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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Acta Neuropathologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.589
Citation Impact (citeScore): 12
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0533 - ISSN (Online) 0001-6322
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Physiological clearance of tau in the periphery and its therapeutic
           potential for tauopathies
    • Authors: Jun Wang; Wang-Sheng Jin; Xian-Le Bu; Fan Zeng; Zhi-Lin Huang; Wei-Wei Li; Lin-Lin Shen; Zhen-Qian Zhuang; Yuqiang Fang; Bin-Lu Sun; Jie Zhu; Xiu-Qing Yao; Gui-Hua Zeng; Zhi-Fang Dong; Jin-Tai Yu; Zhian Hu; Weihong Song; Hua-Dong Zhou; Jian-Xin Jiang; Yu-Hui Liu; Yan-Jiang Wang
      Pages: 525 - 536
      Abstract: Accumulation of pathological tau is the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies and is closely correlated with cognitive decline. Clearance of pathological tau from the brain is a major therapeutic strategy for tauopathies. The physiological capacity of the periphery to clear brain-derived tau and its therapeutic potential remain largely unknown. Here, we found that cisterna magna injected 131I-labelled synthetic tau dynamically effluxed from the brain and was mainly cleared from the kidney, blood, and liver in mice; we also found that plasma tau levels in inferior vena cava were lower than those in femoral artery in humans. These findings suggest that tau proteins can efflux out of the brain and be cleared in the periphery under physiological conditions. Next, we showed that lowering blood tau levels via peritoneal dialysis could reduce interstitial fluid (ISF) tau levels in the brain, and tau levels in the blood and ISF were dynamically correlated; furthermore, tau efflux from the brain was accelerated after the addition of another set of peripheral system in a parabiosis model. Finally, we established parabiosis mouse models using tau transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates and found that brain tau levels and related pathologies in parabiotic transgenic mice were significantly reduced after parabiosis, suggesting that chronic enhancement of peripheral tau clearance alleviates pathological tau accumulation and neurodegeneration in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence of physiological clearance of brain-derived pathological tau in the periphery, suggesting that enhancing peripheral tau clearance is a potential therapeutic strategy for tauopathies.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1891-2
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 4 (2018)
  • MicroRNA-132 provides neuroprotection for tauopathies via multiple
           signaling pathways
    • Authors: Rachid El Fatimy; Shaomin Li; Zhicheng Chen; Tasnim Mushannen; Sree Gongala; Zhiyun Wei; Darrick T. Balu; Rosalia Rabinovsky; Adam Cantlon; Abdallah Elkhal; Dennis J. Selkoe; Kai C. Sonntag; Dominic M. Walsh; Anna M. Krichevsky
      Pages: 537 - 555
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate fundamental biological processes, including neuronal plasticity, stress response, and survival. Here, we describe a neuroprotective function of miR-132, the miRNA most significantly downregulated in neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. We demonstrate that miR-132 protects primary mouse and human wild-type neurons and more vulnerable Tau-mutant neurons against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and glutamate excitotoxicity. It lowers the levels of total, phosphorylated, acetylated, and cleaved forms of Tau implicated in tauopathies, promotes neurite elongation and branching, and reduces neuronal death. Similarly, miR-132 attenuates PHF-Tau pathology and neurodegeneration, and enhances long-term potentiation in the P301S Tau transgenic mice. The neuroprotective effects are mediated by direct regulation of the Tau modifiers acetyltransferase EP300, kinase GSK3β, RNA-binding protein Rbfox1, and proteases Calpain 2 and Caspases 3/7. These data suggest miR-132 as a master regulator of neuronal health and indicate that miR-132 supplementation could be of therapeutic benefit for the treatment of Tau-associated neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1880-5
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 4 (2018)
  • Patterns and severity of vascular amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease
           associated with duplications and missense mutations in APP gene, Down
           syndrome and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: David M. A. Mann; Yvonne S. Davidson; Andrew C. Robinson; Nancy Allen; Tadafumi Hashimoto; Anna Richardson; Matthew Jones; Julie S. Snowden; Neil Pendleton; Marie-Claude Potier; Annie Laquerrière; Vee Prasher; Takeshi Iwatsubo; Andre Strydom
      Pages: 569 - 587
