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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Alpine Botany
  [SJR: 0.729]   [H-I: 20]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1664-2201 - ISSN (Online) 1664-221X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Genetic diversity in the Andes: variation within and between the South
           American species of Oreobolus R. Br. (Cyperaceae)
    • Authors: María Camila Gómez-Gutiérrez; R. Toby Pennington; Linda E. Neaves; Richard I. Milne; Santiago Madriñán; James E. Richardson
      Abstract: Abstract This study examines genetic relationships among and within the South American species of Oreobolus that span the temperate and tropical Andes hotspots and represent a good case study to investigate diversification in the Páramo. A total of 197 individuals covering the distributional range of most of these species were sequenced for the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 118 individuals for three chloroplast DNA regions (trnL-F, trnH-psbA and rpl32-trnL). Haplotype networks and measures of genetic diversity were calculated at different taxonomic and geographic levels. To test for possible geographic structure, a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) was undertaken and species relationships were recovered using a coalescent-based approach. Results indicate complex relationships among the five South American species of Oreobolus, which are likely to have been confounded by incomplete lineage sorting, though hybridization cannot be completely discarded as an influence on genetic patterns, particularly among the northern populations of O. obtusangulus and O. cleefii. We report a case of cryptic speciation in O. obtusangulus where northern and southern populations of morphologically similar individuals are genetically distinct in all analyses. At the population level, the genetic evidence is consistent with contraction and expansion of islands of Páramo vegetation during the climatic fluctuations of the Quaternary, highlighting the role of these processes in shaping modern diversity in that ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0192-z
  • Phylogeography of Alpine populations of Rhytidium rugosum (Bryophyta) in a
           European context
    • Authors: Lars Hedenäs
      Abstract: Abstract The phylogeography and possible origins of the moss Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb. in the European Alps are studied based on information from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and a portion of the gene region for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase for 364 European specimens. Seventy-three Alps specimens were sampled from W Switzerland to W Austria, and were divided into four regional populations along a West-South-West (WSW) to East-North-East (ENE) gradient. These populations were compared with similar ones previously studied in other parts of Europe. The ENE-most Alps population, located ENE of the Adige break zone, deviates genetically from the other three. The two WSW-most populations of the Alps appear to be relatively isolated from most of the European populations outside the Alps, whereas the two ENE ones are similar to populations of northern Scandinavia. Populations in between the Alps and the Scandinavian mountain range deviate from those to the north and south, possibly due to low effective population sizes, earlier bottleneck events, or colonization from different source populations. Haplotype diversity and number of private haplotypes are marginally higher in the Alps than in Scandinavia. It is suggested that European Rhytidium originated from late glacial maximum refugia in (1) E-NE Europe, (2) in between the Late Glacial Maximum ice shields of Scandinavia and the Alps, and (3) S, SW, and W of the Swiss Alps. Those of the E Alps potentially originated mainly in E-NE Europe and those of the W Alps in the S, SW, and W.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0191-0
  • Intraspecific haplotype diversity in Cherleria sedoides L.
