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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Neuropathologica
  [SJR: 6.61]   [H-I: 117]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0533 - ISSN (Online) 0001-6322
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Evidence of amyloid-β cerebral amyloid angiopathy transmission
           through neurosurgery
    • Authors: Zane Jaunmuktane; Annelies Quaegebeur; Ricardo Taipa; Miguel Viana-Baptista; Raquel Barbosa; Carolin Koriath; Raf Sciot; Simon Mead; Sebastian Brandner
      Pages: 671 - 679
      Abstract: Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a peptide deposited in the brain parenchyma in Alzheimer’s disease and in cerebral blood vessels, causing cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Aβ pathology is transmissible experimentally in animals and through medical procedures in humans, such as contaminated growth hormone or dura mater transplantation in the context of iatrogenic prion disease. Here, we present four patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures during childhood or teenage years and presented with intracerebral haemorrhage approximately three decades later, caused by severe CAA. None of these patients carried pathogenic mutations associated with early Aβ pathology development. In addition, we identified in the literature four patients with a history of neurosurgical intervention and subsequent development of CAA. These findings raise the possibility that Aβ pathology may be transmissible, as prion disease is, through neurosurgical procedures.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1822-2
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • BACE1 inhibition more effectively suppresses initiation than progression
           of β-amyloid pathology
    • Authors: Finn Peters; Hazal Salihoglu; Eva Rodrigues; Etienne Herzog; Tanja Blume; Severin Filser; Mario Dorostkar; Derya R. Shimshek; Nils Brose; Ulf Neumann; Jochen Herms
      Pages: 695 - 710
      Abstract: BACE1 is the rate-limiting protease in the production of synaptotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) species and hence one of the prime drug targets for potential therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, so far pharmacological BACE1 inhibition failed to rescue the cognitive decline in mild-to-moderate AD patients, which indicates that treatment at the symptomatic stage might be too late. In the current study, chronic in vivo two-photon microscopy was performed in a transgenic AD model to monitor the impact of pharmacological BACE1 inhibition on early β-amyloid pathology. The longitudinal approach allowed to assess the kinetics of individual plaques and associated presynaptic pathology, before and throughout treatment. BACE1 inhibition could not halt but slow down progressive β-amyloid deposition and associated synaptic pathology. Notably, the data revealed that the initial process of plaque formation, rather than the subsequent phase of gradual plaque growth, is most sensitive to BACE1 inhibition. This finding of particular susceptibility of plaque formation has profound implications to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy for the prospective treatment of AD.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1804-9
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • Mechanical disruption of the blood–brain barrier following
           experimental concussion
    • Authors: Victoria E. Johnson; Maura T. Weber; Rui Xiao; D. Kacy Cullen; David F. Meaney; William Stewart; Douglas H. Smith
      Pages: 711 - 726
      Abstract: Although concussion is now recognized as a major health issue, its non-lethal nature has limited characterization of the underlying pathophysiology. In particular, potential neuropathological changes have typically been inferred from non-invasive techniques or post-mortem examinations of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we used a swine model of head rotational acceleration based on human concussion to examine blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity after injury in association with diffuse axonal injury and glial responses. We then determined the potential clinical relevance of the swine concussion findings through comparisons with pathological changes in human severe TBI, where post-mortem examinations are possible. At 6–72 h post-injury in swine, we observed multifocal disruption of the BBB, demonstrated by extravasation of serum proteins, fibrinogen and immunoglobulin-G, in the absence of hemorrhage or other focal pathology. BBB disruption was observed in a stereotyped distribution consistent with biomechanical insult. Specifically, extravasated serum proteins were frequently observed at interfaces between regions of tissue with differing material properties, including the gray–white boundary, periventricular and subpial regions. In addition, there was substantial overlap of BBB disruption with regions of axonal pathology in the white matter. Acute perivascular cellular uptake of blood-borne proteins was observed to be prominent in astrocytes (GFAP-positive) and neurons (MAP-2-positive), but not microglia (IBA1-positive). Parallel examination of human severe TBI revealed similar patterns of serum extravasation and glial uptake of serum proteins, but to a much greater extent than in the swine model, attributed to the higher injury severity. These data suggest that BBB disruption represents a new and important pathological feature of concussion.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1824-0
