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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Physiologiae Plantarum
  [SJR: 0.551]   [H-I: 39]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1861-1664 - ISSN (Online) 0137-5881
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Polyploidy determines the stage of invasion: clues from Kashmir Himalayan
           aquatic flora
    • Authors: Gowher A. Wani; Manzoor A. Shah; Zafar A. Reshi; Mudasir A. Dar
      Abstract: Invasive species pose a major threat to native biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in many ecologically sensitive parts of the globe. Many research efforts have so far been made mainly with a focus on morphology, physiology and reproductive biology of invasive species to explain what determines the patterns of invasion. Recently, polyploidy has been reported to significantly influence plant invasiveness. Notwithstanding the profound management and conservation implications, determining the genetic basis of plant invasiveness is a challenging task for ecologists. Variation in ploidy levels of species promises to yield some useful insights in this direction and we, therefore, aimed to test the relation between polyploidy and species invasiveness. We documented chromosome number and ploidy level of 118 alien aquatic plant species including 50 alien non-invasive and 70 alien invasive species, belonging to 64 genera and 39 families distributed across various aquatic habitats of the Kashmir Himalaya at different stages of invasion. Results yielded 47 (39.83%) diploid species, 53 (44.91%) polyploids and the remaining 18 (15.25%) species were reported to have mixed ploidy, i.e., both diploids and polyploids. The invasive plant species exhibited about 40% of intraspecific ploidy polymorphism in contrast to about 28% found in non-invasive plant species. Alien invasive species (at stage IVa, IVb and V senso Colautti and MacIsaac 2004) were found to have more polyploidy (60%) than non-invasive species (at stage II and III) having only 45.23% polyploidy. Our results depict a clear pattern that non-invasive species are disproportionately more diploids with lower ploidy ratios, while invasive plant species on the contrary exhibit higher chromosome counts, thereby being predominantly polyploids. Invasion stage III with 17 diploid species represents by far the highest relative proportion of diploid species, while invasion stage V having 16 polyploid species is highest in terms of polyploid species. Regression analysis based on the stage of invasion and the ploidy status revealed that the relative proportion of polyploids on progressing stage of invasion increases significantly (p < 0.01). These results indicate that polyploidy may be one of the potential determinants of plant invasion. The implications of these results in timely prediction and better management of invasive species are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2629-4
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Beating cold by being tough: impact of elevation on leaf characteristics
           in Phleum himalaicum Mez. endemic to Himalaya
    • Authors: Khawaja Shafique Ahmad; Mansoor Hameed; Abdul Hamid; Fahim Nawaz; Bushra Hafeez Kiani; Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad; Jiabin Deng; Farooq Ahmad; Imtiaz Hussain; Sana Fatima
      Abstract: Effect of altitude on leaf responses in Phleum himalaicum populations was evaluated at three different elevation levels, viz. (Low 1200 m.a.s.l.), middle (1600 m a.s.l.) and high (1900 m a.s.l.) in western part of Himalaya. We hypothesized that physico-chemical properties of soil varied along elevation and Phleum populations located at high elevation would adapt more distinct morphological and physiological traits than those originating from middle and low elevation sites. Our study revealed that soil pH, Ec Mg, Ca, and P decreased at high elevation however, significant increase was recorded in soil K, organic matter, and total nitrogen along the elevation gradient. A significant correlation between leaf characteristics and elevation sites was recorded along the gradient. The outcomes of this study showed that highland population had better adjustments under low temperature and exhibited adaptive traits. These were, decreased number of leaves and leaf area, increased leaf blade thickness, intensive sclerification, and greater stomatal and trichome density. Apart from these, high elevation population had more physiological adjustment in terms of low stomatal conductance, low transpiration rate, high water use efficiency, and synthesis of more osmolytes in leaf. We argued that certain level of sugar and protein must be attained by high population to dodge the aggressive climatic forces in order to grow successfully at the highest elevation. Furthermore, altitude between 1600 and 1900 m was more likely an optimum zone for vigorous growth of P. himalaicum at the highest level of elevation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2637-4