      Abstract: In this study, we have compared the severity of amyloid plaque formation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and the subtype pattern of CAA pathology itself, between APP genetic causes of AD (APPdup, APP mutations), older individuals with Down syndrome (DS) showing the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and individuals with sporadic (early and late onset) AD (sEOAD and sLOAD, respectively). The aim of this was to elucidate important group differences and to provide mechanistic insights related to clinical and neuropathological phenotypes. Since lipid and cholesterol metabolism is implicated in AD as well as vascular disease, we additionally aimed to explore the role of APOE genotype in CAA severity and subtypes. Plaque formation was greater in DS and missense APP mutations than in APPdup, sEOAD and sLOAD cases. Conversely, CAA was more severe in APPdup and missense APP mutations, and in DS, compared to sEOAD and sLOAD. When stratified by CAA subtype from 1 to 4, there were no differences in plaque scores between the groups, though in patients with APPdup, APP mutations and sEOAD, types 2 and 3 CAA were more common than type 1. Conversely, in DS, sLOAD and controls, type 1 CAA was more common than types 2 and 3. APOE ε4 allele frequency was greater in sEOAD and sLOAD compared to APPdup, missense APP mutations, DS and controls, and varied between each of the CAA phenotypes with APOE ε4 homozygosity being more commonly associated with type 3 CAA than types 1 and 2 CAA in sLOAD and sEOAD. The differing patterns in CAA within individuals of each group could be a reflection of variations in the efficiency of perivascular drainage, this being less effective in types 2 and 3 CAA leading to a greater burden of CAA in parenchymal arteries and capillaries. Alternatively, as suggested by immunostaining using carboxy-terminal specific antibodies, it may relate to the relative tissue burdens of the two major forms of Aβ, with higher levels of Aβ40 promoting a more ‘aggressive’ form of CAA, and higher levels of Aβ42(3) favouring a greater plaque burden. Possession of APOE ε4 allele, especially ε4 homozygosity, favours development of CAA generally, and as type 3 particularly, in sEOAD and sLOAD.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1866-3
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 4 (2018)
  • Bidirectional modulation of Alzheimer phenotype by alpha-synuclein in mice
           and primary neurons
    • Authors: Shahzad S. Khan; Michael LaCroix; Gabriel Boyle; Mathew A. Sherman; Jennifer L. Brown; Fatou Amar; Jacqeline Aldaco; Michael K. Lee; George S. Bloom; Sylvain E. Lesné
      Pages: 589 - 605
      Abstract: α-Synuclein (αSyn) histopathology defines several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the functional link between soluble αSyn and disease etiology remains elusive, especially in AD. We, therefore, genetically targeted αSyn in APP transgenic mice modeling AD and mouse primary neurons. Our results demonstrate bidirectional modulation of behavioral deficits and pathophysiology by αSyn. Overexpression of human wild-type αSyn in APP animals markedly reduced amyloid deposition but, counter-intuitively, exacerbated deficits in spatial memory. It also increased extracellular amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs), αSyn oligomers, exacerbated tau conformational and phosphorylation variants associated with AD, and enhanced neuronal cell cycle re-entry (CCR), a frequent prelude to neuron death in AD. Conversely, ablation of the SNCA gene encoding for αSyn in APP mice improved memory retention in spite of increased plaque burden. Reminiscent of the effect of MAPT ablation in APP mice, SNCA deletion prevented premature mortality. Moreover, the absence of αSyn decreased extracellular AβOs, ameliorated CCR, and rescued postsynaptic marker deficits. In summary, this complementary, bidirectional genetic approach implicates αSyn as an essential mediator of key phenotypes in AD and offers new functional insight into αSyn pathophysiology.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1886-z
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 4 (2018)
  • Alpha-synuclein delays mitophagy and targeting Miro rescues neuron loss in
           Parkinson’s models
    • Authors: Atossa Shaltouki; Chung-Han Hsieh; Min Joo Kim; Xinnan Wang
      Pages: 607 - 620
      Abstract: Alpha-synuclein is a component of Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD), and is also mutated in familial PD. Here, by extensively analyzing PD patient brains and neurons, and fly models, we show that alpha-synuclein accumulation results in upregulation of Miro protein levels. Miro is a motor/adaptor on the outer mitochondrial membrane that mediates mitochondrial motility, and is removed from damaged mitochondria to facilitate mitochondrial clearance via mitophagy. PD patient neurons abnormally accumulate Miro on the mitochondrial surface leading to delayed mitophagy. Partial reduction of Miro rescues mitophagy phenotypes and neurodegeneration in human neurons and flies. Upregulation of Miro by alpha-synuclein requires an interaction via the N-terminus of alpha-synuclein. Our results highlight the importance of mitochondria-associated alpha-synuclein in human disease, and present Miro as a novel therapeutic target.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1873-4