           (Caryophyllaceae) is best explained by chloroplast capture from an extinct
    • Authors: Abigail J. Moore; Francisco J. Valtueña; Markus S. Dillenberger; Joachim W. Kadereit; Chris D. Preston
      Abstract: Abstract Cherleria sedoides, a plant species widespread in alpine areas of the major European mountain ranges and in Scotland, contains two highly divergent chloroplast haplotype groups, one widespread (WH) and one present only in some populations in the Alps (AH). We investigated whether this haplotype diversity is the result of (1) intraspecific differentiation, (2) retention of an ancestral polymorphism or (3) hybridisation. For this purpose, 106 matK sequences from throughout the Caryophyllaceae and 80 trnQ-rps16 and psbD-trnT sequences of C. sedoides (51) and other species of Cherleria (29) were used for the construction of phylogenies and haplotype networks. As the two haplotype groups were never each other’s closest relatives, haplotype diversity as a result of intraspecific differentiation is unlikely. Patterns of genetic differentiation within the WH and AH groups are very different. Whereas WH shows a radial pattern typical of rapid expansion, AH is divided into two divergent subgroups each containing more variation than the WH group. This suggests that the two haplotype groups have dissimilar histories and are therefore unlikely to represent an ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we conclude that the polymorphism is best interpreted as the result of hybridisation. As the WH and AH haplotype groups fall into Cherleria, but do not group with any extant species, we conclude that the rare AH group represents the original C. sedoides, and that the WH group was captured from another, now extinct, species of Cherleria.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0190-1
  • Phylogeography of the moonwort fern Botrychium lunaria (Ophioglossaceae)
           based on chloroplast DNA in the Central-European Mountain System
    • Authors: Alessio Maccagni; Christian Parisod; Jason R. Grant
      Abstract: Abstract Botrychium s.s. is a cosmopolitan fern genus comprising about 35 currently recognized species. Despite unexpected high genetic diversity recently highlighted within Botrychium lunaria in the circumboreal region, few studies have included representative samples from Central Europe. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the phylogeography of B. lunaria in the Central-European Mountain System and to compare it with that of flowering plants. Two noncoding chloroplast regions (psbA-trnH and trnL-F) were sequenced (918 bp) from 87 individuals from 34 populations in the major European mountain chains (Sierra Nevada, Pyrenees, Massif Central, Jura, Vosges, Black Forest, Alps, Apennines, and Carpathians). Among the 24 haplotypes found in the B. lunaria aggregate in Europe, bayesian phylogeny and median-joining network support four main clades (LUN1, LUN2, LUN3, and TUN). NST and GST comparison as well as homogeneous groups indicated by SAMOVA indicate a clear phylogeographical pattern. However, unlinked to geographical distance, genetic diversity is greatest in the Prealps and highlights three main barriers to gene flow: S–N of Central Alps (Aosta-Lepontic Alps), and two separating E–W Alps (Lago di Como-Rhaetian Alps and Dolomites-Noric-Julian Alps). Our results indicate that alpine populations of the B. lunaria aggregate survived the Quaternary glaciations in situ in two main refugia, in the southern and eastern periphery of the Alps. Not only areas with higher values of genetic diversity, but also refugia and sites of geographical boundaries to gene flow, appear similar in both ferns and flowering plants.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0188-8
  • Usable wild plant species in relation to elevation and land use at Mount
           Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
    • Authors: Neduvoto Piniel Mollel; Markus Fischer; Andreas Hemp
      Abstract: Abstract We used the broad elevational gradient of Kilimanjaro ranging from warm tropical lowland to cold Afro-alpine temperature regimes and the occurrence of natural, nearly untouched as well as of anthropogenic and heavily disturbed habitats to study how elevation and disturbance by humans affect the proportion of useful plant species in different habitat types. Of the 962 vascular plant species recorded in our 60 study plots, 563 species turned out to be listed as useful in the literature. We classified these species into six usage categories. With linear models we tested for relationships between the proportion of useful species per plot and elevation for natural habitats, and with analysis of variance we compared the proportion of useful species between plots in disturbed and natural habitats at similar elevation. The proportion of useful species for all usage categories increased from 860 to 2500 m asl and decreased with higher elevation. We also found an overall positive correlation between the number of useful plants and the species richness of our plots. Human-influenced habitats had higher proportions of useful species for all usage categories, except for construction and fuel wood usage which were higher in natural savanna and lower montane forest than in used habitats at these elevations. Given the high proportions of useful species, we conclude that preserving the biodiversity of Kilimanjaro ecosystems is indispensable for maintaining the diversity of useful plants species for the local people who rely on it for food, sustainable access to medicinal, fuel, construction and forage material.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0187-9
  • Seasonal cycles of sap flow and stem radius variation of Spartocytisus
           supranubius in the alpine zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands
    • Authors: Águeda M. González-Rodríguez; Patricia Brito; José R. Lorenzo; Andreas Gruber; Walter Oberhuber; Gerhard Wieser
