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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Neuropathologica
  [SJR: 6.61]   [H-I: 117]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0533 - ISSN (Online) 0001-6322
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Towards a functional pathology of hereditary neuropathies
    • Authors: Joachim Weis; Kristl G. Claeys; Andreas Roos; Hamid Azzedine; Istvan Katona; J. Michael Schröder; Jan Senderek
      Pages: 493 - 515
      Abstract: Abstract A growing number of hereditary neuropathies have been assigned to causative gene defects in recent years. The study of human nerve biopsy samples has contributed substantially to the discovery of many of these neuropathy genes. Genotype–phenotype correlations based on peripheral nerve pathology have provided a comprehensive picture of the consequences of these mutations. Intriguingly, several gene defects lead to distinguishable lesion patterns that can be studied in nerve biopsies. These characteristic features include the loss of certain nerve fiber populations and a large spectrum of distinct structural changes of axons, Schwann cells and other components of peripheral nerves. In several instances the lesion patterns are directly or indirectly linked to the known functions of the mutated gene. The present review is designed to provide an overview on these characteristic patterns. It also considers other aspects important for the manifestation and pathology of hereditary neuropathies including the role of inflammation, effects of chemotherapeutic agents and alterations detectable in skin biopsies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-016-1645-y
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • Dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR, CACNA1S ) congenital myopathy
    • Authors: Vanessa Schartner; Norma B. Romero; Sandra Donkervoort; Susan Treves; Pinki Munot; Tyler Mark Pierson; Ivana Dabaj; Edoardo Malfatti; Irina T. Zaharieva; Francesco Zorzato; Osorio Abath Neto; Guy Brochier; Xavière Lornage; Bruno Eymard; Ana Lía Taratuto; Johann Böhm; Hernan Gonorazky; Leigh Ramos-Platt; Lucy Feng; Rahul Phadke; Diana X. Bharucha-Goebel; Charlotte Jane Sumner; Mai Thao Bui; Emmanuelle Lacene; Maud Beuvin; Clémence Labasse; Nicolas Dondaine; Raphael Schneider; Julie Thompson; Anne Boland; Jean-François Deleuze; Emma Matthews; Aleksandra Nadaj Pakleza; Caroline A. Sewry; Valérie Biancalana; Susana Quijano-Roy; Francesco Muntoni; Michel Fardeau; Carsten G. Bönnemann; Jocelyn Laporte
      Pages: 517 - 533
      Abstract: Abstract Muscle contraction upon nerve stimulation relies on excitation–contraction coupling (ECC) to promote the rapid and generalized release of calcium within myofibers. In skeletal muscle, ECC is performed by the direct coupling of a voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel (dihydropyridine receptor; DHPR) located on the T-tubule with a Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor; RYR1) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) component of the triad. Here, we characterize a novel class of congenital myopathy at the morphological, molecular, and functional levels. We describe a cohort of 11 patients from 7 families presenting with perinatal hypotonia, severe axial and generalized weakness. Ophthalmoplegia is present in four patients. The analysis of muscle biopsies demonstrated a characteristic intermyofibrillar network due to SR dilatation, internal nuclei, and areas of myofibrillar disorganization in some samples. Exome sequencing revealed ten recessive or dominant mutations in CACNA1S (Cav1.1), the pore-forming subunit of DHPR in skeletal muscle. Both recessive and dominant mutations correlated with a consistent phenotype, a decrease in protein level, and with a major impairment of Ca2+ release induced by depolarization in cultured myotubes. While dominant CACNA1S mutations were previously linked to malignant hyperthermia susceptibility or hypokalemic periodic paralysis, our findings strengthen the importance of DHPR for perinatal muscle function in human. These data also highlight CACNA1S and ECC as therapeutic targets for the development of treatments that may be facilitated by the previous knowledge accumulated on DHPR.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-016-1656-8
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour
           disorder as prodromal Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Kathrin Doppler; Hanna-Maria Jentschke; Lena Schulmeyer; David Vadasz; Annette Janzen; Markus Luster; Helmut Höffken; Geert Mayer; Joachim Brumberg; Jan Booij; Thomas Musacchio; Stephan Klebe; Elisabeth Sittig-Wiegand; Jens Volkmann; Claudia Sommer; Wolfgang H. Oertel
      Pages: 535 - 545
