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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Alpine Botany
  [SJR: 0.729]   [H-I: 20]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1664-2201 - ISSN (Online) 1664-221X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • How wind affects growth in treeline Picea abies
    • Authors: Jakub Kašpar; Jiří Hošek; Václav Treml
      Abstract: Abstract Globally, treeline position is driven by temperatures during the growing season. Nevertheless, at regional scales, the position of uppermost tree stands also reflects other climatic factors, including wind action. It remains uncertain, however, how much do intense winds depress the treeline below its potential position. Our objective was to quantify the effect of wind speed on the possible depression of upper forest margins below the potential treeline in a windy mountain range with the treeline located close to summit areas. In the Giant Mountains, Czech Republic, growth parameters and symptoms of wind-induced loss of biomass were determined for Norway spruce (Picea abies [L] Karst.) in 70 plots distributed along a gradient of wind speed within the treeline ecotone. Wind speed was modelled for each plot. General linear models were applied to discern the effect of wind on tree growth. Our results show that high wind speeds are reflected in the presence of clonal tree islands and irregular tree crowns. Despite evident wind-induced biomass loss, radial growth was not significantly affected, and the effect of wind on height increment was limited only to parts of the stem from 2 m above ground. Considering that the height growth was substantially reduced by wind in about half of the treeline area, and wind was able to limit only growth of trees taller than 2 m, the overall wind-induced depression of highest treeline positions is probably low, even in windy mountain regions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0186-x
  • Migration corridors for alpine plants among the ‘sky islands’ of
           eastern Africa: do they, or did they exist?
    • Authors: Desalegn Chala; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Christian Brochmann; Vegar Bakkestuen
      Abstract: Abstract The tropical alpine ecosystem in eastern Africa is highly fragmented among biological ‘sky islands’, where populations of frost-tolerant organisms are isolated from each other by a ‘sea’ of tropical lowlands. One-third of the species in the afroalpine flora are exclusively alpine, but the other species can to varying degrees extend into grasslands and open forests of lower vegetation belts. A long-debated question is whether colonization of the alpine zone of these mountains and subsequent intermountain gene flow entirely depend on long-distance dispersal across unsuitable habitats, or whether suitable habitats shifted far enough downslope under past colder climates to form bridges enabling gradual migration. Here we address this question using a classification tree model. We mapped the extent of the current alpine habitat and projected it to the last glacial maximum (LGM) climate to assess whether gradual migration was possible for exclusively alpine taxa during this glacial period, and thus potentially also during earlier Pleistocene glaciations. Next, we modelled landcover under current and LGM climates to assess whether grassland and open forests could have served as migration corridors for alpine taxa that today extend into lower vegetation belts. We estimated that the LGM treeline was about 1000 m lower and the alpine habitat was about eight times larger than that today. At the LGM, we found that most of the currently fragmented alpine habitat of the Ethiopian highlands was interconnected except across the Great Rift Valley, whereas the solitary mountains of East/Central Africa remained isolated for exclusively alpine species. However, for drought-tolerant alpine species that today extend below the treeline, gradual migration through habitat corridors may have been possible among mountains during the dry glacial periods, and possibly also under the current climate before agriculture transformed the low-lying landscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0184-z
  • High intraspecific phenotypic variation, but little evidence for local
           adaptation in Geum reptans populations in the Central Swiss Alps
    • Authors: Elena Hamann; J. F. Scheepens; Halil Kesselring; Georg F. J. Armbruster; Jürg Stöcklin
      Abstract: Abstract The Alpine landscape is characterized by high spatiotemporal heterogeneity in environmental variables, such as climate and soil characteristics. This may lead to divergent selection pressures across plant populations and to local adaptation. Geum reptans, a widespread high-alpine clonal herb, has been the subject of several studies investigating phenotypic variation in populations across the Swiss Alps, yet so far, there is only little knowledge about local adaptation in this species from reciprocal transplantations across original field sites. Here, we reciprocally transplanted three populations of Geum reptans in the Central Swiss Alps, growing at close or far geographical distance from each other, and compared growth- and reproduction-related traits to investigate patterns of local adaptation. We further measured leaf morphological traits to assess