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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
  [SJR: 1.006]   [H-I: 14]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1976-7633 - ISSN (Online) 1976-7951
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Mitigating the surface urban heat island: Mechanism study and sensitivity
    • Authors: Chunlei Meng
      Pages: 327 - 338
      Abstract: In a surface urban heat island (SUHI), the urban land surface temperature (LST) is usually higher than the temperature of the surrounding rural areas due to human activities and surface characteristics. Because a SUHI has many adverse impacts on urban environment and human health, SUHI mitigation strategies are very important. This paper investigates the mechanism of a SUHI based on the basic physical laws that control the formation of a SUHI; five mitigation strategies are proposed, namely: sprinkling and watering; paving a pervious surface; reducing the anthropogenic heat (AH) release; using a “white roof”; increasing the fractional vegetation cover or leaf area index (LAI). To quantify the effect of these mitigation strategies, 26 sets of experiments are designed and implemented by running the integrated urban land model (IUM). The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that sprinkling and watering is an effective measure for mitigating a SUHI for an entire day. Decreasing the AH release is also useful for both night- and daytime SUHI mitigation; however, the cooling extent is proportional to the diurnal cycle of AH. Increasing the albedo can reduce the LST in the daytime, especially when the solar radiation is significant; the cooling extent is approximately proportional to the diurnal cycle of the net radiation. Increasing the pervious surface percentage can mitigate the SUHI especially in the daytime. Increasing the fractional vegetation cover can mitigate the SUHI in the daytime but may aggravate the SUHI at night.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0036-1
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • Intercomparison of prediction skills of ensemble methods using monthly
           mean temperature simulated by CMIP5 models
    • Authors: Min-Gyu Seong; Myoung-Seok Suh; Chansoo Kim
      Pages: 339 - 351
      Abstract: This study focuses on an objective comparison of eight ensemble methods using the same data, training period, training method, and validation period. The eight ensemble methods are: BMA (Bayesian Model Averaging), HMR (Homogeneous Multiple Regression), EMOS (Ensemble Model Output Statistics), HMR+ with positive coefficients, EMOS+ with positive coefficients, PEA_ROC (Performance-based Ensemble Averaging using ROot mean square error and temporal Correlation coefficient), WEA_Tay (Weighted Ensemble Averaging based on Taylor’s skill score), and MME (Multi-Model Ensemble). Forty-five years (1961-2005) of data from 14 CMIP5 models and APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation- Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources) data were used to compare the performance of the eight ensemble methods. Although some models underestimated the variability of monthly mean temperature (MMT), most of the models effectively simulated the spatial distribution of MMT. Regardless of training periods and the number of ensemble members, the prediction skills of BMA and the four multiple linear regressions (MLR) were superior to the other ensemble methods (PEA_ROC, WEA_Tay, MME) in terms of deterministic prediction. In terms of probabilistic prediction, the four MLRs showed better prediction skills than BMA. However, the differences among the four MLRs and BMA were not significant. This resulted from the similarity of BMA weights and regression coefficients. Furthermore, prediction skills of the four MLRs were very similar. Overall, the four MLRs showed the best prediction skills among the eight ensemble methods. However, more comprehensive work is needed to select the best ensemble method among the numerous ensemble methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0039-y
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • Stochastic precipitation generator with hidden state covariates
    • Authors: Yongku Kim; GyuWon Lee
      Pages: 353 - 359