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 4 (2018)
  • Synapsin III deficiency hampers α-synuclein aggregation, striatal
           synaptic damage and nigral cell loss in an AAV-based mouse model of
           Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Gaia Faustini; Francesca Longhena; Tatiana Varanita; Luigi Bubacco; Marina Pizzi; Cristina Missale; Fabio Benfenati; Anders Björklund; PierFranco Spano; Arianna Bellucci
      Pages: 621 - 639
      Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is characterized by the progressive loss of nigral dopamine neurons. The deposition of fibrillary aggregated α-synuclein in Lewy bodies (LB), that is considered to play a causative role in the disease, constitutes another key neuropathological hallmark of PD. We have recently described that synapsin III (Syn III), a synaptic phosphoprotein that regulates dopamine release in cooperation with α-synuclein, is present in the α-synuclein insoluble fibrils composing the LB of patients affected by PD. Moreover, we observed that silencing of Syn III gene could prevent α-synuclein fibrillary aggregation in vitro. This evidence suggests that Syn III might be crucially involved in α-synuclein pathological deposition. To test this hypothesis, we studied whether mice knock-out (ko) for Syn III might be protected from α-synuclein aggregation and nigrostriatal neuron degeneration resulting from the unilateral injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV)-mediating human wild-type (wt) α-synuclein overexpression (AAV-hαsyn). We found that Syn III ko mice injected with AAV-hαsyn did not develop fibrillary insoluble α-synuclein aggregates, showed reduced amount of α-synuclein oligomers detected by in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) and lower levels of Ser129-phosphorylated α-synuclein. Moreover, the nigrostriatal neurons of Syn III ko mice were protected from both synaptic damage and degeneration triggered by the AAV-hαsyn injection. Our observations indicate that Syn III constitutes a crucial mediator of α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity and identify Syn III as a novel therapeutic target for PD.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1892-1
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 4 (2018)
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas can be molecularly stratified for risk
    • Authors: Rui Ryan Yang; Abudumijiti Aibaidula; Wei-wei Wang; Aden Ka-Yin Chan; Zhi-feng Shi; Zhen-yu Zhang; Danny Tat Ming Chan; Wai Sang Poon; Xian-zhi Liu; Wen-cai Li; Rui-qi Zhang; Yan-Xi Li; Nellie Yuk-Fei Chung; Hong Chen; Jingsong Wu; Liangfu Zhou; Kay Ka-Wai Li; Ho-Keung Ng
      Pages: 641 - 655
      Abstract: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) consist of a number of entities with overlapping histological features. PLGGs have much better prognosis than the adult counterparts, but a significant proportion of PLGGs suffers from tumor progression and recurrence. It has been shown that pediatric and adult low-grade gliomas are molecularly distinct. Yet the clinical significance of some of newer biomarkers discovered by genomic studies has not been fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated in a large cohort of 289 PLGGs a list of biomarkers and examined their clinical relevance. TERT promoter (TERTp), H3F3A and BRAF V600E mutations were detected by direct sequencing. ATRX nuclear loss was examined by immunohistochemistry. CDKN2A deletion, KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, and MYB amplification were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). TERTp, H3F3A, and BRAF V600E mutations were identified in 2.5, 6.4, and 7.4% of PLGGs, respectively. ATRX loss was found in 4.9% of PLGGs. CDKN2A deletion, KIAA1549-BRAF fusion and MYB amplification were detected in 8.8, 32.0 and 10.6% of PLGGs, respectively. Survival analysis revealed that TERTp mutation, H3F3A mutation, and ATRX loss were significantly associated with poor PFS (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0002) and OS (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001). BRAF V600E was associated with shorter PFS (p = 0.011) and OS (p = 0.032) in a subset of PLGGs. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion was a good prognostic marker for longer PFS (p = 0.0017) and OS (p = 0.0029). MYB amplification was also a favorable marker for a longer PFS (p = 0.040). Importantly, we showed that these molecular biomarkers can be used to stratify PLGGs into low- (KIAA1549-BRAF fusion or MYB amplification), intermediate-I (BRAF V600E and/or CDKN2A deletion), intermediate-II (no biomarker), and high-risk (TERTp or H3F3A mutation or ATRX loss) groups with distinct PFS (p < 0.0001) and OS (p < 0.0001). This scheme should aid in clinical decision-making.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1874-3