      Abstract: Abstract Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in patients with a high risk of developing PD, such as those with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). We compared the presence and distribution of p-alpha-syn deposits in dermal nerve fibres in 18 patients with RBD, 25 patients with early PD and 20 normal controls. Skin biopsy was taken at C7, Th10, and the upper and lower leg. Presynaptic dopamine transporter imaging using FP-CIT-SPECT was performed in all patients with RBD and in 11 patients with PD. All RBD patients underwent olfactory function testing. The likelihood ratio (LR) for prodromal PD was calculated for each patient based on published research criteria. Skin serial sections were assessed by double-immunofluorescence labelling with antibodies to pSer129-alpha-syn under blinded conditions. P-alpha-syn was visualized in 10/18 patients with RBD (sensitivity of 55.6%) and in 20/25 early PD patients (sensitivity of 80%) but in none of the controls (specificity of 100%). The percentage of dermal structures innervated by p-alpha-syn-positive fibres was negatively correlated with dopamine transporter binding in the FP-CIT-SPECT (ρ = −0.377, p = 0.048), with olfactory function (ρ = −0.668, p = 0.002), and positively correlated with the total LR for RBD to present prodromal PD (ρ = 0.531, p = 0.023). Dermal p-alpha-syn can be considered a peripheral histopathological marker of synucleinopathy and can be detected in a subgroup of RBD patients presumably representing prodromal PD. Dermal p-alpha-syn is detectable in RBD patients without PD motor symptoms, thereby stratifying a patient group that is of great interest for clinical trials testing disease-modifying drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1684-z
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • Histones facilitate α-synuclein aggregation during neuronal apoptosis
    • Authors: Peizhou Jiang; Ming Gan; Shu-Hui Yen; Pamela J. McLean; Dennis W. Dickson
      Pages: 547 - 558
      Abstract: Abstract Ample in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that intercellular transmission of α-synuclein (αS) is a mechanism underlying the spread of αS pathology in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders. What remains unexplained is where and how initial transmissible αS aggregates form. In a previous study, we demonstrated that αS aggregates rapidly form in neurons with impaired nuclear membrane integrity due to the interaction between nuclear proaggregant factor(s) and αS and that such aggregates may serve as a source for αS seeding. In the present study, we identify histones as a potential nuclear proaggregant factor for αS aggregation in both apoptotic neurons and brains with αS pathology. We further demonstrate that histone-induced aggregates contain a range of αS oligomers, including protofibrils and mature fibrils, and that these αS aggregates can seed additional aggregation. Importantly, we demonstrate transmissibility in mouse brains from stereotaxic injection. This study provides new clues to the mechanism underlying initial pathological aggregation of αS in PD and related disorders, and could lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-016-1660-z
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • UK Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: investigating human prion
           transmission across genotypic barriers using human tissue-based and
           molecular approaches
    • Authors: Diane L. Ritchie; Marcelo A. Barria; Alexander H. Peden; Helen M. Yull; James Kirkpatrick; Peter Adlard; James W. Ironside; Mark W. Head
      Pages: 579 - 595
      Abstract: Abstract Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is the prototypic human prion disease that occurs most commonly in sporadic and genetic forms, but it is also transmissible and can be acquired through medical procedures, resulting in iatrogenic CJD (iCJD). The largest numbers of iCJD cases that have occurred worldwide have resulted from contaminated cadaveric pituitary-derived human growth hormone (hGH) and its use to treat primary and secondary growth hormone deficiency. We report a comprehensive, tissue-based and molecular genetic analysis of the largest series of UK hGH-iCJD cases reported to date, including in vitro kinetic molecular modelling of genotypic factors influencing prion transmission. The results show the interplay of prion strain and host genotype in governing the molecular, pathological and temporal characteristics of the UK hGH-iCJD epidemic and provide insights into the adaptive mechanisms involved when prions cross genotypic barriers. We conclude that all of the available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that the UK hGH-iCJD epidemic resulted from transmission of the V2 human prion strain, which is associated with the second most common form of sporadic CJD.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-016-1638-x
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • Pathogenic implications of cerebrospinal fluid barrier pathology in
