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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Alpine Botany
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.11
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1664-2201 - ISSN (Online) 1664-221X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Distribution of non-native plant species along elevation gradients in a
           protected area in the eastern Himalayas, China
    • Authors: Mingyu Yang; Zheng Lu; Zhongyu Fan; Xia Liu; Luc Hens; Robert De Wulf; Xiaokun Ou
      Abstract: Mountain ecosystems are becoming increasingly threatened by non-native plant invasions. In this paper, the occurrence of non-native plant species was examined in a protected area (Laojun Mountain Area) in the eastern Himalayas, China. Sampling plots were systematically set up along elevation from 1950 to 3500 m a.s.l. Sixty-one non-natives were recorded that account for 24% of the roadside flora. The number of non-native species decreased continuously with increasing elevation and significant nestedness was found between the low- and high-elevation plots. Moreover, all non-native species distributed at high elevation were also found at low elevation and mountain specialists were not found among non-natives. These results indicate that the eastern Himalayan ecosystem is not immune to invasion and most of the non-natives spread from lowland areas upward to the highlands. Future efforts to manage plant invasions in this region should concentrate on low-elevation areas where agriculture and disturbances by tourism are increasing rapidly.
      PubDate: 2018-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0205-6
  • Frequent occurrence of triploid hybrids Festuca pratensis  ×  F.
           apennina in the Swiss Alps
    • Authors: David Kopecký; Tamina Felder; Franz X. Schubiger; Václav Mahelka; Jan Bartoš; Jaroslav Doležel; Beat Boller
      Abstract: The occurrence of triploid hybrids in nature is scarce due to the so-called triploid block representing formation of nonviable progeny after mating diploid with tetraploid. Here we describe frequent presence of triploids originating from hybridization of diploid Festuca pratensis with tetraploid F. apennina in the Swiss Alps. F. pratensis is a forage grass grown in lowlands and up to 1800 m a.s.l., while F. apennina is a mountain grass found in elevations from 1100 to 2000 m a.s.l. In the overlapping zone these species often grow sympatrically and triploid hybrids have been observed. We show that elevation is the main factor in the distribution of plants with various ploidy levels. Diploids occupy lower elevations, while triploids predominate in the mid-elevation zones and tetraploids are the most frequent in higher elevations. Other factors, such as topography and soil composition probably have only marginal effects on the distribution of the plants with different ploidy levels. Triploids seem to be frequently formed in the Swiss Alps and crosses in both directions are involved in the formation of triploid hybrids. As shown by chloroplast DNA analysis, F. apennina more frequently serves as female. Our analysis suggests that in the mid-elevation zones, triploids have a higher level of competitiveness than both parents. Triploids can overgrow microhabitats to a much higher extent than tetraploids. Such frequent occurrence and local dominance of triploids can at least be partially explained by asexual reproduction. Using DNA markers, we show that triploids can disperse ramets of a single clone over a distance of at least 14.4 m.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0204-7
  • Patterns of herbivore damage, developmental stability, morphological and
           biochemical traits in female and male Mercurialis perennis in contrasting
           light habitats
    • Authors: Danijela Miljković; Sara Selaković; Vukica Vujić; Nemanja Stanisavljević; Svetlana Radović; Dragana Cvetković
      Abstract: Light environments can influence variation in plant morphology, development and susceptibility to herbivores. Our research interest was to investigate the patterns of herbivore damage and developmental stability in dioecious understory forb Mercurialis perennis in contrasting light habitats, located at 1700 m a.s.l. on Mt. Kopaonik. Male and female plants from two light habitats, open (a sun-exposed field) and shaded (a spruce forest) were examined with respect to: herbivore damage (percentage of leaf area loss), fluctuating asymetry (FA) as a measurement of developmental stability, plant morphological and, specifically, leaf size traits, as well as biochemical traits relating to nutritional quality and defence, taking into account the possible presence of intersexual differences. Our results show that herbivore damage was significantly higher in open habitat, as well as one out of four univariate FA indices and the multivariate index. Morphological and biochemical traits, apart from defensive compounds, had higher values in the shade, pointing to sun-exposed habitat being more stressful for this species. Intersexual differences were observed for foliar damage, defensive compounds (phenolics and tannins), all leaf size traits, total leaf area, and protein content. Contrasting light habitats affected most of the analysed traits. Both foliar damage and FA were higher in a more stressful habitat; within habitats, no positive correlations were found. Herbivore damage was significantly male biased in open habitat. The analysis of intersexual differences in developmental stability measured by leaf asymmetry levels provided no evidence that female plants were more sensitive to environmental stress.