      Issue No: Vol. 136, No. 4 (2018)
  • The intact postsynaptic protein neurogranin is reduced in brain tissue
           from patients with familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Hlin Kvartsberg; Tammaryn Lashley; Christina E. Murray; Gunnar Brinkmalm; Nicholas C. Cullen; Kina Höglund; Henrik Zetterberg; Kaj Blennow; Erik Portelius
      Abstract: Synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss are early events in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), occurring long before symptom onset, thus making synaptic biomarkers relevant for enabling early diagnosis. The postsynaptic protein neurogranin (Ng) is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for AD, also in the prodromal phase. Here we tested the hypothesis that during AD neurodegeneration, processing of full-length Ng into endogenous peptides in the brain is increased. We characterized Ng in post-mortem brain tissue and investigated the levels of endogenous Ng peptides in relation to full-length protein in brain tissue of patients with sporadic (sAD) and familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD), healthy controls and individuals who were cognitively unaffected but amyloid-positive (CU-AP) in two different brain regions. Brain tissue from parietal cortex [sAD (n = 10) and age-matched controls (n = 10)] and temporal cortex [sAD (n = 9), fAD (n = 10), CU-AP (n = 13) and controls (n = 9)] were included and all the samples were analyzed by three different methods. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, 39 endogenous Ng peptides were identified while full-length Ng was found to be modified including disulfide bridges or glutathione. In sAD parietal cortex, the ratio of peptide-to-total full-length Ng was significantly increased for eight endogenous Ng peptides compared to controls. In the temporal cortex, several of the peptide-to-total full-length Ng ratios were increased in both sAD and fAD cases compared to controls and CU-AP. This finding was confirmed by western blot, which mainly detects full-length Ng, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, most likely detecting a mix of peptides and full-length Ng. In addition, Ng was significantly associated with the degree of amyloid and tau pathology. These results suggest that processing of Ng into peptides is increased in AD brain tissue, which may reflect the ongoing synaptic degeneration, and which is also mirrored as increased levels of Ng peptides in CSF.
      PubDate: 2018-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1910-3
  • Epitope determines efficacy of therapeutic anti-Tau antibodies in a
           functional assay with human Alzheimer Tau
    • Authors: Jean-Philippe Courade; Rachel Angers; Georges Mairet-Coello; Nathalie Pacico; Kerry Tyson; Daniel Lightwood; Rebecca Munro; David McMillan; Robert Griffin; Terry Baker; Dale Starkie; Ruodan Nan; Marta Westwood; Marie-Laetitia Mushikiwabo; Sophie Jung; Geofrey Odede; Berni Sweeney; Andrew Popplewell; Gillian Burgess; Patrick Downey; Martin Citron
      Abstract: In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other tauopathies, the cytosolic protein Tau misfolds and forms intracellular aggregates which accumulate within the brain leading to neurodegeneration. Clinical progression is tightly linked to the progressive spread of Tau pathology throughout the brain, and several lines of evidence suggest that Tau aggregates or “seeds” may propagate pathology by spreading from cell to cell in a “prion like” manner. Accordingly, blocking the spread of extracellular seeds with an antibody could be a viable therapeutic approach. However, as the structure of Tau seeds is unknown, it is only possible to rationally design therapeutic Tau antibodies by making a priori assumptions. To avoid this, we developed a robust and quantitative cell based assay and employed an unbiased screening approach to identify the antibody with the highest activity against human Tau seeds. The selected antibody (D), directed to the mid-region of Tau (amino acids 235–250), potently blocked the seeding of human AD Tau and was also fully efficacious against seeds from progressive supranuclear palsy. When we compared this antibody with previously described reference antibodies, we were surprised to find that none of these antibodies showed comparable efficacy against human pathological seeds. Our data highlight the difficulty of predicting antibody accessible epitopes on pathological Tau seeds and question the potential efficacy of some of the Tau antibodies that are currently in clinical development.
