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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Alpine Botany
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.11
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1664-2201 - ISSN (Online) 1664-221X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Responses of photochemical efficiency and shoot growth of alpine
           dwarf-pine Pinus pumila to experimental warming, shading, and defoliation
           in Japan
    • Abstract: Global warming accelerates shrub expansion in high-latitude and high-elevation ecosystems. Over the last several decades, alpine dwarf-pine Pinus pumila has expanded its range in northern Japan because of enhanced shoot growth under warm climatic conditions. In alpine regions, local environmental conditions and the length of the growing season, vary depending on the topography, elevation, and snowmelt time. This leads to spatially varying shoot performances that are co-affected by climatic change. We applied a warming, shading, and defoliation treatment to assess how temperature and carbon relations in interaction with habitat type (elevation and snowmelt time) affect shoot growth and photochemical efficiency of needles in this species. Photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) was maximized during peak growth in the middle of growing season (mid-July–mid-August), and it increased in the shading and warming treatments especially in the early and late season. Shoot growth increased only in the warming treatment, and was not affected by shading and defoliation. These results indicate that shoot growth of alpine dwarf-pine is limited by low temperature, but not by carbon assimilation, i.e., growth is sink- rather than source-limited. Furthermore, the seasonal trend of photochemical efficiency shifted to the late season at higher elevations, and the recovery time of photochemical efficiency took longer in the late-snowmelt habitat, where the growing season was short. Therefore, warmer summers and longer snow-free periods are likely to enhance the growth and areal expansion of alpine dwarf-pine at the expense of the adjacent, species-rich, low-stature alpine plant communities.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), ITS and cpDNA phylogenies reveal the
           existence of a distinct Pyrenean/Cantabrian lineage in the European high
           mountain genus Homogyne (Asteraceae) and imply dual westward migration of
           the genus
    • Abstract: Quaternary climatic oscillations have been a major factor in shaping plant diversity and distribution in the European Alpine System (EAS). Plants responded to these oscillations with repeated changes in their abundance and geographical distribution. However, oscillating shifts in geographical distribution have only rarely been reported in molecular analyses of genetic variation across the EAS. Homogyne, a genus endemic to the EAS, contains three species. While H. discolor and H. sylvestris are confined to the periphery of the Eastern Alps, H. alpina is widespread across the EAS. In phylogenetic reconstructions of a broad sample of Homogyne using DNA sequence data sets of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), plastid DNA (ndhF-rpl32, rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), accessions of H. alpina from the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mts. form a clade which groups in conflicting positions. While the exact relationship of this Pyrenean/Cantabrian clade of H. alpina remains unclear, our data clearly imply that this clade is a lineage distinct from the remaining accessions of H. alpina (H. alpina s.str.). An ancestral area analysis unambiguously revealed the Eastern Alps as the ancestral area of the genus. Considering that relationships within H. alpina s.str. clearly illustrate East to West expansion, the identification of a Pyrenean/Cantabrian clade implies that westward expansion from an ancestral area in the Eastern Alps took place twice in the genus. Although the extant distributions of the Pyrenean/Cantabrian clade and H. alpina s.str. are mutually exclusive, plastid DNA evidence may imply past contact and hybridization between the two clades.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Soil fauna effect on Dryas octopetala litter decomposition in an Alpine
           tundra of the Changbai Mountains, China
    • Abstract: Soil fauna are critical for litter decomposition via physical fragmentation, chemical digestion, and changing activity of microorganisms, yet a few studies have been performed regarding the effects of soil fauna on alpine tundra litter decomposition. To better understand the effects of soil fauna on alpine tundra litter decomposition, we set up a litterbag experiment to determine the characteristics of the Dryas octopetala decomposition, and the diversity of the soil fauna in the litterbags, as well as the influence of the soil fauna on the decomposition in the tundra of the Changbai Mountains over a 36-month period. We found that the decomposition rate of the coarse mesh (2 mm) litterbags was faster than that of the fine mesh (0.01 mm) litterbags. The percentage of the mass lass of litter in the coarse mesh litterbags (2 mm) was 47.60%, while that in the fine mesh (0.01 mm) litterbags was 34.11% at the end of the experimental period (36th month of decomposition), and the contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition was confirmed to be 30.50%. The characteristics of litter decomposition exhibited some seasonal and annual differences. In addition, the diversity of the soil fauna in the litterbags was different during each of the years of the experiment. However, there were no significant differences observed during the same year. The effect of soil fauna on the litter decomposition was not obvious at the beginning of the experiment, and soil fauna contribution had a significant negative relationship with mass loss of litter. Our results provide experimental evidence that soil fauna can promote the decomposition of Dryas octopetala litter, but soil fauna contribution decreased with litter decomposition in the alpine tundra ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Female-biased sex ratio despite the absence of spatial and niche
