Authors:Xiangjun Peng; Wei He; Yifan Liu; Fengxian Xin; Tian Jian Lu Abstract: Abstract We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields. PubDate: 2017-03-23 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0657-8

Authors:Qiang Wang; Zaihua Wang Abstract: Abstract In the dynamics analysis and synthesis of a controlled system, it is important to know for what feedback gains can the controlled system decay to the demanded steady state as fast as possible. This article presents a systematic method for finding the optimal feedback gains by taking the stability of an inverted pendulum system with a delayed proportional-derivative controller as an example. First, the condition for the existence and uniqueness of the stable region in the gain plane is obtained by using the D-subdivision method and the method of stability switch. Then the same procedure is used repeatedly to shrink the stable region by decreasing the real part of the rightmost characteristic root. Finally, the optimal feedback gains within the stable region that minimizes the real part of the rightmost root are expressed by an explicit formula. With the optimal feedback gains, the controlled inverted pendulum decays to its trivial equilibrium at the fastest speed when the initial values around the origin are fixed. The main results are checked by numerical simulation. PubDate: 2017-03-21 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0655-x

Authors:Haijian Su; Hongwen Jing; Qian Yin; Liyuan Yu; Yingchao Wang; Xingjie Wu Abstract: Abstract The mechanical behaviors of rocks affected by high temperature and stress are generally believed to be significant for the stability of certain projects involving rocks, such as nuclear waste storage and geothermal resource exploitation. In this paper, veined marble specimens were treated to high temperature treatment and then used in conventional triaxial compression tests to investigate the effect of temperature, confining pressure, and vein angle on strength and deformation behaviors. The results show that the strength and deformation parameters of the veined marble specimens changed with the temperature, presenting a critical temperature of 600 \(^{\circ }\hbox {C}\) . The triaxial compression strength of a horizontal vein ( \(\beta = 90^{\circ }\) ) is obviously larger than that of a vertical vein ( \(\beta = 0^{\circ }\) ). The triaxial compression strength, elasticity modulus, and secant modulus have an approximately linear relation to the confining pressure. Finally, Mohr–Coulomb and Hoek–Brown criteria were respectively used to analyze the effect of confining pressure on triaxial compression strength. PubDate: 2017-03-15 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0653-z

Authors:Meng-Shi Jin; Yi-Qiang Sun; Han-Wen Song; Jian Xu Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an identification approach to time delays in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems. In an SDOF system, the impedance function of the delayed system is expressed by the system parameters, the feedback gain, and the time delay. The time delay can be treated as the “frequency” of the difference between the impedance function of the delayed system and that of the corresponding uncontrolled system. Thus, it can be identified from the Fourier transform of the difference between the two impedance functions. In an MDOF system, the pseudo-impedance functions are defined. The relationships between the time delay and the pseudo-impedance functions of the delayed system and uncontrolled system are deduced. Similarly, the time delay can be identified from the Fourier transform of the difference between the two pseudo-impedance functions. The results of numerical examples and experimental tests show that the identification approach to keeps a relatively high accuracy. PubDate: 2017-03-14 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0652-0

Authors:Stefano Casarin; Federico Aletti; Giuseppe Baselli; Marc Garbey Abstract: Abstract The high demand for lung transplants cannot be matched by an adequate number of lungs from donors. Since fully ex-novo lungs are far from being feasible, tissue engineering is actively considering implantation of engineered lungs where the devitalized structure of a donor is used as scaffold to be repopulated by stem cells of the receiving patient. A decellularized donated lung is treated inside a bioreactor where transport through the tracheobronchial tree (TBT) will allow for both deposition of stem cells and nourishment for their subsequent growth, thus developing new lung tissue. The key concern is to set optimally the boundary conditions to utilize in the bioreactor. We propose a predictive model of slow liquid ventilation, which combines a one-dimensional (1-D) mathematical model of the TBT and a solute deposition model strongly dependent on fluid velocity across the tree. With it, we were able to track and drive the concentration of a generic solute across the airways, looking for its optimal distribution. This was given by properly adjusting the pumps’ regime serving the bioreactor. A feedback system, created by coupling the two models, allowed us to derive the optimal pattern. The TBT model can be easily invertible, thus yielding a straightforward flow/pressure law at the inlet to optimize the efficiency of the bioreactor. PubDate: 2017-03-10 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0644-0