           neuromyelitis optica
    • Authors: Yong Guo; Stephen D. Weigand; Bogdan F. Popescu; Vanda A. Lennon; Joseph E. Parisi; Sean J. Pittock; Natalie E. Parks; Stacey L. Clardy; Charles L. Howe; Claudia F. Lucchinetti
      Pages: 597 - 612
      Abstract: Abstract Pathogenic autoantibodies associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) induce disease by targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels enriched on astrocytic endfeet at blood–brain interfaces. AQP4 is also expressed at cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)–brain interfaces, such as the pial glia limitans and the ependyma and at the choroid plexus blood–CSF barrier. However, little is known regarding pathology at these sites in NMO. Therefore, we evaluated AQP4 expression, microglial reactivity, and complement deposition at pial and ependymal surfaces and in the fourth ventricle choroid plexus in 23 autopsy cases with clinically and/or pathologically confirmed NMO or NMO spectrum disorder. These findings were compared to five cases with multiple sclerosis, five cases of choroid plexus papilloma, and five control cases without central nervous system disease. In the NMO cases, AQP4 immunoreactivity was reduced relative to control levels in the pia (91%; 21/23), ependyma (56%; 9/16), and choroid plexus epithelium (100%; 12/12). AQP4 immunoreactivity was normal in MS cases in these regions. Compared to MS, NMO cases also showed a focal pattern of pial and ependymal complement deposition and more pronounced microglial reactivity. In addition, AQP4 loss, microglial reactivity, and complement deposition colocalized along the pia and ependyma only in NMO cases. Within the choroid plexus, AQP4 loss was coincident with C9neo immunoreactivity on epithelial cell membranes only in NMO cases. These observations demonstrate that NMO immunopathology extends beyond perivascular astrocytic foot processes to include the pia, ependyma, and choroid plexus, suggesting that NMO IgG-induced pathological alterations at CSF–brain and blood–CSF interfaces may contribute to the occurrence of ventriculitis, leptomeningitis, and hydrocephalus observed among NMO patients. Moreover, disruption of the blood–CSF barrier induced by binding of NMO IgG to AQP4 on the basolateral surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells may provide a unique portal for entry of the pathogenic antibody into the central nervous system.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1682-1
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • Differences in T cell cytotoxicity and cell death mechanisms between
           progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, herpes simplex virus
           encephalitis and cytomegalovirus encephalitis
    • Authors: Susanne Laukoter; Helmut Rauschka; Anna R. Tröscher; Ulrike Köck; Etsuji Saji; Kurt Jellinger; Hans Lassmann; Jan Bauer
      Pages: 613 - 627
      Abstract: Abstract During the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the 1980 and the 1990s, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral encephalitis induced by the JC virus, was the leading opportunistic brain infection. As a result of the use of modern immunomodulatory compounds such as Natalizumab and Rituximab, the number of patients with PML is once again increasing. Despite the presence of PML over decades, little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to death of infected cells and the role the immune system plays in this process. Here we compared the presence of inflammatory T cells and the targeting of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells in PML, herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) and cytomegalovirus encephalitis (CMVE). In addition, we analyzed cell death mechanisms in infected cells in these encephalitides. Our results show that large numbers of inflammatory cytotoxic T cells are present in PML lesions. Whereas in HSVE and CMVE, single or multiple appositions of CD8+ or granzyme-B+ T cells to infected cells are found, in PML such appositions are significantly less apparent. Analysis of apoptotic pathways by markers such as activated caspase-3, caspase-6, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) showed upregulation of caspase-3 and loss of caspase-6 from mitochondria in CMVE and HSVE infected cells. Infected oligodendrocytes in PML did not upregulate activated caspase-3 but instead showed translocation of PARP-1 from nucleus to cytoplasm and AIF from mitochondria to nucleus. These findings suggest that in HSVE and CMVE, cells die by caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by cytotoxic T cells. In PML, on the other hand, infected cells are not eliminated by the immune system but seem to die by virus-induced PARP and AIF translocation in a type of cell death defined as parthanatos.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-016-1642-1