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • NHLRC2 variants identified in patients with fibrosis, neurodegeneration,
           and cerebral angiomatosis (FINCA): characterisation of a novel
           cerebropulmonary disease
    • Authors: Johanna Uusimaa; Riitta Kaarteenaho; Teija Paakkola; Hannu Tuominen; Minna K. Karjalainen; Javad Nadaf; Teppo Varilo; Meri Uusi-Mäkelä; Maria Suo-Palosaari; Ilkka Pietilä; Anniina E. Hiltunen; Lloyd Ruddock; Heli Alanen; Ekaterina Biterova; Ilkka Miinalainen; Annamari Salminen; Raija Soininen; Aki Manninen; Raija Sormunen; Mika Kaakinen; Reetta Vuolteenaho; Riitta Herva; Päivi Vieira; Teija Dunder; Hannaleena Kokkonen; Jukka S. Moilanen; Heikki Rantala; Lawrence M. Nogee; Jacek Majewski; Mika Rämet; Mikko Hallman; Reetta Hinttala
      Pages: 727 - 742
      Abstract: A novel multi-organ disease that is fatal in early childhood was identified in three patients from two non-consanguineous families. These children were born asymptomatic but at the age of 2 months they manifested progressive multi-organ symptoms resembling no previously known disease. The main clinical features included progressive cerebropulmonary symptoms, malabsorption, progressive growth failure, recurrent infections, chronic haemolytic anaemia and transient liver dysfunction. In the affected children, neuropathology revealed increased angiomatosis-like leptomeningeal, cortical and superficial white matter vascularisation and congestion, vacuolar degeneration and myelin loss in white matter, as well as neuronal degeneration. Interstitial fibrosis and previously undescribed granuloma-like lesions were observed in the lungs. Hepatomegaly, steatosis and collagen accumulation were detected in the liver. A whole-exome sequencing of the two unrelated families with the affected children revealed the transmission of two heterozygous variants in the NHL repeat-containing protein 2 (NHLRC2); an amino acid substitution p.Asp148Tyr and a frameshift 2-bp deletion p.Arg201GlyfsTer6. NHLRC2 is highly conserved and expressed in multiple organs and its function is unknown. It contains a thioredoxin-like domain; however, an insulin turbidity assay on human recombinant NHLRC2 showed no thioredoxin activity. In patient-derived fibroblasts, NHLRC2 levels were low, and only p.Asp148Tyr was expressed. Therefore, the allele with the frameshift deletion is likely non-functional. Development of the Nhlrc2 null mouse strain stalled before the morula stage. Morpholino knockdown of nhlrc2 in zebrafish embryos affected the integrity of cells in the midbrain region. This is the first description of a fatal, early-onset disease; we have named it FINCA disease based on the combination of pathological features that include fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1817-z
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • Diffuse gliomas classified by 1p/19q co-deletion, TERT promoter and IDH
           mutation status are associated with specific genetic risk loci
    • Authors: Karim Labreche; Ben Kinnersley; Giulia Berzero; Anna Luisa Di Stefano; Amithys Rahimian; Ines Detrait; Yannick Marie; Benjamin Grenier-Boley; Khe Hoang-Xuan; Jean-Yves Delattre; Ahmed Idbaih; Richard S. Houlston; Marc Sanson
      Pages: 743 - 755
      Abstract: Recent genome-wide association studies of glioma have led to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 25 loci influencing risk. Gliomas are heterogeneous, hence to investigate the relationship between risk SNPs and glioma subtype we analysed 1659 tumours profiled for IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. These data allowed definition of five molecular subgroups of glioma: triple-positive (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deletion, TERT promoter mutated); TERT-IDH (IDH mutated, TERT promoter mutated, 1p/19q-wild-type); IDH-only (IDH mutated, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type); triple-negative (IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type) and TERT-only (TERT promoter mutated, IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type). Most glioma risk loci showed subtype specificity: (1) the 8q24.21 SNP for triple-positive glioma; (2) 5p15.33, 9p21.3, 17p13.1 and 20q13.33 SNPs for TERT-only glioma; (3) 1q44, 2q33.3, 3p14.1, 11q21, 11q23.3, 14q12, and 15q24.2 SNPs for IDH mutated glioma. To link risk SNPs to target candidate genes we analysed Hi-C and gene expression data, highlighting the potential role of IDH1 at 2q33.3, MYC at 8q24.21 and STMN3 at 20q13.33. Our observations provide further insight into the nature of susceptibility to glioma.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1825-z