potential selection at field sites, and quantified the relative importance of genetic vs. environmental variation (i.e., phenotypic plasticity) for all traits. Additionally, among and within population genetic differentiation was analyzed using microsatellite markers. Molecular diversity was high within populations, and molecular differentiation increased with geographic distance among populations, suggesting that gene flow is maintained at close range, but decreased with distance. Although extensive phenotypic variation was found across site × population transplant combinations, our study revealed little evidence for local adaptation in G. reptans populations. Plant traits also showed strong plasticity, as revealed by pronounced site effects, yet no direct linear selection was detected on leaf trait values within field sites. We suggest that the glacier forelands studied here, which are representative of the habitat of large G. reptans populations, are too similar in environmental conditions to lead to among population intraspecific differentiation in line with local adaptation. As G. reptans showed a great capacity to respond plastically to environmental conditions, we cautiously advocate that the evolution of phenotypic plasticity might have prevailed over genetic differentiation for the adaptation to the relatively narrow niche of this species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0185-y
  • Celebrating 125 years of Alpine Botany
    • Authors: Jürg Stöcklin; Rolf Holderegger
      Pages: 87 - 87
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0175-5
      Issue No: Vol. 126, No. 2 (2016)
  • Molecular analysis of the extinct Central European endemic Saxifraga
           oppositifolia subsp. amphibia and its implications on glaciation
    • Authors: Cornelia Krause; Arno Wörz; Mike Thiv
      Abstract: Abstract Extinction of biodiversity due to human activities is a severe global problem. In Europe, however, only a few plant species died out so far. We investigated a dubious, disregarded taxon—Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp. amphibia—which became extinct in the 1960s. It exclusively occurred in a specific niche, namely in seasonally flooded waterside bank vegetation around Lake Constance in Germany and Switzerland. It has either been interpreted as a glacial relict or as a recent dealpine taxon. Using herbarium material, we conducted phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and cpDNA sequence variation. The taxon shared a chloroplast haplotype of S. oppositifolia, which is mainly distributed in the Alps, favouring the dealpine hypothesis. Nuclear data revealed several paralogous copies nested inside S. oppositifolia, most of which, however, differed from other S. oppositifolia accessions including those from the vicinity of Lake Constance. The oldest mean stem node ages of these ITS copies date between 0.91 and 0.28 my. Contradicting cpDNA, this may indicate that this saxifrage was a distinct taxon and possibly a relict originating in Middle Pleistocene glaciations. If so, the present study exemplifies that arctic-alpine plants survived in specific niches at low altitudes during interglacials and that corresponding taxa with a limited distribution are especially prone to extinction.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0183-5
  • A global inventory of mountains for bio-geographical applications
    • Authors: Christian Körner; Walter Jetz; Jens Paulsen; Davnah Payne; Katrin Rudmann-Maurer; Eva M. Spehn
      Abstract: Abstract Mountains are hotspots of biodiversity. Yet, evaluating their importance in global biodiversity inventories requires the adoption of a pertinent definition of mountains. Here, we first compare the well-established WCMC and GMBA definitions, which both use geographical information systems. We show that the WCMC approach arrives at twice the global mountain area and much higher human population numbers than the GMBA one, which is explained by the inclusion of (mostly) low latitude hill country below 600 m elevation. We then present an inventory of the world’s mountains based on the GMBA definition. In this inventory, each of the 1003 entries corresponds to a polygon drawn around a mountain or a mountain range and includes the name of the delineated object, the area of mountainous terrain it covers stratified into different bioclimatic belts (all at 2.5′ resolution), and demographic information. Taken together, the 1003 polygons cover 13.8 Mio km2 of mountain terrain, of which 3.3 Mio km2 are in the alpine and nival belts. This corresponds to 83.7% of the global mountain area sensu GMBA, and 94% of the alpine/nival area. The 386 Mio people inhabiting mountainous terrain within polygons represent 75% of the people globally inhabiting mountains sensu GMBA. This inventory offers a robust framework for the integration of mountain biota in regional and larger scale biodiversity assessments, for biogeography, bioclimatology, macroecology, and conservation research, and for the exploration of a multitude of socio-ecological and climate change-related research questions in mountain biota, including the potential pressure on alpine ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0182-6
  • Klebelsberg revisited: did primary succession of plants in glacier
           forelands a century ago differ from today?
