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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Physiologiae Plantarum
  [SJR: 0.551]   [H-I: 39]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1861-1664 - ISSN (Online) 0137-5881
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation and mitigates toxic effects in
           cowpea plants
    • Authors: Lucélia Rosa de Jesus; Bruno Lemos Batista; Allan Klynger da Silva Lobato
      Abstract: Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in the Earth’s surface, and Al toxicity promotes several negative effects in plant metabolism. Silicon (Si) is the second most common mineral in soil and is considered a beneficial element for plants, improving their tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The aim of this study is to determine whether Si can reduce the accumulation of Al, explain the possible contribution of Si in mitigating Al toxicity, and indicate the better Si dose–response for cowpea plants. The experiment had a factorial design with two levels of aluminum (0 and 10 mM Al) and three levels of silicon (0, 1.25 and 2.50 mM Si). The utilization of Si in plants exposed to Al toxicity contributed to significant reductions in the Al contents of all tissues, corresponding to reductions of 51, 29 and 41% in roots, stems and leaves, respectively, upon treatment with 2.50 mM Si + 10 mM Al compared to the control treatment (0 mM Si + 10 mM Al). Al toxicity promoted decreases in ΦPSII, qP and ETR, whereas 2.50 mM Si induced increases of 54, 185 and 29%, respectively. Plants exposed to Al had lower values of P N, WUE and P N/C i, whereas Si application at a concentration of 2.50 mM yielded improvements of 53, 32 and 67%, respectively. Al exposure increased SOD, CAT, APX and POX activities, whereas treatment with 2.50 mM Si + 10 mM Al produced significant variations of 72, 97, 48 and 32%, respectively, compared to 0 mM Si + 10 mM Al. Our results proved that Si reduced the Al contents in all tissues. Si also improved the photochemical efficiency of PSII, gas exchange, pigments and antioxidant enzymes, contributing to a reduction in the accumulation of oxidative compounds. These benefits corroborate the multiple roles exercised by Si in metabolism and reveal that Si immobilizes the Al in roots and reduce the accumulation of this metal in other organs, mitigating the damage caused by Al in cowpea plants. In relation to dose–response, plants exposed to 1.25 mM Si without Al presented better results in terms of growth, whereas the toxic effects of plants exposed to Al were mitigated with 2.50 mM Si.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2435-4
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Effects of watering regime and nitrogen application rate on the
           photosynthetic parameters, physiological characteristics, and agronomic
           traits of rice
    • Authors: Xiaochuang Cao; Chu Zhong; Hussain Sajid; Lianfeng Zhu; Junhua Zhang; Lianghuan Wu; Qianyu Jin
      Abstract: Abstract Water and nitrogen (N) are two of the most important abiotic factors limiting rice yield. However, a little information is available on why a moderate water and N interaction significantly increase rice biomass, from the point of view of photosynthetic physiology. A pot experiment with three water regimes [continued flood (CF), alternate wetting and moderate drying (WMD), and alternate wetting and severe drying (WSD)] and four N application levels (no nitrogen, N0; 90 kg hm−2, N1; 180 kg hm−2, N2; 270 kg hm−2, N3) was carried out to investigate this problem. Results demonstrated that WSD significantly inhibited rice height, leaf area, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and yield at the four different N levels, as compared to that with CF and WMD. However, WMD substantially alleviated these reductions, and their values were not significantly different from those of CF. Contents of leaf soluble protein and total chlorophyll in WMD were increased compared to the WSD, and this mitigating effect was beneficial to the increase of rice photosynthesis and yield development. Photosynthesis in rice leaf was significantly affected by water status but not N level. Analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of water on spikelet number, which indicates that the reduction of spikelet number under water stress may be the major reason for its low yield. Therefore, we concluded that WMD could be considered as an effective water management regime to obtain high yield in rice production, and its strengthened drought tolerance was closely associated with the higher dry matter and in the physiological characteristics including an increase in spikelet number, chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, and photosynthetic rate.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2432-7