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1911-2
  • Picomolar concentrations of oligomeric alpha-synuclein sensitizes TLR4 to
           play an initiating role in Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis
    • Authors: Craig D. Hughes; Minee L. Choi; Mina Ryten; Lee Hopkins; Anna Drews; Juan A. Botía; Maria Iljina; Magarida Rodrigues; Sarah A. Gagliano; Sonia Gandhi; Clare Bryant; David Klenerman
      Abstract: Despite the wealth of genomic and transcriptomic data in Parkinson’s disease (PD), the initial molecular events are unknown. Using LD score regression analysis, we show significant enrichment in PD heritability within regulatory sites for LPS-activated monocytes and that TLR4 expression is highest within human substantia nigra, the most affected brain region, suggesting a role for TLR4 inflammatory responses. We then performed extended incubation of cells with physiological concentrations of small alpha-synuclein oligomers observing the development of a TLR4-dependent sensitized inflammatory response with time, including TNF-α production. ROS and cell death in primary neuronal cultures were significantly reduced by TLR4 antagonists revealing that an indirect inflammatory mechanism involving cytokines produced by glial cells makes a major contribution to neuronal death. Prolonged exposure to low levels of alpha-synuclein oligomers sensitizes TLR4 responsiveness in astrocytes and microglial, explaining how they become pro-inflammatory, and may be an early causative event in PD.
      PubDate: 2018-09-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1907-y
  • Nodding syndrome in Uganda is a tauopathy
    • Authors: Michael S. Pollanen; Sylvester Onzivua; Janice Robertson; Paul M. McKeever; Francis Olawa; David L. Kitara; Amanda Fong
      Abstract: Nodding syndrome is an epidemic neurologic disorder of unknown cause that affects children in the subsistence-farming communities of East Africa. We report the neuropathologic findings in five fatal cases (13–18 years of age at death) of nodding syndrome from the Acholi people in northern Uganda. Neuropathologic examination revealed tau-immunoreactive neuronal neurofibrillary tangles, pre-tangles, neuropil threads, and dot-like lesions involving the cerebral cortex, subcortical nuclei and brainstem. There was preferential involvement of the frontal and temporal lobes in a patchy distribution, mostly involving the crests of gyri and the superficial cortical lamina. The mesencephalopontine tegmental nuclei, substantia nigra, and locus coeruleus revealed globose neurofibrillary tangles and threads. We conclude that nodding syndrome is a tauopathy and may represent a newly recognized neurodegenerative disease.
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1909-9
  • Sex and age interact to determine clinicopathologic differences in
           Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Amanda M. Liesinger; Neill R. Graff-Radford; Ranjan Duara; Rickey E. Carter; Fadi S. Hanna Al-Shaikh; Shunsuke Koga; Kelly M. Hinkle; Sarah K. DiLello; McKenna F. Johnson; Adel Aziz; Nilufer Ertekin-Taner; Owen A. Ross; Dennis W. Dickson; Melissa E. Murray
      Abstract: Women reportedly make up two-thirds of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia sufferers. Many estimates regarding AD, however, are based on clinical series lacking autopsy confirmation. The Florida Autopsied Multi-Ethnic (FLAME) cohort was queried for AD cases with a total of 1625 identified ranging in age from 53 to 102 years at death. Standard neuropathologic procedures were employed and clinical information was retrospectively collected. Clinicopathologic and genetic data (MAPT and APOE) were stratified by sex. Within the neuropathologically diagnosed AD cohort, the overall number of women and men did not differ. Men were younger at onset of cognitive symptoms, had a shorter disease duration, and more often had atypical (non-amnestic) clinical presentations. The frequency of autopsy-confirmed AD among women and men stratified by age at death revealed an inverse U-shaped curve in men and a U-shaped curve in women, with both curves having inflections at approximately 70 years of age. Regional counts of neurofibrillary tangles differed in women and men, especially when examined by age intervals. Women had overall greater severity of neurofibrillary tangle counts compared to men, especially in the hippocampus. Men were more often classified as hippocampal sparing AD, whereas limbic predominant AD was more common in women. Men and women did not differ in frequency of MAPT haplotype or APOE genotype. Atypical clinical presentations, younger age at onset and shorter disease duration were more frequent in men, suggesting that the lower reported frequency of AD in men may be due to more frequent atypical clinical presentations not recognized as AD. Our data suggest that neuropathologically diagnosed AD cases have the same frequency of women and men, but their clinical presentations and ages at onset tend to differ.