Authors:Chunjuan Feng; Feng Liu; Zvi Rusak; Shixiao Wang Abstract: Abstract Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of a solid-body rotation superposed on a uniform axial flow entering a rotating constant-area pipe of finite length are presented. Steady in time profiles of the radial, axial, and circumferential velocities are imposed at the pipe inlet. Convective boundary conditions are imposed at the pipe outlet. The Wang and Rusak (Phys. Fluids 8:1007–1016, 1996. doi:10.1063/1.86882) axisymmetric instability mechanism is retrieved at certain operational conditions in terms of incoming flow swirl levels and the Reynolds number. However, at other operational conditions there exists a dominant, three-dimensional spiral type of instability mode that is consistent with the linear stability theory of Wang et al. (J. Fluid Mech. 797: 284–321, 2016). The growth of this mode leads to a spiral type of flow roll-up that subsequently nonlinearly saturates on a large amplitude rotating spiral wave. The energy transfer mechanism between the bulk of the flow and the perturbations is studied by the Reynolds-Orr equation. The production or loss of the perturbation kinetic energy is combined of three components: the viscous loss, the convective loss at the pipe outlet, and the gain of energy at the outlet through the work done by the pressure perturbation. The energy transfer in the nonlinear stage is shown to be a natural extension of the linear stage with a nonlinear saturated process. PubDate: 2017-03-10 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0642-2

Authors:Jing Tang Xing; Zhe Sun; Sulian Zhou; Mingyi Tan Abstract: Abstract An investigation is undertaken of an integrated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system consisting of a rigid vehicle with heave, roll, and pitch motions, four electromagnetic energy harvesters and four tires subject to uneven road excitations in order to improve the passengers’ riding comfort and harvest the lost engine energy due to uneven roads. Following the derived mathematical formulations and the proposed solution approaches, the numerical simulations of this interaction system subject to a continuous sinusoidal road excitation and a single ramp impact are completed. The simulation results are presented as the dynamic response curves in the forms of the frequency spectrum and the time history, which reveals the complex interaction characteristics of the system for vibration reductions and energy harvesting performance. It has addressed the coupling effects on the dynamic characteristics of the integrated system caused by: (1) the natural modes and frequencies of the vehicle; (2) the vehicle rolling and pitching motions; (3) different road excitations on four wheels; (4) the time delay of a road ramp to impact both the front and rear wheels, etc., which cannot be tackled by an often used quarter vehicle model. The guidelines for engineering applications are given. The developed coupling model and the revealed concept provide a means with analysis idea to investigate the details of four energy harvester motions for electromagnetic suspension designs in order to replace the current passive vehicle isolators and to harvest the lost engine energy. Potential further research directions are suggested for readers to consider in the future. PubDate: 2017-03-10 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0647-x

Authors:Shao-Zhen Lin; Bo Li; Xi-Qiao Feng Abstract: Abstract Intercellular interactions play a significant role in a wide range of biological functions and processes at both the cellular and tissue scales, for example, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cancer invasion. In this paper, a dynamic cellular vertex model is presented to study the morphomechanics of a growing epithelial monolayer. The regulating role of stresses in soft tissue growth is revealed. It is found that the cells originating from the same parent cell in the monolayer can orchestrate into clustering patterns as the tissue grows. Collective cell migration exhibits a feature of spatial correlation across multiple cells. Dynamic intercellular interactions can engender a variety of distinct tissue behaviors in a social context. Uniform cell proliferation may render high and heterogeneous residual compressive stresses, while stress-regulated proliferation can effectively release the stresses, reducing the stress heterogeneity in the tissue. The results highlight the critical role of mechanical factors in the growth and morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and help understand the development and invasion of epithelial tumors. PubDate: 2017-03-10 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0654-y

