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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2562 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2562 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Neuropathologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.589
Citation Impact (citeScore): 12
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0533 - ISSN (Online) 0001-6322
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Proteomics in cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord suggests UCHL1, MAP2 and
           GPNMB as biomarkers and underpins importance of transcriptional pathways
           in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    • Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and the proteins and pathways involved in the pathophysiology are not fully understood. Even less is known about the preclinical disease phase. To uncover new ALS-related proteins and pathways, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of asymptomatic (n = 14) and symptomatic (n = 14) ALS mutation carriers and sporadic ALS patients (n = 12) as well as post-mortem human spinal cord tissue (controls: n = 7, ALS, n = 8). Using a CSF-optimized proteomic workflow, we identified novel (e.g., UCHL1, MAP2, CAPG, GPNMB, HIST1H4A, HIST1H2B) and well-described (e.g., NEFL, NEFH, NEFM, CHIT1, CHI3L1) protein level changes in CSF of sporadic and genetic ALS patients with enrichment of proteins related to transcription, cell cycle and lipoprotein remodeling (total protein IDs: 2303). No significant alteration was observed in asymptomatic ALS mutation carriers representing the prodromal disease phase. We confirmed UCHL1, MAP2, CAPG and GPNMB as novel biomarker candidates for ALS in an independent validation cohort of patients (n = 117) using multiple reaction monitoring. In spinal cord tissue, 292 out of 6810 identified proteins were significantly changed in ALS with enrichment of proteins involved in mRNA splicing and of the neurofilament compartment. In conclusion, our proteomic data in asymptomatic ALS mutation carriers support the hypothesis of a sudden disease onset instead of a long preclinical phase. Both CSF and tissue proteomic data indicate transcriptional pathways to be amongst the most affected. UCHL1, MAP2 and GPNMB are promising ALS biomarker candidates which might provide additional value to the established neurofilaments in patient follow-up and clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • Structural and functional conservation of non-lumenized lymphatic
           endothelial cells in the mammalian leptomeninges
    • Abstract: The vertebrate CNS is surrounded by the meninges, a protective barrier comprised of the outer dura mater and the inner leptomeninges, which includes the arachnoid and pial layers. While the dura mater contains lymphatic vessels, no conventional lymphatics have been found within the brain or leptomeninges. However, non-lumenized cells called Brain/Mural Lymphatic Endothelial Cells or Fluorescent Granule Perithelial cells (muLECs/BLECs/FGPs) that share a developmental program and gene expression with peripheral lymphatic vessels have been described in the meninges of zebrafish. Here we identify a structurally and functionally similar cell type in the mammalian leptomeninges that we name Leptomeningeal Lymphatic Endothelial Cells (LLEC). As in zebrafish, LLECs express multiple lymphatic markers, containing very large, spherical inclusions, and develop independently from the meningeal macrophage lineage. Mouse LLECs also internalize macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid, including Amyloid-β, the toxic driver of Alzheimer’s disease progression. Finally, we identify morphologically similar cells co-expressing LLEC markers in human post-mortem leptomeninges. Given that LLECs share molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics with both lymphatics and macrophages, we propose they represent a novel, evolutionary conserved cell type with potential roles in homeostasis and immune organization of the meninges.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
  • From the prion-like propagation hypothesis to therapeutic strategies of
           anti-tau immunotherapy