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1908-x
  • The genetic landscape of gliomas arising after therapeutic radiation
    • Authors: Giselle Y. López; Jessica Van Ziffle; Courtney Onodera; James P. Grenert; Iwei Yeh; Boris C. Bastian; Jennifer Clarke; Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush; Jennie Taylor; Susan Chang; Nicholas Butowski; Anuradha Banerjee; Sabine Mueller; Cassie Kline; Joseph Torkildson; David Samuel; Aleli Siongco; Corey Raffel; Nalin Gupta; Sandeep Kunwar; Praveen Mummaneni; Manish Aghi; Philip Theodosopoulos; Mitchel Berger; Joanna J. Phillips; Melike Pekmezci; Tarik Tihan; Andrew W. Bollen; Arie Perry; David A. Solomon
      Abstract: Radiotherapy improves survival for common childhood cancers such as medulloblastoma, leukemia, and germ cell tumors. Unfortunately, long-term survivors suffer sequelae that can include secondary neoplasia. Gliomas are common secondary neoplasms after cranial or craniospinal radiation, most often manifesting as high-grade astrocytomas with poor clinical outcomes. Here, we performed genetic profiling on a cohort of 12 gliomas arising after therapeutic radiation to determine their molecular pathogenesis and assess for differences in genomic signature compared to their spontaneous counterparts. We identified a high frequency of TP53 mutations, CDK4 amplification or CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and amplifications or rearrangements involving receptor tyrosine kinase and Ras–Raf–MAP kinase pathway genes including PDGFRA, MET, BRAF, and RRAS2. Notably, all tumors lacked alterations in IDH1, IDH2, H3F3A, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3C, TERT (including promoter region), and PTEN, which genetically define the major subtypes of diffuse gliomas in children and adults. All gliomas in this cohort had very low somatic mutation burden (less than three somatic single nucleotide variants or small indels per Mb). The ten high-grade gliomas demonstrated markedly aneuploid genomes, with significantly increased quantity of intrachromosomal copy number breakpoints and focal amplifications/homozygous deletions compared to spontaneous high-grade gliomas, likely as a result of DNA double-strand breaks induced by gamma radiation. Together, these findings demonstrate a distinct molecular pathogenesis of secondary gliomas arising after radiation therapy and identify a genomic signature that may aid in differentiating these tumors from their spontaneous counterparts.
      PubDate: 2018-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1906-z
  • Astrocytic degeneration in chronic traumatic encephalopathy
    • Authors: Eric T. Hsu; Mihika Gangolli; Shiran Su; Laurena Holleran; Thor D. Stein; Victor E. Alvarez; Ann C. McKee; Robert E. Schmidt; David L. Brody
      Abstract: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repeated head traumas. Using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein as a marker, plus automated quantitative analysis, we examined the characteristics and extent of astrogliosis present in stage III and IV CTE, along with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases. Astrogliosis in CTE patients was more diffuse compared to that of AD and FTD patients, which was concentrated in the sulcal depths. Of 14 patients with CTE, 10 exhibited signs of a degenerating astrocyte pathology, characterized by beaded, broken astrocytic processes. This astrocytic degeneration was typically found to be diffuse throughout the white matter, although two cases demonstrated astrocytic degeneration in the gray matter. The degeneration was also observed in 2 of 3 AD and 2 of 3 FTD brains, with overall similar characteristics across diseases. There was minimal to no astrocytic degeneration in six age-matched controls with no neurodegenerative disease. We found that the extent of the white matter astrocytic degeneration was strongly correlated with the level of overall astrogliosis in both the white and gray matter. However, astrocytic degeneration was not correlated with the overall extent of tau pathology. Specifically, there was no correlation between levels of p-tau in the sulcal depths and astrocytic degeneration in the white matter adjacent to the sulcal depths. Thus, astrocytic degeneration and overall astrogliosis appear to represent distinct pathological features of CTE. Further investigation into these astroglial pathologies could provide new insights into underlying disease mechanisms and represent a potential target for in vivo assessment of CTE as well as other neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: 2018-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1902-3