      Abstract: Abstract We analyzed the seasonal patterns of sap flow density (Q s) and stem radius variation (SRV) of Spartocytisus supranubius, a dominant, endemic tree-like shrub of the mountain vegetation at high elevation in Tenerife, Canary Islands. We tested the hypotheses that drought and its effect on water status and on radial growth (RG) is primarily related to cool–wet-season precipitation preceding the current year rather than to the dry summer per se. During 2013 and 2014 Q s and SRV were monitored with Granier-type sap flow sensors and automatic band dendrometers, respectively. Tree water deficit (ΔW) was extracted from SRV, and standard meteorological factors were used to calculate daily reference evapotranspiration (ET r) and soil moisture deficit. In both years investigated Q s was highest during the dry summer coinciding with periods of high ET r, indicating that plants were able to tap water from deep soil layers originating from precipitation prior the current year’s growth. The high RG and low ΔW rates observed throughout both dry summers are consistent with a direct access of tap roots to deep soil water reserves. Seasonal variations in RG of S. supranubius were mainly determined by the course of Q s and thus dependent on temperature and tree water status.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0189-7
  • How wind affects growth in treeline Picea abies
    • Authors: Jakub Kašpar; Jiří Hošek; Václav Treml
      Abstract: Abstract Globally, treeline position is driven by temperatures during the growing season. Nevertheless, at regional scales, the position of uppermost tree stands also reflects other climatic factors, including wind action. It remains uncertain, however, how much do intense winds depress the treeline below its potential position. Our objective was to quantify the effect of wind speed on the possible depression of upper forest margins below the potential treeline in a windy mountain range with the treeline located close to summit areas. In the Giant Mountains, Czech Republic, growth parameters and symptoms of wind-induced loss of biomass were determined for Norway spruce (Picea abies [L] Karst.) in 70 plots distributed along a gradient of wind speed within the treeline ecotone. Wind speed was modelled for each plot. General linear models were applied to discern the effect of wind on tree growth. Our results show that high wind speeds are reflected in the presence of clonal tree islands and irregular tree crowns. Despite evident wind-induced biomass loss, radial growth was not significantly affected, and the effect of wind on height increment was limited only to parts of the stem from 2 m above ground. Considering that the height growth was substantially reduced by wind in about half of the treeline area, and wind was able to limit only growth of trees taller than 2 m, the overall wind-induced depression of highest treeline positions is probably low, even in windy mountain regions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0186-x
  • Migration corridors for alpine plants among the ‘sky islands’ of
           eastern Africa: do they, or did they exist?
    • Authors: Desalegn Chala; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Christian Brochmann; Vegar Bakkestuen
      Abstract: Abstract The tropical alpine ecosystem in eastern Africa is highly fragmented among biological ‘sky islands’, where populations of frost-tolerant organisms are isolated from each other by a ‘sea’ of tropical lowlands. One-third of the species in the afroalpine flora are exclusively alpine, but the other species can to varying degrees extend into grasslands and open forests of lower vegetation belts. A long-debated question is whether colonization of the alpine zone of these mountains and subsequent intermountain gene flow entirely depend on long-distance dispersal across unsuitable habitats, or whether suitable habitats shifted far enough downslope under past colder climates to form bridges enabling gradual migration. Here we address this question using a classification tree model. We mapped the extent of the current alpine habitat and projected it to the last glacial maximum (LGM) climate to assess whether gradual migration was possible for exclusively alpine taxa during this glacial period, and thus potentially also during earlier Pleistocene glaciations. Next, we modelled landcover under current and LGM climates to assess whether grassland and open forests could have served as migration corridors for alpine taxa that today extend into lower vegetation belts. We estimated that the LGM treeline was about 1000 m lower and the alpine habitat was about eight times larger than that today. At the LGM, we found that most of the currently fragmented alpine habitat of the Ethiopian highlands was interconnected except across the Great Rift Valley, whereas the solitary mountains of East/Central Africa remained isolated for exclusively alpine species. However, for drought-tolerant alpine species that today extend below the treeline, gradual migration through habitat corridors may have been possible among mountains during the dry glacial periods, and possibly also under the current climate before agriculture transformed the low-lying landscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0184-z
  • High intraspecific phenotypic variation, but little evidence for local
           adaptation in Geum reptans populations in the Central Swiss Alps
    • Authors: Elena Hamann; J. F. Scheepens; Halil Kesselring; Georg F. J. Armbruster; Jürg Stöcklin