      Abstract: Time series of daily weather such as precipitation, minimum temperature and maximum temperature are commonly required for various fields. Stochastic weather generators constitute one of the techniques to produce synthetic daily weather. The recently introduced approach for stochastic weather generators is based on generalized linear modeling (GLM) with covariates to account for seasonality and teleconnections (e.g., with the El Niño). In general, stochastic weather generators tend to underestimate the observed interannual variance of seasonally aggregated variables. To reduce this overdispersion, we incorporated time series of seasonal dry/wet indicators in the GLM weather generator as covariates. These seasonal time series were local (or global) decodings obtained by a hidden Markov model of seasonal total precipitation and implemented in the weather generator. The proposed method is applied to time series of daily weather from Seoul, Korea and Pergamino, Argentina. This method provides a straightforward translation of the uncertainty of the seasonal forecast to the corresponding conditional daily weather statistics.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0037-0
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • Advances in land modeling of KIAPS based on the Noah Land Surface Model
    • Authors: Myung-Seo Koo; Sunghye Baek; Kyung-Hee Seol; Kyoungmi Cho
      Pages: 361 - 373
      Abstract: As of 2013, the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) version 2.7.1 was implemented in a new global model being developed at the Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS). This land surface scheme is further refined in two aspects, by adding new physical processes and by updating surface input parameters. Thus, the treatment of glacier land, sea ice, and snow cover are addressed more realistically. Inconsistencies in the amount of absorbed solar flux at ground level by the land surface and radiative processes are rectified. In addition, new parameters are available by using 1-km land cover data, which had usually not been possible at a global scale. Land surface albedo/emissivity climatology is newly created using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellitebased data and adjusted parameterization. These updates have been applied to the KIAPS-developed model and generally provide a positive impact on near-surface weather forecasting.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0043-2
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • How effective is the new generation of GPM satellite precipitation in
           characterizing the rainfall variability over Malaysia'
    • Authors: Mohd Rizaludin Mahmud; Mazlan Hashim; Mohd Nadzri Mohd Reba
      Pages: 375 - 384
      Abstract: We investigated the potential of the new generation of satellite precipitation product from the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) to characterize the rainfall in Malaysia. Most satellite precipitation products have limited ability to precisely characterize the high dynamic rainfall variation that occurred at both time and scale in this humid tropical region due to the coarse grid size to meet the physical condition of the smaller land size, sub-continent and islands. Prior to the status quo, an improved satellite precipitation was required to accurately measure the rainfall and its distribution. Subsequently, the newly released of GPM precipitation product at half-hourly and 0.1° resolution served an opportunity to anticipate the aforementioned conflict. Nevertheless, related evidence was not found and therefore, this study made an initiative to fill the gap. A total of 843 rain gauges over east (Borneo) and west Malaysia (Peninsular) were used to evaluate the rainfall the GPM rainfall data. The assessment covered all critical rainy seasons which associated with Asian Monsoon including northeast (Nov. - Feb.), southwest (May - Aug.) and their subsequent inter-monsoon period (Mar. - Apr. & Sep. - Oct.). The ability of GPM to provide quantitative rainfall estimates and qualitative spatial rainfall patterns were analysed. Our results showed that the GPM had good capacity to depict the spatial rainfall patterns in less heterogeneous rainfall patterns (Spearman’s correlation, 0.591 to 0.891) compared to the clustered one (r = 0.368 to 0.721). Rainfall intensity and spatial heterogeneity that is largely driven by seasonal monsoon has significant influence on GPM ability to resolve local rainfall patterns. In quantitative rainfall estimation, large errors can be primarily associated with the rainfall intensity increment. 77% of the error variation can be explained through rainfall intensity particularly the high intensity (> 35 mm d-1). A strong relationship between GPM rainfall and error was found from heavy (~35 mm d-1) to violent rain (160 mm d-1). The output of this study provides reference regarding the performance of GPM data for respective hydrology studies in this region.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0042-3
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • A scattering-based over-land rainfall retrieval algorithm for South Korea
           using GCOM-W1/AMSR-2 data
    • Authors: Young-Joo Kwon; Hayan Shin; Hyunju Ban; Yang-Won Lee; Kyung-Ae Park; Jaeil Cho; No-Wook Park; Sungwook Hong
      Pages: 385 - 392