  • Region-specific depletion of synaptic mitochondria in the brains of
           patients with Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Eleanor K. Pickett; Jamie Rose; Caoimhe McCrory; Chris-Anne McKenzie; Declan King; Colin Smith; Thomas H. Gillingwater; Christopher M. Henstridge; Tara L. Spires-Jones
      Abstract: Of all of the neuropathological changes observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the loss of synapses correlates most strongly with cognitive decline. The precise mechanisms of synapse degeneration in AD remain unclear, although strong evidence indicates that pathological forms of both amyloid beta and tau contribute to synaptic dysfunction and loss. Synaptic mitochondria play a potentially important role in synapse degeneration in AD. Many studies in model systems indicate that amyloid beta and tau both impair mitochondrial function and impair transport of mitochondria to synapses. To date, much less is known about whether synaptic mitochondria are affected in human AD brain. Here, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine synapses and synaptic mitochondria in two cortical regions (BA41/42 and BA46) from eight AD and nine control cases. In this study, we observed 3000 synapses and find region-specific differences in synaptic mitochondria in AD cases compared to controls. In BA41/42, we observe a fourfold reduction in the proportion of presynaptic terminals that contain multiple mitochondria profiles in AD. We also observe ultrastructural changes including abnormal mitochondrial morphology, the presence of multivesicular bodies in synapses, and reduced synapse apposition length near plaques in AD. Together, our data show region-specific changes in synaptic mitochondria in AD and support the idea that the transport of mitochondria to presynaptic terminals or synaptic mitochondrial dynamics may be altered in AD.
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1903-2
  • Opposite development of short- and long-range anterior cingulate pathways
           in autism
    • Authors: Basilis Zikopoulos; Xuefeng Liu; Justin Tepe; Iris Trutzer; Yohan J. John; Helen Barbas
      Abstract: Autism has been linked with the changes in brain connectivity that disrupt neural communication, especially involving frontal networks. Pathological changes in white matter are evident in adults with autism, particularly affecting axons below the anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). It is still unknown whether axon pathology appears early or late in development and whether it changes or not from childhood through adulthood. To address these questions, we examined typical and pathological development of about 1 million axons in post-mortem brains of children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism (ages 3–67 years). We used high-resolution microscopy to systematically sample and study quantitatively the fine structure of myelinated axons in the white matter below ACC. We provide novel evidence of changes in the density, size and trajectories of ACC axons in typical postnatal development from childhood through adulthood. Against the normal profile of axon development, our data revealed lower density of myelinated axons that connect ACC with neighboring cortices in children with autism. In the course of development the proportion of thin axons, which form short-range pathways, increased significantly in individuals with autism, but remained flat in controls. In contrast, the relative proportion of thick axons, which form long-range pathways, increased from childhood to adulthood in the control group, but decreased in autism. Our findings provide a timeline for profound changes in axon density and thickness below ACC that affect axon physiology in a direction suggesting bias in short over distant neural communication in autism. Importantly, measures of axon density, myelination, and orientation provide white matter anisotropy/diffusivity estimates at the level of single axons. The structural template established can be used to compare with measures obtained from imaging in living subjects, and guide analysis of functional and structural imaging data from humans for comparison with pathological states.