      Abstract: Abstract The Alpine landscape is characterized by high spatiotemporal heterogeneity in environmental variables, such as climate and soil characteristics. This may lead to divergent selection pressures across plant populations and to local adaptation. Geum reptans, a widespread high-alpine clonal herb, has been the subject of several studies investigating phenotypic variation in populations across the Swiss Alps, yet so far, there is only little knowledge about local adaptation in this species from reciprocal transplantations across original field sites. Here, we reciprocally transplanted three populations of Geum reptans in the Central Swiss Alps, growing at close or far geographical distance from each other, and compared growth- and reproduction-related traits to investigate patterns of local adaptation. We further measured leaf morphological traits to assess potential selection at field sites, and quantified the relative importance of genetic vs. environmental variation (i.e., phenotypic plasticity) for all traits. Additionally, among and within population genetic differentiation was analyzed using microsatellite markers. Molecular diversity was high within populations, and molecular differentiation increased with geographic distance among populations, suggesting that gene flow is maintained at close range, but decreased with distance. Although extensive phenotypic variation was found across site × population transplant combinations, our study revealed little evidence for local adaptation in G. reptans populations. Plant traits also showed strong plasticity, as revealed by pronounced site effects, yet no direct linear selection was detected on leaf trait values within field sites. We suggest that the glacier forelands studied here, which are representative of the habitat of large G. reptans populations, are too similar in environmental conditions to lead to among population intraspecific differentiation in line with local adaptation. As G. reptans showed a great capacity to respond plastically to environmental conditions, we cautiously advocate that the evolution of phenotypic plasticity might have prevailed over genetic differentiation for the adaptation to the relatively narrow niche of this species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0185-y
  • Celebrating 125 years of Alpine Botany
    • Authors: Jürg Stöcklin; Rolf Holderegger
      Pages: 87 - 87
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0175-5
      Issue No: Vol. 126, No. 2 (2016)
  • Molecular analysis of the extinct Central European endemic Saxifraga
           oppositifolia subsp. amphibia and its implications on glaciation
    • Authors: Cornelia Krause; Arno Wörz; Mike Thiv
      Abstract: Abstract Extinction of biodiversity due to human activities is a severe global problem. In Europe, however, only a few plant species died out so far. We investigated a dubious, disregarded taxon—Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp. amphibia—which became extinct in the 1960s. It exclusively occurred in a specific niche, namely in seasonally flooded waterside bank vegetation around Lake Constance in Germany and Switzerland. It has either been interpreted as a glacial relict or as a recent dealpine taxon. Using herbarium material, we conducted phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and cpDNA sequence variation. The taxon shared a chloroplast haplotype of S. oppositifolia, which is mainly distributed in the Alps, favouring the dealpine hypothesis. Nuclear data revealed several paralogous copies nested inside S. oppositifolia, most of which, however, differed from other S. oppositifolia accessions including those from the vicinity of Lake Constance. The oldest mean stem node ages of these ITS copies date between 0.91 and 0.28 my. Contradicting cpDNA, this may indicate that this saxifrage was a distinct taxon and possibly a relict originating in Middle Pleistocene glaciations. If so, the present study exemplifies that arctic-alpine plants survived in specific niches at low altitudes during interglacials and that corresponding taxa with a limited distribution are especially prone to extinction.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0183-5
  • A global inventory of mountains for bio-geographical applications
    • Authors: Christian Körner; Walter Jetz; Jens Paulsen; Davnah Payne; Katrin Rudmann-Maurer; Eva M. Spehn
      Abstract: Abstract Mountains are hotspots of biodiversity. Yet, evaluating their importance in global biodiversity inventories requires the adoption of a pertinent definition of mountains. Here, we first compare the well-established WCMC and GMBA definitions, which both use geographical information systems. We show that the WCMC approach arrives at twice the global mountain area and much higher human population numbers than the GMBA one, which is explained by the inclusion of (mostly) low latitude hill country below 600 m elevation. We then present an inventory of the world’s mountains based on the GMBA definition. In this inventory, each of the 1003 entries corresponds to a polygon drawn around a mountain or a mountain range and includes the name of the delineated object, the area of mountainous terrain it covers stratified into different bioclimatic belts (all at 2.5′ resolution), and demographic information. Taken together, the 1003 polygons cover 13.8 Mio km2 of mountain terrain, of which 3.3 Mio km2 are in the alpine and nival belts. This corresponds to 83.7% of the global mountain area sensu GMBA, and 94% of the alpine/nival area. The 386 Mio people inhabiting mountainous terrain within polygons represent 75% of the people globally inhabiting mountains sensu GMBA. This inventory offers a robust framework for the integration of mountain biota in regional and larger scale biodiversity assessments, for biogeography, bioclimatology, macroecology, and conservation research, and for the exploration of a multitude of socio-ecological and climate change-related research questions in mountain biota, including the potential pressure on alpine ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0182-6
  • Klebelsberg revisited: did primary succession of plants in glacier
           forelands a century ago differ from today?