           segregation between sexes in alpine populations of dioecious Salix
           lapponum (Salicaceae)
    • Abstract: Dioecious plants often exhibit deviations from expected 1:1 sex ratios. Genus Salix is a notable example of the female-biased sex ratio. Quite surprisingly, there are very few studies retesting observed bias patterns from the different parts of the species range. We have determined whether isolated subalpine populations of Salix lapponum exhibit a biased secondary sex ratio, measured the size of the plants, and tested the spatial and ecological correlations of the bias at fine and broad scales. Males were generally taller than females, suggesting that a different allocation of resources may occur in both sexes. Despite this, we found consistent female bias with females on average twice as common as males in most populations studied. No correlations of sex ratio with elevation as a proxy of environmental harshness and proportion of non-flowering individuals were found. Additionally, no differences in spatial sex segregation and microhabitat preferences were found between males and females at a fine scale within the studied populations. Our results suggest that the biased sex ratio in S. lapponum is not environment-dependent and probably originates during early stages of ontogenetic development (seeds).
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Genetic variation of Gentianella campestris ssp. campestris in the
           Northern Alps: how important are population size and isolation'
    • Abstract: In this study, we analysed the impact of population size and isolation on the genetic variation of the short-lived alpine plant species Gentianella campestris ssp. campestris from two study regions (Allgäu and Karwendel) in the Northern calcareous Alps in Germany. We determined the size and isolation of the study populations and analysed genetic variation using amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Genetic variation of G. campestris ssp. campestris differed significantly between the two study regions. Genetic variation did not depend on population size. However, the level of genetic variation within populations was about three times lower in the Karwendel, where the species is much more isolated than in the Allgäu. Conversely, genetic variation among populations was much stronger in the Karwendel than in the Allgäu. Our results support the observation that the level of genetic variation within populations of alpine plant species may not only be affected by population size, but also by population isolation. Depending on the distance among populations, gene flow by exchange of pollen and seeds triggers the influx of genetic variation, thereby sometimes superimposing the effects of population size. Our results suggest that for seed collections in conservation projects, not only population size, but also isolation should be considered.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Could knotweeds invade mountains in their introduced range' An
           analysis of patches dynamics along an elevational gradient
    • Abstract: The highly invasive knotweeds (Reynoutria spp.) are still infrequent in mountain regions. Despite their current low abundance, they may represent a significant threat for high elevation ecosystems if their population dynamics remain as aggressive as in lowlands during their range expansion to higher elevation. The aim of this study is to assess the knotweed’s invasion potential in mountainous regions by studying patch dynamics along an elevational gradient (between 787 and 1666 m a.s.l.) and by reviewing existing literature on their presence and performance in mountains. The outlines of 48 knotweed patches located in the French Alps were measured in 2008 and in 2015 along with biotic, abiotic and management variables. Based on these variables, knotweed’s cover changes and patch density were predicted using mixed models. Results showed that elevation has no effect on knotweeds dynamics along the studied elevational gradient. It appeared that the local expansion of knotweed patches is essentially controlled by the patches’ initial size and the distance to roads and rivers, i.e. to obstacles and sources of disturbance. Shade and patches’ size also impact knotweed patch density, probably through an effect on the species’ clonal reproduction and foraging strategies. Interestingly, patches seemed insensitive to the gradient of mowing frequency sampled in this study (between zero and five times per year). All evidences indicate that the knotweed complex is able to colonize and thrive in mountains areas. However, due to the particularities of its spatial dynamics, adequate and timely actions could easily be undertaken to prevent further invasion and associated impacts and reduce management costs.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Correction to: Are introduced plants a threat to native pollinator