      Abstract: Heavy summer rainfall is a primary natural disaster affecting lives and properties in the Korean Peninsula. This study presents a satellite-based rainfall rate retrieval algorithm for the South Korea combining polarization-corrected temperature (PCT) and scattering index (SI) data from the 36.5 and 89.0 GHz channels of the Advanced microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR-2) onboard the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM)-W1 satellite. The coefficients for the algorithm were obtained from spatial and temporal collocation data from the AMSR-2 and groundbased automatic weather station rain gauges from 1 July - 30 August during the years, 2012-2015. There were time delays of about 25 minutes between the AMSR-2 observations and the ground raingauge measurements. A new linearly-combined rainfall retrieval algorithm focused on heavy rain for the PCT and SI was validated using ground-based rainfall observations for the South Korea from 1 July - 30 August, 2016. The validation presented PCT and SI methods showed slightly improved results for rainfall > 5 mm h-1 compared to the current ASMR-2 level 2 data. The best bias and root mean square error (RMSE) for the PCT method at AMSR-2 36.5 GHz were 2.09 mm h-1 and 7.29 mm h-1, respectively, while the current official AMSR-2 rainfall rates show a larger bias and RMSE (4.80 mm h-1 and 9.35 mm h-1, respectively). This study provides a scatteringbased over-land rainfall retrieval algorithm for South Korea affected by stationary front rain and typhoons with the advantages of the previous PCT and SI methods to be applied to a variety of spaceborne passive microwave radiometers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0041-4
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • Comparison of extended medium-range forecast skill between KMA ensemble,
           ocean coupled ensemble, and GloSea5
    • Authors: Sangwook Park; Dong-Joon Kim; Seung-Woo Lee; Kie-Woung Lee; Jongkhun Kim; Eun-Ji Song; Kyong-Hwan Seo
      Pages: 393 - 401
      Abstract: This article describes a three way inter-comparison of forecast skill on an extended medium-range time scale using the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) operational ensemble numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems (i.e., atmosphere-only global ensemble prediction system (EPSG) and ocean-atmosphere coupledEPSG) and KMA operational seasonal prediction system, the Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5). The main motivation is to investigate whether the ensemble NWP system can provide advantage over the existing seasonal prediction system for the extended medium-range forecast (30 days) even with putting extra resources in extended integration or coupling with ocean with NWP system. Two types of evaluation statistics are examined: the basic verification statistics - the anomaly correlation and RMSE of 500-hPa geopotential height and 1.5-meter surface temperature for the global and East Asia area, and the other is the Real-time Multivariate Madden and Julian Oscillation (MJO) indices (RMM1 and RMM2) - which is used to examine the MJO prediction skill. The MJO is regarded as a main source of forecast skill in the tropics linked to the mid-latitude weather on monthly time scale. Under limited number of experiment cases, the coupled NWP extends the forecast skill of the NWP by a few more days, and thereafter such forecast skill is overtaken by that of the seasonal prediction system. At present stage, it seems there is little gain from the coupled NWP even though more resources are put into it. Considering this, the best combination of numerical product guidance for operational forecasters for an extended medium-range is extension of the forecast lead time of the current ensemble NWP (EPSG) up to 20 days and use of the seasonal prediction system (GloSea5) forecast thereafter, though there exists a matter of consistency between the two systems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0035-2
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • Study of method for synthetic precipitation data for ungauged sites using
           quantitative precipitation model
    • Authors: Hyo-Jun Bae; Jai-Ho Oh
      Pages: 403 - 410