    • Authors: Thomas Fickert; Friederike Grüninger; Bodo Damm
      Abstract: Abstract Since the Little Ice Age maximum in mid-nineteenth century, glaciers of the Alps lost more than half of their respective area. The chance to observe primary succession in deglaciated areas has motivated researchers ever since with quite a number of studies on vegetation dynamics in glacier forelands dating back to the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Harsh site conditions make glacier forelands challenging environments for the colonization. Due to high mortality rates during establishment, plant colonization and vegetation dynamics in glacier forelands are commonly considered slow and delayed. Recent research, however, shows that primary succession of plants in glacier forelands is accelerated, most likely due to climate warming. This is demonstrated by a speedup of the colonization process itself as well as by changed colonization strategies of the plant species involved. Employing a virtually complete species list for 1911 provided by Raimund v. Klebelsberg and our data collected along a chronosequence roughly a century later, we compare the floristic composition and structural attributes of the plant species governing primary succession within the glacier foreland of Lenksteinferner (ferner is a Tyrolean toponym for glacier) (South Tyrol, Italy). We address questions of changes in the dynamics of colonization, the plant species involved and their respective biological traits. Our study confirms that present-day vegetation dynamics in the glacier foreland are accelerated, colonization occurs faster and more species are involved in early colonization than a century ago. However, the dominant early colonizers are essentially the same and there are no fundamental differences concerning the spectra of biological traits between the two sampling dates. Altered colonization strategies due to climate change could not be detected within the glacier foreland of the Lenksteinferner, probably due to a compensation of climate warming during the twentieth century by the shift of the glacier terminus to a higher elevation. As the difference in temperature between the two sampling areas matches the magnitude of warming between the two sampling dates, similar temperature conditions in front of the glacier terminus today and at Klebelsberg’s times can be assumed.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0179-1
  • Degradation and recovery of an alpine plant community: experimental
           removal of an encroaching dwarf bamboo
    • Abstract: Abstract The dwarf bamboo Sasa kurilensis has responded to recent climate change by expanding its distribution into alpine snow meadows in Japan. Tall, dense clonal patches of bamboo suppress alpine plant growth, alter ecosystem functioning, and reduce diversity. We aim to assess the ecological impacts of bamboo expansion and the effectiveness of bamboo control for restoring alpine vegetation and species diversity. We quantified the extent of bamboo expansion, its effects on an alpine ecosystem, and the recovery of species diversity by bamboo removal over 6 years in Daisetsuzan National Park, northern Japan. We established paired, experimental plots assigned to either removal or control treatments following an encroaching gradient from interior to terminal locations in a large bamboo patch. We monitored bamboo development and aboveground production, and its impact on soil moisture and species diversity to assess the recovery process of snow meadow species after its removal. In control plots, bamboo density consistently increased and accumulated biomass from year to year. In the removal treatment, bamboo culm density, height and biomass decreased through time at all locations. Furthermore, soil moisture increased in the removal plots and remained consistently higher than controls throughout the growing season. Dwarf bamboo strongly suppressed alpine plants and reduced species diversity. However, alpine snow meadow species rapidly recovered and diversity increased through time in the removal treatment. This study presents an effective management strategy for restoring alpine plant diversity impacted by bamboo expansion under global climate change.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0178-2
  • Genetic variation and performance of the alpine plant species Dianthus
           callizonus differ in two elevational zones of the Carpathians
    • Authors: Anna-Rita Gabel; Julia Sattler; Christoph Reisch
      Abstract: Abstract In this investigation, we studied whether genetic variation and performance of the alpine plant species Dianthus callizonus differ between two different elevational zones of the southern Carpathians in Romania. We analysed 17 populations of the species from two study regions at 1700 and 2100 m above sea level in the Piatra Craiului Mountains applying AFLP analyses and morphological measurements. Following our results, population size differed between the two study regions and genetic variation within populations depended on population size. Population size and genetic variation within populations were higher in the study region located at 1700 m. By contrast, genetic variation between populations was nearly twice as large in the study region located at 2100 m. In a Mantel test, genetic and geographic distances between populations were clearly correlated. Moreover, individuals from the study region at 2100 m were significantly smaller, had fewer shoots, fewer flowers per shoot and produced seeds with a lower seed mass than individuals from the study region at 1700 m. The results of our study support the observation that changing environmental conditions along elevational gradients in mountain regions affect population size, genetic variation and performance of alpine plant species from different elevational zones, which should be considered in plant conservation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0177-3