           services in montane–alpine environments'
    • Abstract: The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article [1] because the three studies included in the meta-analysis [2,3 and 4] (cited as references 16, 17 and 18) have been retracted due to concerns regarding the data, which has rendered the results of this meta-analysis invalid.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • The highest vascular plants on Earth
    • Abstract: Mountaineering, since the beginning of its history, has played an inconspicuous but key role in the collection of species samples at the highest elevations. During two historical expeditions undertaken to reach the summit of Mount Everest in 1935 and 1952, mountaineers collected five species of vascular plants from both the north and south sides of the mountain, at ca. 6400 m a.s.l. Only one of these specimens was determined immediately following the expedition (Saussurea gnaphalodes), and the remaining four were not identified until quite recently. In 2000, the second specimen from the 1935 expedition was described as a new species for science (Lepidostemon everestianus), endemic to Tibet. In this paper, the remaining three specimens from the 1952 Everest expedition are reviewed and analysed, bringing the number of species sharing the title of “highest known vascular plant” from two to five. I identify one of the 1952 specimens as Arenaria bryophylla, and describe two novel taxa based on analysis of the herbarium records: Saxifraga lychnitis var. everestianus and Androsace khumbuensis. Although elevation records on their own do not inform us about the ecological conditions and physiological capacity of plants at the upper limit of their distribution, this taxonomic investigation contributes to our knowledge of the biogeography of Himalayan flora and opens the way for future field-based investigations of mechanisms limiting plant growth on the roof of the world.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Effects of latitudinal and elevational gradients exceed the effects of
           between-cytotype differences in eco-physiological leaf traits in diploid
           and triploid Hieracium alpinum
    • Abstract: Polyploidy may affect a species’ eco-physiology, which might, in turn, trigger a shift in the distribution of its cytotypes. The arcto-alpine Hieracium alpinum (Asteraceae) encompasses two geographically allopatric cytotypes: diploids occurring in the South-Eastern Carpathians and triploids occupying the remaining, much larger part of the species range. We ask whether the natural populations of these two cytotypes, growing under partially different biotic and abiotic conditions, also differ in selected eco-physiological traits. To answer this question, we analyzed specific leaf area, foliar carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, and their stable isotope compositions in plants sampled in 27 populations across the species range. Our results did not show any differences in these traits, except foliar N content being significantly higher in diploids. This pattern was mostly driven by the Scandinavian triploid populations exposed to significantly lower amounts of solar radiation and precipitation during the growing season when compared to the continental populations. As a consequence, in addition to lower foliar N content, the Scandinavian populations exhibited also lower foliar C content, but higher C/N ratios than continental populations regardless of their cytotype. Across the species range, foliar N and C contents were positively associated with the amount of precipitation, whilst δ15N was positively associated with temperature and negatively with the surrounding species richness and vegetation cover. Significantly lower values of δ13C in Scandinavian populations are likely the effect of increased atmospheric pressure due to the lower elevational position of Scandinavian sites. Reproductive output was positively linked to amounts of foliar nitrogen and δ15N. Our data thus show that (1) the latitudinal-driven abiotic and biotic factors affected eco-physiological traits in significantly larger extent than ploidy level and that (2) continental and Scandinavian populations, though all confined to the alpine belt, considerably differ in their eco-physiology likely reflecting different adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Are introduced plants a threat to native pollinator services in
           montane–alpine environments'