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Foliar application of the triterpene derivative
           24-methylen-elemo-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-one alleviates salt toxicity in
           grapevine
    • Authors: Lalla Aicha Rifai; Noureddine Mazoir; Tayeb Koussa; Mariam El Ghali; Amal Smaili; Kacem Makroum; Malika Belfaiza; Ahmed Benharref; Mohamed Faize
      Abstract: This work focused on the effect triterpene derivative 24-methylen-elemo-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-one (F3) on the induction of salt stress tolerance of the Moroccan grapevine cv. “Doukkali”. Hardwood cuttings of the grapevine from a homogeneous plant material collected in the field were grown in hydroponic medium under different salt concentrations and treated with 50 or 100 µg ml−1 of F3. Salt stress affected several physiological and biochemical parameters including relative water content, chlorophyll a and b content, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities, which decreased along with time. Meanwhile, proline, proteins, soluble sugars, H2O2, and carotenoid content, as well as phenolic compound content increased, suggesting an evidence of tolerance of this local variety to salinity. An exogenous supply of the triterpenic product increased all these parameters under normal conditions. In addition, F3 at low dose was found to be successful in lowering Na+ content and alleviating the inhibitory effects of salt stress on relative water content as well as on chlorophyll a and b.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2636-5
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Influence of silicon on spring wheat seedlings under salt stress
    • Authors: U. Sienkiewicz-Cholewa; J. Sumisławska; E. Sacała; M. Dziągwa-Becker; R. Kieloch
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of silicon on spring wheat subjected to salt stress. The experiment was conducted in hydroponic conditions on 10-day old wheat seedlings. Salt stress was induced by sodium chloride at the concentration of 70 and 100 mM added to nutrient medium. Silicon (H4SiO4) at the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 mM significantly increased the shoots and roots weight of wheat seedlings and the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, as well as carotenoids) in leaves. It reduced a detrimental effect of salt stress and restricted peroxidation of membrane lipids. We also observed a greater accumulation of nitrates and the decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in plant tissues as a result of silicon addition. Under osmotic stress, silicon did not change the content of sugars in wheat shoots and roots. Silicon did not clearly affect proline content. In general, the obtained results point out that silicon can be used for the alleviation of adverse effect of salinity on plants status.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2630-y
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Nitric oxide improves thermotolerance in spring maize by inducing varied
           genotypic defense mechanisms
    • Authors: Khushdeep Kaur; Kamaljit Kaur
      Abstract: The investigation aimed at determining the effect of nitric oxide on antioxidant defense system of spring maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes namely, LM 11 (stress susceptible) and CML 32 (stress tolerant), that showed differential tolerance towards heat stress. Seed priming with a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) improved seedling growth and induced varied defense mechanisms, under stress conditions. 75 μM SNP improved seedling lengths and their biomasses. It specifically enhanced catalase (CAT) activity in the roots of stressed seedlings of the two genotypes. However, it could induce CAT activity only in LM 11 shoots, under heat stress. It also enhanced peroxidase (POX) activity in CML 32 roots. However, such induction of POX activity with SNP treatment was not observed in LM 11 roots. This showed that NO increased the H2O2 scavenging efficiency of CML 32 genotype by enhancing the cumulative activation of CAT and POX in its roots. However, it did not induce activation of any of the H2O2 detoxifying enzymes in CML 32 shoots which showed that ascorbate–glutathione cycle remained non-operational in shoots of SNP-treated seedlings of the tolerant genotype, under high temperature stress. With seed priming, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in both the tissues of LM 11 seedlings. The shoots of SNP primed CML 32 seedlings, however, did not show any effect on SOD activity which illustrated that nitric oxide might act as a direct scavenger of superoxide radicals in CML 32 seedlings. SNP decreased the contents of H2O2 and MDA and increased proline content in seedlings of both the genotypes indicating reduced oxidative damage. The results thus showed that nitric oxide might induce different mechanisms of stress tolerance in these maize genotypes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2632-9