  • Plasticity of flower longevity in alpine plants is increased in
           populations from high elevation compared to low elevation populations
    • Authors: Judith Trunschke; Jürg Stöcklin
      Abstract: Abstract Flower longevity is an adaptive trait, optimized to balance reproductive success against the costs of flower maintenance. The trait is highly plastic in response to pollination success, and numerous studies report increased flower longevity in high elevation environments, where diversity, abundance, and activity of pollinators are low. However, few studies have experimentally investigated how flower longevity varies with pollination intensity within and among populations. We studied flower longevity of six alpine species under three pollination intensity treatments (hand-pollination, natural pollination, pollinator exclusion) at 1600 m vs. 2600 m a.s.l. at the Furka Pass, Central Swiss Alps. We hypothesized, (1) that flower longevity is generally increased in population at high elevation, and (2) that the increase in flower longevity when pollination fails is stronger in populations at high elevation compared to low elevation. Hand-pollination did not decrease flower longevity in any of the studied populations and rarely increased natural seed production suggesting no pollination limitation at both elevations. This was supported by similar pollinator visitation rates, pollinator efficiency, and pollination effectivity. Pollinator exclusion significantly increased flower longevity, but only in populations of three species at low elevation, whereby in all populations of the six species at high elevation, indicating a higher plasticity of flowers in populations at high elevation compared to populations from lower elevation. We suggest that the higher plasticity of flower longevity in alpine populations is of advantage in their unpredictable pollination environment: Increased flower longevity compensates for low pollination in unsuitable periods guaranteeing a minimum reproduction, while the capacity to senescence rapidly after successful pollination saves redundant floral costs in suitable periods.
      PubDate: 2016-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0176-4
  • Seasonal variation of freezing resistance mechanisms in north-temperate
           alpine plants
    • Authors: Petr Sklenář
      Abstract: Abstract Alpine herbaceous plants employ two mechanisms to prevent freezing injury to leaves during the growing season, i.e., they avoid freezing by transient supercooling or tolerate the occurrence of extracellular ice. I examined seasonal changes in the two freezing resistance mechanisms in leaves of alpine plants from two temperate mountain regions, Niwot Ridge (3500 m) in the Front Range of the Rocky Mts. (USA) and Modré sedlo (1510 m) in the Giant Mts. (Czech Republic). Although plants from Niwot Ridge were on average ca. 2.6 K more resistant to freezing than plants from the Giant Mts., patterns of freezing resistance changes during the growing season were consistent between the two regions. Both freezing resistance mechanisms, i.e., avoidance by supercooling and tolerance of extracellular ice were encountered. Plants predominantly avoided freezing injury during early summer and tolerated extracellular freezing at the end of the growing season, and the seasonal change from avoidance to tolerance mechanisms was significant for both regions. The avoidance and tolerance mechanisms provided comparable freezing resistance to the plants during early summer but, unlike in avoidant plants, in tolerant plants resistance increased over the course of the season. The species formed three groups with regard to resistance mechanisms employed during the season: (1) species that avoided injury by supercooling during early summer and employed freezing tolerance towards autumn; (2) species that were freezing tolerant during the entire growing season; and (3) species with ephemeral shoots that solely avoided freezing by supercooling. Although freezing tolerance is a common feature in north-temperate alpine plants, avoidance by supercooling as a freezing resistance strategy might be selected for in species with particular life histories such as ephemeral hemiparasites.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0174-6
  • Uneven rate of plant turnover along elevation in grasslands
    • Authors: Patrice Descombes; Pascal Vittoz; Antoine Guisan; Loïc Pellissier
      Abstract: Abstract Plant taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of assemblages are known to shift along environmental gradients, but whether the rate of species turnover is regular or not (e.g., accelerations in particular sections of the gradient) remains poorly documented. Understanding how rates of assemblage turnover vary along gradients is crucial to forecast where climate change could promote the fastest changes within extant communities. Here we analysed turnover rates of plant assemblages along a 2500 m elevation gradient in the Swiss Western Alps. We found a peak of turnover rate between 1800 and 2200 m indicating an acceleration of grassland compositional changes at the transition between subalpine and alpine belts. In parallel, we found a peak in phylogenetic turnover rate in Poales between 1700 m and 1900 and Super-Rosids between 1900 and 2300 m. Our results suggest that changes in abiotic or biotic conditions near the human-modified treeline constitute a strong barrier for many grassland plant species, which share analogous elevation range limits. We propose that this vegetation zone of high ecological transitions over short geographical distances should show the fastest community responses to climate change from the breakdown of barrier across ecotones.