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • Tumour compartment transcriptomics demonstrates the activation of
           inflammatory and odontogenic programmes in human adamantinomatous
           craniopharyngioma and identifies the MAPK/ERK pathway as a novel
           therapeutic target
    • Authors: John R. Apps; Gabriela Carreno; Jose Mario Gonzalez-Meljem; Scott Haston; Romain Guiho; Julie E. Cooper; Saba Manshaei; Nital Jani; Annett Hölsken; Benedetta Pettorini; Robert J. Beynon; Deborah M. Simpson; Helen C. Fraser; Ying Hong; Shirleen Hallang; Thomas J. Stone; Alex Virasami; Andrew M. Donson; David Jones; Kristian Aquilina; Helen Spoudeas; Abhijit R. Joshi; Richard Grundy; Lisa C. D. Storer; Márta Korbonits; David A. Hilton; Kyoko Tossell; Selvam Thavaraj; Mark A. Ungless; Jesus Gil; Rolf Buslei; Todd Hankinson; Darren Hargrave; Colin Goding; Cynthia L. Andoniadou; Paul Brogan; Thomas S. Jacques; Hywel J. Williams; Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
      Pages: 757 - 777
      Abstract: Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACPs) are clinically challenging tumours, the majority of which have activating mutations in CTNNB1. They are histologically complex, showing cystic and solid components, the latter comprised of different morphological cell types (e.g. β-catenin-accumulating cluster cells and palisading epithelium), surrounded by a florid glial reaction with immune cells. Here, we have carried out RNA sequencing on 18 ACP samples and integrated these data with an existing ACP transcriptomic dataset. No studies so far have examined the patterns of gene expression within the different cellular compartments of the tumour. To achieve this goal, we have combined laser capture microdissection with computational analyses to reveal groups of genes that are associated with either epithelial tumour cells (clusters and palisading epithelium), glial tissue or immune infiltrate. We use these human ACP molecular signatures and RNA-Seq data from two ACP mouse models to reveal that cell clusters are molecularly analogous to the enamel knot, a critical signalling centre controlling normal tooth morphogenesis. Supporting this finding, we show that human cluster cells express high levels of several members of the FGF, TGFB and BMP families of secreted factors, which signal to neighbouring cells as evidenced by immunostaining against the phosphorylated proteins pERK1/2, pSMAD3 and pSMAD1/5/9 in both human and mouse ACP. We reveal that inhibiting the MAPK/ERK pathway with trametinib, a clinically approved MEK inhibitor, results in reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in explant cultures of human and mouse ACP. Finally, we analyse a prominent molecular signature in the glial reactive tissue to characterise the inflammatory microenvironment and uncover the activation of inflammasomes in human ACP. We validate these results by immunostaining against immune cell markers, cytokine ELISA and proteome analysis in both solid tumour and cystic fluid from ACP patients. Our data support a new molecular paradigm for understanding ACP tumorigenesis as an aberrant mimic of natural tooth development and opens new therapeutic opportunities by revealing the activation of the MAPK/ERK and inflammasome pathways in human ACP.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1830-2
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • Paragangliomas arise through an autonomous vasculo-angio-neurogenic
           program inhibited by imatinib
    • Authors: Fabio Verginelli; Silvia Perconti; Simone Vespa; Francesca Schiavi; Sampath Chandra Prasad; Paola Lanuti; Alessandro Cama; Lorenzo Tramontana; Diana Liberata Esposito; Simone Guarnieri; Artenca Sheu; Mattia Russel Pantalone; Rosalba Florio; Annalisa Morgano; Cosmo Rossi; Giuseppina Bologna; Marco Marchisio; Andrea D’Argenio; Elisa Taschin; Rosa Visone; Giuseppe Opocher; Angelo Veronese; Carlo T. Paties; Vinagolu K. Rajasekhar; Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér; Mario Sanna; Lavinia Vittoria Lotti; Renato Mariani-Costantini
      Pages: 779 - 798