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Conservation, ex vitro direct regeneration, and genetic uniformity
           assessment of alginate-encapsulated nodal cuttings of Sphagneticola
           calendulacea (L.) Pruski
    • Authors: Suprabuddha Kundu; Umme Salma; Md. Nasim Ali; Nirmal Mandal
      Abstract: A well-organized procedure was established for the conservation and distribution of Sphagneticola calendulacea (L.) Pruski [synonym Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill] for the first time, using alginate-encapsulated nodal segments (NSs) as synthetic seeds. The ideal beads were obtained through a combination of 2.5% sodium alginate and 75 mM calcium chloride with 84.40 ± 2.20% rate of shoot emergence. The maximum regeneration (88.84 ± 2.24%) from synthetic seeds was achieved on liquid 1/2Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in comparison to its other formulations. Furthermore, superior frequency (91.09 ± 2.24%) of complete plantlet (having both shoots and roots) formation was achieved when synthetic seeds were cultured on liquid 1/2MS (1.5% sucrose) fortified with 1.0 mg L−1 N6-benzyladenine plus 0.25 mg L−1 α-naphthalene acetic acid. Synthetic seeds could be effectively stored at low temperature (8 °C) up to 90 days with a survival rate of 52.38 ± 3.06%, whereas higher temperature (25 °C) did not support regeneration after 75 days of storage. The plantlets were successfully acclimatized to natural conditions with ~ 89% survival frequency. To by-pass the time-consuming in vitro culture step after encapsulation, synthetic seeds were directly regrown into complete plantlets ex vitro on sand, soil, and vermicompost (1:1:1; w/w). Regeneration rate of 42.22 ± 2.22% was attained when NSs were pretreated on 1/2MS medium containing 4.0 mg L−1 indole-3-acetic acid for 24 h in dark, prior to encapsulation. The random amplified polymorphic DNA and intersimple sequence repeat fingerprinting profiles demonstrated genetic uniformity amongst the regenerated plantlets, in vitro mother plant, as well as in vivo wild plant.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2633-8
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Regulation of the protein and gene expressions of ethylene biosynthesis
           enzymes under different temperature during peach fruit ripening
    • Authors: Xiaoqin Wu; Mingliang Yu; Chen Huan; Ruijuan Ma; Zhifang Yu
      Abstract: Ethylene has profound effect on fruit development and ripening, and the role of ethylene biosynthesis enzymes involving 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), ACC oxidase (ACO), and S-Adenosyl-l-methionine synthetase (SAMS) in peach fruit (cv. Xiahui-8) was characterized under 25 and 4 °C, respectively. All these enzymes in ethylene synthesis pathway were identified using 2-DE and real-time PCR. Both protein and gene expressions of ACO and SAMS were much higher at 25 °C than at 4 °C. Among five members of ACS family, PpaACS4 may belong to system II ethylene biosynthesis, while PpaACS3 involved in system I during development stage, and low temperature can induce PpaACS1 expression. The ethylene release and low expressions of proteins and genes of most enzymes indicated that low temperature can effectively postpone ripening stage by reducing ethylene evolution. High gene expression of PpaSAMS did not cause excessive expression of SAMS protein under low temperature, and over-expression of PpaACS1 at low temperature still did not induce increase of ethylene production. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon about how temperature affects ethylene release was also discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2628-5
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Establishment of culturing conditions and assessment of antioxidant
           activity and somaclonal variation in the adventitious root suspension
           cultures of Oplopanax elatus Nakai
    • Authors: Bimal-Kumar Ghimire; Hee-Young Kim; Eun-Soo Seong; Ji-Hye Yoo; Ji-Hee Lee; Sung-Kyu Park; Seung-Hyun Kim; Chang-Yeon Yu; Ill-Min Chung