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • Pan-mutant IDH1 inhibitor BAY 1436032 for effective treatment of IDH1
           mutant astrocytoma in vivo
    • Authors: Stefan Pusch; Sonja Krausert; Viktoria Fischer; Jörg Balss; Martina Ott; Daniel Schrimpf; David Capper; Felix Sahm; Jessica Eisel; Ann-Christin Beck; Manfred Jugold; Viktoria Eichwald; Stefan Kaulfuss; Olaf Panknin; Hartmut Rehwinkel; Katja Zimmermann; Roman C. Hillig; Judith Guenther; Luisella Toschi; Roland Neuhaus; Andrea Haegebart; Holger Hess-Stumpp; Markus Bauser; Wolfgang Wick; Andreas Unterberg; Christel Herold-Mende; Michael Platten; Andreas von Deimling
      Pages: 629 - 644
      Abstract: Abstract Mutations in codon 132 of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 are frequent in diffuse glioma, acute myeloid leukemia, chondrosarcoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. These mutations result in a neomorphic enzyme specificity which leads to a dramatic increase of intracellular d-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) in tumor cells. Therefore, mutant IDH1 protein is a highly attractive target for inhibitory drugs. Here, we describe the development and properties of BAY 1436032, a pan-inhibitor of IDH1 protein with different codon 132 mutations. BAY 1436032 strongly reduces 2-HG levels in cells carrying IDH1-R132H, -R132C, -R132G, -R132S and -R132L mutations. Cells not carrying IDH mutations were unaffected. BAY 1436032 did not exhibit toxicity in vitro or in vivo. The pharmacokinetic properties of BAY 1436032 allow for oral administration. In two independent experiments, BAY 1436032 has been shown to significantly prolong survival of mice intracerebrally transplanted with human astrocytoma carrying the IDH1R132H mutation. In conclusion, we developed a pan-inhibitor targeting tumors with different IDH1R132 mutations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1677-y
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • A driver role for GABA metabolism in controlling stem and proliferative
           cell state through GHB production in glioma
    • Authors: Elias A. El-Habr; Luiz G. Dubois; Fanny Burel-Vandenbos; Alexandra Bogeas; Joanna Lipecka; Laurent Turchi; François-Xavier Lejeune; Paulo Lucas Cerqueira Coehlo; Tomohiro Yamaki; Bryan M. Wittmann; Mohamed Fareh; Emna Mahfoudhi; Maxime Janin; Ashwin Narayanan; Ghislaine Morvan-Dubois; Charlotte Schmitt; Maité Verreault; Lisa Oliver; Ariane Sharif; Johan Pallud; Bertrand Devaux; Stéphanie Puget; Penelope Korkolopoulou; Pascale Varlet; Chris Ottolenghi; Isabelle Plo; Vivaldo Moura-Neto; Thierry Virolle; Hervé Chneiweiss; Marie-Pierre Junier
      Pages: 645 - 660
      Abstract: Abstract Cell populations with differing proliferative, stem-like and tumorigenic states co-exist in most tumors and especially malignant gliomas. Whether metabolic variations can drive this heterogeneity by controlling dynamic changes in cell states is unknown. Metabolite profiling of human adult glioblastoma stem-like cells upon loss of their tumorigenicity revealed a switch in the catabolism of the GABA neurotransmitter toward enhanced production and secretion of its by-product GHB (4-hydroxybutyrate). This switch was driven by succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) downregulation. Enhancing GHB levels via SSADH downregulation or GHB supplementation triggered cell conversion into a less aggressive phenotypic state. GHB affected adult glioblastoma cells with varying molecular profiles, along with cells from pediatric pontine gliomas. In all cell types, GHB acted by inhibiting α-ketoglutarate-dependent Ten–eleven Translocations (TET) activity, resulting in decreased levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine epigenetic mark. In patients, low SSADH expression was correlated with high GHB/α-ketoglutarate ratios, and distinguished weakly proliferative/differentiated glioblastoma territories from proliferative/non-differentiated territories. Our findings support an active participation of metabolic variations in the genesis of tumor heterogeneity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-016-1659-5
      Issue No: Vol. 133, No. 4 (2017)
  • Acknowledgement to referees
    • PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1700-3
  • IRE1 signaling exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis
    • Authors: Claudia Duran-Aniotz; Victor Hugo Cornejo; Sandra Espinoza; Álvaro O. Ardiles; Danilo B. Medinas; Claudia Salazar; Andrew Foley; Ivana Gajardo; Peter Thielen; Takao Iwawaki; Wiep Scheper; Claudio Soto; Adrian G. Palacios; Jeroen J. M. Hoozemans; Claudio Hetz