    • Abstract: The term “propagon” is used to define proteins that may transmit misfolding in vitro, in tissues or in organisms. Among propagons, misfolded tau is thought to be involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of various “tauopathies” that include Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and argyrophilic grain disease. Here, we review the available data in the literature and point out how the prion-like tau propagation has been extended from Alzheimer's disease to tauopathies. First, in Alzheimer’s disease, the progression of tau aggregation follows stereotypical anatomical stages which may be considered as spreading. The mechanisms of the propagation are now subject to intensive and controversial research. It has been shown that tau may be secreted in the interstitial fluid in an active manner as reflected by high and constant concentration of extracellular tau during Alzheimer’s pathology. Animal and cell models have been devised to mimic tau seeding and propagation, and despite their limitations, they have further supported to the prion-like propagation hypothesis. Finally, such new ways of thinking have led to different therapeutic strategies in anti-tau immunotherapy among tauopathies and have stimulated new clinical trials. However, it appears that the prion-like propagation hypothesis mainly relies on data obtained in Alzheimer’s disease. From this review, it appears that further studies are needed (1) to characterize extracellular tau species, (2) to find the right pathological tau species to target, (3) to follow in vivo tau pathology by brain imaging and biomarkers and (4) to interpret current clinical trial results aimed at reducing the progression of these pathologies. Such inputs will be essential to have a comprehensive view of these promising therapeutic strategies in tauopathies.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • Molecular characterization of histopathological ependymoma variants
    • Abstract: According to the WHO classification, ependymal tumors are classified as subependymomas, myxopapillary ependymomas, classic ependymomas, anaplastic ependymomas, and RELA-fusion-positive ependymomas (RELA-EPN). Among classic ependymomas, the WHO defines rare histological variants, i.e., the clear cell, papillary, and tanycytic ependymoma. In parallel, global DNA methylation patterns distinguish nine molecular groups, some of which tightly overlap with histopathological subgroups. However, the match of the aforementioned histological variants to DNA methylation classes remains unclear. We analyzed histomorphology, clinical parameters, and global DNA methylation of tumors with the initial histological diagnoses of tanycytic (n = 12), clear cell (n = 14), or papillary ependymoma (n = 19). Forty percent of these tumors did not match to the epigenetic profile of ependymomas, using a previously published DNA methylation-based classifier for brain tumors. Instead, they were classified as low-grade glioma (n = 3), plexus tumor (n = 2), CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with MN1 alteration (n = 2), papillary tumor of the pineal region (n = 2), neurocytoma (n = 1), or did not match to any known brain tumor methylation class (n = 8). Overall, integrated diagnosis had to be changed in 35.6% of cases as compared to the initial diagnosis. Among the tumors molecularly classified as ependymoma (27/45 cases), tanycytic ependymomas were mostly located in the spine (5/7 cases) and matched to spinal or myxopapillary ependymoma. 6/8 clear cell ependymomas were found supratentorially and fell into the methylation class of RELA-EPN. Papillary ependymomas with a positive ependymoma match (12/19 cases) showed either a “papillary” (n = 5), a “trabecular” (n = 1), or a “pseudo-papillary” (n = 6) growth pattern. The papillary growth pattern was strongly associated with the methylation class B of posterior fossa ependymoma (PFB, 5/5 cases) and tumors displayed DNA methylation sites that were significantly different when compared to PFB ependymomas without papillary growth. Tumors with pseudo-papillary histology matched to the methylation class of myxopapillary ependymoma (4/6 cases), whereas the trabecular case was anatomically and molecularly a spinal ependymoma. Our results show that the diagnosis of histological ependymoma variants is challenging and epigenetic profiles may improve diagnostic accuracy of these cases. Whereas clear cell and papillary ependymomas display correlations between localization, histology, and methylation, tanycytic ependymoma does not represent a molecularly distinct subgroup.