      PubDate: 2016-08-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0173-7
  • Effects of plot size and their spatial arrangement on estimates of alpha,
           beta and gamma diversity of plants in alpine grassland
    • Authors: Eliane Seraina Meier; Gabriela Hofer
      Abstract: Abstract Little is known about the statistical consequences of plot size and their spatial arrangement when addressing biodiversity questions. Thus, we compared three vegetation plot sizes and two sampling designs with different spatial arrangements in alpine grasslands by analyzing their effects on common indices of alpha, beta and gamma plant species diversity. Data were collected in three 1-km2 squares in summer pastures in the subalpine and alpine zones in Switzerland. In each square, 45 nested plots were distributed according to systematic random sampling (i.e., when the focus is on the abundances of the vegetation types and species) and maximum variation sampling (i.e., when the focus is on the set of vegetation types and species occurring). To compare the effects of the plot sizes and sampling designs on estimates of gamma diversity, we also estimated gamma diversity from an exhaustive sampling of the squares. Compared with systematic random sampling, maximum variation sampling hardly affected the indices of alpha diversity, but resulted in higher indices of beta and gamma diversity. More importantly, alpha and gamma diversity were found to be higher as plot size increased, whereas beta diversity was lower in the larger plots. Gamma diversity from the exhaustive sample was most similar to gamma diversity from maximum variation sampling on the largest plot sizes. Moreover, results from a variation partitioning analysis showed that landscape variability and plot size had a much larger effect on species diversity estimates than the sampling design. In conclusion, studies focusing on the occurring set of vegetation types and species within a landscape may apply maximum variation sampling if the most important (environmental) gradients for the stratification are known. Studies also focusing on the abundance of vegetation types or species may apply systematic random sampling.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0171-9
  • Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signals for an entire alpine flora,
           based on herbarium samples
    • Authors: Christian Körner; Sebastian Leuzinger; Susanna Riedl; Rolf T. Siegwolf; Lea Streule
      Abstract: Abstract Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes provide time-integrated signals of plant carbon and nitrogen relations. We assessed an entire alpine flora in the Swiss Alps at ca. 2400 m elevation, using year 2007 herbarium samples of 245 species, 141 genera and 42 families to explore functional trait diversity. Despite overall similar macro-environmental conditions (moisture, soils, elevation), signal variation covered the full spectrum known for C3 plants. Variation among means for plant families for both δ13C and δ15N was smaller than variation among species within families. Species identity was of far greater importance than family affiliation. Similarly, tissue nitrogen and carbon concentrations varied in a rather species-specific manner, not permitting any a priori plant functional group definition based on such traits. The study also yielded tissue-type specificity of isotope signals. The elevation signal in δ13C (known to be less negative at high elevation) was much less pronounced than observed previously in con-generic comparisons. Thus, elevational δ13C trends are hard to distinguish from species effects in mixed populations over narrow ranges of elevation. δ15N data offer more space for ecological interpretation and show family specificity of signals in few cases. Cyperaceae, the most prominent family in this region, show no discrimination against 15N (like Fabaceae) and must have access to N sources different from most other families. This deserves experimental clarification, given the significance of Cyperaceae in cold environments. Overall, our study evidenced very high functional diversity among alpine plant species, as captured by these isotope signals.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-016-0170-x
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