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1904-1
  • Methylome analysis and whole-exome sequencing reveal that brain tumors
           associated with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis are midline pilocytic
    • Authors: Elvis Terci Valera; Melissa K. McConechy; Tenzin Gayden; Barbara Rivera; David T. W. Jones; Andrea Wittmann; HyeRim Han; Eric Bareke; Hamid Nikbakht; Leonie Mikael; Rosane Gomes Queiroz; Veridiana Kiill Suazo; Ji Hoon Phi; Seung-Ki Kim; Sung-Hye Park; Raita Fukaya; Mi-Sun Yum; Tae-Sung Ko; Ricardo Santos de Oliveira; Helio Rubens Machado; María Sol Brassesco; Antonio Carlos do Santos; Gustavo Novelino Simão; Leandra Náira Zambelli Ramalho; Luciano Neder; Carlos Alberto Scrideli; Luiz Gonzaga Tone; Jacek Majewski; Nada Jabado
      PubDate: 2018-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1898-8
  • Estimation of amyloid distribution by [ 18 F]flutemetamol PET predicts the
           neuropathological phase of amyloid β-protein deposition
    • Authors: Dietmar Rudolf Thal; Thomas G. Beach; Michelle Zanette; Johan Lilja; Kerstin Heurling; Aruna Chakrabarty; Azzam Ismail; Gill Farrar; Christopher Buckley; Adrian P. L. Smith
      Abstract: The deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in senile plaques is one of the histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ-plaques arise first in neocortical areas and, then, expand into further brain regions in a process described by 5 phases. Since it is possible to identify amyloid pathology with radioactive-labeled tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) the question arises whether it is possible to distinguish the neuropathological Aβ-phases with amyloid PET imaging. To address this question we reassessed 97 cases of the end-of-life study cohort of the phase 3 [18F]flutemetamol trial ( identifiers NCT01165554, and NCT02090855) by combining the standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) with pons as reference region for cortical and caudate nucleus-related [18F]flutemetamol-retention. We tested them for their prediction of the neuropathological pattern found at autopsy. By defining threshold levels for cortical and caudate nucleus SUVRs we could distinguish different levels of [18F]flutemetamol uptake termed PET-Aβ phase estimates. When comparing these PET-Aβ phase estimates with the neuropathological Aβ-phases we found that PET-Aβ phase estimate 0 corresponded with Aβ-phases 0-2, 1 with Aβ-phase 3, 2 with Aβ-phase 4, and 3 with Aβ-phase 5. Classification using the PET-Aβ phase estimates predicted the correct Aβ-phase in 72.16% of the cases studied here. Bootstrap analysis was used to confirm the robustness of the estimates around this association. When allowing a range of ± 1 phase for a given Aβ-phase correct classification was given in 96.91% of the cases. In doing so, we provide a novel method to convert SUVR-levels into PET-Aβ phase estimates that can be easily translated into neuropathological phases of Aβ-deposition. This method allows direct conclusions about the pathological distribution of amyloid plaques (Aβ-phases) in vivo. Accordingly, this method may be ideally suited to detect early preclinical AD-patients, to follow them with disease progression, and to provide a more precise prognosis for them based on the knowledge about the underlying pathological phase of the disease.
      PubDate: 2018-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1897-9
  • Correction to: A suggestion to introduce the diagnosis of “diffuse
           midline glioma of the pons, H3 K27 wildtype (WHO grade IV)”
    • Authors: André O. von Bueren; Michael Karremann; Gerrit H. Gielen; Martin Benesch; Maryam Fouladi; Dannis G. van Vuurden; Sophie E. M. Veldhuijzen van Zanten; Lindsey M. Hoffman; Christof M. Kramm
      Abstract: The citation of the original publication in PubMed contains an error. The seventh author name is wrongly cited.
      PubDate: 2018-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1896-x
  • Targeting pericytes for therapeutic approaches to neurological disorders
    • Authors: Jinping Cheng; Nils Korte; Ross Nortley; Huma Sethi; Yamei Tang; David Attwell
      Abstract: Many central nervous system diseases currently lack effective treatment and are often associated with defects in microvascular function, including a failure to match the energy supplied by the blood to the energy used on neuronal computation, or a breakdown of the blood–brain barrier. Pericytes, an under-studied cell type located on capillaries, are of crucial importance in regulating diverse microvascular functions, such as angiogenesis, the blood–brain barrier, capillary blood flow and the movement of immune cells into the brain. They also form part of the “glial” scar isolating damaged parts of the CNS, and may have stem cell-like properties. Recent studies have suggested that pericytes play a crucial role in neurological diseases, and are thus a therapeutic target in disorders as diverse as stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, spinal cord injury, diabetes, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, glioma, radiation necrosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here we report recent advances in our understanding of pericyte biology and discuss how pericytes could be targeted to develop novel therapeutic approaches to neurological disorders, by increasing blood flow, preserving blood–brain barrier function, regulating immune cell entry to the CNS, and modulating formation of blood vessels in, and the glial scar around, damaged regions.
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00401-018-1893-0
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