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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Acta Neuropathologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.589
Citation Impact (citeScore): 12
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0533 - ISSN (Online) 0001-6322
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • The lysosomal function of progranulin, a guardian against
    • Authors: Daniel H. Paushter; Huan Du; Tuancheng Feng; Fenghua Hu
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Progranulin (PGRN), encoded by the GRN gene in humans, is a secreted growth factor implicated in a multitude of processes ranging from regulation of inflammation to wound healing and tumorigenesis. The clinical importance of PGRN became especially evident in 2006, when heterozygous mutations in the GRN gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency, were found to be one of the main causes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FTLD is a clinically heterogenous disease that results in the progressive atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Despite significant research, the exact function of PGRN and its mechanistic relationship to FTLD remain unclear. However, growing evidence suggests a role for PGRN in the lysosome—most striking being that homozygous GRN mutation leads to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a lysosomal storage disease. Since this discovery, several links between PGRN and the lysosome have been established, including the existence of two independent lysosomal trafficking pathways, intralysosomal processing of PGRN into discrete functional peptides, and direct and indirect regulation of lysosomal hydrolases. Here, we summarize the cellular functions of PGRN, its roles in the nervous system, and its link to multiple neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus dedicated to recent lysosome-related mechanistic developments.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1861-8
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Diffusible, highly bioactive oligomers represent a critical minority of
           soluble Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease brain
    • Authors: Wei Hong; Zemin Wang; Wen Liu; Tiernan T. O’Malley; Ming Jin; Michael Willem; Christian Haass; Matthew P. Frosch; Dominic M. Walsh
      Pages: 19 - 40
      Abstract: Significant data suggest that soluble Aβ oligomers play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but there is great confusion over what exactly constitutes an Aβ oligomer and which oligomers are toxic. Most studies have utilized synthetic Aβ peptides, but the relevance of these test tube experiments to the conditions that prevail in AD is uncertain. A few groups have studied Aβ extracted from human brain, but they employed vigorous tissue homogenization which is likely to release insoluble Aβ that was sequestered in plaques during life. Several studies have found such extracts to possess disease-relevant activity and considerable efforts are being made to purify and better understand the forms of Aβ therein. Here, we compared the abundance of Aβ in AD extracts prepared by traditional homogenization versus using a far gentler extraction, and assessed their bioactivity via real-time imaging of iPSC-derived human neurons plus the sensitive functional assay of long-term potentiation. Surprisingly, the amount of Aβ retrieved by gentle extraction constituted only a small portion of that released by traditional homogenization, but this readily diffusible fraction retained all of the Aβ-dependent neurotoxic activity. Thus, the bulk of Aβ extractable from AD brain was innocuous, and only the small portion that was aqueously diffusible caused toxicity. This unexpected finding predicts that generic anti-oligomer therapies, including Aβ antibodies now in trials, may be bound up by the large pool of inactive oligomers, whereas agents that specifically target the small pool of diffusible, bioactive Aβ would be more useful. Furthermore, our results indicate that efforts to purify and target toxic Aβ must employ assays of disease-relevant activity. The approaches described here should enable these efforts, and may assist the study of other disease-associated aggregation-prone proteins.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1846-7
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Alzheimer’s disease pathology propagation by exosomes containing
           toxic amyloid-beta oligomers
    • Authors: Maitrayee Sardar Sinha; Anna Ansell-Schultz; Livia Civitelli; Camilla Hildesjö; Max Larsson; Lars Lannfelt; Martin Ingelsson; Martin Hallbeck
      Pages: 41 - 56