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Intra- and inter-cultivar impacts of salinity stress on leaf
           photosynthetic performance, carbohydrates and nutrient content of nine
           indigenous Greek olive cultivars
    • Authors: P. A. Roussos; A. Assimakopoulou; A. Nikoloudi; I. Salmas; K. Nifakos; P. Kalogeropoulos; G. Kostelenos
      Abstract: Abstract Nine indigenous Greek olive cultivars (‘Aetonicholia Kynourias’, ‘Arvanitolia Serron’, ‘Ntopia Atsicholou’, ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Lefkolia Serron’, ‘Ntopia Pierias’, ‘Petrolia Serron’, ‘Smertolia’ and ‘Chryssophylli’) were evaluated for their tolerance to salinity stress (four levels of sodium chloride salt, i.e., 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) under hydroponic conditions. Their photosynthetic performance, leaf carbohydrates (mannitol, glucose, fructose and sucrose) and nutrients (nitrogen, potassium, calcium, sodium and chloride) were assessed. Photosynthetic performance was reduced under salt stress and this was mostly evident in ‘Koroneiki’ and ‘Ntopia Atsicholou’ (approximately 20% of the corresponding controls), while ‘Ntopia Pierias’, ‘Smertolia’ and ‘Petrolia Serron’ did not exhibit significant changes with salinity level. Photosynthesis (A) was reduced mainly due to severe stomatal limitations. A weak correlation was detected between A and intercellular CO2 (Ci) indicating a minor role of non-stomatal limitations. Carbohydrates in the leaves did not seem to undergo significant changes. Mannitol accumulated in ‘Chryssophylli’ leaves and glucose in ‘Arvanitolia Serron’ leaves under the highest salinity level. Potassium concentration per leaf water volume was significantly reduced (especially under the highest salinity level −45 to 60% of control). Calcium was not significantly affected although Ca/Na ratio was reduced, due to the great increase of sodium concentration. ‘Lefkolia Serron’ and ‘Arvanitolia Serron’ accumulated the least sodium in their leaves, exhibiting high K/Na ratio under the highest salinity level, indicating a better regulation of potassium influx under high sodium concentration. Based on the present data and on previous research ‘Lefkolia Serron’ and ‘Arvanitolia Serron’ are the two cultivars with the highest tolerance against salinity stress.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2431-8
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Diversity of low-molecular weight organic acids synthesized by Salix
           growing in soils characterized by different Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations
    • Authors: Z. Magdziak; M. Mleczek; P. Rutkowski; P. Goliński
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the biosynthesis and exudation of 10 low-molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) into the rhizosphere with a simultaneous analysis of the acid contents in the roots and leaves of 9 Salix taxa growing on two experimental areas, differing in their concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in the soil (Area 1—low, Area 2—high concentration). The obtained results reveal a significant difference in the phytoextraction of the tested Salix taxa for the analysed metals in both areas. The highest contents of Cu, Pb and Zn were observed for all Salix collected from Area 2, especially in S. × smithiana roots (116 ± 8.76, 87.84 ± 7.30 and 203.42 ± 14.62 mg kg−1 DW, respectively). The results obtained in Area 2 also revealed acidification of the rhizosphere and a higher concentration of acids, mainly oxalic, malic, malonic, acetic and citric acids. Contents of oxalic, malic, acetic and citric acids increased in the roots of Salix taxa from Area 2, while in the leaves formic and succinic acids were also present. S. × smithiana was the taxon with the highest concentration of acids in the rhizosphere and roots (73.48 ± 6.77 and 49.79 ± 2.65 μM 100 g−1 DW, respectively), while in leaves a higher content was observed for S. alba and S. viminalis ‘PR’ taxa (78.12 ± 3.95 and 71.12 ± 3.75 μM 100 g−1 DW, respectively).