      Abstract: Abstract Altered proteostasis is a salient feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), highlighting the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and abnormal protein aggregation. ER stress triggers the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling pathway that enforces adaptive programs to sustain proteostasis or eliminate terminally damaged cells. IRE1 is an ER-located kinase and endoribonuclease that operates as a major stress transducer, mediating both adaptive and proapoptotic programs under ER stress. IRE1 signaling controls the expression of the transcription factor XBP1, in addition to degrade several RNAs. Importantly, a polymorphism in the XBP1 promoter was suggested as a risk factor to develop AD. Here, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the progression of AD histopathology and the activation of IRE1 in human brain tissue. To define the significance of the UPR to AD, we targeted IRE1 expression in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Despite initial expectations that IRE1 signaling may protect against AD, genetic ablation of the RNase domain of IRE1 in the nervous system significantly reduced amyloid deposition, the content of amyloid β oligomers, and astrocyte activation. IRE1 deficiency fully restored the learning and memory capacity of AD mice, associated with improved synaptic function and improved long-term potentiation (LTP). At the molecular level, IRE1 deletion reduced the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cortical and hippocampal areas of AD mice. In vitro experiments demonstrated that inhibition of IRE1 downstream signaling reduces APP steady-state levels, associated with its retention at the ER followed by proteasome-mediated degradation. Our findings uncovered an unanticipated role of IRE1 in the pathogenesis of AD, offering a novel target for disease intervention.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1694-x
  • Immunological memory to hyperphosphorylated tau in asymptomatic
    • Authors: Gabriel Pascual; Jehangir S. Wadia; Xueyong Zhu; Elissa Keogh; Başak Kükrer; Jeroen van Ameijde; Hanna Inganäs; Berdien Siregar; Gerrard Perdok; Otto Diefenbach; Tariq Nahar; Imke Sprengers; Martin H. Koldijk; Els C. Brinkman-van der Linden; Laura A. Peferoen; Heng Zhang; Wenli Yu; Xinyi Li; Michelle Wagner; Veronica Moreno; Julie Kim; Martha Costa; Kiana West; Zara Fulton; Lucy Chammas; Nancy Luckashenak; Lauren Fletcher; Trevin Holland; Carrie Arnold; R. Anthony Williamson; Jeroen J. Hoozemans; Adrian Apetri; Frederique Bard; Ian A. Wilson; Wouter Koudstaal; Jaap Goudsmit
      Abstract: Abstract Several reports have described the presence of antibodies against Alzheimer’s disease-associated hyperphosphorylated forms of tau in serum of healthy individuals. To characterize the specificities that can be found, we interrogated peripheral IgG+ memory B cells from asymptomatic blood donors for reactivity to a panel of phosphorylated tau peptides using a single-cell screening assay. Antibody sequences were recovered, cloned, and expressed as full-length IgGs. In total, 52 somatically mutated tau-binding antibodies were identified, corresponding to 35 unique clonal families. Forty-one of these antibodies recognize epitopes in the proline-rich and C-terminal domains, and binding of 26 of these antibodies is strictly phosphorylation dependent. Thirteen antibodies showed inhibitory activity in a P301S lysate seeded in vitro tau aggregation assay. Two such antibodies, CBTAU-7.1 and CBTAU-22.1, which bind to the proline-rich and C-terminal regions of tau, respectively, were characterized in more detail. CBTAU-7.1 recognizes an epitope that is similar to that of murine anti-PHF antibody AT8, but has different phospho requirements. Both CBTAU-7.1 and CBTAU-22.1 detect pathological tau deposits in post-mortem brain tissue. CBTAU-7.1 reveals a similar IHC distribution pattern as AT8, immunostaining (pre)tangles, threads, and neuritic plaques. CBTAU-22.1 shows selective detection of neurofibrillary changes by IHC. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of an ongoing antigen-driven immune response against tau in healthy individuals. The wide range of specificities to tau suggests that the human immune repertoire may contain antibodies that can serve as biomarkers or be exploited for therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1705-y
  • α-Synuclein binds to the ER–mitochondria tethering protein VAPB to
           disrupt Ca 2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial ATP production
    • Authors: Sébastien Paillusson; Patricia Gomez-Suaga; Radu Stoica; Daniel Little; Paul Gissen; Michael J. Devine; Wendy Noble; Diane P. Hanger; Christopher C. J. Miller