      Abstract: A method was developed to estimate a synthetic precipitation record for ungauged sites using irregular coarse observations. The proposed synthetic precipitation data were produced with ultrahigh hourly resolution on a regular 1 × 1 km grid. The proposed method was used to analyze selected real-time observational data collected in South Korea from 2010 to the end of 2014. The observed precipitation data were measured using the Automatic Weather System and Automated Synoptic Observing System. The principal objective of the proposed method was to estimate the additional effects of orography on precipitation introduced by ultrahigh- resolution (1 × 1 km) topography provided by a digital elevation model. The Global Forecast System analysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction was used for the upper-atmospheric conditions, necessary for estimating the orographic effects. Precipitation data from 48 of the more than 600 observation sites used in the study, which matched the grid points of the synthetic data, were not included in the synthetic data estimation. Instead, these data were used to evaluate the proposed method by direct comparison with the real observations at these sites. A bias score was investigated by comparison of the synthetic precipitation data with the observations. In this comparison, the number of Hit, False, Miss, and Correct results for 2010-2014 was 74738, 25778, 7544, and 367981, respectively. In the Hit cases, the bias score was 1.22 and the correlation coefficient was 0.74. The means of the differences between the synthetic data and the observations were 0.3, -3.9, -14.4, and -34.9 mm h-1 and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) were 2.7, 8.3, 19.3, and 39.6 mm h-1 for the categories of 0.5-10.0, 10.0-30.0, 30.0-50.0, and 50.0-100.0 mm h-1, respectively. In addition, in each range, the 60% difference between the synthetic precipitation data and the observation data was -1.5 to +1.5, -5.0 to +5.0, -17.0 to +17.0, and -33.0 to +33.0 mm h-1, respectively. Overall, the correlation coefficient of the synthetic precipitation data was > 0.7 for 43 of the 48 test stations and the RMSE was < 4 mm h-1 at 31 stations. The results are significant at all evaluation stations at the 0.05 significance level.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0038-z
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 3 (2017)
  • Asian monsoon climate change - Understanding and prediction
    • Authors: Kyung-Ja Ha; June-Yi Lee; Bin Wang; Shang-Ping Xie; Akio Kitoh
      Pages: 179 - 180
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0056-x
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2017)
  • South-coast cyclone in Japan during El Niño-caused warm winters
    • Authors: Hiroaki Ueda; Yuusuke Amagai; Masamitsu Hayasaki
      Pages: 287 - 293
      Abstract: La Niña conditions during boreal winter sometimes brings excessive snowfall in Japan, especially on the East Sea/Sea of Japan coastal and mountain areas through intensified northwesterly cold winds caused by La-Niña related atmospheric teleconnection. Meanwhile, snowfall events also increase in the Pacific coast area of Japan during the El Niño state due to extratropical cyclones passing along the south coast of Japan (hereafter referred to as South-coast cyclone). In the present study, we investigated year-to-year snowfall/rainfall variations based on meteorological station data and cyclone tracks identified by using the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis. The result clearly indicates increase of the South-coast cyclone during El Niño-developing winters, which is consistent with excessive snow-fall in the northern part of the Pacific coast. Strong subtropical jet hampers cyclogenesis due to less vertical interaction through the trapping of upper-level eddies. During El Niño-developing winters, the subtropical jet is weakened over East Asia, indicating dynamic linkage to increased cyclone frequency. In addition to this, both the deepening of the upper-tropospheric trough over East Asia and anomalous low-tropospheric northwest anticyclones extending from the Philippines toward Japan are also consistent with the enhancement of cyclogenesis over the East China Sea as well as warm winter in Japan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0025-4
      Issue No: Vol. 53, No. 2 (2017)
  • A linear projection for the timing of unprecedented climate in Korea
    • Authors: Ho-Jeong Shin; Chan Joo Jang; Il-Ung Chung
      Abstract: Recently we have had abnormal weather events world-wide that are attributed by climate scientists to the global warming induced by human activities. If the global warming continues in the future and such events occur more frequently and someday become normal, we will have an unprecedented climate. This study intends to answer when we will have an unprecedented warm climate, focusing more on the regional characteristics of the timing of unprecedented climate. Using an in-situ observational data from weather stations of annual-mean surface air temperature in Korea from 1973 to 2015, we estimate a timing of unprecedented climate with a linear regression method. Based on the in-situ data with statistically significant warming trends at 95% confidence level, an unprecedented climate in Korea is projected to occur first in Cheongju by 2043 and last in Haenam by 2168. This 125-year gap in the timing indicates that a regional difference in timing of unprecedented climate is considerably large in Korea. Despite the high sensitivity of linear estimation to the data period and resolution, our findings on the large regional difference in timing of unprecedented climate can give an insight into making policies for climate change mitigation and adaptation, not only for the central government but for provincial governments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0044-1