      Abstract: The gradual deterioration of cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease is paralleled by a hierarchical progression of amyloid-beta and tau brain pathology. Recent findings indicate that toxic oligomers of amyloid-beta may cause propagation of pathology in a prion-like manner, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that small extracellular vesicles, exosomes, from Alzheimer patients’ brains contain increased levels of amyloid-beta oligomers and can act as vehicles for the neuron-to-neuron transfer of such toxic species in recipient neurons in culture. Moreover, blocking the formation, secretion or uptake of exosomes was found to reduce both the spread of oligomers and the related toxicity. Taken together, our results imply that exosomes are centrally involved in Alzheimer’s disease and that they could serve as targets for development of new diagnostic and therapeutic principles.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1868-1
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Tau seeding activity begins in the transentorhinal/entorhinal regions and
           anticipates phospho-tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and PART
    • Authors: Sarah K. Kaufman; Kelly Del Tredici; Talitha L. Thomas; Heiko Braak; Marc I. Diamond
      Pages: 57 - 67
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and, according to the prion model, transcellular propagation of pathological “seeds” may underlie its progression. Staging of NFT pathology with phospho-tau antibody is useful to classify AD and primary age-related tauopathy (PART) cases. The locus coeruleus (LC) shows the earliest phospho-tau signal, whereas other studies suggest that pathology begins in the transentorhinal/entorhinal cortices (TRE/EC). The relationship of tau seeding activity, phospho-tau pathology, and progression of neurodegeneration remains obscure. Consequently, we employed an established cellular biosensor assay to quantify tau seeding activity in fixed human tissue, in parallel with AT8 phospho-tau staining of immediately adjacent sections. We studied four brain regions from each of n = 247 individuals across a range of disease stages. We detected the earliest and most robust seeding activity in the TRE/EC. The LC did not uniformly exhibit seeding activity until later NFT stages. We also detected seeding activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and primary visual cortex (VC) at stages before NFTs and/or AT8-immunopositivity were detectable. AD and putative PART cases exhibited similar patterns of seeding activity that anticipated histopathology across all NFT stages. Our findings are consistent with the prion model and suggest that pathological seeding activity begins in the TRE/EC rather than in the LC. In the analysis of tauopathy, quantification of seeding activity may offer an important addition to classical histopathology.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1855-6
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Selective targeting of 3 repeat Tau with brain penetrating single chain
           antibodies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders
    • Authors: Brian Spencer; Sven Brüschweiler; Marco Sealey-Cardona; Edward Rockenstein; Anthony Adame; Jazmin Florio; Michael Mante; Ivy Trinh; Robert A. Rissman; Robert Konrat; Eliezer Masliah
      Pages: 69 - 87
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly affecting more than 5 million people in the U.S. AD is characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) and Tau in the brain, and is manifested by severe impairments in memory and cognition. Therefore, removing tau pathology has become one of the main therapeutic goals for the treatment of AD. Tau (tubulin-associated unit) is a major neuronal cytoskeletal protein found in the CNS encoded by the gene MAPT. Alternative splicing generates two major isoforms of tau containing either 3 or 4 repeat (R) segments. These 3R or 4RTau species are differentially expressed in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have been focused on reducing Tau accumulation with antibodies against total Tau, 4RTau or phosphorylated isoforms. Here, we developed a brain penetrating, single chain antibody that specifically recognizes a pathogenic 3RTau. This single chain antibody was modified by the addition of a fragment of the apoB protein to facilitate trafficking into the brain, once in the CNS these antibody fragments reduced the accumulation of 3RTau and related deficits in a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy. NMR studies showed that the single chain antibody recognized an epitope at aa 40–62 of 3RTau. This single chain antibody reduced 3RTau transmission and facilitated the clearance of Tau via the endosomal–lysosomal pathway. Together, these results suggest that targeting 3RTau with highly specific, brain penetrating, single chain antibodies might be of potential value for the treatment of tauopathies such as Pick’s Disease.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1869-0