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0203-8
  • A bioclimatic characterization of high elevation habitats in the Alborz
           mountains of Iran
    • Authors: Jalil Noroozi; Christian Körner
      Abstract: The Alborz mountains in N-Iran at 36° N rise from the Caspian Sea to 5671 m a.s.l., with warm-temperate, winter-deciduous forests in the lower montane belt in northern slopes, and vast treeless terrain at higher elevation. A lack of rainfall (ca. 550 mm at high elevations) cannot explain the absence of trees. Hence, it is an open question, which parts of these mountains belong to the alpine belt. Here we use bioclimatic data to estimate the position of the potential climatic treeline, and thus, define bioclimatologically, what is alpine and what is not. We employed the same miniature data loggers and protocol that had been applied in a Europe-wide assessment of alpine climates and a global survey of treeline temperatures. The data suggest a potential treeline position at ca. 3300 m a.s.l., that is ca. 900 m above the upper edge of the current oak forest, or 450 m above its highest outposts. The alpine terrain above the climatic treeline position shows a temperature regime comparable to sites in the European Alps. At the upper limit of angiosperm life, at 4850 m a.s.l., the growing season lasted 63 days with a seasonal mean root zone temperature of 4.5 °C. We conclude that (1) the absence of trees below 2850 m a.s.l. is clearly due to millennia of land use. The absence of trees between 2850 and 3300 m a.s.l. is either due to the absence of suitable tree taxa, or the only potential regional taxon for those elevations, Juniperus excelsa, had been eradicated by land use as well. (2) These continental mountains provide thermal life conditions in the alpine belt similar to other temperate mountains. (3) Topography and snow melt regimes play a significant role for the structure of the alpine vegetation mosaics.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0202-9
  • Phenological shifts and flower visitation of 185 lowland and alpine
           species in a lowland botanical garden
    • Authors: Mialy Razanajatovo; Christine Föhr; Mark van Kleunen; Markus Fischer
      Abstract: Many plant species respond to climate change by phenological shifts, usually with an earlier flowering onset. However, the variability in flowering responses to changed climatic conditions is large, and rare plant species, which are likely to have a low environmental tolerance, may be less able to shift their phenology than common ones. If plant species respond to climate change by shifting their flowering phenology, plant–pollinator interactions may become disrupted. However, it is vital for the reproduction of animal-pollinated plants, and thus for long-term population survival, that plants can attract pollinators. This might be especially difficult for rare species as they may depend on one or few pollinator species. To assess how climatic conditions affect the phenology of common and rare plant species, and whether the plant species attract potential pollinators, we assessed flowering onset and flower visitation in the lowland Botanical Garden of Bern, Switzerland, for 185 native plant species originating from different altitudinal zones. Plants from high elevations flowered earlier and showed more pronounced phenological shifts than plants from lower elevations, independent of species rarity. The probability, number, and duration of flower visits and the number of flower-visitor groups were independent of the altitudinal zone of plant origin and of species rarity. The composition of flower-visitor groups did also not depend on the altitudinal zone of plant origin and on species rarity. Thus, rare and common alpine plants may generally respond to climate change by an earlier flowering onset, and may be able to establish novel interactions with pollinators.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0201-x
  • The seed germination niche limits the distribution of some plant species
           in calcareous or siliceous alpine bedrocks
    • Authors: Maria Tudela-Isanta; Emma Ladouceur; Malaka Wijayasinghe; Hugh W. Pritchard; Andrea Mondoni
      Abstract: Functional plant traits are used in ecology to explain population dynamics in time and space. However, because the germination niche is an essential stage in alpine plant life cycles and is under strong environmental pressure, we hypothesised that inter-specific variability in germination traits might contribute to alpine plant distributions. Germination traits of seven closely related species from calcareous and siliceous habitats were characterised in the laboratory, including base, optimum and ceiling temperatures (Tb, To, Tc, respectively), base water-potential (Ψb) and the pH range of the germination phenotype. Species’ vegetative traits (specific leaf area, leaf area and leaf dry matter content) were obtained from the TRY-database. Traits and habitat similarities and dissimilarities were assessed. Species were plotted in a multivariate space using two separate principal component analyses: one each for germination and vegetative traits. Species from calcareous habitats showed significantly higher Tb, lower Ψb and lower capacity to germinate under acidic pH than species from siliceous habitats. Moreover, high To and Tc, a narrow temperature range for germination at dispersal, and vegetative traits values were similar across both habitats. Whilst plant traits seem to have adapted to the shared environmental conditions of the two alpine habitats, some germination traits were affected by the habitat differences. In conclusion, species occurrence in two habitats (calcareous, siliceous) appears to be limited by some germination constraints and provide greater differentiation of species habitat preference than that defined by vegetative traits.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0199-0