      Abstract: Oplopanax elatus Nakai, a plant traditionally used in folk medicine, is currently in population decline due to uncontrolled harvesting. In the present study, we investigated the factors affecting O. elatus adventitious root production, including hormones (alone or in combination), explant type, basal salt type and strength, sucrose concentration, pH, and temperature. Results revealed that adventitious root formation was optimal with root explants grown on 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg L−1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (pH 5.8) at 25 °C. Chlorogenic acid concentration was highest in roots propagated in 1/2 MS medium containing 0.5 mg L−1 IBA; vanillin, another phenolic compound, was also detected in cultures. Liquid media containing 3% sucrose exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity and total phenolic compound contents. X-ray diffraction revealed significant differences in the elemental intensity between adventitious root and field-grown plantlet extracts. Analysis of simple sequence repeats confirmed that adventitious roots regenerated in vitro were genetically similar to their mother plant. Thus, we identified the optimal conditions for proliferation of O. elatus adventitious roots in liquid culture, from which, secondary metabolites, particularly bioactive compounds associated with the medicinal use of this plant, can be mass produced without further population deterioration.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2625-8
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Prangos ferulacea aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained
           from different organs on the regeneration of Trifolium resupinatum
    • Authors: Hossein Sadeghi; Mohsen Bazdar
      Abstract: Prangos ferulacea is one of the widely used, nutritional and popular fodders in livestock industry. This species is also considered as an important option in rangeland restoration and management. In this study, the comparative phytotoxic activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from different organs (flower, shoot and leaf) of P. ferulacea on proline content, seed germination and seedling growth of Trifolium resupinatum has been investigated. According to the results, the hydroalcoholic extract of P. ferulaceae flower possesses the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content and the uppermost phytotoxic effect on T. resupinatum. The extracts significantly decreased seed germination and seedling growth of T. resupinatum and increased the proline content. Our findings indicate that hydroalcoholic extract induced a stronger oxidative stress in T. resupinatum. Finally, based on the results, aqueous allelochemicals that originated from P. ferulacea played a significant role in the successful propagation and development of T. resupinatum in rehabilitated pastures. According to our results, the phytotoxicity effect of the hydroalcoholic extract was significantly higher than that of the aqueous extract. Since in nature, the allelopathic interaction between plants is closer to the aqueous method, primary evaluations of rangeland restoration using this method is suggested.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2626-7
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • High production of bioactive depsides in shoot and callus cultures of
           Aronia arbutifolia and Aronia  ×  prunifolia
    • Authors: Agnieszka Szopa; Paweł Kubica; Anna Snoch; Halina Ekiert
      Abstract: Methanolic extracts from calluses and shoots of Aronia arbutifolia and Aronia × prunifolia cultivated in vitro were quantitatively analysed for phenolic acids by DAD-HPLC. The cultures were grown on ten variants of Murashige–Skoog medium variants enriched with various concentrations of growth regulators (GRs), BA and NAA, in the concentration range 0.1–3.0 mg/L. The analysed extracts were confirmed to contain from four to six compounds (depsides—chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid, and also protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid). The total amounts of the metabolites varied considerably, depending on the amounts of the GRs in the tested medium variants, and increased in the callus and shoot extracts, respectively, up to 1.7 and 3.2 times (A. arbutifolia), and 2.2 and 2.7 times (A. × prunifolia). Maximum total amounts were confirmed in shoot extracts of both plants (approx. 200 and 600 mg/100 g DW, respectively). The main compounds in A. arbutifolia cultures were the depsides—chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, and neochlorogenic acid (max. 91.94, 77.03, 32.57 mg/100 g DW, respectively). The same depsides dominated quantitatively in the cultures of A. × prunifolia (max. 131.82, 206.62 and 257.39 mg/100 g DW, respectively).