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Aging alters the immunological response to ischemic stroke
    • Authors: Rodney M. Ritzel; Yun-Ju Lai; Joshua D. Crapser; Anita R. Patel; Anna Schrecengost; Jeremy M. Grenier; Nickolas S. Mancini; Anthony Patrizz; Evan R. Jellison; Diego Morales-Scheihing; Venugopal R. Venna; Julia K. Kofler; Fudong Liu; Rajkumar Verma; Louise D. McCullough
      Pages: 89 - 110
      Abstract: The peripheral immune system plays a critical role in aging and in the response to brain injury. Emerging data suggest inflammatory responses are exacerbated in older animals following ischemic stroke; however, our understanding of these age-related changes is poor. In this work, we demonstrate marked differences in the composition of circulating and infiltrating leukocytes recruited to the ischemic brain of old male mice after stroke compared to young male mice. Blood neutrophilia and neutrophil invasion into the brain were increased in aged animals. Relative to infiltrating monocyte populations, brain-invading neutrophils had reduced phagocytic potential, and produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species and extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes (i.e., MMP-9), which were further exacerbated with age. Hemorrhagic transformation was more pronounced in aged versus young mice relative to infarct size. High numbers of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils were found in postmortem human brain samples of old (> 71 years) acute ischemic stroke subjects compared to non-ischemic controls. Many of these neutrophils were found in the brain parenchyma. A large proportion of these neutrophils expressed MMP-9 and positively correlated with hemorrhage and hyperemia. MMP-9 expression and hemorrhagic transformation after stroke increased with age. These changes in the myeloid response to stroke with age led us to hypothesize that the bone marrow response to stroke is altered with age, which could be important for the development of effective therapies targeting the immune response. We generated heterochronic bone marrow chimeras as a tool to determine the contribution of peripheral immune senescence to age- and stroke-induced inflammation. Old hosts that received young bone marrow (i.e., Young → Old) had attenuation of age-related reductions in bFGF and VEGF and showed improved locomotor activity and gait dynamics compared to isochronic (Old → Old) controls. Microglia in young heterochronic mice (Old → Young) developed a senescent-like phenotype. After stroke, aged animals reconstituted with young marrow had reduced behavioral deficits compared to isochronic controls, and had significantly fewer brain-infiltrating neutrophils. Increased rates of hemorrhagic transformation were seen in young mice reconstituted with aged bone marrow. This work suggests that age alters the immunological response to stroke, and that this can be reversed by manipulation of the peripheral immune cells in the bone marrow.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1859-2
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • CADASIL brain vessels show a HTRA1 loss-of-function profile
    • Authors: Andreas Zellner; Eva Scharrer; Thomas Arzberger; Chio Oka; Valérie Domenga-Denier; Anne Joutel; Stefan F. Lichtenthaler; Stephan A. Müller; Martin Dichgans; Christof Haffner
      Pages: 111 - 125
      Abstract: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and a phenotypically similar recessive condition (CARASIL) have emerged as important genetic model diseases for studying the molecular pathomechanisms of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). CADASIL, the most frequent and intensely explored monogenic SVD, is characterized by a severe pathology in the cerebral vasculature including the mutation-induced aggregation of the Notch3 extracellular domain (Notch3ECD) and the formation of protein deposits of insufficiently determined composition in vessel walls. To identify key molecules and pathways involved in this process, we quantitatively determined the brain vessel proteome from CADASIL patient and control autopsy samples (n = 6 for each group), obtaining 95 proteins with significantly increased abundance. Intriguingly, high-temperature requirement protein A1 (HTRA1), the extracellular protease mutated in CARASIL, was found to be strongly enriched (4.9-fold, p = 1.6 × 10−3) and to colocalize with Notch3ECD deposits in patient vessels suggesting a sequestration process. Furthermore, the presence of increased levels of several HTRA1 substrates in the CADASIL proteome was compatible with their reduced degradation as consequence of a loss of HTRA1 activity. Indeed, a comparison with the brain vessel proteome of HTRA1 knockout mice (n = 5) revealed a highly significant overlap of 18 enriched proteins (p = 2.2 × 10−16), primarily representing secreted and extracellular matrix factors. Several of them were shown to be processed by HTRA1 in an in vitro proteolysis assay identifying them as novel substrates. Our study provides evidence for a loss of HTRA1 function as a critical step in the development of CADASIL pathology linking the molecular mechanisms of two distinct SVD forms.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1853-8