Authors:Xuemei Zhao; Rui Li; Yu Chen; Sheau Fung Sia; Donghai Li; Yu Zhang; Aihua Liu Abstract: Abstract Additional hemodynamic parameters are highly desirable in the clinical management of intracranial aneurysm rupture as static medical images cannot demonstrate the blood flow within aneurysms. There are two ways of obtaining the hemodynamic information—by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, we compared PCMRI and CFD in the analysis of a stable patient’s specific aneurysm. The results showed that PCMRI and CFD are in good agreement with each other. An additional CFD study of two stable and two ruptured aneurysms revealed that ruptured aneurysms have a higher statistical average blood velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) within the aneurysm sac compared to those of stable aneurysms. Furthermore, for ruptured aneurysms, the OSI divides the positive and negative wall shear stress divergence at the aneurysm sac. PubDate: 2017-03-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0636-0

Authors:Siwei Li; Guodong Niu; Neil X. Dong; Xiaodu Wang; Zhongjun Liu; Chunli Song; Huijie Leng Abstract: Abstract Estrogen withdrawal in postmenopausal women increases bone loss and bone fragility in the vertebra. Bone loss with osteoporosis not only reduces bone mineral density (BMD), but actually alters bone quality, which can be comprehensively represented by bone post-yield behaviors. This study aimed to provide some information as to how osteoporosis induced by estrogen depletion could influence the evolution of post-yield microdamage accumulation and plastic deformation in vertebral bodies. This study also tried to reveal the part of the mechanisms of how estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis would increase the bone fracture risk. A rat bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) model was used to induce osteoporosis. Progressive cyclic compression loading was developed for vertebra testing to elucidate the post-yield behaviors. BMD, bone volume fraction, stiffness degradation, and plastic deformation evolution were compared among rats raised for 5 weeks (ovx5w and sham5w groups) and 35 weeks (ovx35w and sham35w groups) after sham surgery and OVX. The results showed that a higher bone loss in vertebral bodies corresponded to lower stiffness and higher plastic deformation. Thus, osteoporosis could increase the vertebral fracture risk probably through microdamage accumulation and plastic deforming degradation. PubDate: 2017-03-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0643-1

Authors:Min Lin; Fusheng Liu; Shaobao Liu; Changchun Ji; Ang Li; Tian Jian Lu; Feng Xu Abstract: Abstract The sensing of hot and cold stimuli by dental neurons differs in several fundamental ways. These sensations have been characterized quantitatively through the measured time course of neural discharge signals that result from hot or cold stimuli applied to the teeth of animal models. Although various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanism, the ability to test competing hypotheses against experimental recorded data using biophysical models has been hindered by limitations in our understanding of the specific ion channels involved in nociception of dental neurons. Here we apply recent advances in established biophysical models to test the competing hypotheses. We show that a sharp shooting pain sensation experienced shortly following cold stimulation cannot be attributed to the activation of thermosensitive ion channels, thereby falsifying the so-called neuronal hypothesis, which states that rapidly transduced sensations of coldness are related to thermosensitive ion channels. Our results support a central role of mechanosensitive ion channels and the associated hydrodynamic hypothesis. In addition to the hydrodynamic hypothesis, we also demonstrate that the long time delay of dental neuron responses after hot stimulation could be attributed to the neuronal hypothesis—that a relatively long time is required for the temperature around nociceptors to reach some threshold. The results are useful as a model of how multiphysical phenomena can be combined to provide mechanistic insight into different mechanisms underlying pain sensations. PubDate: 2017-03-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0634-2

Authors:Zhitao Hu; Yonggang Yu Abstract: Abstract To explore further the launch mechanism of the new underwater launching technology proposed in this paper, the expansion characteristics of four wall combustion-gas jets in confined liquid space must be studied firstly. The experimental device is designed, and the high-speed digital photographic system is adopted to obtain the expansion sequence processes of Taylor cavities formed by the four wall jets. Meanwhile, the influence of the injection pressure on the axial expansion property of the four wall jets is discussed. Based on the experiments, a three-dimensional unsteady mathematical model is established to simulate the turbulent flow process of the four wall jets expanding in liquid, and the temporal and spatial distribution laws of phase, pressure, temperature, and velocity and the evolution rules of vortices are illustrated in detail. Results show that, accompanied by the jets expanding downstream, the four wall combustion-gas jets get close to each other and achieve convergence eventually under induction of the interference effect between multiple jets. Meanwhile, the heads of the Taylor cavities separate from the observation chamber wall and offset to the central axis of the observation chamber with time going on. The numerical simulation results of the four wall combustion-gas jets coincide well with the experimental data. PubDate: 2017-03-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0641-3