      PubDate: 2018-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2623-x
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Genome-wide analysis of lncRNAs in Paulownia tomentosa infected with
           phytoplasmas
    • Authors: Yabing Cao; Guoqiang Fan; Xiaoqiao Zhai; Yanpeng Dong
      Abstract: Paulownia witches’ broom is arisen from the invasion of an obligatory parasitic bacteria-phytoplasma, which can result in huge economic losses of Paulownia trees. The mechanism of the occurrence of this disease has been studied extensively. However, its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here, whole transcriptome strand-specific RNA sequencing was performed to identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that referred to phytoplasma infection in Paulownia. In all, 2725 lncRNAs were identified and 748 of them were considered to be differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis showed the predicted target genes of these 748 lncRNAs participated mainly in lignin biosynthesis pathway, plant–pathogen interaction pathway and plant hormone signal transduction pathway, which indicated that lncRNAs may be closely related to the occurrence of witches’ broom. The results provide new perspective into the function of lncRNAs in Paulownia and potentially in other trees in answering phytoplasma invasion.
      PubDate: 2018-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2627-6
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Exogenous spermidine maintains the chloroplast structure of cucumber
           seedlings and inhibits the degradation of photosynthetic protein complexes
           under high-temperature stress
    • Authors: Liwei Wang; Heng Zhou; Shirong Guo; Yahong An; Sheng Shu; Na Lu; Jin Sun
      Abstract: Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) are thermophilic horticulture crop but do not tolerate high temperature. The photosynthesis of cucumber under high temperature is highly susceptible to damage. To study the physiological mechanism of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on cucumber photosynthesis under heat stress, the sensitive cucumber cultivar ‘Jinchun no. 2’ was grown in substrate culture at a high temperature in an artificial climate box and treated with 1.0 mmol L−1 Spd under high-temperature stress (42/32 °C). The results showed that exogenous Spd alleviated the photosynthetic damage caused by heat shock, added the chlorophyll content and maintained the chloroplast structures relatively intact. Western blotting analysis showed that exogenous Spd inhibited the degradation of photosynthetic proteins, slowed the dissociation of the protein complexes, and maintained the stability of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in cucumber leaves under high-temperature stress. Twenty-two differentially expressed thylakoid membrane proteins involved in different photosynthetic processes were successfully authenticated by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-urea-PAGE and Blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). The results showed that exogenous Spd regulated the expression of photosynthetic and bursal somatic membrane proteins, which resulted in adaptive changes under high-temperature stress at the transcriptional and translational levels, inhibited the degradation of thylakoid membrane proteins in cucumber leaves, and maintained the stable structure of the thylakoid membrane. Collectively, these results suggested that exogenous Spd alleviated high temperature-induced photosynthesis damage by improving the expression and synthesis of thylakoid membrane proteins, mitigating the dissociation of LHCII–Chl and thylakoid membrane protein complexes and maintaining the integrity and functional stability of the photosynthetic organ structure.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2624-9
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Metabolic alternations of some amino acids, coenzymes, phytohormones and
           
    • Authors: Hari C. Meher; Ghanendra Singh; Gautam Chawla
      Abstract: The metabolite profile of targeted amino acids, coenzymes, phytohormones and vitamins was evaluated in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crop grown from seeds soaked with defense stimulator salicylic acid, benzothiadiazole or nicotinic acid (0.0, 10.0 or 20.0 µg/mL). The concentrations of analytes were determined at regular intervals covering five critical time points of crop growth. Liquid chromatography was used for the estimation of the test metabolites. In both leaf and root, the treatments progressively enhanced the biosynthesis of phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr), oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), pyridoxine, folic acid, riboflavin and rutin (vitamin P). The concentration of tryptophan (Trp), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), l-ascorbic acid (L-AA), niacin, thiamin (THI), β-carotene (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) decreased. In