  • Effect of data assimilation parameters on the optimized surface CO 2 flux
           in Asia
    • Authors: Hyunjung Kim; Hyun Mee Kim; Jinwoong Kim; Chun-Ho Cho
      Abstract: In this study, CarbonTracker, an inverse modeling system based on the ensemble Kalman filter, was used to evaluate the effects of data assimilation parameters (assimilation window length and ensemble size) on the estimation of surface CO2 fluxes in Asia. Several experiments with different parameters were conducted, and the results were verified using CO2 concentration observations. The assimilation window lengths tested were 3, 5, 7, and 10 weeks, and the ensemble sizes were 100, 150, and 300. Therefore, a total of 12 experiments using combinations of these parameters were conducted. The experimental period was from January 2006 to December 2009. Differences between the optimized surface CO2 fluxes of the experiments were largest in the Eurasian Boreal (EB) area, followed by Eurasian Temperate (ET) and Tropical Asia (TA), and were larger in boreal summer than in boreal winter. The effect of ensemble size on the optimized biosphere flux is larger than the effect of the assimilation window length in Asia, but the importance of them varies in specific regions in Asia. The optimized biosphere flux was more sensitive to the assimilation window length in EB, whereas it was sensitive to the ensemble size as well as the assimilation window length in ET. The larger the ensemble size and the shorter the assimilation window length, the larger the uncertainty (i.e., spread of ensemble) of optimized surface CO2 fluxes. The 10-week assimilation window and 300 ensemble size were the optimal configuration for CarbonTracker in the Asian region based on several verifications using CO2 concentration measurements.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0049-9
  • Soil temperature response in Korea to a changing climate using a land
           surface model
    • Authors: Seon Ki Park; O. Sungmin; Claudio Cassardo
      Abstract: The land surface processes play an important role in weather and climate systems through its regulation of radiation, heat, water and momentum fluxes. Soil temperature (ST) is one of the most important parameters in the land surface processes; however, there are few extensive measurements of ST with a long time series in the world. According to the CLImatology of Parameters at the Surface (CLIPS) methodology, the output of a trusted Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) scheme can be utilized instead of observations to investigate the regional climate of interest. In this study, ST in South Korea is estimated in a view of future climate using the output from a trusted SVAT scheme — the University of TOrino model of land Process Interaction with Atmosphere (UTOPIA), which is driven by a regional climate model. Here characteristic changes in ST are analyzed under the IPCC A2 future climate for 2046—2055 and 2091—2100, and are compared with those under the reference climate for 1996—2005. The UTOPIA results were validated using the observed ST in the reference climate, and the model proved to produce reasonable ST in South Korea. The UTOPIA simulations indicate that ST increases due to environmental change, especially in air temperature (AT), in the future climate. The increment of ST is proportional to that of AT except for winter. In wintertime, the ST variations are different from region to region mainly due to variations in snow cover, which keeps ST from significant changes by the climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0048-x
  • Influences of spring-to-summer sea surface temperatures over different
           Indian Ocean domains on the Asian summer monsoon
    • Authors: Zhenning Li; Song Yang