      PubDate: 2019-11-02
  • The histomolecular criteria established for adult anaplastic pilocytic
           astrocytoma are not applicable to the pediatric population
    • Abstract: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric glioma, arising from a single driver MAPK pathway alteration. Classified as a grade I tumor according to the 2016 WHO classification, prognosis is excellent with a 10-year survival rate > 95% after surgery. However, rare cases present with anaplastic features, including an unexpected high mitotic/proliferative index, thus posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Based on small histomolecular series and case reports, such tumors arising at the time of diagnosis or recurrence have been designated by many names including pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (PAAF). Recent DNA methylation-profiling studies performed mainly on adult cases have revealed that PAAF exhibit a specific methylation signature, thus constituting a distinct methylation class from typical PA [methylation class anaplastic astrocytoma with piloid features—(MC-AAP)]. However, the diagnostic and prognostic significance of MC-AAP remains to be determined in children. We performed an integrative work on the largest pediatric cohort of PAAF, defined according to strict criteria: morphology compatible with the diagnosis of PA, with or without necrosis, ≥ 4 mitoses for 2.3 mm2, and MAPK pathway alteration. We subjected 31 tumors to clinical, imaging, morphological and molecular analyses, including DNA methylation profiling. We identified only one tumor belonging to the MC-AAP (3%), the others exhibiting a methylation profile typical for PA (77%), IDH-wild-type glioblastoma (7%), and diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (3%), while three cases (10%) did not match to a known DNA methylation class. No significant outcome differences were observed between PAAF with necrosis versus no necrosis (p = 0.07), or with 4–6 mitoses versus 7 or more mitoses (p = 0.857). Our findings argue that the diagnostic histomolecular criteria established for anaplasia in adult PA are not of diagnostic or prognostic value in a pediatric setting. Further extensive and comprehensive integrative studies are necessary to accurately define this exceptional entity in children.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • On the journey to uncover the causes of selective cellular and regional
           vulnerability in neurodegeneration
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Recurrent non-canonical histone H3 mutations in spinal cord diffuse
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Splicing repression is a major function of TDP-43 in motor neurons
    • Abstract: Nuclear depletion of TDP-43, an essential RNA binding protein, may underlie neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As several functions have been ascribed to this protein, the critical role(s) of TDP-43 in motor neurons that may be compromised in ALS remains unknown. We show here that TDP-43 mediated splicing repression, which serves to protect the transcriptome by preventing aberrant splicing, is central to the physiology of motor neurons. Expression in Drosophila TDP-43 knockout models of a chimeric repressor, comprised of the RNA recognition domain of TDP-43 fused to an unrelated splicing repressor, RAVER1, attenuated motor deficits and extended lifespan. Likewise, AAV9-mediated delivery of this chimeric rescue repressor to mice lacking TDP-43 in motor neurons delayed the onset, slowed the progression of motor symptoms, and markedly extended their lifespan. In treated mice lacking TDP-43 in motor neurons, aberrant splicing was significantly decreased and accompanied by amelioration of axon degeneration and motor neuron loss. This AAV9 strategy allowed long-term expression of the chimeric repressor without any adverse effects. Our findings establish that splicing repression is a major function of TDP-43 in motor neurons and strongly support the idea that loss of TDP-43-mediated splicing fidelity represents a key pathogenic mechanism underlying motor neuron loss in ALS.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Restoring brain cholesterol turnover improves autophagy and has
           therapeutic potential in mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia
    • Abstract: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are devastating neurodegenerative disorders for which no curative or preventive therapies are available. Deregulation of brain cholesterol metabolism and impaired brain cholesterol turnover have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. SCA3 or Machado–Joseph disease (MJD) is the most prevalent ataxia worldwide. We show that cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1), the key enzyme allowing efflux of brain cholesterol and activating brain cholesterol turnover, is decreased in cerebellar extracts from SCA3 patients and SCA3 mice. We investigated whether reinstating CYP46A1 expression would improve the disease phenotype of SCA3 mouse models. We show that administration of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding CYP46A1 to a lentiviral-based SCA3 mouse model reduces mutant