      Abstract: Abstract α-Synuclein is strongly linked to Parkinson’s disease but the molecular targets for its toxicity are not fully clear. However, many neuronal functions damaged in Parkinson’s disease are regulated by signalling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. This signalling involves close physical associations between the two organelles that are mediated by binding of the integral ER protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51). VAPB and PTPIP51 thus act as a scaffold to tether the two organelles. Here we show that α-synuclein binds to VAPB and that overexpression of wild-type and familial Parkinson’s disease mutant α-synuclein disrupt the VAPB-PTPIP51 tethers to loosen ER–mitochondria associations. This disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 tethers is also seen in neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from familial Parkinson’s disease patients harbouring pathogenic triplication of the α-synuclein gene. We also show that the α-synuclein induced loosening of ER–mitochondria contacts is accompanied by disruption to Ca2+ exchange between the two organelles and mitochondrial ATP production. Such disruptions are likely to be particularly damaging to neurons that are heavily dependent on correct Ca2+ signaling and ATP.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1704-z
  • Pathogenic implications of distinct patterns of iron and zinc in chronic
           MS lesions
    • Authors: Bogdan F. Popescu; Josa M. Frischer; Samuel M. Webb; Mylyne Tham; Reginald C. Adiele; Christopher A. Robinson; Patrick D. Fitz-Gibbon; Stephen D. Weigand; Imke Metz; Susan Nehzati; Graham N. George; Ingrid J. Pickering; Wolfgang Brück; Simon Hametner; Hans Lassmann; Joseph E. Parisi; Guo Yong; Claudia F. Lucchinetti
      Abstract: Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis. We found that the distribution of iron and zinc is heterogeneous in MS plaques, and with few remarkable exceptions they do not accumulate in chronic MS lesions. We show that brain iron tends to decrease with increasing age and disease duration of MS patients; reactive astrocytes organized in large astrogliotic areas in a subset of smoldering and inactive plaques accumulate iron and safely store it in ferritin; a subset of smoldering lesions do not contain a rim of iron-loaded macrophages/microglia; and the iron content of shadow plaques varies with the stage of remyelination. Zinc in MS lesions was generally decreased, paralleling myelin loss. Iron accumulates concentrically in a subset of chronic inactive lesions suggesting that not all iron rims around MS lesions equate with smoldering plaques. Upon degeneration of iron-loaded microglia/macrophages, astrocytes may form an additional protective barrier that may prevent iron-induced oxidative damage.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1696-8
  • The spectrum of neuropathological changes associated with congenital Zika
           virus infection
    • Authors: Leila Chimelli; Adriana S. O. Melo; Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari; Clayton A. Wiley; Aline H. S. Camacho; Vania S. Lopes; Heloisa N. Machado; Cecilia V. Andrade; Dione C. A. Dock; Maria Elisabeth Moreira; Fernanda Tovar-Moll; Patricia S. Oliveira-Szejnfeld; Angela C. G. Carvalho; Odile N. Ugarte; Alba G. M. Batista; Melania M. R. Amorim; Fabiana O. Melo; Thales A. Ferreira; Jacqueline R. L. Marinho; Girlene S. Azevedo; Jeime I. B. F. Leal; Rodrigo F. Madeiro da Costa; Stevens Rehen; Monica B. Arruda; Rodrigo M. Brindeiro; Rodrigo Delvechio; Renato S. Aguiar; Amilcar Tanuri
      Abstract: Abstract A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas. Using in situ hybridization (ISH) and electron microscopy, we investigated the role of direct viral infection in the pathogenesis of the lesions. Nine women had Zika symptoms between the 4th and 18th and one in the 28th gestational week. Two babies were born at 32, one at 34 and 36 weeks each and six at term. The cephalic perimeter was reduced in four, and normal or enlarged in six patients, although the brain weights were lower than expected. All had arthrogryposis, except the patient infected at 28 weeks gestation. We defined three patterns of CNS lesions, with different patterns of destructive, calcification, hypoplasia, and migration disturbances. Ventriculomegaly was severe in the first pattern due to midbrain damage with aqueduct stenosis/distortion. The second pattern had small brains and mild/moderate (ex-vacuo) ventriculomegaly. The third pattern, a well-formed brain with mild calcification, coincided with late infection. The absence of descending fibres resulted in hypoplastic basis pontis, pyramids, and cortico-spinal tracts. Spinal motor cell loss explained the intrauterine akinesia, arthrogryposis, and neurogenic muscle atrophy. DRG, dorsal nerve roots, and columns were normal. Lympho-histiocytic inflammation was mild. ISH showed meningeal, germinal matrix, and neocortical infection, consistent with neural progenitors death leading to proliferation and migration disorders. A secondary ischemic process may explain the destructive lesions. In conclusion, we characterized the destructive and malformative consequences of ZIKV in the nervous system, as reflected in the topography and severity of lesions, anatomic localization of the virus, and timing of infection during gestation. Our findings indicate a developmental vulnerability of the immature CNS, and shed light on possible mechanisms of brain injury of this newly recognized public health threat.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1699-5