    • Authors: Thomas Fickert; Friederike Grüninger; Bodo Damm
      Abstract: Abstract Since the Little Ice Age maximum in mid-nineteenth century, glaciers of the Alps lost more than half of their respective area. The chance to observe primary succession in deglaciated areas has motivated researchers ever since with quite a number of studies on vegetation dynamics in glacier forelands dating back to the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Harsh site conditions make glacier forelands challenging environments for the colonization. Due to high mortality rates during establishment, plant colonization and vegetation dynamics in glacier forelands are commonly considered slow and delayed. Recent research, however, shows that primary succession of plants in glacier forelands is accelerated, most likely due to climate warming. This is demonstrated by a speedup of the colonization process itself as well as by changed colonization strategies of the plant species involved. Employing a virtually complete species list for 1911 provided by Raimund v. Klebelsberg and our data collected along a chronosequence roughly a century later, we compare the floristic composition and structural attributes of the plant species governing primary succession within the glacier foreland of Lenksteinferner (ferner is a Tyrolean toponym for glacier) (South Tyrol, Italy). We address questions of changes in the dynamics of colonization, the plant species involved and their respective biological traits. Our study confirms that present-day vegetation dynamics in the glacier foreland are accelerated, colonization occurs faster and more species are involved in early colonization than a century ago. However, the dominant early colonizers are essentially the same and there are no fundamental differences concerning the spectra of biological traits between the two sampling dates. Altered colonization strategies due to climate change could not be detected within the glacier foreland of the Lenksteinferner, probably due to a compensation of climate warming during the twentieth century by the shift of the glacier terminus to a higher elevation. As the difference in temperature between the two sampling areas matches the magnitude of warming between the two sampling dates, similar temperature conditions in front of the glacier terminus today and at Klebelsberg’s times can be assumed.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0179-1
  • Degradation and recovery of an alpine plant community: experimental
           removal of an encroaching dwarf bamboo
    • Abstract: Abstract The dwarf bamboo Sasa kurilensis has responded to recent climate change by expanding its distribution into alpine snow meadows in Japan. Tall, dense clonal patches of bamboo suppress alpine plant growth, alter ecosystem functioning, and reduce diversity. We aim to assess the ecological impacts of bamboo expansion and the effectiveness of bamboo control for restoring alpine vegetation and species diversity. We quantified the extent of bamboo expansion, its effects on an alpine ecosystem, and the recovery of species diversity by bamboo removal over 6 years in Daisetsuzan National Park, northern Japan. We established paired, experimental plots assigned to either removal or control treatments following an encroaching gradient from interior to terminal locations in a large bamboo patch. We monitored bamboo development and aboveground production, and its impact on soil moisture and species diversity to assess the recovery process of snow meadow species after its removal. In control plots, bamboo density consistently increased and accumulated biomass from year to year. In the removal treatment, bamboo culm density, height and biomass decreased through time at all locations. Furthermore, soil moisture increased in the removal plots and remained consistently higher than controls throughout the growing season. Dwarf bamboo strongly suppressed alpine plants and reduced species diversity. However, alpine snow meadow species rapidly recovered and diversity increased through time in the removal treatment. This study presents an effective management strategy for restoring alpine plant diversity impacted by bamboo expansion under global climate change.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0178-2
  • Genetic variation and performance of the alpine plant species Dianthus
           callizonus differ in two elevational zones of the Carpathians
    • Authors: Anna-Rita Gabel; Julia Sattler; Christoph Reisch
      Abstract: Abstract In this investigation, we studied whether genetic variation and performance of the alpine plant species Dianthus callizonus differ between two different elevational zones of the southern Carpathians in Romania. We analysed 17 populations of the species from two study regions at 1700 and 2100 m above sea level in the Piatra Craiului Mountains applying AFLP analyses and morphological measurements. Following our results, population size differed between the two study regions and genetic variation within populations depended on population size. Population size and genetic variation within populations were higher in the study region located at 1700 m. By contrast, genetic variation between populations was nearly twice as large in the study region located at 2100 m. In a Mantel test, genetic and geographic distances between populations were clearly correlated. Moreover, individuals from the study region at 2100 m were significantly smaller, had fewer shoots, fewer flowers per shoot and produced seeds with a lower seed mass than individuals from the study region at 1700 m. The results of our study support the observation that changing environmental conditions along elevational gradients in mountain regions affect population size, genetic variation and performance of alpine plant species from different elevational zones, which should be considered in plant conservation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0177-3