ataxin-3 accumulation, which is a hallmark of SCA3, and preserves neuronal markers. In a transgenic SCA3 model with a severe motor phenotype we confirm that cerebellar delivery of AAVrh10-CYP46A1 is strongly neuroprotective in adult mice with established pathology. CYP46A1 significantly decreases ataxin-3 protein aggregation, alleviates motor impairments and improves SCA3-associated neuropathology. In particular, improvement in Purkinje cell number and reduction of cerebellar atrophy are observed in AAVrh10-CYP46A1-treated mice. Conversely, we show that knocking-down CYP46A1 in normal mouse brain impairs cholesterol metabolism, induces motor deficits and produces strong neurodegeneration with impairment of the endosomal–lysosomal pathway, a phenotype closely resembling that of SCA3. Remarkably, we demonstrate for the first time both in vitro, in a SCA3 cellular model, and in vivo, in mouse brain, that CYP46A1 activates autophagy, which is impaired in SCA3, leading to decreased mutant ataxin-3 deposition. More broadly, we show that the beneficial effect of CYP46A1 is also observed with mutant ataxin-2 aggregates. Altogether, our results confirm a pivotal role for CYP46A1 and brain cholesterol metabolism in neuronal function, pointing to a key contribution of the neuronal cholesterol pathway in mechanisms mediating clearance of aggregate-prone proteins. This study identifies CYP46A1 as a relevant therapeutic target not only for SCA3 but also for other SCAs.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • C9orf72 intermediate repeats are associated with corticobasal
           degeneration, increased C9orf72 expression and disruption of autophagy
    • Abstract: Microsatellite repeat expansion disease loci can exhibit pleiotropic clinical and biological effects depending on repeat length. Large expansions in C9orf72 (100s–1000s of units) are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). However, whether intermediate expansions also contribute to neurodegenerative disease is not well understood. Several studies have identified intermediate repeats in Parkinson’s disease patients, but the association was not found in autopsy-confirmed cases. We hypothesized that intermediate C9orf72 repeats are a genetic risk factor for corticobasal degeneration (CBD), a neurodegenerative disease that can be clinically similar to Parkinson’s but has distinct tau protein pathology. Indeed, intermediate C9orf72 repeats were significantly enriched in autopsy-proven CBD (n = 354 cases, odds ratio = 3.59, p = 0.00024). While large C9orf72 repeat expansions are known to decrease C9orf72 expression, intermediate C9orf72 repeats result in increased C9orf72 expression in human brain tissue and CRISPR/cas9 knockin iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells. In contrast to cases of FTD/ALS with large C9orf72 expansions, CBD with intermediate C9orf72 repeats was not associated with pathologic RNA foci or dipeptide repeat protein aggregates. Knock-in cells with intermediate repeats exhibit numerous changes in gene expression pathways relating to vesicle trafficking and autophagy. Additionally, overexpression of C9orf72 without the repeat expansion leads to defects in autophagy under nutrient starvation conditions. These results raise the possibility that therapeutic strategies to reduce C9orf72 expression may be beneficial for the treatment of CBD.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Lewy-related pathology exhibits two anatomically and genetically distinct
           progression patterns: a population-based study of Finns aged 85+
    • Abstract: According to a generally accepted concept Lewy-related pathology (LRP) follows hierarchical caudo-rostral progression. LRP is also frequently present concomitantly with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and it has been hypothesized that AD-associated LRP forms a distinct type of α-synucleinopathy, where LRP originates in the amygdala. The frequency of distinct forms of LRP progression types has not been studied in a population-based setting. We investigated the distribution and progression of LRP and its relation to AD pathology and apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 in a population-based sample of Finns aged over 85 years (N = 304). Samples from spinal cord to neocortical areas representing 11 anatomical sites without any hierarchical selection were analyzed immunohistochemically (α-synuclein antibody clone 5G4). LRP was present in 124 individuals (41%) and according to DLB Consortium guidelines 19 of them were categorized as brainstem, 10 amygdala-predominant, 41 limbic, and 43 diffuse neocortical type, whereas 11 could not be classified. To determine the LRP progression patterns, a systematic anatomical scoring was carried out by taking into account the densities of the semiquantitative LRP scores in each anatomic site. With this scoring 123 (99%) subjects could be classified into two progression pattern types: 67% showed caudo-rostral and 32% amygdala-based progression. The unsupervised statistical K-means cluster analysis was used as a supplementary test and supported the presence of two progression patterns and had a 90% overall concordance with the systematic anatomical scoring method. Severe Braak NFT stage, high CERAD score and APOE ε4 were significantly (all p < 0.00001) associated with amygdala-based, but not with caudo-rostral progression type (all p > 0.2). This population-based study demonstrates two distinct common LRP progression patterns in the very elderly population. The amygdala-based pattern was associated with APOE ε4 and AD pathology. The results confirm the previous progression hypotheses but also widen the concept of the AD-associated LRP.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Selective vulnerability in α-synucleinopathies