      Abstract: Tumours can be viewed as aberrant tissues or organs sustained by tumorigenic stem-like cells that engage into dysregulated histo/organogenetic processes. Paragangliomas, prototypical organoid tumours constituted by dysmorphic variants of the vascular and neural tissues found in normal paraganglia, provide a model to test this hypothesis. To understand the origin of paragangliomas, we built a biobank comprising 77 cases, 18 primary cultures, 4 derived cell lines, 80 patient-derived xenografts and 11 cell-derived xenografts. We comparatively investigated these unique complementary materials using morphofunctional, ultrastructural and flow cytometric assays accompanied by microRNA studies. We found that paragangliomas contain stem-like cells with hybrid mesenchymal/vasculoneural phenotype, stabilized and expanded in the derived cultures. The viability and growth of such cultures depended on the downregulation of the miR-200 and miR-34 families, which allowed high PDGFRA and ZEB1 protein expression levels. Both tumour tissue- and cell culture-derived xenografts recapitulated the vasculoneural paraganglioma structure and arose from mesenchymal-like cells through a fixed developmental sequence. First, vasculoangiogenesis organized the microenvironment, building a perivascular niche which in turn supported neurogenesis. Neuroepithelial differentiation was associated with severe mitochondrial dysfunction, not present in cultured paraganglioma cells, but acquired in vivo during xenograft formation. Vasculogenesis was the Achilles’ heel of xenograft development. In fact, imatinib, that targets endothelial-mural signalling, blocked paraganglioma xenograft formation (11 xenografts from 12 cell transplants in the control group versus 2 out of 10 in the treated group, P = 0.0015). Overall our key results were unaffected by the SDHx gene carrier status of the patient, characterized for 70 out of 77 cases. In conclusion, we explain the biphasic vasculoneural structure of paragangliomas and identify an early and pharmacologically actionable phase of paraganglioma organization.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-017-1799-2
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • Correction to: Paragangliomas arise through an autonomous
           vasculo-angio-neurogenic program inhibited by imatinib
    • Authors: Fabio Verginelli; Silvia Perconti; Simone Vespa; Francesca Schiavi; Sampath Chandra Prasad; Paola Lanuti; Alessandro Cama; Lorenzo Tramontana; Diana Liberata Esposito; Simone Guarnieri; Artenca Sheu; Mattia Russel Pantalone; Rosalba Florio; Annalisa Morgano; Cosmo Rossi; Giuseppina Bologna; Marco Marchisio; Andrea D’Argenio; Elisa Taschin; Rosa Visone; Giuseppe Opocher; Angelo Veronese; Carlo T. Paties; Vinagolu K. Rajasekhar; Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér; Mario Sanna; Lavinia Vittoria Lotti; Renato Mariani-Costantini
      Pages: 799 - 799
      Abstract: The given and family names of two co-authors were incorrect in the published article. The correct spelling should read as: Sampath Chandra Prasad and Vinagolu K Rajasekhar.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1811-5
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • Fatal Aβ cerebral amyloid angiopathy 4 decades after a dural graft at
           the age of 2 years
    • Authors: Dominique Hervé; Maximilien Porché; Lucie Cabrejo; Céline Guidoux; Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve; Gaël Nicolas; Homa Adle-Biassette; Isabelle Plu; Hugues Chabriat; Charles Duyckaerts
      Pages: 801 - 803
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1828-9
      Issue No: Vol. 135, No. 5 (2018)
  • Somatic mutations in neurons during aging and neurodegeneration
    • Authors: Bert M. Verheijen; Marc Vermulst; Fred W. van Leeuwen
      Abstract: The nervous system is composed of a large variety of neurons with a diverse array of morphological and functional properties. This heterogeneity is essential for the construction and maintenance of a distinct set of neural networks with unique characteristics. Accumulating evidence now indicates that neurons do not only differ at a functional level, but also at the genomic level. These genomic discrepancies seem to be the result of somatic mutations that emerge in nervous tissue during development and aging. Ultimately, these mutations bring about a genetically heterogeneous population of neurons, a phenomenon that is commonly referred to as “somatic brain mosaicism”. Improved understanding of the development and consequences of somatic brain mosaicism is crucial to understand the impact of somatic mutations on neuronal function in human aging and disease. Here, we highlight a number of topics related to somatic brain mosaicism, including some early experimental evidence for somatic mutations in post-mitotic neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. We propose that age-related somatic mutations are particularly interesting, because aging is a major risk factor for a variety of neuronal diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. We highlight potential links between somatic mutations and the development of these diseases and argue that recent advances in single-cell genomics and in vivo physiology have now finally made it possible to dissect the origins and consequences of neuronal mutations in unprecedented detail.