    • Abstract: While introduced plants often have restricted distributions at high elevations, their impacts may be more extensive if they compete for native pollinators, potentially reducing pollinator services to native biotically pollinated plants. Conversely, introduced biotically pollinated plants might facilitate improved pollinator services to native plants by supporting higher pollinator densities and extending the flowering season. We examined weekly pollinator visitation to native and introduced plants, at five elevations over two flowering seasons on The Remarkables range, south-central South Island, New Zealand. In this area, introduced plants dominate the vegetation at lower elevations but are restricted to disturbed areas above treeline. We tested whether pollinator visitation rates and quantities of introduced pollen on insects or transferred to native flowers differed with elevation and community context, or with the local abundance of introduced flowers regardless of elevation. Introduced biotically pollinated plants produced more flowers and flowered later than most native species and were extensively utilised by native solitary bees. Weekly visitation rates to native flowers were higher in the first half of the flowering season than the second half, and were positively correlated with visitation rates to co-occurring introduced flowers. Introduced flower abundance did not affect visitation to native flowers but did significantly predict the occurrence of introduced pollen on native insects and stigmas of native flowers. Pollen contamination was also higher in the latter part of the flowering season. While an increase in introduced flowers at high elevations may benefit native pollinators by increasing the quantity and duration of floral resources available, the heavy use of introduced flowers by native bees will lead to at least localised stigma contamination, particularly for late flowering species. However, more information is required on foraging ranges of native pollinators and pollen limitation in native species to understand the consequences of introduced species expansion into alpine areas.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Reciprocal transplantations reveal strong niche differentiation among
           ploidy-differentiated species of the Senecio carniolicus aggregate
           (Asteraceae) in the easternmost Alps
    • Abstract: Phenotypic changes conferred by polyploidisation likely alter the ecological niche of polyploids, coming along with differences in performance compared to their diploid ancestors. However, it is largely unknown whether these performance differences remain constant during the life history of plants. Diploid Senecio noricus, tetraploid S. disjunctus, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus s. str. of the autopolyploid species complex of S. carniolicus (Asteraceae) from the easternmost Alps were reciprocally transplanted to address the following questions: Are there differences in species performances indicating niche differentiation' If so, does the resident or the higher ploid species—which is taller growing and possibly more tolerant against challenging abiotic and biotic conditions—show higher performance' Are performance differences consistent between the early and late life-history stages' Our data suggest that the hierarchy of species performance depends on the life-history stage. For early life-history stages (seeds and seedlings), we mainly observed superior performance of S. carniolicus s. str. even on resident sites of the two other species. In contrast, vital rates of adults were predominantly highest for the resident species. The resident site of S. carniolicus s. str., which was expected to be environmentally least stressful (i.e., longest growing period, least affected by frost), turned out to be the most selective one, with high mortality and (nearly) no reproduction of the foreign species most likely due to top soil desiccation. Our study illustrates that there may be no clear-cut answer to the question if the resident or the higher ploid species shows superior performance in polyploid complexes, but rather suggests that relative performance may depend on life-history stage.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Genetic differentiation, phenotypic plasticity and adaptation in a
           hybridizing pair of a more common and a less common Carex species
    • Abstract: Phenotypic variation may be genetically determined or reflect phenotypic plasticity. More common plants are expected to be less differentiated between and within regions and more adapted than less common ones. However, such differences might not develop in hybridizing species which cannot evolve completely independently. We collected 311 genets of Carex flava, 215 of C. viridula and 46 of their hybrid C. × subviridula from 42 natural populations in cold temperate Estonia, mild temperate Lowland Switzerland and alpine Highland Switzerland. Three plantlets from each genet were planted to three experimental gardens, one in each region. We measured survival, growth, reproduction and morphological traits. The experimental transplants showed strong plasticity and grew smallest in the alpine garden. The less common C. viridula was slightly more differentiated between regions of origin than the more common C. flava and the hybrid. However, this depended on the experimental garden. Significant origin-by-garden-by-taxon and taxon-by-garden interactions suggest differential adaptation among populations and taxa. Regional differed from non-regional plants in several traits indicating both adaptations and, especially for C. viridula, maladaptations to the home regions. For C. flava, plant seed production was higher when mean annual temperature and precipitation were more similar between population of origin and garden, suggesting local adaptation to climate. Hybrids were intermediate between parental taxa or more similar to one of them, which was retained across gardens. We conclude that plasticity, genetic variation and genotype–environment interactions all contributed to regional differentiation of the closely related species. Hybridization did not completely align evolutionary patterns, and the less common species showed slightly more genetic differentiation between populations and more maladapted traits than the more common one.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Distribution of non-native plant species along elevation gradients in a