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Gadolinium-based contrast agents induce gadolinium deposits in cerebral
           vessel walls, while the neuropil is not affected: an autopsy study
    • Authors: Stefanie Fingerhut; Michael Sperling; Markus Holling; Thomas Niederstadt; Thomas Allkemper; Alexander Radbruch; Walter Heindel; Werner Paulus; Astrid Jeibmann; Uwe Karst
      Pages: 127 - 138
      Abstract: Recent studies showed gadolinium depositions following serial administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging examinations in various parts of the brain with the dentate nucleus (DN) being most affected. Even though no clinical correlates of the deposits are known yet, an intensive debate developed if this might be harmful. The aim of the current study was to specify the gadolinium distribution in brain tissue of patients who received serial injections of GBCAs in the low-µm range and to explore any potential pathological tissue changes caused by gadolinium deposits. Thirteen autopsy cases—eight receiving GBCA administrations, five serving as controls—were identified and analyzed. For all patients, total gadolinium quantification after acidic digestion by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed. Six cases were utilized for the spatially resolved quantification of gadolinium within the cerebellum and the basal ganglia by means of high-resolution laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed to determine tissue reactions. LA-ICP-MS revealed gadolinium depositions in the walls of small blood vessels of the DN in all GBCA exposed patients, while no gadolinium was found in the control group. Additionally, the detection of phosphorus and metals like copper, zinc and iron provides evidence that transmetalation reactions might have occurred. No significant pathological changes of the brain tissue in the vicinity of the DN with respect to micro-/astrogliosis and neuronal loss were found in any of the patients. This notably holds true even for a patient who died from nephrogenic systemic fibrosis exhibiting extremely high gadolinium concentrations within the DN. The findings show that gadolinium depositions in the brain are restricted to blood vessel walls, while the neuropil is spared and apparent cellular reactions are absent.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1857-4
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Convective influx/glymphatic system: tracers injected into the CSF enter
           and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways
    • Authors: Nazira J. Albargothy; David A. Johnston; Matthew MacGregor-Sharp; Roy O. Weller; Ajay Verma; Cheryl A. Hawkes; Roxana O. Carare
      Pages: 139 - 152
      Abstract: Tracers injected into CSF pass into the brain alongside arteries and out again. This has been recently termed the “glymphatic system” that proposes tracers enter the brain along periarterial “spaces” and leave the brain along the walls of veins. The object of the present study is to test the hypothesis that: (1) tracers from the CSF enter the cerebral cortex along pial-glial basement membranes as there are no perivascular “spaces” around cortical arteries, (2) tracers leave the brain along smooth muscle cell basement membranes that form the Intramural Peri-Arterial Drainage (IPAD) pathways for the elimination of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain. 2 μL of 100 μM soluble, fluorescent fixable amyloid β (Aβ) were injected into the CSF of the cisterna magna of 6–10 and 24–30 month-old male mice and their brains were examined 5 and 30 min later. At 5 min, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed Aβ on the outer aspects of cortical arteries colocalized with α-2 laminin in the pial-glial basement membranes. At 30 min, Aβ was colocalised with collagen IV in smooth muscle cell basement membranes in the walls of cortical arteries corresponding to the IPAD pathways. No evidence for drainage along the walls of veins was found. Measurements of the depth of penetration of tracer were taken from 11 regions of the brain. Maximum depths of penetration of tracer into the brain were achieved in the pons and caudoputamen. Conclusions drawn from the present study are that tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways. The exit route is along IPAD pathways in which Aβ accumulates in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in Alzheimer’s disease. Results from this study suggest that CSF may be a suitable route for delivery of therapies for neurological diseases, including CAA.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1862-7