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2434-5
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Inhibition of recombinant human histidine decarboxylase activity in
           different strawberry cultivars
    • Authors: Yuichi Uno; Yoko Nitta; Misaki Ishibashi; Yuji Noguchi; Hiroe Kikuzaki
      Abstract: Abstract Strawberry fruit contains many constituents, some of which have the potential to inhibit histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity. HDC converts l-histidine to histamine, which is associated with allergic and other biological reactions in the human body. The HDC inhibition levels were different and the component ratios varied by genotype in strawberry. Among the 11 cultivars collected locally in Japan, ‘Tokun’ had an approximately ten times higher inhibition ratio than the lowest cultivar. The reproducibility was confirmed using five cultivars under the same conditions in a glass greenhouse, suggesting that genotypic variation is a major factor of HDC inhibition. The potential inhibitors of HDC might be polyphenols because they showed moderate correlations with HDC inhibition rates. Among the polyphenols, the anthocyanin content possessed a moderate negative correlation. Ascorbic acid, which contributes to the overestimation of total polyphenol, did not independently inhibit HDC activity. These findings will support the identification of potential HDC inhibitors in strawberry and indicated that genotypic differences would make useful probes for inhibitor identification.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2430-9
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in
           sugarcane under normal and GA 3 -induced source–sink perturbed
    • Authors: I. Verma; K. Roopendra; A. Sharma; R. Jain; R. K. Singh; A. Chandra
      Abstract: Abstract Sugarcane accumulates high amount of sucrose, thus making it one of the important cash crops worldwide. The final destination of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane is sink tissue, i.e., stalk, supplied by the source, i.e., leaf, to fulfill the need of plant growth, respiration, storage, and other metabolic activities. Signals between sink and source tissues regulate sucrose accumulation in sink and possibly the negative feedback from the sink restrains further accumulation in the stalk. However, perturbation of this negative feedback may help to improve sugar yield. This can be achieved by the application of GA3 (Gibberellic acid), a plant growth regulator, known to excite physiological responses and modify the source–sink metabolism through their effect on photosynthesis, which in turn improves sink strength by redistribution of the photoassimilates. In the present study, GA3 applied canes showed prominent increase in invertase activity, at early stage of the application, to provide hexoses. This in turn helped increase the internodal length and cane capacity for additional accumulation of sucrose, thereby increasing sink strength. At maturity, sucrose% and brix% were found higher in middle and top portions of the GA3-applied canes. Expression analysis of various sucrose metabolising genes viz., sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SuSy), soluble acid invertase, neutral invertase, and cell wall invertase (CWI) was carried out at different growth stages, using quantitative RT-PCR. CWI, which plays key role in phloem unloading in sink tissues, exhibited higher expression in GA3 samples at the elongation stage which decreased with maturity, whereas both SuSy and SPS, involved in regulation of sucrose accumulation, showed a variable level of expression. Thus, GA3 application on cane may improve the sucrose content in stalk and thus assuage maneuvering source–sink dynamics in sugarcane.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2433-6
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Alleviation of cadmium toxicity by potassium supplementation involves
           various physiological and biochemical features in Nicotiana tabacum L.
    • Authors: Xinke Wang; Min Shi; Pengfei Hao; Weite Zheng; Fangbin Cao
      Abstract: Abstract Potassium (K+) plays important roles in the development of plants and the response to various environmental stresses. However, the involvement of potassium in alleviating heavy metal stress in tobacco remains elusive. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments were conducted to evaluate the alleviating effects of K+ on tobacco subjected to cadmium (Cd) toxicity using four different K+ levels. Dose-dependent increases of plant biomass were found in both 0-μM Cd and 5-μM Cd treatments under different K+ levels, with the exception of the 1-mM KHCO3 (K3) treatment. The best mitigation effect was recorded with the 0.5-mM K+ (K2) treatment, which greatly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition, photosynthesis reduction, and oxidative stress. Compared with K0 treatment (no KHCO3 addition), K2 treatment significantly reduced Cd uptake and translocation after 5 and 10 days of Cd treatment. Moreover, the net photosynthetic rate, intracellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate as well as K+, zinc, manganese, copper, and iron concentrations in both shoots and roots after 10 days of Cd treatment significantly improved under the K2 treatment, and malondialdehyde accumulation in both shoots and roots was repressed, compared with K0 + Cd. Superoxide dismutase was found to play key roles in alleviating Cd-induced oxidative pressure in shoots of plants in K2 treatment under Cd treatment. Our findings advocate a positive role for K+ in reducing pollutant residues for safe production, especially in soils slightly or moderately polluted with Cd.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2424-7