  • Elevation predicts the functional composition of alpine plant communities
           based on vegetative traits, but not based on floral traits
    • Authors: Robert R. Junker; Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić
      Abstract: The functional diversity and composition of plant traits within communities are tightly linked to important ecosystem functions and processes. Whereas vegetative traits reflecting adaptations to environmental conditions are commonly assessed in community ecology, floral traits are often neglected despite their importance for the plants’ life cycle. The consideration of floral traits covers important aspects such as sexual plant reproduction and pollinator diversity, which remain unobserved in studies focussing on vegetative traits only. To test whether vegetative and floral traits differ in their responses to elevation, we measured morphological and chemical traits of plant species occurring in pastures at seven elevations in the Austrian Alps. Variation in functional composition was examined using the concept of n-dimensional hypervolumes and vector analysis. Our data show that vegetative and floral traits vary differently with the elevational gradient. Whereas vegetative traits changed in a predictable manner with elevation, floral traits did not specifically respond to elevation. Overall variation in vegetative traits mainly resulted from phenotypical differences between plants in different elevations, whereas total variation in floral traits was a result from a high variation within communities. The assessment of functional changes in vegetative and floral traits along mountain slopes thus reveals different patterns in plant responses to elevation and may help to generate testable hypotheses on functional responses to current climate warming.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0198-6
  • Variation of vegetative and floral traits in the alpine plant Solidago
           minuta : evidence for local optimum along an elevational gradient
    • Authors: Piotr Kiełtyk
      Abstract: Alpine plants growing along wide elevational gradients experience very different abiotic and biotic conditions across elevations. As a result of genetic differentiation and/or plastic response, conspecific plants growing in high elevations, as compared to low elevations, generally have shorter stems and lower number of flowers, but larger flower size. However, most often, detailed models of elevational variations were not examined. To reveal the pattern of elevational changes in a set of fitness-related morphological traits, tests of linear and unimodal models were performed based on measurements of 1047 Solidago minuta plants collected from 47 sites distributed along a 1000 m elevational gradient in the Tatra Mountains. Nearly all of the investigated floral traits, i.e. inflorescence and flower heads size, and number and size of individual flowers, expressed unimodal relationships with elevation having their maxima in the centre of the elevation range. This pattern suggests the existence of a local optimum with respect to sexual reproduction at the centre of the elevational range. Possible explanations of observed elevational variations are discussed in the context of pollinator selection and the ‘resource-cost compromise’ hypothesis. Best floral performance in the centre of the elevational range of S. minuta may also support the idea that the favourability of habitat conditions declines from the centre to the margin of the distribution, and species are expected to be more abundant, increase reproduction and perform better in the centre of the range.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0197-7
  • Phenotypic and reproductive responses of an Andean violet to environmental
           variation across an elevational gradient
    • Authors: J. Seguí; A. Lázaro; A. Traveset; C. Salgado-Luarte; E. Gianoli
      Abstract: Environmental gradients in alpine systems may lead to differences in both abiotic conditions and species interactions in very short distances. This may lead to reproductive and phenotypic changes in plants to enhance fitness in each environment. In this study, we explored how the Central Andean Viola maculata responds to the elevation gradient, where it is distributed, with an expected increase in water availability and a decrease in pollinator availability with elevation. We hypothesized that: (1) plants would be more water-stressed at low elevations; (2) investment in and success of cleistogamous flowers (closed, self-pollinated) would increase with elevation; and (3) correlation patterns between floral and vegetative traits would vary along the gradient according to changes in biotic/abiotic selection pressures across sites. We partially confirmed the inverse gradient of water stress with elevation, with V. maculata populations in the lowest site experiencing lower soil moisture and showing thicker leaves and lower stomatal conductance. Cleistogamy was more prevalent and successful at the highest site, thus confirming the hypothesis of maintenance of a mixed-mating system as reproductive assurance. Correlation patterns between flower and leaf size differed across sites, with stronger vegetative–floral correlation at the lower sites and a weak correlation at the highest site. This finding disagrees with the notion of pollinators as drivers of correlation between floral and vegetative traits. Our study shows how a narrow gradient in an alpine system may affect not only reproductive and physiological responses in plants, but also floral and vegetative covariances.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0195-9
