physiological and biochemical parameters which could provide a basis for the identification of genes controlling rye resistance to drought stress. The experiments were carried out on three inbred lines of rye: S120, S76 and M112, a recombinant inbred line of population RIL-M; lines in the tillering phase were subjected to drought stress for 4 weeks. Selected physiological indicators of PSII photochemical system [chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics (FC) and photosynthetic pigment contents (PPC)], biochemical indicators (proline, soluble sugars, total phenolics) and selected agronomic traits were determined. Drought did not significantly affect the majority of the measured FC and PPC parameters in any of the three lines. Due to the different reactions of the lines to drought stress, depending on the analyzed characteristics, the authors concluded that the analyzed indicators can be used to study QTL locations in response to drought stress in the RIL-M mapping population of rye.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2385-x
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 3 (2017)
  • Different response of an elite Bt restorer line of hybrid rice ( Oryza
           sativa L.) in adaptation to nitrogen deficiency
    • Authors: Yang Jiang; Lin Ling; Lingli Zhang; Abigail Domingo; Mingli Cai; Chengfang Li; Ming Zhan; Jinping Wang; Cougui Cao
      Abstract: Abstract Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice have been reported to acquire effective resistance against the target pests; however, the insertion and expression of alien Bt genes may have some unintended effects on the growth characteristics of rice. A screen-house experiment was conducted and repeated twice to investigate the growth characteristics and Bt protein expressions in two Bt rice lines [MH63 (Cry2A*) and MH63 (Cry1Ab/Ac)], which had different Bt protein expression levels in leaves, under zero nitrogen (N0) and recommended nitrogen (NR) fertilizer applications. Compared to the counterpart MH63, MH63 (Cry2A*) under N0 experienced accelerated leaf senescence and a lower internal N use efficiency (IEN), resulting in a 23.2% decrease in grain yield and a lower accumulated biomass. These variations were revealed to be correlated to the higher ratio of the Bt protein content to the soluble protein content (BTC/SPC) with a maximum value of 4.3‰ in MH63 (Cry2A*) leaves in the late growth stage. Under NR, no differences in growth characteristics between MH63 (Cry2A*) and MH63 were found. The growth characteristics of MH63 (Cry1Ab/Ac), with a lower BTC/SPC in the late growth stage compared to MH63 (Cry2A*), were identical to those of MH63 under the two N applications. Results show that the transgenic Bt rice MH63 (Cry2A*), with a relatively higher Bt protein expression in the late growth stage, had an inferior adaptation to nitrogen deficiency compared to its non-Bt counterpart. And this inferior adaptation was found to be correlated with the higher BTC/SPC in MH63 (Cry2A*) leaves in the late growth stage.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2384-y
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 3 (2017)
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