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Induction of two cyclotide-like genes Zmcyc1 and Zmcyc5 by abiotic and
           biotic stresses in Zea mays
    • Authors: Hemn Salehi; Bahman Bahramnejad; Mohammad Majdi
      Abstract: Abstract Cyclotides are small plant disulfide-rich and cyclic proteins with a diverse range of biological activities. Cyclotide-like genes show key sequence features of cyclotides and are present in the Poaceae. In this study the cDNA of the nine cyclotide-like genes were cloned and sequenced using 3′RACE from Zea mays. The gene expression of two of these genes (Zmcyc1 and Zmcyc5) were analyzed by real-time PCR in response to biotic (Fusarium graminearum, Ustilago maydis and Rhopalosiphum maydis) and abiotic (mechanical wounding, water deficit and salinity) stresses, as well as in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate elicitors to mimic biotic stresses. All isolated genes showed significant similarity to other cyclotide-like genes and were classified in two separate clusters. Both Zmcyc1 and Zmcyc5 were expressed in all studied tissues with the highest expression in leaves and lowest expression in roots. Wounding, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid significantly induced the expression of Zmcyc1 and Zmcyc5 genes, but the higher expression was observed for Zmcyc1 as compared with Zmcyc5. Expression levels of these two genes were also induced in inoculated leaves with F. graminearum, U. maydis and also in response to insect infestation. In addition, the 1000-base-pairs (bp) upstream of the promoter of Zmcyc1 and Zmcyc5 genes were identified and analyzed using the PlantCARE database and consequently a large number of similar biotic and abiotic cis-regulatory elements were identified for these two genes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2425-6
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • The effects of innovative silicon applications on growth and powdery
           mildew control in soilless-grown cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and
           zucchini ( Cucurbita pepo L.)
    • Authors: Monica Vercelli; Andrea Minuto; Giovanni Minuto; Valeria Contartese; Marco Devecchi; Federica Larcher
      Abstract: Abstract Silicon (Si) is one of the most beneficial microelements for several plants, in mediating the growth regulation in horticultural species. This research evaluated the effects of innovative Si-applications on. soilless-grown Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita pepo L. Crop growth, powdery mildew incidence and abiotic stress resistance were evaluated. Two experiments were carried out in a nonheated glasshouse on benches. Two new Si treatments (Si–Nanosponge complex, and one experimental fertilizer) were compared with the traditional K2SiO3. Topas® EC 10 was used as control fungicide treatment. Biometric parameters, and incidence and severity of powdery mildew were measured. Cucumis sativus plants showed a severe powdery mildew infection, and no significant effect of the Si treatments was found. Cucurbita pepo plants were initially grown under lower disease pressure conditions, and the positive effect of Si treatments was found. The innovative use of Si–Nanosponge complex and the new experimental fertilizer can be considered a good alternative to traditional compounds for plant growth stimulation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2426-5
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Transcriptome profiling of cucumber genome expression in response to
           long-term low nitrogen stress
    • Authors: Ming Xin; Lei Wang; Yunping Liu; Zhuo Feng; Xiuyan Zhou; Zhiwei Qin
      Abstract: Abstract The present study aimed to delineate the genes mediating nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the response to long-term nitrogen limitation. As an economically important crop, cucumber is strongly nitrogen dependent. The mechanisms underlying nitrogen metabolism in cucumber are not fully known. This study found that cucumber developed to a 3.5-leaf stage with reduced plant size and biomass under chronic low nitrogen stress condition. Gene expression profiling and analysis of cucumber roots and leaves under nitrogen-starved condition identified a total of 2991 unigenes as reliable differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome revealed that the mechanisms underlying the response of cucumber roots to nitrogen-deficient stress were considerably different from those of its leaves. Importantly, the DEGs involved in the photosynthesis were almost downregulated, suggesting that the photosystem was sensitive to nitrogen starvation. Otherwise, the nitrate metabolic pathway of cucumber was suppressed by nitrogen deficiency, which was further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. This study represents a comparative analysis of the transcriptome levels of roots and leaves of cucumber, which possibly provides a valuable resource for further investigating the mechanism underlying plant response to long-term nitrogen limitation stress along with the candidate genes controlling the nitrogen metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2429-2