Authors:G. Q. Zhou; Y. Zhou; X. Y. Shi Abstract: Abstract One-dimensional non-Darcy flow in a semi-infinite porous media is investigated. We indicate that the non-Darcy relation which is usually determined from experimental results can always be described by a piecewise linear function, and the problem can be equivalently transformed to a multiphase implicit Stefan problem. The novel feature of this Stefan problem is that the phases of the porous media are divided by hydraulic gradients, not the excess pore water pressures. Using the similarity transformation technique, an exact solution for the situation that the external load increases in proportion to the square root of time is developed. The study on the existence and uniqueness of the solution leads to the requirement of a group of inequalities. A similar Stefan problem considering constant surface seepage velocity is also investigated, and the solution, which we indicate to be uniquely existent under all conditions, is established. Meanwhile, the relation between our Stefan problem and the traditional multiphase Stefan problem is demonstrated. In the end, computational examples of the solution are presented and discussed. The solution provides a useful benchmark for verifying the accuracy of general approximate algorithms of Stefan problems, and it is also attractive in the context of inverse problem analysis. PubDate: 2017-03-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0649-8

Authors:H. W. Zhu; P. D. Cheng; W. Li; J. H. Chen; Y. Pang; D. Z. Wang Abstract: Abstract Vertical distribution processes of sediment contaminants in water were studied by flume experiments. Experimental results show that settling velocity of sediment particles and turbulence characteristics are the major hydrodynamic factors impacting distribution of pollutants, especially near the bottom where particle diameter is similar in size to vortex structure. Sediment distribution was uniform along the distance, while contaminant distribution slightly lagged behind the sediment. The smaller the initial sediment concentration was, the more time it took to achieve a uniform concentration distribution for suspended sediment. A contaminants transportation equation was established depending on mass conservation equations. Two mathematical estimation models of pollutant distribution in the overlying water considering adsorption and desorption were devised based on vertical distribution of suspended sediment: equilibrium partition model and dynamic micro-diffusion model. The ratio of time scale between the sediment movement and sorption can be used as the index of the models. When this ratio was large, the equilibrium assumption was reasonable, but when it was small, it might require dynamic micro-diffusion model. PubDate: 2017-03-07 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0650-2

Authors:X. Ji; F. Zhu; P. F. He Abstract: Abstract In this article, a direct stress approach based on finite element analysis to determine the stress intensity factor is improved. Firstly, by comparing the rigorous solution against the asymptotic solution for a problem of an infinite plate embedded a central crack, we found that the stresses in a restrictive interval near the crack tip given by the rigorous solution can be used to determine the stress intensity factor, which is nearly equal to the stress intensity factor given by the asymptotic solution. Secondly, the crack problem is solved numerically by the finite element method. Depending on the modeling capability of the software, we designed an adaptive mesh model to simulate the stress singularity. Thus, the stress result in an appropriate interval near the crack tip is fairly approximated to the rigorous solution of the corresponding crack problem. Therefore, the stress intensity factor may be calculated from the stress distribution in the appropriate interval, with a high accuracy. PubDate: 2017-03-03 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0640-4

Authors:Caixi Liu; Shuai Tang; Lian Shen; Yuhong Dong Abstract: Abstract The dynamic and thermal performance of particle-laden turbulent flow is investigated via direction numerical simulation combined with the Lagrangian point-particle tracking under the condition of two-way coupling, with a focus on the contributions of particle feedback effect to momentum and heat transfer of turbulence. We take into account the effects of particles on flow drag and Nusselt number and explore the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement in particle-laden turbulent flows. The effects of particles on momentum and heat transfer are analyzed, and the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement for the prototypical case of particle-laden turbulent channel flows is addressed. We present results of turbulence modification and heat transfer in turbulent particle-laden channel flow, which shows the heat transfer reduction when large inertial particles with low specific heat capacity are added to the flow. However, we also found an enhancement of the heat transfer and a small reduction of the flow drag when particles with high specific heat capacity are involved. The present results show that particles, which are active agents, interact not only with the velocity field, but also the temperature field and can cause a dissimilarity in momentum and heat transport. This demonstrates that the possibility to increase heat transfer and suppress friction drag can be achieved with addition of particles with different thermal properties. PubDate: 2017-03-03 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0646-y