  • Plasticity of flower longevity in alpine plants is increased in
           populations from high elevation compared to low elevation populations
    • Authors: Judith Trunschke; Jürg Stöcklin
      Abstract: Abstract Flower longevity is an adaptive trait, optimized to balance reproductive success against the costs of flower maintenance. The trait is highly plastic in response to pollination success, and numerous studies report increased flower longevity in high elevation environments, where diversity, abundance, and activity of pollinators are low. However, few studies have experimentally investigated how flower longevity varies with pollination intensity within and among populations. We studied flower longevity of six alpine species under three pollination intensity treatments (hand-pollination, natural pollination, pollinator exclusion) at 1600 m vs. 2600 m a.s.l. at the Furka Pass, Central Swiss Alps. We hypothesized, (1) that flower longevity is generally increased in population at high elevation, and (2) that the increase in flower longevity when pollination fails is stronger in populations at high elevation compared to low elevation. Hand-pollination did not decrease flower longevity in any of the studied populations and rarely increased natural seed production suggesting no pollination limitation at both elevations. This was supported by similar pollinator visitation rates, pollinator efficiency, and pollination effectivity. Pollinator exclusion significantly increased flower longevity, but only in populations of three species at low elevation, whereby in all populations of the six species at high elevation, indicating a higher plasticity of flowers in populations at high elevation compared to populations from lower elevation. We suggest that the higher plasticity of flower longevity in alpine populations is of advantage in their unpredictable pollination environment: Increased flower longevity compensates for low pollination in unsuitable periods guaranteeing a minimum reproduction, while the capacity to senescence rapidly after successful pollination saves redundant floral costs in suitable periods.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0176-4
  • Seasonal variation of freezing resistance mechanisms in north-temperate
           alpine plants
    • Authors: Petr Sklenář
      Abstract: Abstract Alpine herbaceous plants employ two mechanisms to prevent freezing injury to leaves during the growing season, i.e., they avoid freezing by transient supercooling or tolerate the occurrence of extracellular ice. I examined seasonal changes in the two freezing resistance mechanisms in leaves of alpine plants from two temperate mountain regions, Niwot Ridge (3500 m) in the Front Range of the Rocky Mts. (USA) and Modré sedlo (1510 m) in the Giant Mts. (Czech Republic). Although plants from Niwot Ridge were on average ca. 2.6 K more resistant to freezing than plants from the Giant Mts., patterns of freezing resistance changes during the growing season were consistent between the two regions. Both freezing resistance mechanisms, i.e., avoidance by supercooling and tolerance of extracellular ice were encountered. Plants predominantly avoided freezing injury during early summer and tolerated extracellular freezing at the end of the growing season, and the seasonal change from avoidance to tolerance mechanisms was significant for both regions. The avoidance and tolerance mechanisms provided comparable freezing resistance to the plants during early summer but, unlike in avoidant plants, in tolerant plants resistance increased over the course of the season. The species formed three groups with regard to resistance mechanisms employed during the season: (1) species that avoided injury by supercooling during early summer and employed freezing tolerance towards autumn; (2) species that were freezing tolerant during the entire growing season; and (3) species with ephemeral shoots that solely avoided freezing by supercooling. Although freezing tolerance is a common feature in north-temperate alpine plants, avoidance by supercooling as a freezing resistance strategy might be selected for in species with particular life histories such as ephemeral hemiparasites.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0174-6
  • Uneven rate of plant turnover along elevation in grasslands
    • Authors: Patrice Descombes; Pascal Vittoz; Antoine Guisan; Loïc Pellissier
      Abstract: Abstract Plant taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of assemblages are known to shift along environmental gradients, but whether the rate of species turnover is regular or not (e.g., accelerations in particular sections of the gradient) remains poorly documented. Understanding how rates of assemblage turnover vary along gradients is crucial to forecast where climate change could promote the fastest changes within extant communities. Here we analysed turnover rates of plant assemblages along a 2500 m elevation gradient in the Swiss Western Alps. We found a peak of turnover rate between 1800 and 2200 m indicating an acceleration of grassland compositional changes at the transition between subalpine and alpine belts. In parallel, we found a peak in phylogenetic turnover rate in Poales between 1700 m and 1900 and Super-Rosids between 1900 and 2300 m. Our results suggest that changes in abiotic or biotic conditions near the human-modified treeline constitute a strong barrier for many grassland plant species, which share analogous elevation range limits. We propose that this vegetation zone of high ecological transitions over short geographical distances should show the fastest community responses to climate change from the breakdown of barrier across ecotones.
