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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Acta Oceanologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.295]   [H-I: 17]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0253-505X - ISSN (Online) 1869-1099
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The analysis of gales over the “Maritime Silk Road” with
           remote sensing data
    • Authors: Yuanxin Liu; Xiaobin Yin; Youping Xu
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Abstract The 21st century “Maritime Silk Road” strategy is a significant part of the belt and road initiatives of China. The cognition and investigation of ocean environment is essential and necessary in these regions which will provide scientific reference for many fields such as navigation, ocean engineering, and disaster prevent and reduction. A high-resolution cross-calibrated multi-platform wind product is used to analyze gales over the Maritime Silk Road. The yearly mean speed and space distribution of gale, and the frequencies and trends of gale and extreme wind speed are analyzed. The results show that relatively high pools of gale are mainly located in the waters of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Sea, Indo-China Peninsula sea area, and Bay of Bengal in the summer. The gale frequency of the Somali Sea is more than 90%. Overall, the gale days increase year by year in the majority of the South China Sea and the northern Indian Ocean, especially in the autumn and the winter.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1106-z
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • A case study of the consistency problem in the inverse estimation
    • Authors: Yanzhou Wei; Xianbiao Kang; Yuhua Pei
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Abstract Inverse technique is a widely used method in oceanography, but it has a problem that the retrieved solutions often violate model prior assumptions. To tune the model has consistent solutions, an iteration approach, which successively utilizes the posterior statistics for next round inverse estimation, is introduced and tested from a real case study. It is found that the consistency may become elusive as the determinants of solution and noise covariance matrices become zero in the iteration process. However, after several steps of such operation, the difference between posterior statistics and the model prior ones can be gradually reduced.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1110-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • The biogeographical distribution of tree species-abundance and its
           relation to climatic factors in mass islands
    • Authors: Xiaoming Li; Chengzhen Wu; Wu Gu; Ran Ye; Haibo Zhang; Ping Qi; Shengqiang Wang; Siying Zhou; Yongjie Wei; Yanhong Cai
      Pages: 87 - 90
      Abstract: Abstract Tree species-abundance in forests is a function of geographical area and climate, although it is not clear whether such relationships apply to mass islands. We examined the spatial pattern of tree species in mass islands along the coast of Zhejiang, East China Sea using the Preston model, to identify the relationships between tree communities and climatic conditions. The results show that: (1) the biogeographical distribution of tree species-abundance conformes to Preston’s log-normal pattern, and is in accordance with the findings in both tropical rainforests and estuarine forests; (2) the climatic factors related to tree communities in mass islands are similar to that of the subtropical zone, including the major species of evergreen needle-leaf, broad-leaf and deciduous broad-leaf forests. We conclude that the Preston model can be applied to the trees of mass islands and thus facilitate the systematic ecological researches of vegetation species’ composition in subtropical zone.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1103-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • An ocean current inversion accuracy analysis based on a Doppler spectrum
           model
    • Authors: Qingliu Bao; Youguang Zhang; Mingsen Lin; Peng Gong
      Pages: 101 - 107
      Abstract: Abstract Microwave remote sensing is one of the most useful methods for observing the ocean parameters. The Doppler frequency or interferometric phase of the radar echoes can be used for an ocean surface current speed retrieval, which is widely used in spaceborne and airborne radars. While the effect of the ocean currents and waves is interactional. It is impossible to retrieve the ocean surface current speed from Doppler frequency shift directly. In order to study the relationship between the ocean surface current speed and the Doppler frequency shift, a numerical ocean surface Doppler spectrum model is established and validated with a reference. The input parameters of ocean Doppler spectrum include an ocean wave elevation model, a directional distribution function, and wind speed and direction. The suitable ocean wave elevation spectrum and the directional distribution function are selected by comparing the ocean Doppler spectrum in C band with an empirical geophysical model function (CDOP). What is more, the error sensitivities of ocean surface current speed to the wind speed and direction are analyzed. All these simulations are in Ku band. The simulation results show that the ocean surface current speed error is sensitive to the wind speed and direction errors. With VV polarization, the ocean surface current speed error is about 0.15 m/s when the wind speed error is 2 m/s, and the ocean surface current speed error is smaller than 0.3 m/s when the wind direction error is within 20° in the cross wind direction.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1115-y