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Novel, improved grading system(s) for IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas
    • Authors: Mitsuaki Shirahata; Takahiro Ono; Damian Stichel; Daniel Schrimpf; David E. Reuss; Felix Sahm; Christian Koelsche; Annika Wefers; Annekathrin Reinhardt; Kristin Huang; Philipp Sievers; Hiroaki Shimizu; Hiroshi Nanjo; Yusuke Kobayashi; Yohei Miyake; Tomonari Suzuki; Jun-ichi Adachi; Kazuhiko Mishima; Atsushi Sasaki; Ryo Nishikawa; Melanie Bewerunge-Hudler; Marina Ryzhova; Oksana Absalyamova; Andrey Golanov; Peter Sinn; Michael Platten; Christine Jungk; Frank Winkler; Antje Wick; Daniel Hänggi; Andreas Unterberg; Stefan M. Pfister; David T. W. Jones; Martin van den Bent; Monika Hegi; Pim French; Brigitta G. Baumert; Roger Stupp; Thierry Gorlia; Michael Weller; David Capper; Andrey Korshunov; Christel Herold-Mende; Wolfgang Wick; David N. Louis; Andreas von Deimling
      Pages: 153 - 166
      Abstract: According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO), IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas comprised WHO grade II diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AIIIDHmut), WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AAIIIIDHmut), and WHO grade IV glioblastoma, IDH-mutant (GBMIDHmut). Notably, IDH gene status has been made the major criterion for classification while the manner of grading has remained unchanged: it is based on histological criteria that arose from studies which antedated knowledge of the importance of IDH status in diffuse astrocytic tumor prognostic assessment. Several studies have now demonstrated that the anticipated differences in survival between the newly defined AIIIDHmut and AAIIIIDHmut have lost their significance. In contrast, GBMIDHmut still exhibits a significantly worse outcome than its lower grade IDH-mutant counterparts. To address the problem of establishing prognostically significant grading for IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas in the IDH era, we undertook a comprehensive study that included assessment of histological and genetic approaches to prognosis in these tumors. A discovery cohort of 211 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas with an extended observation was subjected to histological review, image analysis, and DNA methylation studies. Tumor group-specific methylation profiles and copy number variation (CNV) profiles were established for all gliomas. Algorithms for automated CNV analysis were developed. All tumors exhibiting 1p/19q codeletion were excluded from the series. We developed algorithms for grading, based on molecular, morphological and clinical data. Performance of these algorithms was compared with that of WHO grading. Three independent cohorts of 108, 154 and 224 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas were used to validate this approach. In the discovery cohort several molecular and clinical parameters were of prognostic relevance. Most relevant for overall survival (OS) was CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion. Other parameters with major influence were necrosis and the total number of CNV. Proliferation as assessed by mitotic count, which is a key parameter in 2016 CNS WHO grading, was of only minor influence. Employing the parameters most relevant for OS in our discovery set, we developed two models for grading these tumors. These models performed significantly better than WHO grading in both the discovery and the validation sets. Our novel algorithms for grading IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas overcome the challenges caused by introduction of IDH status into the WHO classification of diffuse astrocytic tumors. We propose that these revised approaches be used for grading of these tumors and incorporated into future WHO criteria.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1849-4
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • K27/G34 versus K28/G35 in histone H3-mutant gliomas: A note of caution
    • Authors: Henning Leske; Elisabeth Rushing; Herbert Budka; Pitt Niehusmann; Jens Pahnke; Ioannis Panagopoulos
      Pages: 175 - 176
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1867-2
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 1 (2018)
  • Heterogeneity within the PF-EPN-B ependymoma subgroup
    • Authors: Florence M. G. Cavalli; Jens-Martin Hübner; Tanvi Sharma; Betty Luu; Martin Sill; Michal Zapotocky; Stephen C. Mack; Hendrik Witt; Tong Lin; David J. H. Shih; Ben Ho; Mariarita Santi; Lyndsey Emery; Juliette Hukin; Christopher Dunham; Roger E. McLendon; Eric S. Lipp; Sridharan Gururangan; Andrew Grossbach; Pim French; Johan M. Kros; Marie-Lise C. van Veelen; Amulya A. Nageswara Rao; Caterina Giannini; Sarah Leary; Shin Jung; Claudia C. Faria; Jaume Mora; Ulrich Schüller; Marta M. Alonso; Jennifer A. Chan; Almos Klekner; Lola B. Chambless; Eugene I. Hwang; Maura Massimino; Charles G. Eberhart; Matthias A. Karajannis; Benjamin Lu; Linda M. Liau; Massimo Zollo; Veronica Ferrucci; Carlos Carlotti; Daniela P. C. Tirapelli; Uri Tabori; Eric Bouffet; Marina Ryzhova; David W. Ellison; Thomas E. Merchant; Mark R. Gilbert; Terri S. Armstrong; Andrey Korshunov; Stefan M. Pfister; Michael D. Taylor; Kenneth Aldape; Kristian W. Pajtler; Marcel Kool; Vijay Ramaswamy