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Physiological and epigenetic analyses of Brassica napus seed germination
           in response to salt stress
    • Authors: Yujie Fang; Jian Li; Jinjin Jiang; Yulu Geng; Jinglei Wang; Youping Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Salinity stress significantly affects plant growth and development because of osmotic stress, ion toxicity, and nutrient imbalance. Therefore, salinity stress becomes a serious threat to rapeseed production in agriculture. Plants evolved a series of complex mechanisms, including morphological changes, physiological adjustment, and gene expression regulation, at a molecular level to adapt to salt stress. Epigenetic regulations, including DNA methylation and histone modification, play a major role in tuning gene expression in plant response to environmental stimuli. Although many progresses have been reported in plant response to salt stress, the epigenetic changes in Brassica napus under salt stress are far from being understood. A series of physiological parameters, including water content, proline content, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage, and antioxidant enzyme activities, under different concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 mM) of NaCl treatment in “Yangyou 9” was determined at the germination stage. Immunofluorescent staining and high-performance liquid chromatography-assisted quantification were conducted to analyze the level and distribution patterns of DNA and histone methylation under salt stress. Results of morphological and physiological analyses under salt stress indicated that 25 mM NaCl treatment promoted the growth of “Yangyou 9” seedlings, whereas 50 and 100 mM NaCl treatments inhibited the growth of “Yangyou 9” seedlings. Epigenetic investigations showed that 25 mM NaCl mediated the enrichment of H3K4me3, as well as decreases in H3K9me2 and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), whereas 50 and 100 mM NaCl induced increases in H3K9me2 and 5-mC and a decrease in H3K4me3. Overall, this study offers new insights into the epigenetic changes in salt stress response in rapeseed, and this information would be propitious to engineer crops with enhanced salt tolerance.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2427-4
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Growth activity, rooting capacity, and tropism: three auxinic precepts
           fulfilled by melatonin
    • Authors: M. B. Arnao; J. Hernández-Ruiz
      Abstract: Abstract Plant melatonin appears to be a multiregulatory molecule with multiple functions similar to those observed in animals. It induces growth in stems and stimulates root generation. It is also able to delay senescence by protecting photosynthetic systems and related processes. One of the most studied actions of melatonin is its effect on biotic and abiotic stresses in the plant, such as that produced by drought, extreme temperatures, chemical pollution, UV radiation, etc. Recent data have demonstrated its role as a modulator of gene expression in plants. In this review, we compare studies which show that melatonin behaves in a similar way to auxin, and present data that relate the physiological responses produced by melatonin with the action of auxin, such as promoting/inhibiting growth activity and rooting capacity. In addition, for the first time, the data presented demonstrate the possible involvement of melatonin in the tropic response of roots. The possible role of melatonin as a plant regulator and its relationship with auxin action and the signaling molecule nitric oxide is presented and discussed in a hypothetical model.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2428-3
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Water-retention additives’ effects on plant water status and some
           physiological parameters of two olive cultivars under reduced irrigation
    • Authors: Roohallah Farzi; Mahdiyeh Gholami; Bahram Baninasab