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Nonparametric estimations of the sea state bias for a radar altimeter
    • Authors: Hongli Miao; Yujie Jing; Yongjun Jia; Mingsen Lin; Guoshou Zhang; Guizhong Wang
      Pages: 108 - 113
      Abstract: Abstract To estimate the sea state bias (SSB) for radar altimeter, two nonparametric models, including a Nadaraya-Watson (NW) kernel estimator and a local linear regression (LLR) estimator, are studied based on the Jason-2 altimeter data. Selecting from different combinations of the Gaussian kernel function, spherical Epanechnikov kernel function, a fixed bandwidth and a local adjustable bandwidth, it is observed that the LLR method with the spherical Epanechnikov kernel function and the local adjustable bandwidth is the optimal nonparametric model for the SSB estimation. The comparisons between the nonparametric and parametric models are conducted and the results show that the nonparametric model performs relatively better at high-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. This method has been applied to the HY-2A altimeter as well and the same conclusion can be obtained.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1116-x
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Seasonal and inter-annual variations of Arctic cyclones and their linkage
           with Arctic sea ice and atmospheric teleconnections
    • Authors: Lixin Wei; Ting Qin; Cheng Li
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Abstract The seasonal and inter-annual variations of Arctic cyclone are investigated. An automatic cyclone tracking algorithm developed by University of Reading was applied on the basis of European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-interim mean sea level pressure field with 6 h interval for 34 a period. The maximum number of the Arctic cyclones is counted in winter, and the minimum is in spring not in summer. About 50% of Arctic cyclones in summer generated from south of 70°N, moving into the Arctic. The number of Arctic cyclones has large inter-annual and seasonal variabilities, but no significant linear trend is detected for the period 1979–2012. The spatial distribution and linear trends of the Arctic cyclones track density show that the cyclone activity extent is the widest in summer with significant increasing trend in CRU (central Russia) subregion, and the largest track density is in winter with decreasing trend in the same subregion. The linear regressions between the cyclone track density and large-scale indices for the same period and pre-period sea ice area indices show that Arctic cyclone activities are closely linked to large-scale atmospheric circulations, such as Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA). Moreover, the pre-period sea ice area is significantly associated with the cyclone activities in some regions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1117-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Biomarker assessments of sources and environmental implications of organic
           matter in sediments from potential cold seep areas of the northeastern
           South China Sea
    • Authors: Ling Ding; Meixun Zhao; Meng Yu; Li Li; Chi-Yue Huang
      Pages: 8 - 19
      Abstract: Abstract Multi-biomarker indexes were analyzed for two piston cores from potential cold seep areas of the South China Sea off southwestern Taiwan. Total organic carbon (TOC) normalized terrestrial (n-alkanes) and marine (brassicasterol, dinosterol, alkenones and iso-GDGTs) biomarker contents and ratios (TMBR, 1/P mar-aq, BIT) were used to evaluate the contributions of terrestrial and marine organic matter (TOM and MOM respectively) to the sedimentary organic matter, indicating that MOM dominated the organic sources in Core MD052911 and the sedimentary organic matter in Core ORI-860-22 was mainly derived from terrestrial inputs, and different morphologies were the likely reason for TOM percentage differences. BIT results suggested that river-transported terrestrial soil organic matter was not a major source of TOM of sedimentary organic matter around these settings. Diagnostic biomarkers for methane-oxidizing archaea (MOA) were only detected in one sample at 172 cm depth of Core ORI-860-22, with abnormally high iso-GDGTs content and Methane Index (MI) value (0.94). These results indicated high anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) activities at or around 172 cm in Core ORI-860-22. However in Core MD052911, MOA biomarkers were not detected and MI values were lower (0.19–0.38), indicated insignificant contributions of iso-GDGTs from methanotrophic archaea and the absence of significant AOM activities. Biomarker results thus indicated that the discontinuous upward methane seepage and insufficient methane flux could not induce high AOM activities in our sampling sites. In addition, the different patterns of TEX86 and Uk′ 37 temperature in two cores suggested that AOM activities affected TEX86 temperature estimates with lower values in Core ORI-860-22, but not significantly on TEX86 temperature estimates in Core MD052911.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1068-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Diatom distribution and its relationship to sediment property in the
           Minjiang Estuary, southeast China
    • Authors: Linnan Shen; Aiguo Gao; Chao Li; Min Chen
      Pages: 20 - 30