      Abstract: Posterior fossa ependymoma comprise three distinct molecular variants, termed PF-EPN-A (PFA), PF-EPN-B (PFB), and PF-EPN-SE (subependymoma). Clinically, they are very disparate and PFB tumors are currently being considered for a trial of radiation avoidance. However, to move forward, unraveling the heterogeneity within PFB would be highly desirable. To discern the molecular heterogeneity within PFB, we performed an integrated analysis consisting of DNA methylation profiling, copy-number profiling, gene expression profiling, and clinical correlation across a cohort of 212 primary posterior fossa PFB tumors. Unsupervised spectral clustering and t-SNE analysis of genome-wide methylation data revealed five distinct subtypes of PFB tumors, termed PFB1-5, with distinct demographics, copy-number alterations, and gene expression profiles. All PFB subtypes were distinct from PFA and posterior fossa subependymomas. Of the five subtypes, PFB4 and PFB5 are more discrete, consisting of younger and older patients, respectively, with a strong female-gender enrichment in PFB5 (age: p = 0.011, gender: p = 0.04). Broad copy-number aberrations were common; however, many events such as chromosome 2 loss, 5 gain, and 17 loss were enriched in specific subtypes and 1q gain was enriched in PFB1. Late relapses were common across all five subtypes, but deaths were uncommon and present in only two subtypes (PFB1 and PFB3). Unlike the case in PFA ependymoma, 1q gain was not a robust marker of poor progression-free survival; however, chromosome 13q loss may represent a novel marker for risk stratification across the spectrum of PFB subtypes. Similar to PFA ependymoma, there exists a significant intertumoral heterogeneity within PFB, with distinct molecular subtypes identified. Even when accounting for this heterogeneity, extent of resection remains the strongest predictor of poor outcome. However, this biological heterogeneity must be accounted for in future preclinical modeling and personalized therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1888-x
  • Myxoid glioneuronal tumor of the septum pellucidum and lateral ventricle
           is defined by a recurrent PDGFRA p.K385 mutation and DNT-like methylation
    • Authors: David A. Solomon; Andrey Korshunov; Martin Sill; David T. W. Jones; Marcel Kool; Stefan M. Pfister; Xuemo Fan; Serguei Bannykh; Jethro Hu; Moise Danielpour; Rong Li; James Johnston; Elaine Cham; Tabitha Cooney; Peter P. Sun; Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush; Michael McDermott; Jessica Van Ziffle; Courtney Onodera; James P. Grenert; Boris C. Bastian; Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer; Melike Pekmezci; Andrew W. Bollen; Arie Perry
      PubDate: 2018-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1883-2
  • Bidirectional modulation of Alzheimer phenotype by alpha-synuclein in mice
           and primary neurons
    • Authors: Shahzad S. Khan; Michael LaCroix; Gabriel Boyle; Mathew A. Sherman; Jennifer L. Brown; Fatou Amar; Jacqeline Aldaco; Michael K. Lee; George S. Bloom; Sylvain E. Lesné
      Abstract: α-Synuclein (αSyn) histopathology defines several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the functional link between soluble αSyn and disease etiology remains elusive, especially in AD. We, therefore, genetically targeted αSyn in APP transgenic mice modeling AD and mouse primary neurons. Our results demonstrate bidirectional modulation of behavioral deficits and pathophysiology by αSyn. Overexpression of human wild-type αSyn in APP animals markedly reduced amyloid deposition but, counter-intuitively, exacerbated deficits in spatial memory. It also increased extracellular amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs), αSyn oligomers, exacerbated tau conformational and phosphorylation variants associated with AD, and enhanced neuronal cell cycle re-entry (CCR), a frequent prelude to neuron death in AD. Conversely, ablation of the SNCA gene encoding for αSyn in APP mice improved memory retention in spite of increased plaque burden. Reminiscent of the effect of MAPT ablation in APP mice, SNCA deletion prevented premature mortality. Moreover, the absence of αSyn decreased extracellular AβOs, ameliorated CCR, and rescued postsynaptic marker deficits. In summary, this complementary, bidirectional genetic approach implicates αSyn as an essential mediator of key phenotypes in AD and offers new functional insight into αSyn pathophysiology.