      Abstract: The influences of spring-to-summer sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in different domains of the Indian Ocean (IO) on the Asian summer monsoon are investigated by conducting a series of numerical experiments using the NCAR CAM4 model. It is found that, to a certain extent, the springtime IO SST anomalies can persist to the summer season. The spring-to-summer IO SST anomalies associated with the IO basin warming mode are strongly linked to the summer climate over Asia, especially the South Asian monsoon (SAM) and the East Asian monsoon. Among this connection, the warming of tropical IO plays the most critical role, and the warming of southern IO is important for monsoon variation and prediction prior to the full development of the monsoon. The atmospheric response to IO basin wide warming is similar with that to tropical IO warming. The influence of northern IO warming on the SAM, however, is opposite to the effect of southern IO warming. Meanwhile, the discrepancies between the results from idealized SST forcing simulations and observations, especially for the southern IO, reveal that the dominant role of air-sea interaction in the monsoon-IO coupled system cannot be ignored. Moreover, the springtime northern IO warming seems to favor an early onset or a stronger persistence of the SAM.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0050-3
  • Chemical composition based aerosol optical properties according to size
           distribution and mixture types during smog and Asian dust events in Seoul,
    • Authors: Chang Hoon Jung; Ji Yi Lee; Junshik Um; Seung Soo Lee; Yong Pyo Kim
      Abstract: This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0053-0
  • Atmospheric temporal variations in the pre-landfall environment of typhoon
           Nangka (2015) observed by the Himawari-8 AHI
    • Authors: Yong-Keun Lee; Jun Li; Zhenglong Li; Timothy Schmit
      Abstract: The next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R series (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) legacy atmospheric profile (LAP) retrieval algorithm is applied to the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) radiance measurements from the Himawari-8 satellite. Derived products included atmospheric temperature/moisture profiles, total precipitable water (TPW), and atmospheric stability indices. Since both AHI and ABI have 9 similar infrared bands, the GOES-R ABI LAP retrieval algorithm can be applied to the AHI measurements with minimal modifications. With the capability of frequent (10-min interval) full disk observations over the East Asia and Western Pacific regions, the AHI measurements are used to investigate the atmospheric temporal variation in the pre-landfall environment for typhoon Nangka (2015). Before its landfall over Japan, heavy rainfalls from Nangka occurred over the southern region of Honshu Island. During the pre-landfall period, the trends of the AHI LAP products indicated the development of the atmospheric environment favorable for heavy rainfall. Even though, the AHI LAP products are generated only in the clear skies, the 10-minute interval AHI measurements provide detailed information on the pre-landfall environment for typhoon Nangka. This study shows the capability of the AHI radiance measurements, together with the derived products, for depicting the detailed temporal features of the pre-landfall environment of a typhoon, which may also be possible for hurricanes and storms with ABI on the GOES-R satellite.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0046-z
  • Distributional changes in rainfall and river flow in Sarawak, Malaysia
    • Authors: Zulfaqar Sa’adi; Shamsuddin Shahid; Tarmizi Ismail; Eun-Sung Chung; Xiao-Jun Wang
      Abstract: Climate change may not change the rainfall mean, but the variability and extremes. Therefore, it is required to explore the possible distributional changes of rainfall characteristics over time. The objective of present study is to assess the distributional changes in annual and northeast monsoon rainfall (November-January) and river flow in Sarawak where small changes in rainfall or river flow variability/distribution may have severe implications on ecology and agriculture. A quantile regression-based approach was used to assess the changes of scale and location of empirical probability density function over the period 1980–2014 at 31 observational stations. The results indicate that diverse variation patterns exist at all stations for annual rainfall but mainly increasing quantile trend at the lowers, and higher quantiles for the month of January and December. The significant increase in annual rainfall is found mostly in the north and central-coastal region and monsoon month rainfalls in the interior and north of Sarawak. Trends in river flow data show that changes in rainfall distribution have affected higher quantiles of river flow in monsoon months at some of the basins and therefore more flooding. The study reveals that quantile trend can provide more information of rainfall change which may be useful for climate change mitigation and adaptation planning.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0051-2
  • Marginal sea surface temperature variation as a pre-cursor of heat waves
           over the Korean Peninsula
    • Authors: Yoo-Geun Ham; Hye-Yun Na