    • Abstract: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy are neurodegenerative disorders resulting in progressive motor/cognitive deficits among other symptoms. They are characterised by stereotypical brain cell loss accompanied by the formation of proteinaceous aggregations of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn), being, therefore, termed α-synucleinopathies. Although the presence of α-syn inclusions is a common hallmark of these disorders, the exact nature of the deposited protein is specific to each disease. Different neuroanatomical regions and cellular populations manifest a differential vulnerability to the appearance of protein deposits, cell dysfunction, and cell death, leading to phenotypic diversity. The present review describes the multiple factors that contribute to the selective vulnerability in α-synucleinopathies. We explore the intrinsic cellular properties in the affected regions, including the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endogenous α-syn, the metabolic and genetic build-up of the cells and their connectivity. These factors converge with the variability of the α-syn conformational strains and their spreading capacity to dictate the phenotypic diversity and regional vulnerability of each disease. Finally, we describe the exogenous and environmental factors that potentially contribute by igniting and modulating the differential pathology in α-synucleinopathies. In conclusion, we think that it is the confluence of this disruption of the cellular metabolic state and α-syn structural equilibrium through the anatomical connectivity which appears to initiate cascades of pathological processes triggered by genetic, environmental, or stochastic events that result in the “death by a thousand cuts” profile of α-synucleinopathies.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Contextualizing the pathology in the essential tremor cerebellar cortex: a
           patholog-omics approach
    • Abstract: Several morphological changes, centered in/around Purkinje cells (PCs), have been identified in the cerebellum of essential tremor (ET) patients. These changes have not been contextualized within a broader degenerative disease spectrum, limiting their interpretability. To address this, we compared the severity and patterning of degenerative changes within the cerebellar cortex in patients with ET, other neurodegenerative disorders of the cerebellum (spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), multiple system atrophy (MSA)], and other disorders that may involve the cerebellum [Parkinson’s disease (PD), dystonia]. Using a postmortem series of 156 brains [50 ET, 23 SCA (6 SCA3; 17 SCA 1, 2 or 6), 15 MSA, 29 PD, 14 dystonia, 25 controls], we generated data on 37 quantitative morphologic metrics, which were grouped into 8 broad categories: (1) PC loss, (2) heterotopic PCs, (3) PC dendritic changes, (4) PC axonal changes (torpedoes), (5) PC axonal changes (other than torpedoes), (6) PC axonal changes (torpedo-associated), (7) basket cell axonal hypertrophy, (8) climbing fiber-PC synaptic changes. Our analyses used z scored raw data for each metric across all diagnoses (5772 total data items). Principal component analysis revealed that diagnostic groups were not uniform with respect to cerebellar pathology. Dystonia and PD each differed from controls in only 2/37 metrics, whereas ET differed in 21, SCA3 in 8, MSA in 19, and SCA1/2/6 in 26 metrics. Comparing ET with primary disorders of cerebellar degeneration (i.e., SCAs), we observed a spectrum of changes reflecting differences of degree, being generally mild in ET and SCA3 and more severe in SCA1/2/6. Comparative analyses across morphologic categories demonstrated differences in relative expression, defining distinctive patterns of changes in these groups. Thus, the degree of cerebellar degeneration in ET aligns it with a milder end in the spectrum of cerebellar degenerative disorders, and a somewhat distinctive signature of degenerative changes marks each of these disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Routine RNA sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens in
           neuropathology diagnostics identifies diagnostically and therapeutically
           relevant gene fusions