      PubDate: 2018-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1886-z
  • MicroRNA-132 provides neuroprotection for tauopathies via multiple
           signaling pathways
    • Authors: Rachid El Fatimy; Shaomin Li; Zhicheng Chen; Tasnim Mushannen; Sree Gongala; Zhiyun Wei; Darrick T. Balu; Rosalia Rabinovsky; Adam Cantlon; Abdallah Elkhal; Dennis J. Selkoe; Kai C. Sonntag; Dominic M. Walsh; Anna M. Krichevsky
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate fundamental biological processes, including neuronal plasticity, stress response, and survival. Here, we describe a neuroprotective function of miR-132, the miRNA most significantly downregulated in neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. We demonstrate that miR-132 protects primary mouse and human wild-type neurons and more vulnerable Tau-mutant neurons against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and glutamate excitotoxicity. It lowers the levels of total, phosphorylated, acetylated, and cleaved forms of Tau implicated in tauopathies, promotes neurite elongation and branching, and reduces neuronal death. Similarly, miR-132 attenuates PHF-Tau pathology and neurodegeneration, and enhances long-term potentiation in the P301S Tau transgenic mice. The neuroprotective effects are mediated by direct regulation of the Tau modifiers acetyltransferase EP300, kinase GSK3β, RNA-binding protein Rbfox1, and proteases Calpain 2 and Caspases 3/7. These data suggest miR-132 as a master regulator of neuronal health and indicate that miR-132 supplementation could be of therapeutic benefit for the treatment of Tau-associated neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: 2018-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1880-5
  • FGFR1:TACC1 fusion is a frequent event in molecularly defined
           extraventricular neurocytoma
    • Authors: Philipp Sievers; Damian Stichel; Daniel Schrimpf; Felix Sahm; Christian Koelsche; David E. Reuss; Annika K. Wefers; Annekathrin Reinhardt; Kristin Huang; Azadeh Ebrahimi; Yanghao Hou; Kristian W. Pajtler; Stefan M. Pfister; Martin Hasselblatt; Walter Stummer; Uta Schick; Christian Hartmann; Christian Hagel; Ori Staszewski; Guido Reifenberger; Rudi Beschorner; Roland Coras; Kathy Keyvani; Patricia Kohlhof; Francesca Diomedi-Camassei; Christel Herold-Mende; Felice Giangaspero; Elisabeth Rushing; Caterina Giannini; Andrey Korshunov; David T. W. Jones; Andreas von Deimling
      Abstract: Extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN) is a rare primary brain tumor occurring in brain parenchyma outside the ventricular system. Histopathological characteristics resemble those of central neurocytoma but exhibit a wider morphologic spectrum. Accurate diagnosis of these histologically heterogeneous tumors is often challenging because of the overlapping morphological features and the lack of defining molecular markers. Here, we explored the molecular landscape of 40 tumors diagnosed histologically as EVN by investigating copy number profiles and DNA methylation array data. DNA methylation profiles were compared with those of relevant differential diagnoses of EVN and with a broader spectrum of diverse brain tumor entities. Based on this, our tumor cohort segregated into different groups. While a large fraction (n = 22) formed a separate epigenetic group clearly distinct from established DNA methylation profiles of other entities, a subset (n = 14) of histologically diagnosed EVN grouped with clusters of other defined entities. Three cases formed a small group close to but separated from the epigenetically distinct EVN cases, and one sample clustered with non-neoplastic brain tissue. Four additional samples originally diagnosed otherwise were found to molecularly resemble EVN. Thus, our results highlight a distinct DNA methylation pattern for the majority of tumors diagnosed as EVN, but also indicate that approximately one third of morphological diagnoses of EVN epigenetically correspond to other brain tumor entities. Copy number analysis and confirmation through RNA sequencing revealed FGFR1–TACC1 fusion as a distinctive, recurrent feature within the EVN methylation group (60%), in addition to a small number of other FGFR rearrangements (13%). In conclusion, our data demonstrate a specific epigenetic signature of EVN suitable for characterization of these tumors as a molecularly distinct entity, and reveal a high frequency of potentially druggable FGFR pathway activation in this tumor group.
      PubDate: 2018-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1882-3
  • Practical implementation of DNA methylation and copy-number-based CNS
           tumor diagnostics: the Heidelberg experience
    • Authors: David Capper; Damian Stichel; Felix Sahm; David T. W. Jones; Daniel Schrimpf; Martin Sill; Simone Schmid; Volker Hovestadt; David E. Reuss; Christian Koelsche; Annekathrin Reinhardt; Annika K. Wefers; Kristin Huang; Philipp Sievers; Azadeh Ebrahimi; Anne Schöler; Daniel Teichmann; Arend Koch; Daniel Hänggi; Andreas Unterberg; Michael Platten; Wolfgang Wick; Olaf Witt; Till Milde; Andrey Korshunov; Stefan M. Pfister; Andreas von Deimling