leaf, the level of gibberellic acid (GA3) was enhanced and of menadione (vitamin K3) reduced. In root, the level of GA3 was reduced and of vitamin K3 increased. Consequent with the depletion of Trp level in plant, the levels of NAD increased whereas, those of master growth regulator indole-3-acetic acid and its precursor indole-3-butyric acid declined. With this, cytokinin level also reduced. NAD regulated the ratio of NAD: reduced form of NAD (NADH) which was less than that of NADP:NADPH. Tyr, Phe and Trp were the canonical variables for the observed metabolics. A strong correlation between the declining metabolite levels of vitamin E, L-AA, Trp, NADH, THI and vitamin K3 in leaf; and vitamin E, GA3, THI and vitamin A in root firstly attributed stress tolerance in chickpea agro-system.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2607-x
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Interaction of abscisic acid and auxin on gene expression involved in
           banana ripening
    • Authors: Wenjing Lu; Linchun Mao; Jingxin Chen; Xueyuan Han; Xingchen Ren; Tiejin Ying; Zisheng Luo
      Abstract: Phytohormones regulate numerous aspects of plant growth and development. Green-mature banana fruit were treated with deionized water (control), abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ABA + IAA, respectively, to investigate the role of ABA and IAA in fruit ripening. Results showed that ABA accelerated fruit ripening, but IAA delayed the process. However, treatment of ABA + IAA showed little difference in fruit color and firmness. The acceleration of ABA and delay of IAA on banana ripening process seems to be neutralized by ABA + IAA. Digital gene expression revealed that ABA + IAA treated fruit maintained the similar color phenotype with the control by regulating the expression of chlorophyll degradation-related gene PaO (GSMUA_Achr6G25590_001), and carotenoid biosynthesis-related genes DXR (GSMUA_Achr3G20790_001) and PSY (GSMUA_Achr2G12480_001, GSMUA_Achr4G17270_001, GSMUA_Achr4G17290_001). Moreover, ABA + IAA treated fruit maintained the similar softening phenotype with the control by adjusting the expression of pectin degradation-related genes PME (GSMUA_Achr3G05740_001) and PL (GSMUA_Achr6G28160_001, GSMUA_Achr7G04580_001). ABA + IAA treatment nearly abolished the action of individual ABA or IAA through equilibrating the expression of specific genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid biosynthesis and pectin degradation pathways in the postharvest ripening of banana. The interaction between ABA and IAA might exercise as an antagonistic mechanism of neutralizing the specific gene expression either induced by ABA or reduced by IAA in the postharvest ripening of banana.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2621-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cloning and expression of a new cytoplasmic small heat shock protein gene
           from Pinellia ternata
    • Authors: Yunhao Zhu; Guosheng Zhu; Qiaosheng Guo; Zaibiao Zhu; Changlin Wang; Zuoyi Liu
      Abstract: A new cytoplasmic small heat shock protein gene was cloned from Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit and designated PtHSP18.2 (GenBank number: KF693218). The PtHSP18.2 gene has an open reading frame of 711 bp that encodes 159 amino acids, and a molecular mass of 18.20 kDa. The phylogenetic tree indicated high homology of the PtHSP18.2 protein with that of cytosolic class I small heat shock proteins (CI sHSPs) from other plant species. PtHSP18.2 is expressed in root, leaf, and stem tissues. The expression of PtHSP18.2 was increased under heat and cold stress but was not induced by drought stress. When overexpressed in E. coli, PtHSP18.2 was correlated with the preservation of viability under heat stress. The CI sHSP family is the largest sHSP subfamily, and several different members of this subfamily are present in P. ternata. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) western blot analysis with an anti-AtHSP17.7 (a member of CI sHSPs) antibody revealed five 18 kDa heat shock-induced P. ternata proteins. In combination, our findings suggest that PtHSP18.2 is potentially significant in the response to thermal stress.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2605-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Exogenous melatonin alleviates damage from drought stress in Brassica
           napus L. (rapeseed) seedlings
    • Authors: Jingjing Li; Liu Zeng; Yong Cheng; Guangyuan Lu; Guiping Fu; Haiqing Ma; Qingyun Liu; Xuekun Zhang; Xiling Zou; Chunsheng Li