           protected area in the eastern Himalayas, China
    • Authors: Mingyu Yang; Zheng Lu; Zhongyu Fan; Xia Liu; Luc Hens; Robert De Wulf; Xiaokun Ou
      Abstract: Mountain ecosystems are becoming increasingly threatened by non-native plant invasions. In this paper, the occurrence of non-native plant species was examined in a protected area (Laojun Mountain Area) in the eastern Himalayas, China. Sampling plots were systematically set up along elevation from 1950 to 3500 m a.s.l. Sixty-one non-natives were recorded that account for 24% of the roadside flora. The number of non-native species decreased continuously with increasing elevation and significant nestedness was found between the low- and high-elevation plots. Moreover, all non-native species distributed at high elevation were also found at low elevation and mountain specialists were not found among non-natives. These results indicate that the eastern Himalayan ecosystem is not immune to invasion and most of the non-natives spread from lowland areas upward to the highlands. Future efforts to manage plant invasions in this region should concentrate on low-elevation areas where agriculture and disturbances by tourism are increasing rapidly.
      PubDate: 2018-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0205-6
       
  • Frequent occurrence of triploid hybrids Festuca pratensis  ×  F.
           apennina in the Swiss Alps
    • Authors: David Kopecký; Tamina Felder; Franz X. Schubiger; Václav Mahelka; Jan Bartoš; Jaroslav Doležel; Beat Boller
      Abstract: The occurrence of triploid hybrids in nature is scarce due to the so-called triploid block representing formation of nonviable progeny after mating diploid with tetraploid. Here we describe frequent presence of triploids originating from hybridization of diploid Festuca pratensis with tetraploid F. apennina in the Swiss Alps. F. pratensis is a forage grass grown in lowlands and up to 1800 m a.s.l., while F. apennina is a mountain grass found in elevations from 1100 to 2000 m a.s.l. In the overlapping zone these species often grow sympatrically and triploid hybrids have been observed. We show that elevation is the main factor in the distribution of plants with various ploidy levels. Diploids occupy lower elevations, while triploids predominate in the mid-elevation zones and tetraploids are the most frequent in higher elevations. Other factors, such as topography and soil composition probably have only marginal effects on the distribution of the plants with different ploidy levels. Triploids seem to be frequently formed in the Swiss Alps and crosses in both directions are involved in the formation of triploid hybrids. As shown by chloroplast DNA analysis, F. apennina more frequently serves as female. Our analysis suggests that in the mid-elevation zones, triploids have a higher level of competitiveness than both parents. Triploids can overgrow microhabitats to a much higher extent than tetraploids. Such frequent occurrence and local dominance of triploids can at least be partially explained by asexual reproduction. Using DNA markers, we show that triploids can disperse ramets of a single clone over a distance of at least 14.4 m.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0204-7
       
  • Patterns of herbivore damage, developmental stability, morphological and
           biochemical traits in female and male Mercurialis perennis in contrasting
           light habitats
    • Authors: Danijela Miljković; Sara Selaković; Vukica Vujić; Nemanja Stanisavljević; Svetlana Radović; Dragana Cvetković
      Abstract: Light environments can influence variation in plant morphology, development and susceptibility to herbivores. Our research interest was to investigate the patterns of herbivore damage and developmental stability in dioecious understory forb Mercurialis perennis in contrasting light habitats, located at 1700 m a.s.l. on Mt. Kopaonik. Male and female plants from two light habitats, open (a sun-exposed field) and shaded (a spruce forest) were examined with respect to: herbivore damage (percentage of leaf area loss), fluctuating asymetry (FA) as a measurement of developmental stability, plant morphological and, specifically, leaf size traits, as well as biochemical traits relating to nutritional quality and defence, taking into account the possible presence of intersexual differences. Our results show that herbivore damage was significantly higher in open habitat, as well as one out of four univariate FA indices and the multivariate index. Morphological and biochemical traits, apart from defensive compounds, had higher values in the shade, pointing to sun-exposed habitat being more stressful for this species. Intersexual differences were observed for foliar damage, defensive compounds (phenolics and tannins), all leaf size traits, total leaf area, and protein content. Contrasting light habitats affected most of the analysed traits. Both foliar damage and FA were higher in a more stressful habitat; within habitats, no positive correlations were found. Herbivore damage was significantly male biased in open habitat. The analysis of intersexual differences in developmental stability measured by leaf asymmetry levels provided no evidence that female plants were more sensitive to environmental stress.