  • Cryptic exon incorporation occurs in Alzheimer’s brain lacking TDP-43
           inclusion but exhibiting nuclear clearance of TDP-43
    • Authors: Mingkuan Sun; William Bell; Katherine D. LaClair; Jonathan P. Ling; Heather Han; Yusuke Kageyama; Olga Pletnikova; Juan C. Troncoso; Philip C. Wong; Liam L. Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Abnormal accumulation of TDP-43 into cytoplasmic or nuclear inclusions with accompanying nuclear clearance, a common pathology initially identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), has also been found in Alzheimer’ disease (AD). TDP-43 serves as a splicing repressor of nonconserved cryptic exons and that such function is compromised in brains of ALS and FTD patients, suggesting that nuclear clearance of TDP-43 underlies its inability to repress cryptic exons. However, whether TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregates are a prerequisite for the incorporation of cryptic exons is not known. Here, we assessed hippocampal tissues from 34 human postmortem brains including cases with confirmed diagnosis of AD neuropathologic changes along with age-matched controls. We found that cryptic exon incorporation occurred in all AD cases exhibiting TDP-43 pathology. Furthermore, incorporation of cryptic exons was observed in the hippocampus when TDP-43 inclusions was restricted only to the amygdala, the earliest stage of TDP-43 progression. Importantly, cryptic exon incorporation could be detected in AD brains lacking TDP-43 inclusion but exhibiting nuclear clearance of TDP-43. These data supports the notion that the functional consequence of nuclear depletion of TDP-43 as determined by cryptic exon incorporation likely occurs as an early event of TDP-43 proteinopathy and may have greater contribution to the pathogenesis of AD than currently appreciated. Early detection and effective repression of cryptic exons in AD patients may offer important diagnostic and therapeutic implications for this devastating illness of the elderly.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1701-2
  • Identification of T cell target antigens in glioblastoma stem-like cells
           using an integrated proteomics-based approach in patient specimens
    • Authors: Carmen Rapp; Rolf Warta; Slava Stamova; Ali Nowrouzi; Christoph Geisenberger; Zoltan Gal; Saskia Roesch; Steffen Dettling; Simone Juenger; Mariana Bucur; Christine Jungk; Philip DaoTrong; Rezvan Ahmadi; Felix Sahm; David Reuss; Valentina Fermi; Esther Herpel; Volker Eckstein; Niels Grabe; Christoph Schramm; Markus A. Weigand; Juergen Debus; Andreas von Deimling; Andreas Unterberg; Amir Abdollahi; Philipp Beckhove; Christel Herold-Mende
      Abstract: Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor and still remains incurable. Among others, an immature subpopulation of self-renewing and therapy-resistant tumor cells—often referred to as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs)—has been shown to contribute to disease recurrence. To target these cells personalized immunotherapy has gained a lot of interest, e.g. by reactivating pre-existing anti-tumor immune responses against GSC antigens. To identify T cell targets commonly presented by GSCs and their differentiated counterpart, we used a proteomics-based separation of GSC proteins in combination with a T cell activation assay. Altogether, 713 proteins were identified by LC–ESI–MS/MS mass spectrometry. After a thorough filtering process, 32 proteins were chosen for further analyses. Immunogenicity of corresponding peptides was tested ex vivo. A considerable number of these antigens induced T cell responses in GBM patients but not in healthy donors. Moreover, most of them were overexpressed in primary GBM and also highly expressed in recurrent GBM tissues. Interestingly, expression of the most frequent T cell target antigens could also be confirmed in quiescent, slow-cycling GSCs isolated in high purity by the DEPArray technology. Finally, for a subset of these T cell target antigens, an association between expression levels and higher T cell infiltration as well as an increased expression of positive immune modulators was observed. In summary, we identified novel immunogenic proteins, which frequently induce tumor-specific T cell responses in GBM patients and were also detected in vitro in therapy-resistant quiescent, slow-cycling GSCs. Stable expression of these T cell targets in primary and recurrent GBM support their suitability for future clinical use.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1702-1