  • The phylogeographic structure of Arabis alpina in the Alps shows
           consistent patterns across different types of molecular markers and
           geographic scales
    • Authors: Aude Rogivue; René Graf; Christian Parisod; Rolf Holderegger; Felix Gugerli
      Abstract: Glaciation during the Pleistocene confined alpine species to refugial areas. These range contractions had major impacts on the spatial genetic structure of alpine species. Consequently, one should take into account the often complex phylogeographic structure of species when performing genomic research, e.g. on signatures of local adaptation. Understanding the phylogeography of the widespread arctic and alpine Arabis alpina is particularly important, as this species is developing into a model species for ecological genetics. The first objective of this study was to assess the genetic variation of A. alpina across the Alps and to compare the spatial genetic patterns resulting from two different types of molecular markers, namely nuclear microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A second objective was to infer the distribution of genetic variation at the regional scale to understand the genetic structure of populations in the area of a previously suggested contact zone between genetic clusters that presumably recolonised their current range from different glacial refugia. We characterized the phylogeographic structure of 372 individuals from 127 populations across the entire Alpine range, complemented by 364 individuals from 22 populations in the western Swiss Alps. Nuclear microsatellite and AFLP markers described consistent population clustering, coherent with previous phylogeographic analyses. Furthermore, regional population structure in the western Alps of Switzerland highlighted a contact zone of genetic clusters associated with different presumed refugia. Again, this finding was in accordance with recolonisation routes formerly inferred for other plant taxa of the western Swiss Alps. Our results highlight the coincidence of large-scale patterns of genetic structure among alternative types of molecular markers and set a valuable basis for further studies on ecological genomics in A. alpina.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0196-8
  • Seed dormancy and longevity in subarctic and alpine populations of Silene
    • Authors: Andrea Mondoni; Simone Orsenigo; Jonas V. Müller; Ulla Carlsson-Graner; Borja Jiménez-Alfaro; Thomas Abeli
      Abstract: Despite the strong environmental control of seed dormancy and longevity, their changes along latitudes are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess seed dormancy and longevity in different populations across the distribution of the arctic–alpine plant Silene suecica. Seeds of seven populations collected from alpine (Spain, Italy, Scotland) and subarctic (Sweden, Norway) populations were incubated at four temperature regimes and five cold stratification intervals for germination and dormancy testing. Seed longevity was studied by exposing seeds to controlled ageing (45 °C, 60% RH) and regularly sampled for germination. Fresh seeds of S. suecica germinated at warm temperature (20/15 °C) and more in subarctic (80–100%) compared to alpine (20–50%) populations showed a negative correlation with autumn temperature (i.e., post-dispersal period). Seed germination increased after cold stratification in all populations, with different percentages (30–100%). Similarly, there was a large variation of seed longevity (p50 = 12–32 days), with seeds from the wettest locations showing faster deterioration rate. Subarctic populations of S. suecica were less dormant, showing a warmer suitable temperature range for germination, and a higher germinability than alpine populations. Germination and dormancy were driven by an interplay of geographical and climatic factors, with alpine and warm versus subarctic and cool autumn conditions, eliciting a decrease and an increase of emergence, respectively. Germination and dormancy patterns typically found in alpine habitats may not be found in the arctic.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0194-x
  • Genetic diversity in the Andes: variation within and between the South
           American species of Oreobolus R. Br. (Cyperaceae)
    • Authors: María Camila Gómez-Gutiérrez; R. Toby Pennington; Linda E. Neaves; Richard I. Milne; Santiago Madriñán; James E. Richardson
      Abstract: This study examines genetic relationships among and within the South American species of Oreobolus that span the temperate and tropical Andes hotspots and represent a good case study to investigate diversification in the Páramo. A total of 197 individuals covering the distributional range of most of these species were sequenced for the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 118 individuals for three chloroplast DNA regions (trnL-F, trnH-psbA and rpl32-trnL). Haplotype networks and measures of genetic diversity were calculated at different taxonomic and geographic levels. To test for possible geographic structure, a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) was undertaken and species relationships were recovered using a coalescent-based approach. Results indicate complex relationships among the five South American species of Oreobolus, which are likely to have been confounded by incomplete lineage sorting, though hybridization cannot be completely discarded as an influence on genetic patterns, particularly among the northern populations of O. obtusangulus and O. cleefii. We report a case of cryptic speciation in O. obtusangulus where northern and southern populations of morphologically similar individuals are genetically distinct in all analyses. At the population level, the genetic evidence is consistent with contraction and expansion of islands of Páramo vegetation during the climatic fluctuations of the Quaternary, highlighting the role of these processes in shaping modern diversity in that ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0192-z