Authors:Hong-Ling Ye; Wei-Wei Wang; Ning Chen; Yun-Kang Sui Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the present work is to study the buckling problem with plate/shell topology optimization of orthotropic material. A model of buckling topology optimization is established based on the independent, continuous, and mapping method, which considers structural mass as objective and buckling critical loads as constraints. Firstly, composite exponential function (CEF) and power function (PF) as filter functions are introduced to recognize the element mass, the element stiffness matrix, and the element geometric stiffness matrix. The filter functions of the orthotropic material stiffness are deduced. Then these filter functions are put into buckling topology optimization of a differential equation to analyze the design sensitivity. Furthermore, the buckling constraints are approximately expressed as explicit functions with respect to the design variables based on the first-order Taylor expansion. The objective function is standardized based on the second-order Taylor expansion. Therefore, the optimization model is translated into a quadratic program. Finally, the dual sequence quadratic programming (DSQP) algorithm and the global convergence method of moving asymptotes algorithm with two different filter functions (CEF and PF) are applied to solve the optimal model. Three numerical results show that DSQP&CEF has the best performance in the view of structural mass and discretion. PubDate: 2017-03-03 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0648-9

Authors:Hongguang Liu; Ke Xiong; Kan Bian; Kongjun Zhu Abstract: Abstract This paper develops analytical electromechanical formulas to predict the mechanical deformation of ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) cantilever actuators under DC excitation voltages. In this research, IPMC samples with Pt and Ag electrodes were manufactured, and the large nonlinear deformation and the effect of curvature on surface electrode resistance of the IPMC samples were investigated experimentally and theoretically. A distributed electrical model was modified for calculating the distribution of voltage along the bending actuator. Then an irreversible thermodynamic model that could predict the curvature of a unit part of an IPMC actuator is combined with the electrical model so that an analytical electromechanical model is developed. The electromechanical model is then validated against the experimental results obtained from Pt- and Ag-IPMC actuators under various excitation voltages. The good agreement between the electromechanical model and the actuators shows that the analytical electromechanical model can accurately describe the large nonlinear quasi-static deflection behavior of IPMC actuators. PubDate: 2017-03-03 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-016-0631-x

Authors:Yuexing Wang; Yao Yao Abstract: Abstract In this work, analysis of electromigration-induced void morphological evolution in solder interconnects is performed based on mass diffusion theory. The analysis is conducted for three typical experimentally observed void shapes: circular, ellipse, and cardioid. Void morphological evolution is governed by the competition between the electric field and surface capillary force. In the developed model, both the electric field and capillary force on the void’s surface are solved analytically. Based on the mass conversation principle, the normal velocity on the void surface during diffusion is obtained. The void morphological evolution behavior is investigated, and a physical model is developed to predict void collapse to a crack or to split into sub-voids under electric current. It is noted that when the electric current is being applied from the horizontal direction, a circular void may either move stably along the electric current direction or collapse to a finger shape, depending on the relative magnitude of the electric current and surface capillary force. However, the elliptical-shaped void will elongate along the electric current direction and finally collapse to the finger shape. On the other hand, the cardioid-shaped void could bifurcate into two sub-voids when the electric current reaches a critical value. The theoretical predictions agree well with the experimental observations. PubDate: 2017-03-03 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-017-0645-z

Authors:Yongjia Song; Hengshan Hu; John W. Rudnicki Abstract: Abstract A mathematical formulation is presented for the dynamic stress intensity factor (mode I) of a finite permeable crack subjected to a time-harmonic propagating longitudinal wave in an infinite poroelastic solid. In particular, the effect of the wave-induced fluid flow due to the presence of a liquid-saturated crack on the dynamic stress intensity factor is analyzed. Fourier sine and cosine integral transforms in conjunction with Helmholtz potential theory are used to formulate the mixed boundary-value problem as dual integral equations in the frequency domain. The dual integral equations are reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. It is found that the stress intensity factor monotonically decreases with increasing frequency, decreasing the fastest when the crack width and the slow wave wavelength are of the same order. The characteristic frequency at which the stress intensity factor decays the fastest shifts to higher frequency values when the crack width decreases. PubDate: 2017-03-03 DOI: 10.1007/s10409-016-0633-8