      Abstract: Abstract In arid and semi-arid zones of world, the majority of annual rainfall or irrigation water is lost due to high evaporation from the soil. The amount of available water in soil can be increased by surface mulching. However, the effect varies with soils, climate and kind of mulch material used. Some physiological and biochemical parameters of two olive cultivars (‘Konservolea’ and ‘Manzanilla’) as affected by different water-retention additives (organic, chemical and mineral mulches and hydrogel) and two amounts of irrigation water were studied in pot experiments during 2013. Water stress affects plant water relations and photosynthesis and caused oxidative stress in olive. Our results confirmed that water-retention additives partly mitigated the adverse effects of water stress on olive restoring most of the measured parameters similar to those of control unstressed plants. Mulching treatment enhanced antioxidative defenses and reduced water deficit-induced oxidative damage in olive compared to zero mulching treatment. The results indicated that de-oiled olive pomace mulch and pistachio shell mulch—as new mulch materials—proved to be very effective for soil water conservation under arid conditions. It can be concluded that water management through mulch application can strongly influence the cultivar response to water deficit.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2417-6
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Chemical and hydraulic signals regulate stomatal behavior and
           photosynthetic activity in maize during progressive drought
    • Authors: Hui Yan; Lifeng Wu; Fiona Filardo; Xiuxia Yang; Xiaomin Zhao; Donghui Fu
      Abstract: Abstract The objectives of this study were to investigate stomatal regulation in maize seedlings during progressive soil drying and to determine the impact of stomatal movement on photosynthetic activity. In well-watered and drought-stressed plants, leaf water potential (Ψ leaf), relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (g s), photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf instantaneous water use efficiency (iWUEleaf), and abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin-riboside (ZR) accumulation were measured. Results showed that g s decreased significantly with progressive drought and stomatal limitations were responsible for inhibiting photosynthesis in the initial stages of short-term drought. However, after 5 days of withholding water, non-stomatal limitations, such as damage to the PSII reaction center, became the main limiting factor. Stomatal behavior was correlated with changes in both hydraulic and chemical signals; however, changes in ABA and ZR occurred prior to any change in leaf water status. ABA in leaf and root tissue increased progressively during soil drying, and further analysis found that leaf ABA was negatively correlated with g s (R 2 = 0.907, p < 0.05). In contrast, leaf and root ZR decreased gradually. ZR in leaf tissue was positively correlated with g s (R 2 = 0.859, p < 0.05). These results indicate that ABA could induce stomatal closure, and ZR works antagonistically against ABA in stomatal behavior. In addition, the ABA/ZR ratio also had a strong correlation with g s, suggesting that the combined chemical signal (the interaction between ABA and cytokinin) plays a role in coordinating stomatal behavior. In addition, Ψ leaf and RWC decreased significantly after only 3 days of drought stress, also affecting stomatal behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2418-5
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • N -Octanoyl tyramine, a phytotoxic compound in the roots of Cymbopogon
    • Authors: Prapaipit Suwitchayanon; Osamu Ohno; Kiyotake Suenaga; Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
      Abstract: Abstract Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) is a perennial herb. Many researchers have studied the exploitation of the active compounds in this plant for medicinal purposes, but there have been no studies on its phytotoxic compounds. Therefore, we investigated the phytotoxic active compounds in the roots of C. nardus. A significant inhibition was observed on the germination of cress (Lepidium sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) by the aqueous methanol extract of C. nardus roots. The extract decreased the total germination percentage (GP) and germination index (GI, progressive total of daily cumulative germination), and extended the time required for 50% germination (T 50) of all test species. A phytotoxic compound of the extract was isolated and identified as N-octanoyl tyramine by spectral analysis. This compound showed the inhibition on the germination of cress and barnyard grass. The decline in GP, GI, and T 50 was observed at concentrations of 30–2000 μM of N-octanoyl tyramine. The compound also showed the significant inhibition on the growth of cress and barnyard grass seedlings at concentrations greater than 100 and 300 μM, respectively. This study suggests that C. nardus could produce phytotoxic compounds, and N-octanoyl tyramine may be responsible for its phytotoxic activity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2419-4
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Intrashoot variation in aerobic methane emissions from pea plants exposed
           to multiple abiotic stresses
    • Authors: Awatif M. Abdulmajeed; Mirwais M. Qaderi