    • Abstract: Molecular markers have become pivotal in brain tumor diagnostics. Mutational analyses by targeted next-generation sequencing of DNA and array-based DNA methylation assessment with copy number analyses are increasingly being used in routine diagnostics. However, the broad variety of gene fusions occurring in brain tumors is marginally covered by these technologies and often only assessed by targeted assays. Here, we assessed the feasibility and clinical value of investigating gene fusions in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues by next-generation mRNA sequencing in a routine diagnostic setting. After establishment and optimization of a workflow applicable in a routine setting, prospective diagnostic application in a neuropathology department for 26 months yielded relevant fusions in 66 out of 101 (65%) analyzed cases. In 43 (43%) cases, the fusions were of decisive diagnostic relevance and in 40 (40%) cases the fusion genes rendered a druggable target. A major strength of this approach was its ability to detect fusions beyond the canonical alterations for a given entity, and the unbiased search for any fusion event in cases with uncertain diagnosis and, thus, uncertain spectrum of expected fusions. This included both rare variants of established fusions which had evaded prior targeted analyses as well as the detection of previously unreported fusion events. While the impact of fusion detection on diagnostics is highly relevant, it is especially the detection of “druggable” fusions which will most likely provide direct benefit to the patients. The wider application of this approach for unbiased fusion identification therefore promises to be a major advance in identifying alterations with immediate impact on patient care.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • The basis of clinicopathological heterogeneity in TDP-43 proteinopathy
    • Abstract: Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) was identified as a major disease-associated component in the brain of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as the largest subset of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U), which characteristically exhibits cytoplasmic inclusions that are positive for ubiquitin but negative for tau and α-synuclein. TDP-43 pathology occurs in distinct brain regions, involves disparate brain networks, and features accumulation of misfolded proteins in various cell types and in different neuroanatomical regions. The clinical phenotypes of ALS and FTLD-TDP (FTLD with abnormal intracellular accumulations of TDP-43) correlate with characteristic distribution patterns of the underlying pathology across specific brain regions with disease progression. Recent studies support the idea that pathological protein spreads from neuron to neuron via axonal transport in a hierarchical manner. However, little is known to date about the basis of the selective cellular and regional vulnerability, although the information would have important implications for the development of targeted and personalized therapies. Here, we aim to summarize recent advances in the neuropathology, genetics and animal models of TDP-43 proteinopathy, and their relationship to clinical phenotypes for the underlying selective neuronal and regional susceptibilities. Finally, we attempt to integrate these findings into the emerging picture of TDP-43 proteinopathy, and to highlight key issues for future therapy and research.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Increased prevalence of granulovacuolar degeneration in C9orf72 mutation
    • Abstract: Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) is usually found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases or in elderly individuals. Its severity correlates positively with the density of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Mechanisms underlying GVD formation are unknown. We assessed the prevalence and distribution of GVD in cases with TDP-43-related frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-TDP). Consecutively autopsied cases with FTLD/ALS-TDP and C9orf72 mutations (FTLD/ALS-C9; N = 29), cases with FTLD/ALS-TDP without C9orf72 mutations (FTLD/ALS-nonC9; N = 46), and age-matched healthy controls (N = 40) were studied. The prevalence of GVD was significantly higher in the FTLD/ALS-C9 cases (26/29 cases) than in the FTLD/ALS-nonC9 cases (15/46 cases; Fisher exact test; p < 2×10−6) or in the control group (12/40 individuals; p < 1×10−6). Average Braak stages and ages of death were not significantly different among the groups. The CA2 sector was most frequently affected in the FTLD/ALS-C9 group, whereas the CA1/subiculum was the most vulnerable area in the other groups. Extension of GVD correlated with the clinical duration of the disease in the FTLD/ALS-C9 cases but not in the FTLD/ALS-nonC9 cases. The GVD-containing neurons frequently had dipeptide repeat (DPR) protein inclusions. GVD granules labeled with antibodies directed against charged multivesicular body protein 2B or casein kinase 1δ were attached to DPR inclusions within GVD. Our results suggest that development of GVD and DPR inclusions is related to common pathogenic mechanisms and that GVD is not only associated with NFTs seen in AD cases or aging individuals.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Cellular and regional vulnerability in frontotemporal tauopathies