      Abstract: This study examines the role of the marginal sea surface temperature (SST) on heat waves over Korea. It is found that sea surface warming in the south sea of Korea/Japan (122–138°E, 24–33°N) causes heat waves after about a week. Due to the frictional force, the positive geopotential height anomalies associated with the south sea warming induce divergent flows over the boundary layer. This divergent flow induces the southerly in Korea, which leads to a positive temperature advection. On the other hand, over the free-atmosphere, the geostrophic wind around high-pressure anomalies flows in a westerly direction over Korea during the south sea warming, which is not effective in temperature advection. Therefore, the positive temperature advection in Korea due to the south sea warming decreases with height. This reduces the vertical potential temperature gradient, which indicates a negative potential vorticity (PV) tendency over Korea. Therefore, the high-pressure anomaly over the south sea of Korea is propagated northward, which results in heat waves due to more incoming solar radiation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0047-y
  • Applying a coupled hydrometeorological simulation system to flash flood
           forecasting over the Korean Peninsula
    • Authors: Young Ryu; Yoon-Jin Lim; Hee-Sook Ji; Hyun-Hee Park; Eun-Chul Chang; Baek-Jo Kim
      Abstract: In flash flood forecasting, it is necessary to consider not only traditional meteorological variables such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture, but also hydrological components such as streamflow. To address this challenge, the application of high resolution coupled atmospheric-hydrological models is emerging as a promising alternative. This study demonstrates the feasibility of linking a coupled atmospheric-hydrological model (WRF/WRF-Hydro) with 150-m horizontal grid spacing for flash flood forecasting in Korea. The study area is the Namgang Dam basin in Southern Korea, a mountainous area located downstream of Jiri Mountain (1915 m in height). Under flash flood conditions, the simulated precipitation over the entire basin is comparable to the domain-averaged precipitation, but discharge data from WRF-Hydro shows some differences in the total available water and the temporal distribution of streamflow (given by the timing of the streamflow peak following precipitation), compared to observations. On the basis of sensitivity tests, the parameters controlling the infiltration of excess precipitation and channel roughness depending on stream order are refined and their influence on temporal distribution of streamflow is addressed with intent to apply WRF-Hydro to flash flood forecasting in the Namgang Dam basin. The simulation results from the WRF-Hydro model with optimized parameters demonstrate the potential utility of a coupled atmospheric-hydrological model for forecasting heavy rain-induced flash flooding over the Korean Peninsula.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0045-0
  • A hail climatology in Mongolia
    • Authors: Jambajamts Lkhamjav; Han-Gyul Jin; Hyunho Lee; Jong-Jin Baik
      Abstract: The temporal and spatial characteristics of hail frequency in Mongolia are examined using the hail observation data from 61 meteorological observatories for 1984–2013. The annual number of hail days averaged over all observatories and the entire period is 0.74. It exhibits a decreasing trend, particularly since 1993 with a rate of decrease of 0.214 per decade. Hail occurrence is concentrated in summer, with 72% of the total hail days occurring in June, July, and August. Moreover, hail occurrence is concentrated in the afternoon and early evening, with 89% of the total hail events occurring between 1200 and 2100 local standard time (LST). Spatially, observatories where relatively frequent hail events are observed are concentrated in the north central region where almost all of the land is mountainous or covered by grassland, whereas relatively less frequent hail events are observed in the southern desert region. The relationship between hail frequency and thermodynamic factors including the convective available potential energy (CAPE), the temperature lapse rate between 700 and 500 hPa, the water vapor mixing ratio averaged over the lowest 100 hPa layer, and the freezing-level height is examined using the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. It is found that in summer, CAPE and the low-level water vapor mixing ratio are larger on hail days than on all days, but there is no clear relationship between hail frequency and the 700-500 hPa temperature lapse rate. It is also found that annually, CAPE and the low-level water vapor mixing ratio decrease, while the freezing-level height increases, which seems to be responsible for the annually decreasing trend of hail frequency in Mongolia.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13143-017-0052-1
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