      Abstract: Abstract Methane (CH4) emissions from plants have been shown to increase with stress factors. However, the effects of multiple environmental stressors on CH4 emissions from various shoot parts have not been studied. Peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. 237J Sundance) were used to determine CH4 emissions from the upper, middle and lower parts of shoot. Plants were grown in controlled-environment chambers under temperature regime of 22/18 or 28/24 °C (16-h light/8-h dark), ultraviolet-B (UVB) level of 0 or 5 kJ m−2 day−1, and watering to field capacity (well-watered) or at wilting point (water-stressed). Methane emission, photosynthetic parameters (A N, net CO2 assimilation; E, transpiration; g s, stomatal conductance; WUE, water use efficiency), chlorophyll fluorescence (ϕPSII, effective quantum yield of PSII; F v/F m, maximum quantum yield of PSII; qNP, non-photochemical quenching; qP, photochemical quenching), total chlorophyll and flavonoids were measured in shoots of 1-month-old plants. Higher temperatures and UVB increased CH4 emissions, which were higher from stem than leaf and from upper shoot than lower shoot. Lower leaves emitted more CH4 than upper leaves. Methane emissions were increased by higher temperatures with water stress from both shoot and stem, by UVB5 with water stress from stem, and by higher temperatures with UVB0 from leaf. Water stress decreased all photosynthetic parameters. Higher temperatures and UVB5 decreased WUE, whereas UVB5 increased E and g s. UVB5 and water stress decreased ϕPSII, but water stress increased qNP. A N, E, g s, ϕPSII and chlorophyll were highest in the upper leaves. All the main factors decreased chlorophyll. UVB5 decreased flavonoids, which were lowest in the lower leaves. Methane emission from the stem had a positive correlation with E and g s, but a negative correlation with WUE. Overall, stress factors increased CH4 emissions, which varied with shoot parts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2420-y
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Identification of putative flavonoid-biosynthetic genes through
           transcriptome analysis of Taihe Toona sinensis bud
    • Authors: Hu Zhao; Liping Ren; Xiaoying Fan; Kaijing Tang; Bin Li
      Abstract: Abstract Toona sinensis, a member of Meliaceae family, is a traditional Chinese woody vegetable widely used as food and in health since ancient times. T. sinensis bud has extensive clinical uses because of its high flavonoid content. However, the literature lacks information on flavonoid metabolism and characterization of the corresponding genes in T. sinensis. In this study, we constructed two cDNA libraries of green (GYC-2) and purple toons (BYC-2) distributed in Taihe County of Anhui Province in China. A total of 9.48 Gb of raw sequencing reads were generated using Illumina technology. Obtained raw reads were assembled into 66,331 non-redundant unigenes with mean length 1076 bp. A total of 50,582 unigenes (accounting for 76. 26% of all-unigenes) could be matched to public database using BLASTx. Through alignment against KEGG database, a total of 34,183 were annotated into 135 KEGG pathways. Among such pathways, many candidate genes that are associated with flavonoid biosynthesis were discovered in our transcriptome data. In total, 9541 unigenes identified were differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 5408 up-regulated unigenes and 4133 down-regulated unigenes in green toon vs purple toon. Moreover, numerous transcription factors (MYB, bHLH, and WD40) were found in our data. Many genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis showed preferential expression in BYC-2 cultivar. Therefore, de novo transcriptome analysis of unique transcripts provides an invaluable resource for exploring vital gene related to flavonoid biosynthesis of T. sinensis bud.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2422-9
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Response to salt stress is modulated by growth-promoting rhizobacteria
           inoculation in two contrasting barley cultivars
    • Authors: Ouissal Metoui-Ben Mahmoud; Imen Ben Slimene; Ons Talbi Zribi; Chedly Abdelly; Naceur Djébali
      Abstract: Abstract There is an increasing interest for plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), particularly those associated with plants originating from extreme environments like saline habitats. We are assessing, here, whether the inoculation with three PGPR bacteria strains isolated from the rhizosphere of Hordeum maritimum naturally growing in saline soil could mitigate the impact of high salinity (200 mM of NaCl) on two contrasting local barley cultivars. The affinity of interaction between plant and bacteria in response to this environmental constraint was also evaluated. At 200 mM of NaCl, the strains S1 of Bacillus mojavensis and S2 of B. pumilus maintained the highest level of indole acetic acid production and the strain S3 of Pseudomonas fluorescens the highest number of viable cells. In the salt-sensitive cultivar Rihane, salinity reduced significantly plant biomass, chlorophyll and shoots water contents and enhanced malondialdehyde leaf content. Salt impact