      PubDate: 2016-08-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0173-7
  • Plant invasions into mountains and alpine ecosystems: current status and
           future challenges
    • Authors: Jake M. Alexander; Jonas J. Lembrechts; Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Curtis Daehler; Sylvia Haider; Christoph Kueffer; Gang Liu; Keith McDougall; Ann Milbau; Aníbal Pauchard; Lisa J. Rew; Tim Seipel
      Abstract: Abstract Recent years have seen a surge of interest in understanding patterns and processes of plant invasions into mountains. Here, we synthesise current knowledge about the spread of non-native plants along elevation gradients, emphasising the current status and impacts that these species have in alpine ecosystems. Globally, invasions along elevation gradients are influenced by propagule availability, environmental constraints on population growth, evolutionary change and biotic interactions. The highest elevations are so far relatively free from non-native plants. Nonetheless, in total nearly 200 non-native plant species have been recorded from alpine environments around the world. However, we identified only three species as specifically cold-adapted, with the overwhelming majority having their centres of distribution under warmer environments, and few have substantial impacts on native communities. A combination of low propagule availability and low invasibility likely explain why alpine environments host few non-native plants relative to lowland ecosystems. However, experiences in some areas demonstrate that alpine ecosystems are not inherently resistant to invasions. Furthermore, they will face increasing pressure from the introduction of pre-adapted species, climate change, and the range expansion of native species, which are already causing concern in some areas. Nonetheless, because they are still relatively free from non-native plants, preventative action could be an effective way to limit future impacts of invasions in alpine environments.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0172-8
  • Effects of plot size and their spatial arrangement on estimates of alpha,
           beta and gamma diversity of plants in alpine grassland
    • Authors: Eliane Seraina Meier; Gabriela Hofer
      Abstract: Abstract Little is known about the statistical consequences of plot size and their spatial arrangement when addressing biodiversity questions. Thus, we compared three vegetation plot sizes and two sampling designs with different spatial arrangements in alpine grasslands by analyzing their effects on common indices of alpha, beta and gamma plant species diversity. Data were collected in three 1-km2 squares in summer pastures in the subalpine and alpine zones in Switzerland. In each square, 45 nested plots were distributed according to systematic random sampling (i.e., when the focus is on the abundances of the vegetation types and species) and maximum variation sampling (i.e., when the focus is on the set of vegetation types and species occurring). To compare the effects of the plot sizes and sampling designs on estimates of gamma diversity, we also estimated gamma diversity from an exhaustive sampling of the squares. Compared with systematic random sampling, maximum variation sampling hardly affected the indices of alpha diversity, but resulted in higher indices of beta and gamma diversity. More importantly, alpha and gamma diversity were found to be higher as plot size increased, whereas beta diversity was lower in the larger plots. Gamma diversity from the exhaustive sample was most similar to gamma diversity from maximum variation sampling on the largest plot sizes. Moreover, results from a variation partitioning analysis showed that landscape variability and plot size had a much larger effect on species diversity estimates than the sampling design. In conclusion, studies focusing on the occurring set of vegetation types and species within a landscape may apply maximum variation sampling if the most important (environmental) gradients for the stratification are known. Studies also focusing on the abundance of vegetation types or species may apply systematic random sampling.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0171-9
  • Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signals for an entire alpine flora,
           based on herbarium samples
    • Authors: Christian Körner; Sebastian Leuzinger; Susanna Riedl; Rolf T. Siegwolf; Lea Streule