      PubDate: 2018-04-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1850-y
  • Cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin concentration in neurodegeneration:
           relation to clinical phenotypes and neuropathology
    • Authors: Erik Portelius; Bob Olsson; Kina Höglund; Nicholas C. Cullen; Hlin Kvartsberg; Ulf Andreasson; Henrik Zetterberg; Åsa Sandelius; Leslie M. Shaw; Virginia M. Y. Lee; David J. Irwin; Murray Grossman; Daniel Weintraub; Alice Chen-Plotkin; David A. Wolk; Leo McCluskey; Lauren Elman; Jennifer McBride; Jon B. Toledo; John Q. Trojanowski; Kaj Blennow
      Abstract: Neurogranin (Ng) is a post-synaptic protein that previously has been shown to be a biomarker for synaptic function when measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF concentration of Ng is increased in Alzheimer’s disease dementia (ADD), and even in the pre-dementia stage. In this prospective study, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that quantifies Ng in CSF to test the performance of Ng as a marker of synaptic function. In 915 patients, CSF Ng was evaluated across several different neurodegenerative diseases. Of these 915 patients, 116 had a neuropathologically confirmed definitive diagnosis and the relation between CSF Ng and topographical distribution of different pathologies in the brain was evaluated. CSF Ng was specifically increased in ADD compared to eight other neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (p < 0.0001), frontotemporal dementia (p < 0.0001), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (p = 0.0002). Similar results were obtained in neuropathologically confirmed cases. Using a biomarker index to evaluate whether CSF Ng contributed diagnostic information to the core AD CSF biomarkers (amyloid β (Aβ), t-tau, and p-tau), we show that Ng significantly increased the discrimination between AD and several other disorders. Higher CSF Ng levels were positively associated with greater Aβ neuritic plaque (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) neuritic plaque score, p = 0.0002) and tau tangle pathology (Braak neurofibrillary tangles staging, p = 0.0007) scores. In the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions heavily affected in ADD with high expression of Ng, CSF Ng was associated with plaque (p = 0.0006 and p < 0.0001), but not with tangle, α-synuclein, or TAR DNA-binding protein 43 loads. These data support that CSF Ng is increased specifically in ADD, that high CSF Ng concentrations likely reflect synaptic dysfunction and that CSF Ng is associated with β-amyloid plaque pathology.
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1851-x
  • Evidence for altered dendritic spine compartmentalization in Alzheimer’s
           disease and functional effects in a mouse model
    • Authors: Alexandre Androuin; Brigitte Potier; U. Valentin Nägerl; Daniel Cattaert; Lydia Danglot; Manon Thierry; Ihsen Youssef; Antoine Triller; Charles Duyckaerts; Khalid Hamid El Hachimi; Patrick Dutar; Benoît Delatour; Serge Marty
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with a progressive loss of synapses and neurons. Studies in animal models indicate that morphological alterations of dendritic spines precede synapse loss, increasing the proportion of large and short (“stubby”) spines. Whether similar alterations occur in human patients, and what their functional consequences could be, is not known. We analyzed biopsies from AD patients and APP x presenilin 1 knock-in mice that were previously shown to present a loss of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. We observed that the proportion of stubby spines and the width of spine necks are inversely correlated with synapse density in frontal cortical biopsies from non-AD and AD patients. In mice, the reduction in the density of synapses in the stratum radiatum was preceded by an alteration of spine morphology, with a reduction of their length and an enlargement of their neck. Serial sectioning examined with electron microscopy allowed us to precisely measure spine parameters. Mathematical modeling indicated that the shortening and widening of the necks should alter the electrical compartmentalization of the spines, leading to reduced postsynaptic potentials in spine heads, but not in soma. Accordingly, there was no alteration in basal synaptic transmission, but long-term potentiation and spatial memory were impaired. These results indicate that an alteration of spine morphology could be involved in the early cognitive deficits associated with AD.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1847-6
  • Novel, improved grading system(s) for IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas
    • Authors: Mitsuaki Shirahata; Takahiro Ono; Damian Stichel; Daniel Schrimpf; David E. Reuss; Felix Sahm; Christian Koelsche; Annika Wefers; Annekathrin Reinhardt; Kristin Huang; Philipp Sievers; Hiroaki Shimizu; Hiroshi Nanjo; Yusuke Kobayashi; Yohei Miyake; Tomonari Suzuki; Jun-ichi Adachi; Kazuhiko Mishima; Atsushi Sasaki; Ryo Nishikawa; Melanie Bewerunge-Hudler; Marina Ryzhova; Oksana Absalyamova; Andrey Golanov; Peter Sinn; Michael Platten; Christine Jungk; Frank Winkler; Antje Wick; Daniel Hänggi; Andreas Unterberg; Stefan M. Pfister; David T. W. Jones; Martin van den Bent; Monika Hegi; Pim French; Brigitta G. Baumert; Roger Stupp; Thierry Gorlia; Michael Weller; David Capper; Andrey Korshunov; Christel Herold-Mende; Wolfgang Wick; David N. Louis; Andreas von Deimling
      Abstract: According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO), IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas comprised WHO grade II diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AIIIDHmut), WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AAIIIIDHmut), and WHO grade IV glioblastoma, IDH-mutant (GBMIDHmut). Notably, IDH gene status has been made the major criterion for classification while the manner of grading has remained unchanged: it is based on histological criteria that arose from studies which antedated knowledge of the importance of IDH status in diffuse astrocytic tumor prognostic assessment. Several studies have now demonstrated that the anticipated differences in survival between the newly defined AIIIDHmut and AAIIIIDHmut have lost their significance. In contrast, GBMIDHmut still exhibits a significantly worse outcome than its lower grade IDH-mutant counterparts. To address the problem of establishing prognostically significant grading for IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas in the IDH era, we undertook a comprehensive study that included assessment of histological and genetic approaches to prognosis in these tumors. A discovery cohort of 211 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas with an extended observation was subjected to histological review, image analysis, and DNA methylation studies. Tumor group-specific methylation profiles and copy number variation (CNV) profiles were established for all gliomas. Algorithms for automated CNV analysis were developed. All tumors exhibiting 1p/19q codeletion were excluded from the series. We developed algorithms for grading, based on molecular, morphological and clinical data. Performance of these algorithms was compared with that of WHO grading. Three independent cohorts of 108, 154 and 224 IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas were used to validate this approach. In the discovery cohort several molecular and clinical parameters were of prognostic relevance. Most relevant for overall survival (OS) was CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion. Other parameters with major influence were necrosis and the total number of CNV. Proliferation as assessed by mitotic count, which is a key parameter in 2016 CNS WHO grading, was of only minor influence. Employing the parameters most relevant for OS in our discovery set, we developed two models for grading these tumors. These models performed significantly better than WHO grading in both the discovery and the validation sets. Our novel algorithms for grading IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas overcome the challenges caused by introduction of IDH status into the WHO classification of diffuse astrocytic tumors. We propose that these revised approaches be used for grading of these tumors and incorporated into future WHO criteria.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1849-4
  • Diffusible, highly bioactive oligomers represent a critical minority of
           soluble Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease brain
    • Authors: Wei Hong; Zemin Wang; Wen Liu; Tiernan T. O’Malley; Ming Jin; Michael Willem; Christian Haass; Matthew P. Frosch; Dominic M. Walsh
      Abstract: Significant data suggest that soluble Aβ oligomers play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but there is great confusion over what exactly constitutes an Aβ oligomer and which oligomers are toxic. Most studies have utilized synthetic Aβ peptides, but the relevance of these test tube experiments to the conditions that prevail in AD is uncertain. A few groups have studied Aβ extracted from human brain, but they employed vigorous tissue homogenization which is likely to release insoluble Aβ that was sequestered in plaques during life. Several studies have found such extracts to possess disease-relevant activity and considerable efforts are being made to purify and better understand the forms of Aβ therein. Here, we compared the abundance of Aβ in AD extracts prepared by traditional homogenization versus using a far gentler extraction, and assessed their bioactivity via real-time imaging of iPSC-derived human neurons plus the sensitive functional assay of long-term potentiation. Surprisingly, the amount