    • Abstract: The frontotemporal tauopathies all deposit abnormal tau protein aggregates, but often of only certain isoforms and in distinguishing pathologies of five main types (neuronal Pick bodies, neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic plaques, tufted astrocytes, globular glial inclusions and argyrophilic grains). In those with isoform specific tau aggregates glial pathologies are substantial, even though there is limited evidence that these cells normally produce tau protein. This review will assess the differentiating features and clinicopathological correlations of the frontotemporal tauopathies, the genetic predisposition for these different pathologies, their neuroanatomical selectivity, current observations on how they spread through the brain, and any potential contributing cellular and molecular changes. The findings show that diverse clinical phenotypes relate most to the brain region degenerating rather than the type of pathology involved, that different regions on the MAPT gene and novel risk genes are associated with specific tau pathologies, that the 4-repeat glial tauopathies do not follow individual patterns of spreading as identified for neuronal pathologies, and that genetic and pathological data indicate that neuroinflammatory mechanisms are involved. Each pathological frontotemporal tauopathy subtype with their distinct pathological features differ substantially in the cell type affected, morphology, biochemical and anatomical distribution of inclusions, a fundamental concept central to future success in understanding the disease mechanisms required for developing therapeutic interventions. Tau directed therapies targeting genetic mechanisms, tau aggregation and pathological spread are being trialled, although biomarkers that differentiate these diseases are required. Suggested areas of future research to address the regional and cellular vulnerabilities in frontotemporal tauopathies are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • The basis of cellular and regional vulnerability in Alzheimer’s
    • Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) differentially and specifically affects brain regions and neuronal cell types in a predictable pattern. Damage to the brain appears to spread and worsens with time, taking over more regions and activating multiple stressors that can converge to promote vulnerability of certain cell types. At the same time, other cell types and brain regions remain intact in the face of this onslaught of neuropathology. Although neuropathologic descriptions of AD have been extensively expanded and mapped over the last several decades, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying how certain regions and cell populations are specifically vulnerable or resistant has lagged behind. In this review, we detail what is known about the selectivity of local initiation of AD pathology in the hippocampus, its proposed spread via synaptic connections, and the diversity of clinical phenotypes and brain atrophy patterns that may arise from different fibrillar strains of pathologic proteins or genetic predispositions. We summarize accumulated and emerging knowledge of the cellular and molecular basis for neuroanatomic selectivity, consider potential disease-relevant differences between vulnerable and resistant neuronal cell types and isolate molecular markers to identify them.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Shortening heparan sulfate chains prolongs survival and reduces
           parenchymal plaques in prion disease caused by mobile, ADAM10-cleaved
    • Abstract: Cofactors are essential for driving recombinant prion protein into pathogenic conformers. Polyanions promote prion aggregation in vitro, yet the cofactors that modulate prion assembly in vivo remain largely unknown. Here we report that the endogenous glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate (HS), impacts prion propagation kinetics and deposition sites in the brain. Exostosin-1 haploinsufficient (Ext1+/−) mice, which produce short HS chains, show a prolonged survival and a redistribution of plaques from the parenchyma to vessels when infected with fibrillar prions, and a modest delay when infected with subfibrillar prions. Notably, the fibrillar, plaque-forming prions are composed of ADAM10-cleaved prion protein lacking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, indicating that these prions are mobile and assemble extracellularly. By analyzing the prion-bound HS using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), we identified the disaccharide signature of HS differentially bound to fibrillar compared to subfibrillar prions, and found approximately 20-fold more HS bound to the fibrils. Finally, LC–MS of prion-bound HS from human patients with familial and sporadic prion disease also showed distinct HS signatures and higher HS levels associated with fibrillar prions. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an endogenous cofactor that accelerates prion disease progression and enhances parenchymal deposition of ADAM10-cleaved, mobile prions.
      PubDate: 2019-10-31
  • Correction to: ADAR2 mislocalization and widespread RNA editing
           aberrations in C9orf72-mediated ALS/FTD
    • Abstract: The original article was published erroneously without mentioning the support of the U.S.
      PubDate: 2019-09-26
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