      Abstract: Abstract Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes provide time-integrated signals of plant carbon and nitrogen relations. We assessed an entire alpine flora in the Swiss Alps at ca. 2400 m elevation, using year 2007 herbarium samples of 245 species, 141 genera and 42 families to explore functional trait diversity. Despite overall similar macro-environmental conditions (moisture, soils, elevation), signal variation covered the full spectrum known for C3 plants. Variation among means for plant families for both δ13C and δ15N was smaller than variation among species within families. Species identity was of far greater importance than family affiliation. Similarly, tissue nitrogen and carbon concentrations varied in a rather species-specific manner, not permitting any a priori plant functional group definition based on such traits. The study also yielded tissue-type specificity of isotope signals. The elevation signal in δ13C (known to be less negative at high elevation) was much less pronounced than observed previously in con-generic comparisons. Thus, elevational δ13C trends are hard to distinguish from species effects in mixed populations over narrow ranges of elevation. δ15N data offer more space for ecological interpretation and show family specificity of signals in few cases. Cyperaceae, the most prominent family in this region, show no discrimination against 15N (like Fabaceae) and must have access to N sources different from most other families. This deserves experimental clarification, given the significance of Cyperaceae in cold environments. Overall, our study evidenced very high functional diversity among alpine plant species, as captured by these isotope signals.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0170-x
  • Genetic structure of Vaccinium vitis - idaea in lowland cool spot and
           alpine populations: microrefugia of alpine plants in the midlatitudes
    • Authors: Ayuma Shimokawabe; Yuichi Yamaura; Masanao Sueyoshi; Gaku Kudo; Futoshi Nakamura
      Abstract: Abstract Local cool spots (wind-holes) in lowland areas of midlatitudes may act as microrefugia for cold-adapted species outside of their typical alpine habitats. We examined the genetic structure of Vaccinium vitis-idaea, a common alpine species in Japan, in eight lowland wind-hole and five surrounding alpine populations. We collected leaf samples and genotyped seven microsatellite loci. Clonal patches (genets) were common in almost all populations. An analysis of annual shoot growth suggested that individuals in the wind-hole populations were long-lived (>500 years old). Genetic diversity (allelic richness) and differentiation (F ST) of the wind-hole populations were lower and higher than those of the alpine populations, respectively. No significant isolation-by-distance trend in the genetic structure was detected for the wind-hole or alpine populations. All wind-hole populations had negative inbreeding coefficients (F IS), suggesting no tendency toward homozygosity due to inbreeding, regardless of the small populations geographically isolated from the large alpine populations. Therefore, wind-holes may harbor genetically isolated but stable populations due to clonal growth, limited gene flow, and abortion of selfed seeds by early acting inbreeding depression. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that genetic variations among and within populations contributed more to regional genetic diversity than those between wind-hole and alpine populations, suggesting that the wind-hole and alpine populations are important for maintaining the genetic diversity of midlatitude V. vitis-idaea populations. On the other hand, Bayesian clustering showed that some wind-hole populations geographically close to the alpine populations had mixed genetic compositions of the alpine and wind-hole populations.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0169-3
  • Factors affecting primary succession of glacier foreland vegetation in the
           European Alps
    • Authors: Katharina Schumann; Susanne Gewolf; Oliver Tackenberg
      Abstract: Abstract Vegetation succession on glacier forelands has been well-studied. However, most of the studies investigated only one or few glacier forelands. We studied regional variations in vegetation succession on 16 glacier forelands in the European Alps. To improve our understanding of how vegetation succession is regulated by environmental conditions, we took edaphic and climatic factors into account. We collected vegetation data in three stages (early; middle; late) along a successional gradient on glacier forelands in the Eastern and Western European Alps. The progressions of species richness, vegetation cover and composition during primary succession were compared between these two regions. In addition, the effects of climatic and edaphic factors and grazing were tested. Our results reveal that the vegetation from the early stage did not differ between the regions and different elevations. With progressing time, and especially in the late successional stage, several vegetation differences emerged. The forelands of the Western Alps already developed to open shrubland, while the forelands of the Eastern Alps so far only developed toward grassland. Surprisingly, these differences cannot be explained by different precipitation amounts, but possibly by different regional species pools and elevations of the treelines. We conclude that a complex of edaphic factors closely related to terrain age, regional differences in the species pool, and the different elevation of the treeline in the eastern and western Alps mostly influenced later stages of primary succession on glacier forelands.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0166-6
  • Does leaf optical absorbance reflect the polyphenol content of alpine
           plants along an elevational gradient'
    • Authors: Tiphaine Lefebvre; Annie Millery-Vigues; Christiane Gallet