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0203-8
       
  • The seed germination niche limits the distribution of some plant species
           in calcareous or siliceous alpine bedrocks
    • Authors: Maria Tudela-Isanta; Emma Ladouceur; Malaka Wijayasinghe; Hugh W. Pritchard; Andrea Mondoni
      Abstract: Functional plant traits are used in ecology to explain population dynamics in time and space. However, because the germination niche is an essential stage in alpine plant life cycles and is under strong environmental pressure, we hypothesised that inter-specific variability in germination traits might contribute to alpine plant distributions. Germination traits of seven closely related species from calcareous and siliceous habitats were characterised in the laboratory, including base, optimum and ceiling temperatures (Tb, To, Tc, respectively), base water-potential (Ψb) and the pH range of the germination phenotype. Species’ vegetative traits (specific leaf area, leaf area and leaf dry matter content) were obtained from the TRY-database. Traits and habitat similarities and dissimilarities were assessed. Species were plotted in a multivariate space using two separate principal component analyses: one each for germination and vegetative traits. Species from calcareous habitats showed significantly higher Tb, lower Ψb and lower capacity to germinate under acidic pH than species from siliceous habitats. Moreover, high To and Tc, a narrow temperature range for germination at dispersal, and vegetative traits values were similar across both habitats. Whilst plant traits seem to have adapted to the shared environmental conditions of the two alpine habitats, some germination traits were affected by the habitat differences. In conclusion, species occurrence in two habitats (calcareous, siliceous) appears to be limited by some germination constraints and provide greater differentiation of species habitat preference than that defined by vegetative traits.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-018-0199-0
       
  • Elevation predicts the functional composition of alpine plant communities
           based on vegetative traits, but not based on floral traits
    • Authors: Robert R. Junker; Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić
      Abstract: The functional diversity and composition of plant traits within communities are tightly linked to important ecosystem functions and processes. Whereas vegetative traits reflecting adaptations to environmental conditions are commonly assessed in community ecology, floral traits are often neglected despite their importance for the plants’ life cycle. The consideration of floral traits covers important aspects such as sexual plant reproduction and pollinator diversity, which remain unobserved in studies focussing on vegetative traits only. To test whether vegetative and floral traits differ in their responses to elevation, we measured morphological and chemical traits of plant species occurring in pastures at seven elevations in the Austrian Alps. Variation in functional composition was examined using the concept of n-dimensional hypervolumes and vector analysis. Our data show that vegetative and floral traits vary differently with the elevational gradient. Whereas vegetative traits changed in a predictable manner with elevation, floral traits did not specifically respond to elevation. Overall variation in vegetative traits mainly resulted from phenotypical differences between plants in different elevations, whereas total variation in floral traits was a result from a high variation within communities. The assessment of functional changes in vegetative and floral traits along mountain slopes thus reveals different patterns in plant responses to elevation and may help to generate testable hypotheses on functional responses to current climate warming.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0198-6
       
  • Variation of vegetative and floral traits in the alpine plant Solidago
           minuta : evidence for local optimum along an elevational gradient
    • Authors: Piotr Kiełtyk
      Abstract: Alpine plants growing along wide elevational gradients experience very different abiotic and biotic conditions across elevations. As a result of genetic differentiation and/or plastic response, conspecific plants growing in high elevations, as compared to low elevations, generally have shorter stems and lower number of flowers, but larger flower size. However, most often, detailed models of elevational variations were not examined. To reveal the pattern of elevational changes in a set of fitness-related morphological traits, tests of linear and unimodal models were performed based on measurements of 1047 Solidago minuta plants collected from 47 sites distributed along a 1000 m elevational gradient in the Tatra Mountains. Nearly