of Aβ retrieved by gentle extraction constituted only a small portion of that released by traditional homogenization, but this readily diffusible fraction retained all of the Aβ-dependent neurotoxic activity. Thus, the bulk of Aβ extractable from AD brain was innocuous, and only the small portion that was aqueously diffusible caused toxicity. This unexpected finding predicts that generic anti-oligomer therapies, including Aβ antibodies now in trials, may be bound up by the large pool of inactive oligomers, whereas agents that specifically target the small pool of diffusible, bioactive Aβ would be more useful. Furthermore, our results indicate that efforts to purify and target toxic Aβ must employ assays of disease-relevant activity. The approaches described here should enable these efforts, and may assist the study of other disease-associated aggregation-prone proteins.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1846-7
  • Infectious prions do not induce Aβ deposition in an in vivo seeding
    • Authors: Jay Rasmussen; Susanne Krasemann; Hermann Altmeppen; Petra Schwarz; Juliane Schelle; Adriano Aguzzi; Markus Glatzel; Mathias Jucker
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1848-5
  • Genomic analysis reveals secondary glioblastoma after radiotherapy in a
           subset of recurrent medulloblastomas
    • Authors: Ji Hoon Phi; Ae Kyung Park; Semin Lee; Seung Ah Choi; In-Pyo Baek; Pora Kim; Eun-Hye Kim; Hee Chul Park; Byung Chul Kim; Jong Bhak; Sung-Hye Park; Ji Yeoun Lee; Kyu-Chang Wang; Dong-Seok Kim; Kyu Won Shim; Se Hoon Kim; Chae-Yong Kim; Seung-Ki Kim
      Abstract: Despite great advances in understanding of molecular pathogenesis and achievement of a high cure rate in medulloblastoma, recurrent medulloblastomas are still dismal. Additionally, misidentification of secondary malignancies due to histological ambiguity leads to misdiagnosis and eventually to inappropriate treatment. Nevertheless, the genomic characteristics of recurrent medulloblastomas are poorly understood, largely due to a lack of matched primary and recurrent tumor tissues. We performed a genomic analysis of recurrent tumors from 17 pediatric medulloblastoma patients. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed that a subset of recurrent tumors initially diagnosed as locally recurrent medulloblastomas are secondary glioblastomas after radiotherapy, showing high similarity to the non-G-CIMP proneural subtype of glioblastoma. Further analysis, including whole exome sequencing, revealed missense mutations or complex gene fusion events in PDGFRA with augmented expression in the secondary glioblastomas after radiotherapy, implicating PDGFRA as a putative driver in the development of secondary glioblastomas after treatment exposure. This result provides insight into the possible application of PDGFRA-targeted therapy in these second malignancies. Furthermore, genomic alterations of TP53 including 17p loss or germline/somatic mutations were also found in most of the secondary glioblastomas after radiotherapy, indicating a crucial role of TP53 alteration in the process. On the other hand, analysis of recurrent medulloblastomas revealed that the most prevalent alterations are the loss of 17p region including TP53 and gain of 7q region containing EZH2 which already exist in primary tumors. The 7q gain events are frequently accompanied by high expression levels of EZH2 in both primary and recurrent medulloblastomas, which provides a clue to a new therapeutic target to prevent recurrence. Considering the fact that it is often challenging to differentiate between recurrent medulloblastomas and secondary glioblastomas after radiotherapy, our findings have major clinical implications both for correct diagnosis and for potential therapeutic interventions in these devastating diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1845-8
  • Loss of histone H3K27me3 identifies a subset of meningiomas with increased
           risk of recurrence
    • Authors: Leah M. Katz; Thomas Hielscher; Benjamin Liechty; Joshua Silverman; David Zagzag; Rajeev Sen; Peter Wu; John G. Golfinos; David Reuss; Marian Christoph Neidert; Hans-Georg Wirsching; Peter Baumgarten; Christel Herold-Mende; Wolfgang Wick; Patrick N. Harter; Michael Weller; Andreas von Deimling; Matija Snuderl; Chandra Sen; Felix Sahm