  • Axonal transport deficits in multiple sclerosis: spiraling into the abyss
    • Authors: Robert van den Berg; Casper C. Hoogenraad; Rogier Q. Hintzen
      Abstract: Abstract The transport of mitochondria and other cellular components along the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton plays an essential role in neuronal survival. Defects in this system have been linked to a large number of neurological disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS) and associated models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), alterations in axonal transport have been shown to exist before neurodegeneration occurs. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have linked several motor proteins to MS susceptibility, while neuropathological studies have shown accumulations of proteins and organelles suggestive for transport deficits. A reduced effectiveness of axonal transport can lead to neurodegeneration through inhibition of mitochondrial motility, disruption of axoglial interaction or prevention of remyelination. In MS, demyelination leads to dysregulation of axonal transport, aggravated by the effects of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and glutamate on the cytoskeleton. The combined effect of all these pathways is a vicious cycle in which a defective axonal transport system leads to an increase in ATP consumption through loss of membrane organization and a reduction in available ATP through inhibition of mitochondrial transport, resulting in even further inhibition of transport. The persistent activity of this positive feedback loop contributes to neurodegeneration in MS.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1697-7
  • Genetic confirmation that ependymoma can arise as part of multiple
           endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome
    • Authors: Areli K. Cuevas-Ocampo; Andrew W. Bollen; Benjamin Goode; Kristian W. Pajtler; Lukas Chavez; Tanvi Sharma; Sun-Chuan Dai; Michael McDermott; Arie Perry; Andrey Korshunov; David A. Solomon
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1689-7
  • Prion-specific and surrogate CSF biomarkers in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease:
           diagnostic accuracy in relation to molecular subtypes and analysis of
           neuropathological correlates of p-tau and Aβ42 levels
    • Authors: Francesca Lattanzio; Samir Abu-Rumeileh; Alessia Franceschini; Hideaki Kai; Giulia Amore; Ilaria Poggiolini; Marcello Rossi; Simone Baiardi; Lynne McGuire; Anna Ladogana; Maurizio Pocchiari; Alison Green; Sabina Capellari; Piero Parchi
      Abstract: Abstract The differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from other, sometimes treatable, neurological disorders is challenging, owing to the wide phenotypic heterogeneity of the disease. Real-time quaking-induced prion conversion (RT-QuIC) is a novel ultrasensitive in vitro assay, which, at variance with surrogate neurodegenerative biomarker assays, specifically targets the pathological prion protein (PrPSc). In the studies conducted to date in CJD, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) RT-QuIC showed good diagnostic sensitivity (82–96%) and virtually full specificity. In the present study, we investigated the diagnostic value of both prion RT-QuIC and surrogate protein markers in a large patient population with suspected CJD and then evaluated the influence on CSF findings of the CJD type, and the associated amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau neuropathology. RT-QuIC showed an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 82.1% and a specificity of 99.4%. However, sensitivity was lower in CJD types linked to abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) type 2 (VV2, MV2K and MM2C) than in typical CJD (MM1). Among surrogate proteins markers (14-3-3, total (t)-tau, and t-tau/phosphorylated (p)-tau ratio) t-tau performed best in terms of both specificity and sensitivity for all sCJD types. Sporadic CJD VV2 and MV2K types demonstrated higher CSF levels of p-tau when compared to other sCJD types and this positively correlated with the amount of tiny tau deposits in brain areas showing spongiform change. CJD patients showed moderately reduced median Aβ42 CSF levels, with 38% of cases having significantly decreased protein levels in the absence of Aβ brain deposits. Our results: (1) support the use of both RT-QuIC and t-tau assays as first line laboratory investigations for the clinical diagnosis of CJD; (2) demonstrate a secondary tauopathy in CJD subtypes VV2 and MV2K, correlating with increased p-tau levels in the CSF and (3) provide novel insight into the issue of the accuracy of CSF p-tau and Aβ42 as markers of brain tauopathy and β-amyloidosis.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1683-0
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Heriot-Watt University
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