      Abstract: Abstract Phenolic compounds play important ecological roles in alpine plants such as offering efficient UV protection at high level of incident sunlight. Methods to study those compounds are limited, as they require sophisticated analytical tools and are time-consuming. An alternative and portable device—Dualex©—has been recently developed to estimate the plant epidermal flavonoids by fluorescence sensing. Here, we assessed if the Dualex device accurately estimates the phenolic contents of three alpine plant species along an elevational gradient and be an alternative to the commonly used chemical methods. We characterized their leaf epidermal absorbance measured by the Dualex device, total phenol content assessed by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay and total flavonoid content estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that leaf epidermal absorbance was slightly positively correlated to total phenols for Rhododendron ferrugineum and Dryas octopetala, but not for Vaccinium myrtillus and to total flavonoids for the first species, but not for the two others. The leaf epidermal absorbance estimated by the Dualex device is not an accurate and universal predictor of total phenols or total flavonoid contents for alpine plant species. The limitations of this optical method could be mainly explained by the high intraspecific variability of plant chemical composition in heterogeneous environmental conditions met in alpine areas. We thus recommend a cautious use of this device to avoid misinterpretations.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0167-5
  • Low genetic variation and high differentiation across sky island
           populations of Lupinus alopecuroides (Fabaceae) in the northern Andes
    • Authors: Diana L. A. Vásquez; Henrik Balslev; Michael Møller Hansen; Petr Sklenář; Katya Romoleroux
      Abstract: Abstract The tropical alpine flora in the northern Andes has caught the attention of evolutionary biologists and conservationists because of the extent of its diversity and its vulnerability. Although population genetics studies are essential to understand how diversity arises and how it can be maintained, plant populations occurring above 4100 m a.s.l. in the so-called super-páramo have rarely been studied at the molecular level. Here, we use 11 microsatellite DNA markers to examine genetic structure in populations of Lupinus alopecuroides, a long-lived semelparous giant rosette known from only 10 geographically isolated populations. Each population is located on a different mountain top, of which three are in Colombia and seven in Ecuador. We analysed 220 individuals from all the ten known populations. We find low genetic variation in all but one of the populations. Four populations are completely monomorphic, and another five show only one polymorphic locus each. On the other hand, we find extremely high genetic differentiation between populations. We discuss the mechanisms that might cause this pattern, and we suggest that it is related to founder effects, lack of gene flow, and autogamy. The genetic relationships among the populations, and the lack of correlation between the genetic and geographic distances also point to the importance of founder effects and colonization history in driving differentiation among the populations.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0165-7
  • Allopatric hybrids as evidence for past range dynamics in Sempervivum
           (Crassulaceae), a western Eurasian high mountain oreophyte
    • Authors: Johannes T. Klein; Joachim W. Kadereit
      Abstract: Abstract Fossil evidence, phylogeographic analyses, species distribution modelling and ancient DNA analyses have all shown that plant distributions have been highly dynamic through time. We use the geographical distribution of intra- and interspecific hybrids in Sempervivum, a western Eurasian high mountain oreophyte, as evidence for the past range dynamics of their parents. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), parts of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS), and the three chloroplast markers atpI–atpH, rps16-intron and trnQ–rps16 were generated for 101 individuals of Sempervivum from across its entire distribution range. Hybrid individuals were identified by the presence of double base calls in direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products of ITS and IGS. Parentage was inferred from comparison with sequences without double base calls and with cpDNA sequences. We identified 27 hybrid individuals, which were found outside the current distribution range of one parent in 10 cases and with both (or all three) parents in eight cases. Geographical distance of hybrids and allopatric parents ranged from 25 to 2100 km. The distribution of hybrid individuals in relation to their parents provides evidence for past range dynamics and migration over sometimes large geographical distances. As all taxa involved had been postulated to be of Quaternary origin in an earlier study, we hypothesise that hybridisation took place in glacial refugia where the parental species came into contact.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0164-8
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