      Abstract: Epigenetic patterns on the level of DNA methylation have already been shown to separate clinically relevant subgroups of meningiomas. We here set out to identify potential prognostic implications of epigenetic modification on the level of histones with focus on H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). H3K27me3 was assessed by immunohistochemistry on 232 meningiomas from 232 patients. In 194 cases, trimethylation was detected in tumor cells. In 25 cases, staining was limited to vessels while all tumor cells were negative. Finally, 13 cases yielded equivocal staining patterns. Reduced abundance of H3K27me3 in cases with staining limited to vessels was confirmed by mass spectrometry on a subset of cases. Lack of staining for H3K27me3 in all tumor cells was significantly associated with more rapid progression (p = 0.009). In line, H3K27me3-negative cases were associated with a DNA methylation pattern of the more aggressive types among the recently introduced DNA methylation groups. Also, NF2 and SUFU mutations were enriched among cases with complete lack of H3K27me3 staining in tumor cells (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.029, respectively). H3K27me3 staining pattern added significant prognostic insight into WHO grade II cases and in the compound subset of WHO grade I and II cases (p = 0.04 and p = 0.007, respectively). However, it did not further stratify within WHO grade III cases. Collectively, these data indicate that epigenetic modifications beyond DNA methylation are involved in the aggressiveness of meningioma. It also suggests that H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry might be a useful adjunct in meningioma diagnostics, particularly for cases with WHO grade II histology or at the borderline between WHO grade I and II.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1844-9
  • Acknowledgement to referees
    • PubDate: 2018-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1843-x
  • Reconstructing the molecular life history of gliomas
    • Authors: Floris P. Barthel; Pieter Wesseling; Roel G. W. Verhaak
      Abstract: At the time of their clinical manifestation, the heterogeneous group of adult and pediatric gliomas carries a wide range of diverse somatic genomic alterations, ranging from somatic single-nucleotide variants to structural chromosomal rearrangements. Somatic abnormalities may have functional consequences, such as a decrease, increase or change in mRNA transcripts, and cells pay a penalty for maintaining them. These abnormalities, therefore, must provide cells with a competitive advantage to become engrained into the glioma genome. Here, we propose a model of gliomagenesis consisting of the following five consecutive phases that glioma cells have traversed prior to clinical manifestation: (I) initial growth; (II) oncogene-induced senescence; (III) stressed growth; (IV) replicative senescence/crisis; (V) immortal growth. We have integrated the findings from a large number of studies in biology and (neuro)oncology and relate somatic alterations and other results discussed in these papers to each of these five phases. Understanding the story that each glioma tells at presentation may ultimately facilitate the design of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1842-y
  • Capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer’s disease:
           association with allocortical/hippocampal microinfarcts and cognitive
    • Authors: Moritz Hecht; Lara Maria Krämer; Christine A. F. von Arnim; Markus Otto; Dietmar Rudolf Thal
      Abstract: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is caused by the deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the wall of cerebral and leptomeningeal blood vessels and is related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Capillary Aβ deposition is observed in a subset of CAA cases and represents a distinct type of CAA named capillary CAA or CAA type 1. This type of CAA is strongly associated with the presence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. CAA type 1-associated AD cases often exhibit a more severe Aβ plaque pathology but less widespread neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology. The objective of this study was to analyze whether capillary CAA and its effects on cerebral blood flow have an impact on dementia. To address this objective, we performed neuropathological evaluation of 284 autopsy cases of demented and non-demented individuals. We assessed the presence of CAA and its subtypes as well as for that of hemorrhages and infarcts. Capillary CAA and CAA severity were associated with allocortical microinfarcts, comprising the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Allocortical microinfarcts, capillary CAA and CAA severity were, thereby, associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, allocortical microinfarcts, CAA severity, and the capillary type of CAA were associated with one another and with the development of cognitive decline. Thus, AD cases with CAA type 1 (capillary CAA) appear to develop dementia symptoms not only due to AD-related Aβ plaque and NFT pathology but also due to hippocampal microinfarcts that are associated with CAA type 1 and CAA severity, and that damage a brain region important for memory function.
      PubDate: 2018-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1834-y
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