  • Phylogeography of Alpine populations of Rhytidium rugosum (Bryophyta) in a
           European context
    • Authors: Lars Hedenäs
      Abstract: The phylogeography and possible origins of the moss Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb. in the European Alps are studied based on information from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and a portion of the gene region for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase for 364 European specimens. Seventy-three Alps specimens were sampled from W Switzerland to W Austria, and were divided into four regional populations along a West-South-West (WSW) to East-North-East (ENE) gradient. These populations were compared with similar ones previously studied in other parts of Europe. The ENE-most Alps population, located ENE of the Adige break zone, deviates genetically from the other three. The two WSW-most populations of the Alps appear to be relatively isolated from most of the European populations outside the Alps, whereas the two ENE ones are similar to populations of northern Scandinavia. Populations in between the Alps and the Scandinavian mountain range deviate from those to the north and south, possibly due to low effective population sizes, earlier bottleneck events, or colonization from different source populations. Haplotype diversity and number of private haplotypes are marginally higher in the Alps than in Scandinavia. It is suggested that European Rhytidium originated from late glacial maximum refugia in (1) E-NE Europe, (2) in between the Late Glacial Maximum ice shields of Scandinavia and the Alps, and (3) S, SW, and W of the Swiss Alps. Those of the E Alps potentially originated mainly in E-NE Europe and those of the W Alps in the S, SW, and W.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0191-0
  • Intraspecific haplotype diversity in Cherleria sedoides L.
           (Caryophyllaceae) is best explained by chloroplast capture from an extinct
    • Authors: Abigail J. Moore; Francisco J. Valtueña; Markus S. Dillenberger; Joachim W. Kadereit; Chris D. Preston
      Abstract: Cherleria sedoides, a plant species widespread in alpine areas of the major European mountain ranges and in Scotland, contains two highly divergent chloroplast haplotype groups, one widespread (WH) and one present only in some populations in the Alps (AH). We investigated whether this haplotype diversity is the result of (1) intraspecific differentiation, (2) retention of an ancestral polymorphism or (3) hybridisation. For this purpose, 106 matK sequences from throughout the Caryophyllaceae and 80 trnQ-rps16 and psbD-trnT sequences of C. sedoides (51) and other species of Cherleria (29) were used for the construction of phylogenies and haplotype networks. As the two haplotype groups were never each other’s closest relatives, haplotype diversity as a result of intraspecific differentiation is unlikely. Patterns of genetic differentiation within the WH and AH groups are very different. Whereas WH shows a radial pattern typical of rapid expansion, AH is divided into two divergent subgroups each containing more variation than the WH group. This suggests that the two haplotype groups have dissimilar histories and are therefore unlikely to represent an ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we conclude that the polymorphism is best interpreted as the result of hybridisation. As the WH and AH haplotype groups fall into Cherleria, but do not group with any extant species, we conclude that the rare AH group represents the original C. sedoides, and that the WH group was captured from another, now extinct, species of Cherleria.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0190-1
  • Phylogeography of the moonwort fern Botrychium lunaria (Ophioglossaceae)
           based on chloroplast DNA in the Central-European Mountain System
    • Authors: Alessio Maccagni; Christian Parisod; Jason R. Grant
      Abstract: Botrychium s.s. is a cosmopolitan fern genus comprising about 35 currently recognized species. Despite unexpected high genetic diversity recently highlighted within Botrychium lunaria in the circumboreal region, few studies have included representative samples from Central Europe. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the phylogeography of B. lunaria in the Central-European Mountain System and to compare it with that of flowering plants. Two noncoding chloroplast regions (psbA-trnH and trnL-F) were sequenced (918 bp) from 87 individuals from 34 populations in the major European mountain chains (Sierra Nevada, Pyrenees, Massif Central, Jura, Vosges, Black Forest, Alps, Apennines, and Carpathians). Among the 24 haplotypes found in the B. lunaria aggregate in Europe, bayesian phylogeny and median-joining network support four main clades (LUN1, LUN2, LUN3, and TUN). NST and GST comparison as well as homogeneous groups indicated by SAMOVA indicate a clear phylogeographical pattern. However, unlinked to geographical distance, genetic diversity is greatest in the Prealps and highlights three main barriers to gene flow: S–N of Central Alps (Aosta-Lepontic Alps), and two separating E–W Alps (Lago di Como-Rhaetian Alps and Dolomites-Noric-Julian Alps). Our results indicate that alpine populations of the B. lunaria aggregate survived the Quaternary glaciations in situ in two main refugia, in the southern and eastern periphery of the Alps. Not only areas with higher values of genetic diversity, but also refugia and sites of geographical boundaries to gene flow, appear similar in both ferns and flowering plants.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0188-8