      Abstract: This study investigated the ability of exogenous melatonin (MT) to alleviate drought stress in Brassica napus L. (rapeseed) seedlings. Seedling traits under control condition, drought stress, and drought stress with exogenous MT were evaluated. The results indicated that 0.05 mmol/L exogenous MT had the greatest protective effect against simulated drought stress. Exogenous MT alleviated the seedling growth inhibition under drought stress and significantly increased the leaf area and fresh and dry weights of roots and shoots compared to stress conditions lacking MT. In addition, although the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased under drought stress, it was decreased by exogenous MT. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were increased in response to drought stress, and the activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidase were significantly enhanced by exogenous MT. The results also showed that solute accumulation under stress was enhanced with exogenous MT through increases in the contents of soluble sugars and proteins. These results suggest that exogenous MT can alleviate the negative effects of drought stress and improve the growth of seedlings. The findings indicate that MT possesses antioxidative, osmotic activity-adjusting, and growth-inducing properties, thus making it beneficial for drought acclimatization.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-017-2601-8
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Frost tolerance and metabolite changes of rye ( Secale cereale ) during
           the cold hardening and overwintering
    • Authors: Mohsen Janmohammadi; Naser Sabaghnia; Siroos Mahfoozi
      Abstract: Successful winter survival of the plants needs a programmed capacity to activate appropriate mechanisms in development of frost tolerance (FT). Cold hardening is a complicated operation facilitating the overwintering and is associated by extensive changes in metabolome. The purpose of the present investigation is to simplify the association between metabolites changes and FT in winter rye varieties (Puma and Anatolien) acclimated under field situation in NW Iran, regions with long winters. Plants were sampled on five dates (Oct. 31, Nov. 29, Dec. 17, Jan. 4, and Feb. 1) as different cold hardening periods. FT, as measured by LT50 (the temperature at 50% lethality) significantly expanded during the autumn and winter seasons. Cold adaptation persuaded accumulation of sucrose and sorbitol in both varieties; however, the accumulation was more profound in Puma. The content of proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, and glycine betaine linearly expanded in the Anatolien variety during the overwintering. However, content of glycine betaine, proline, and aspartic acid in Puma was considerably higher than Anatolien. Hydrogen peroxide reached to its greatest quantities at November and December in Anatolien and Puma, respectively. These levels significantly reduced up to the next months. Glutathione and ascorbic acid contents, as important antioxidants, noticeably expanded during overwintering. There was a significant positive association between FT, total protein content, free amino acid, soluble sugars, and glycine betaine. These data suggest that the development of FT during the cold adaptation and overwintering is partly resulted from metabolome changes and such modifications are strongly linked to the genetic potential.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2620-0
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of jasmine antioxidant system responses to different degrees
           and durations of shade
    • Authors: Yanming Deng; Xinping Jia; Xiaobo Sun; Lijian Liang; Jiale Su
      Abstract: Jasmine [Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton] growth and development is affected by long-term shade. To determine the effects of short-term shade on jasmine physiology, the contents of soluble proteins, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes were comparatively investigated during 24 h (short-term, ST) and 7 days (medium-term, MT) of varying light regimes. The results showed that the protein content exhibited two peaks under ST treatment, and shade postponed the first peak 2 h later than full light. On the whole, protein synthesis was reduced by ST shade and induced by MT shade, whereas MDA content decreased during all shade treatments. Under ST shade, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were enhanced, but catalase (CAT) activity was repressed by limited irradiances. However, the antioxidant enzymes responded differently—SOD activity increased after 2 h of shading and then kept on a high level, whereas POD, APX and CAT activities increased mainly during the first hour and deceased subsequently. Under MT shade, these antioxidative enzymes responded differently to varying light irradiances, too. In general, POD and CAT activities were repressed, SOD activity was induced by weak (50% irradiance) shade and reduced by moderate (20% irradiance) and severe (5% irradiance) shade. APX activity was rather more complicated and irregularly responded to different degrees and durations of shade, meaning it might not be the main enzyme to remove ROS in jasmine plants under shading condition. The increase protein content with prolonged shade represents the sound adaptive ability of jasmine plants to restricted irradiances. At the same time, rapid changes in proteins and antioxidants reflect the efficient metabolic apparatus of the plant in response to shade. Therefore, the jasmine cultivar is shade tolerant. Furthermore, shade could help the plants protect themselves from full light, and some degrees of shade were beneficial to their antioxidant system. However, severe shade (5% of irradiance) is only suggested for a few hours to protect the plants at solar noon. If the plants are continuously shaded for 3–7 days, weak (20%) to moderate (50%) level of irradiance should be applied.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2618-7