      Abstract: Recently, we described a machine learning approach for classification of central nervous system tumors based on the analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns [6]. Here, we report on DNA methylation-based central nervous system (CNS) tumor diagnostics conducted in our institution between the years 2015 and 2018. In this period, more than 1000 tumors from the neurosurgical departments in Heidelberg and Mannheim and more than 1000 tumors referred from external institutions were subjected to DNA methylation analysis for diagnostic purposes. We describe our current approach to the integrated diagnosis of CNS tumors with a focus on constellations with conflicts between morphological and molecular genetic findings. We further describe the benefit of integrating DNA copy-number alterations into diagnostic considerations and provide a catalog of copy-number changes for individual DNA methylation classes. We also point to several pitfalls accompanying the diagnostic implementation of DNA methylation profiling and give practical suggestions for recurring diagnostic scenarios.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1879-y
  • Sex-specific genetic predictors of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers
    • Authors: Yuetiva Deming; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI); Logan Dumitrescu; Lisa L. Barnes; Madhav Thambisetty; Brian Kunkle; Katherine A. Gifford; William S. Bush; Lori B. Chibnik; Shubhabrata Mukherjee; Philip L. De Jager; Walter Kukull; Matt Huentelman; Paul K. Crane; Susan M. Resnick; C. Dirk Keene; Thomas J. Montine; Gerard D. Schellenberg; Jonathan L. Haines; Henrik Zetterberg; Kaj Blennow; Eric B. Larson; Sterling C. Johnson; Marilyn Albert; Abhay Moghekar; Jorge L. del Aguila; Maria Victoria Fernandez; John Budde; Jason Hassenstab; Anne M. Fagan; Matthias Riemenschneider; Ronald C. Petersen; Lennart Minthon; Michael J. Chao; Vivianna M. Van Deerlin; Virginia M.-Y. Lee; Leslie M. Shaw; John Q. Trojanowski; Elaine R. Peskind; Gail Li; Lea K. Davis; Julia M. Sealock; Nancy J. Cox; Alison M. Goate; David A. Bennett; Julie A. Schneider; Angela L. Jefferson; Carlos Cruchaga; Timothy J. Hohman; The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC)
      Abstract: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) and tau have been evaluated as endophenotypes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) genetic studies. Although there are sex differences in AD risk, sex differences have not been evaluated in genetic studies of AD endophenotypes. We performed sex-stratified and sex interaction genetic analyses of CSF biomarkers to identify sex-specific associations. Data came from a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF Aβ42 and tau (1527 males, 1509 females). We evaluated sex interactions at previous loci, performed sex-stratified GWAS to identify sex-specific associations, and evaluated sex interactions at sex-specific GWAS loci. We then evaluated sex-specific associations between prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression at relevant loci and autopsy measures of plaques and tangles using data from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. In Aβ42, we observed sex interactions at one previous and one novel locus: rs316341 within SERPINB1 (p = 0.04) and rs13115400 near LINC00290 (p = 0.002). These loci showed stronger associations among females (β = − 0.03, p = 4.25 × 10−8; β = 0.03, p = 3.97 × 10−8) than males (β = − 0.02, p = 0.009; β = 0.01, p = 0.20). Higher levels of expression of SERPINB1, SERPINB6, and SERPINB9 in PFC was associated with higher levels of amyloidosis among females (corrected p values < 0.02) but not males (p > 0.38). In total tau, we observed a sex interaction at a previous locus, rs1393060 proximal to GMNC (p = 0.004), driven by a stronger association among females (β = 0.05, p = 4.57 × 10−10) compared to males (β = 0.02, p = 0.03). There was also a sex-specific association between rs1393060 and tangle density at autopsy (pfemale = 0.047; pmale = 0.96), and higher levels of expression of two genes within this locus were associated with lower tangle density among females (OSTN p = 0.006; CLDN16 p = 0.002) but not males (p ≥ 0.32). Results suggest a female-specific role for SERPINB1 in amyloidosis and for OSTN and CLDN16 in tau pathology. Sex-specific genetic analyses may improve understanding of AD’s genetic architecture.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1881-4
  • A suggestion to introduce the diagnosis of “diffuse midline glioma of
           the pons, H3 K27 wildtype (WHO grade IV)”
    • Authors: André O. von Bueren; Michael Karremann; Gerrit H. Gielen; Martin Benesch; Maryam Fouladi; Dannis G. van Vuurden; Sophie E. M. Veldhuijzen van Zanten; Lindsey M. Hoffman; Christof M. Kramm
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1863-6
  • Novel FGFR2 - INA fusion identified in two low-grade mixed neuronal-glial
           tumors drives oncogenesis via MAPK and PI3K/mTOR pathway activation
    • Authors: Payal Jain; Lea F. Surrey; Joshua Straka; Minjie Luo; Fumin Lin; Brian Harding; Adam C. Resnick; Phillip B. Storm; Anna Maria Buccoliero; Mariarita Santi; Marilyn M. Li; Angela J. Waanders
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1864-5
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