  • Usable wild plant species in relation to elevation and land use at Mount
           Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
    • Authors: Neduvoto Piniel Mollel; Markus Fischer; Andreas Hemp
      Abstract: We used the broad elevational gradient of Kilimanjaro ranging from warm tropical lowland to cold Afro-alpine temperature regimes and the occurrence of natural, nearly untouched as well as of anthropogenic and heavily disturbed habitats to study how elevation and disturbance by humans affect the proportion of useful plant species in different habitat types. Of the 962 vascular plant species recorded in our 60 study plots, 563 species turned out to be listed as useful in the literature. We classified these species into six usage categories. With linear models we tested for relationships between the proportion of useful species per plot and elevation for natural habitats, and with analysis of variance we compared the proportion of useful species between plots in disturbed and natural habitats at similar elevation. The proportion of useful species for all usage categories increased from 860 to 2500 m asl and decreased with higher elevation. We also found an overall positive correlation between the number of useful plants and the species richness of our plots. Human-influenced habitats had higher proportions of useful species for all usage categories, except for construction and fuel wood usage which were higher in natural savanna and lower montane forest than in used habitats at these elevations. Given the high proportions of useful species, we conclude that preserving the biodiversity of Kilimanjaro ecosystems is indispensable for maintaining the diversity of useful plants species for the local people who rely on it for food, sustainable access to medicinal, fuel, construction and forage material.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0187-9
  • Seasonal cycles of sap flow and stem radius variation of Spartocytisus
           supranubius in the alpine zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands
    • Authors: Águeda M. González-Rodríguez; Patricia Brito; José R. Lorenzo; Andreas Gruber; Walter Oberhuber; Gerhard Wieser
      Abstract: We analyzed the seasonal patterns of sap flow density (Q s) and stem radius variation (SRV) of Spartocytisus supranubius, a dominant, endemic tree-like shrub of the mountain vegetation at high elevation in Tenerife, Canary Islands. We tested the hypotheses that drought and its effect on water status and on radial growth (RG) is primarily related to cool–wet-season precipitation preceding the current year rather than to the dry summer per se. During 2013 and 2014 Q s and SRV were monitored with Granier-type sap flow sensors and automatic band dendrometers, respectively. Tree water deficit (ΔW) was extracted from SRV, and standard meteorological factors were used to calculate daily reference evapotranspiration (ET r) and soil moisture deficit. In both years investigated Q s was highest during the dry summer coinciding with periods of high ET r, indicating that plants were able to tap water from deep soil layers originating from precipitation prior the current year’s growth. The high RG and low ΔW rates observed throughout both dry summers are consistent with a direct access of tap roots to deep soil water reserves. Seasonal variations in RG of S. supranubius were mainly determined by the course of Q s and thus dependent on temperature and tree water status.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0189-7
  • How wind affects growth in treeline Picea abies
    • Authors: Jakub Kašpar; Jiří Hošek; Václav Treml
      Abstract: Globally, treeline position is driven by temperatures during the growing season. Nevertheless, at regional scales, the position of uppermost tree stands also reflects other climatic factors, including wind action. It remains uncertain, however, how much do intense winds depress the treeline below its potential position. Our objective was to quantify the effect of wind speed on the possible depression of upper forest margins below the potential treeline in a windy mountain range with the treeline located close to summit areas. In the Giant Mountains, Czech Republic, growth parameters and symptoms of wind-induced loss of biomass were determined for Norway spruce (Picea abies [L] Karst.) in 70 plots distributed along a gradient of wind speed within the treeline ecotone. Wind speed was modelled for each plot. General linear models were applied to discern the effect of wind on tree growth. Our results show that high wind speeds are reflected in the presence of clonal tree islands and irregular tree crowns. Despite evident wind-induced biomass loss, radial growth was not significantly affected, and the effect of wind on height increment was limited only to parts of the stem from 2 m above ground. Considering that the height growth was substantially reduced by wind in about half of the treeline area, and wind was able to limit only growth of trees taller than 2 m, the overall wind-induced depression of highest treeline positions is probably low, even in windy mountain regions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0186-x
  • Migration corridors for alpine plants among the ‘sky islands’ of
           eastern Africa: do they, or did they exist?