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of salinity on ion homeostasis in three halophyte species, Limonium
           bicolor , Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham and Apocynaceae
           venetum
    • Authors: Dejie Yin; Jie Zhang; Rui Jing; Qiqi Qu; Haiyan Guan; Lili Zhang; Li Dong
      Abstract: Limonium bicolor, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham and Apocynaceae venetum are halophyte species with ecological restoration function of saline soil that are widely distributed in coastal areas around Bohai Sea in China. The mechanism of response to salt stress is different between them. The salt-tolerance mechanism, especially for ion homeostasis, of these halophytes varies and is not properly understood. The purpose of the work was to reveal the effect of salinity on ion homeostasis in these three halophyte species. Plant growth, leaf succulence, Na+, K+ and Cl− concentrations, as well as ion flux were examined at various concentrations (0–100%) of artificial sea water after 10 days. The results showed as follows: the growth of L. bicolor was obviously stimulated under salt stress, while V. trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham and A. venetum was strongly inhibited. The contents of Na+ and Cl− increased with salinity in the three halophyte species, in both the leaves and roots. The accumulation of K+ in roots was promoted by salinity except in L. bicolor subjected to 100% artificial sea water concentration. L. bicolor roots showed a lower net Na+ efflux compared with the control. By contrast, V. trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham and A. venetum roots retained a greater capacity for net Na+ efflux compared with the control. L. bicolor and V. trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham roots exhibited a lower and higher net Cl− influx, respectively, than the control, but the differences were not significant. By contrast, A. venetum roots exhibited a Cl− efflux compared with the control. L. bicolor and V. trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham roots reduced net K+ efflux, and L. bicolor even appeared to exhibit a K+ influx at certain points in time, whereas A. venetum strongly increased net K+ efflux compared with the control. The accumulation and partitioning of ions differed between the three halophyte species, and the salt-tolerance ranking from high to low was L. bicolor, V. trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, and A. venetum.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2616-9
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Improved salt tolerance in a wheat stay-green mutant tasg1
    • Authors: Wenqiang Wang; Fengxia Tian; Qunqun Hao; Yangyang Han; Qinxue Li; Xin Wang; Wenlong Wang; Yong Wang; Wei Wang
      Abstract: Salt stress inhibited the growth of both tasg1 and wild-type (WT) wheat seedlings, but the inhibition in tasg1 plants was relatively weaker than that of WT. Compared to the WT, the chlorophyll content, thylakoid membrane polypeptides, Hill reaction activity, actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), and Mg2+- and Ca2+-ATPase activities were higher in tasg1 under salt stress. At the same time, the photosynthetic activity of the tasg1 was significantly higher than that of WT. In addition, tasg1 plants displayed relatively less accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage accompanied by higher activity of some antioxidant enzymes, and the up-regulation of antioxidant genes further demonstrated the improvement of antioxidant activity in tasg1 under salt stress. Furthermore, tasg1 plants also showed relatively weaker Na+ fluorescence and lower Na+ content, but relatively higher content of K+ in their roots and shoots, and then, the roots of tasg1 plants enhanced net outward Na+ flux and a correspondingly increased net inward K+ flux during salt stress. This might be associated with the relatively higher activity of H+-ATPase in tasg1 plants. These results suggest that the improved antioxidant competence and Na+/K+ ion homeostasis play an important role in the enhanced salinity tolerance of tasg1 plants.
      PubDate: 2018-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11738-018-2617-8
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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