all of the investigated floral traits, i.e. inflorescence and flower heads size, and number and size of individual flowers, expressed unimodal relationships with elevation having their maxima in the centre of the elevation range. This pattern suggests the existence of a local optimum with respect to sexual reproduction at the centre of the elevational range. Possible explanations of observed elevational variations are discussed in the context of pollinator selection and the ‘resource-cost compromise’ hypothesis. Best floral performance in the centre of the elevational range of S. minuta may also support the idea that the favourability of habitat conditions declines from the centre to the margin of the distribution, and species are expected to be more abundant, increase reproduction and perform better in the centre of the range.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0197-7
       
  • Phenotypic and reproductive responses of an Andean violet to environmental
           variation across an elevational gradient
    • Authors: J. Seguí; A. Lázaro; A. Traveset; C. Salgado-Luarte; E. Gianoli
      Abstract: Environmental gradients in alpine systems may lead to differences in both abiotic conditions and species interactions in very short distances. This may lead to reproductive and phenotypic changes in plants to enhance fitness in each environment. In this study, we explored how the Central Andean Viola maculata responds to the elevation gradient, where it is distributed, with an expected increase in water availability and a decrease in pollinator availability with elevation. We hypothesized that: (1) plants would be more water-stressed at low elevations; (2) investment in and success of cleistogamous flowers (closed, self-pollinated) would increase with elevation; and (3) correlation patterns between floral and vegetative traits would vary along the gradient according to changes in biotic/abiotic selection pressures across sites. We partially confirmed the inverse gradient of water stress with elevation, with V. maculata populations in the lowest site experiencing lower soil moisture and showing thicker leaves and lower stomatal conductance. Cleistogamy was more prevalent and successful at the highest site, thus confirming the hypothesis of maintenance of a mixed-mating system as reproductive assurance. Correlation patterns between flower and leaf size differed across sites, with stronger vegetative–floral correlation at the lower sites and a weak correlation at the highest site. This finding disagrees with the notion of pollinators as drivers of correlation between floral and vegetative traits. Our study shows how a narrow gradient in an alpine system may affect not only reproductive and physiological responses in plants, but also floral and vegetative covariances.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0195-9
       
  • Seed dormancy and longevity in subarctic and alpine populations of Silene
           suecica
    • Authors: Andrea Mondoni; Simone Orsenigo; Jonas V. Müller; Ulla Carlsson-Graner; Borja Jiménez-Alfaro; Thomas Abeli
      Abstract: Despite the strong environmental control of seed dormancy and longevity, their changes along latitudes are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess seed dormancy and longevity in different populations across the distribution of the arctic–alpine plant Silene suecica. Seeds of seven populations collected from alpine (Spain, Italy, Scotland) and subarctic (Sweden, Norway) populations were incubated at four temperature regimes and five cold stratification intervals for germination and dormancy testing. Seed longevity was studied by exposing seeds to controlled ageing (45 °C, 60% RH) and regularly sampled for germination. Fresh seeds of S. suecica germinated at warm temperature (20/15 °C) and more in subarctic (80–100%) compared to alpine (20–50%) populations showed a negative correlation with autumn temperature (i.e., post-dispersal period). Seed germination increased after cold stratification in all populations, with different percentages (30–100%). Similarly, there was a large variation of seed longevity (p50 = 12–32 days), with seeds from the wettest locations showing faster deterioration rate. Subarctic populations of S. suecica were less dormant, showing a warmer suitable temperature range for germination, and a higher germinability than alpine populations. Germination and dormancy were driven by an interplay of geographical and climatic factors, with alpine and warm versus subarctic and cool autumn conditions, eliciting a decrease and an increase of emergence, respectively. Germination and dormancy patterns typically found in alpine habitats may not be found in the arctic.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s00035-017-0194-x
       
 
 
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