    • Authors: Desalegn Chala; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Christian Brochmann; Vegar Bakkestuen
      Abstract: The tropical alpine ecosystem in eastern Africa is highly fragmented among biological ‘sky islands’, where populations of frost-tolerant organisms are isolated from each other by a ‘sea’ of tropical lowlands. One-third of the species in the afroalpine flora are exclusively alpine, but the other species can to varying degrees extend into grasslands and open forests of lower vegetation belts. A long-debated question is whether colonization of the alpine zone of these mountains and subsequent intermountain gene flow entirely depend on long-distance dispersal across unsuitable habitats, or whether suitable habitats shifted far enough downslope under past colder climates to form bridges enabling gradual migration. Here we address this question using a classification tree model. We mapped the extent of the current alpine habitat and projected it to the last glacial maximum (LGM) climate to assess whether gradual migration was possible for exclusively alpine taxa during this glacial period, and thus potentially also during earlier Pleistocene glaciations. Next, we modelled landcover under current and LGM climates to assess whether grassland and open forests could have served as migration corridors for alpine taxa that today extend into lower vegetation belts. We estimated that the LGM treeline was about 1000 m lower and the alpine habitat was about eight times larger than that today. At the LGM, we found that most of the currently fragmented alpine habitat of the Ethiopian highlands was interconnected except across the Great Rift Valley, whereas the solitary mountains of East/Central Africa remained isolated for exclusively alpine species. However, for drought-tolerant alpine species that today extend below the treeline, gradual migration through habitat corridors may have been possible among mountains during the dry glacial periods, and possibly also under the current climate before agriculture transformed the low-lying landscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0184-z
  • High intraspecific phenotypic variation, but little evidence for local
           adaptation in Geum reptans populations in the Central Swiss Alps
    • Authors: Elena Hamann; J. F. Scheepens; Halil Kesselring; Georg F. J. Armbruster; Jürg Stöcklin
      Abstract: The Alpine landscape is characterized by high spatiotemporal heterogeneity in environmental variables, such as climate and soil characteristics. This may lead to divergent selection pressures across plant populations and to local adaptation. Geum reptans, a widespread high-alpine clonal herb, has been the subject of several studies investigating phenotypic variation in populations across the Swiss Alps, yet so far, there is only little knowledge about local adaptation in this species from reciprocal transplantations across original field sites. Here, we reciprocally transplanted three populations of Geum reptans in the Central Swiss Alps, growing at close or far geographical distance from each other, and compared growth- and reproduction-related traits to investigate patterns of local adaptation. We further measured leaf morphological traits to assess potential selection at field sites, and quantified the relative importance of genetic vs. environmental variation (i.e., phenotypic plasticity) for all traits. Additionally, among and within population genetic differentiation was analyzed using microsatellite markers. Molecular diversity was high within populations, and molecular differentiation increased with geographic distance among populations, suggesting that gene flow is maintained at close range, but decreased with distance. Although extensive phenotypic variation was found across site × population transplant combinations, our study revealed little evidence for local adaptation in G. reptans populations. Plant traits also showed strong plasticity, as revealed by pronounced site effects, yet no direct linear selection was detected on leaf trait values within field sites. We suggest that the glacier forelands studied here, which are representative of the habitat of large G. reptans populations, are too similar in environmental conditions to lead to among population intraspecific differentiation in line with local adaptation. As G. reptans showed a great capacity to respond plastically to environmental conditions, we cautiously advocate that the evolution of phenotypic plasticity might have prevailed over genetic differentiation for the adaptation to the relatively narrow niche of this species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0185-y
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