was also related to higher Na+ uptake. However, these parameters were slightly altered under salinity in the tolerant cultivar Kerkna which is likely due to its ability to transport Na+ to shoots for osmotic adjustment. The effect of bacteria inoculation on barley growth and tolerance to salt stress was dependent on the bacteria and cultivar genotypes and their interactions with the salinity of the soil. At 0 mM of NaCl the strain S2 increased significantly the plant fresh biomass of both cultivars. At 200 mM of NaCl, a positive effect on Rihane plant biomass was observed after S1 strain inoculation, while the Kerkna plant biomass did not change significantly after bacteria inoculation. Overall, the sensitive cultivar Rihane responds better to bacteria inoculation in comparison to the tolerant cultivar under control and salt conditions, which demonstrate a certain affinity of interaction between plant cultivar and bacterium strain modulated by the salinity of the soil. The multitude of soil–plant–microbe interactions, and in particular this affinity-effect observed between plants and rhizobacteria modulated by soil conditions, constitute a challenge for developing bio-promoting inoculum at the commercial level. This constraint can possibly be managed by developing an inoculum containing a consortium of PGPR bacterial strains having broad spectrum interactions with different plant cultivars that function optimally under several environmental constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2421-x
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Overexpression of NbWRKY79 enhances salt stress tolerance in Nicotiana
    • Authors: Trinh Ngoc Nam; Le Hong Thia; Dam Sao Mai; Nguyen Vuong Tuan
      Abstract: Main conclusion A WRKY transcription factor encoding NbWRKY79, which was induced by salt and ABA was isolated from Nicotiana benthamiana . Overexpression of NbWRKY79 resulted in enhanced tolerance to salt stress. In plants, there are many families of transcriptional regulators, one of which is WRKY transcription factors, which have a significant effect on the adaptation to abiotic stress. Nevertheless, most of the mechanisms in plant to which WRKY genes are concerned to tolerate salinity are still undiscovered. In this study, a gene from Nicotiana benthamiana, NbWRKY79, was isolated and characterized. NbWRKY79 contains one WRKY domain and localizes in the nucleus. NbWRKY79 was induced after the plant was exposed to salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). The overexpression of NbWRKY79 remarkably enhanced the tolerance of tobacco plant to salinity, which was confirmed when the plant growth, root growth and chlorophyll content were studied through physiological analyses. The sensitivity to ABA-mediated seed germination and seedling root growth of NbWRKY79 transgenic lines were increasing. In addition, the reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content as well as an increase in proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase during salt treatment were found, and these indicated that the transgenic plants enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress when comparing to the wild-type plants. Furthermore, it was found that ABA content and transcript levels of ABA-inducible genes, including NbAREB, NbDREB and NbNCED, were significantly increased in the salt stress conditions. These results recommend that NbWRKY79 holds the key to salt stress response.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2423-8
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 6 (2017)
  • Leaf gas exchange, source–sink relationship, and growth response of
           cotton to the interactive effects of nitrogen rate and planting density
    • Authors: Adnan Noor Shah; Guozheng Yang; Mohsin Tanveer; Javaid Iqbal
      Abstract: Abstract Nitrogen (N) rate and plant density (PD) are important factors for sustainable cotton production. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of nitrogen rate and plant density on plant growth, source–sink relationship, and cotton yield. A split-plot arrangement was used in the field experiment with the main plots assigned to N rate (120 and 180 kg/ha), and the sub-plots assigned to plant density (8, 10, and 12 plants/m2). Results showed significant N and PD interaction on plant growth, leaf gas exchange, and yield. Higher plant growth and cotton yield were noted under low nitrogen rate and high planting density than other treatment combinations. Leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency were considerably influenced by planting density and nitrogen rate. Maximum values of these traits were obtained under low nitrogen rate with high planting density or high nitrogen rate with medium planting density, while the least values were under low nitrogen rate with low planting density. Correlation analysis revealed highly significant and positive relation between leaf gas exchange and cotton yield.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2402-0
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 5 (2017)
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