      Abstract: Abstract The distribution of diatoms in surface sediments in the Minjiang Estuary, southeast China, was investigated in 2009. Total 56 species and other species belonging to 25 genera were identified, among them 11 species were dominant over 5%. Dominant species included Actinocyclus ehrenbergii, Coscinodiscus curvatulus, C. divisus, C. jonesianus, C. radiatus, C. rothii, C. subtilis, Cyclotella stylorum, Epithemia hyndmanii, Hydrosera whampoensis, and Trachyneis aspera. Diatom abundance varied spatially, with the absolute abundance of diatoms ranging from 13 valves/g to 11×104 valves/g, and averaging 2.5×104 valves/g. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to explain the relationships between diatom distribution and sediment properties in the Minjiang Estuary. CCA revealed that the major elements (Fe2O3, Na2O, CaO, MgO, TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3, and K2O) were closely related to diatom abundance. Four diatom assemblages were distinguished, representing different sediment properties, which may assist late Quaternary palaeoceanographic reconstructions of the Minjiang Estuary.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1070-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Stocking density effects on growth and stress response of juvenile turbot
           ( Scophthalmus maximus ) reared in land-based recirculating aquaculture
           system
    • Authors: Baoliang Liu; Rui Jia; Kuifeng Zhao; Guowen Wang; Jilin Lei; Bin Huang
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Abstract Stocking density is widely recognized as a critical factor in aquaculture and a potential source of long-term stress. The influence of stocking density on growth and stress response of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, ~3–75 g, initial to final weight) was examined in fish held under low (LD, ~0.21–5.31 kg/m2, initial to final density), medium (MD, ~0.42–10.81 kg/m2) and high stocking density (HD, ~0.63–14.27 kg/m2) for 120 days in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this trial, the growth curve for weight of juvenile turbot in RAS, all fitted by the Schnute model. No significant difference was found in growth performance among the three densities until at the final sampling (Day 120). The final weight and body weight increase (BWI) in the HD group were significantly lower than in other groups (P<0.05, weight: (75.83±2.49) g, (75.39±2.08) g, (65.72±2.86) g and BWI: (2 436.12±28.10)%, (2 421.29±4.64)%, (2 097.88±20.99)% in LD, MD and HD groups, respectively). Similarly, the specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and coefficient of variation for weight (CV w) were adversely affected by high stocking density (P<0.05). However, there was no difference in survival and Fulton’s condition factor (K) of turbot among the different groups. Physiological analyses demonstrated a clear increase in the plasma cortisol level and an obvious decrease in growth hormone (GH) concentration in the HD group on Day 120 (P<0.05). There was no significant effect of stocking density on plasma glucose, Cl– and protein levels. All these findings would provide a reference for selecting the optimal stocking density of juvenile turbot in RAS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0976-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Biological responses of small yellow croaker ( Larimichthys polyactis ) to
           multiple stressors: a case study in the Yellow Sea, China
    • Authors: Xiujuan Shan; Xiansen Li; Tao Yang; S M Sharifuzzaman; Guozheng Zhang; Xianshi Jin; Fangqun Dai
      Pages: 39 - 47
      Abstract: Abstract Temporal changes in biological characteristics of small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis in the Yellow Sea were examined for the period of 1960–2008. The body size and age of small yellow croaker decreased substantially, in particular, average length of fish in 2008 was reduced by ~85% than those occurring in 1985, and at that time ~93% of the total catch was dominated by one-year-old individuals. Correspondingly, growth parameters also varied significantly over the years, i.e., k (growth coefficient) and t 0 (zero-length age) gradually increased from 0.26 and–0.58 year in 1960 to 0.56 and–0.25 year in 2008, respectively. Although, L∞ (body length) sharply decreased from 34.21 cm in 1960 to 24.06 cm in 2008, and t r (inflexion age) decreased from 3.78 year in 1960 to 1.61 year in 2008. There was a great increase both in natural mortality coefficient and fishing mortality coefficient. However, according to the gray correlation analysis, changes in the biological characteristics of small yellow croaker were induced by different stressors ranked as: fishing vessel power>feeding grade>sea surface temperature. This study suggests that the active fishery management measures for biological characters of fish populations should be considered.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1091-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Impacts of oceanographic factors on interannual variability of the
           winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid abundance in the Northwest
           Pacific Ocean
    • Authors: Wei Yu; Xinjun Chen; Changsheng Chen; Yu Zhang
      Pages: 48 - 59
      Abstract: The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is an economically important species in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The life cycle of O. bartramii is highly susceptible to climatic and oceanic factors. In this study, we have examined the impacts of climate variability and local biophysical environments on the interannual variability of the abundance of the western winter-spring cohort of O. bartramii over the period of 1995–2011. The results showed that the squid had experienced alternant positive and negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) over the past 17 years during which five El Niño and eight La Niña events occurred. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) was positively correlated with the PDO index (P
      DOI ) at a one-year time lag. An abnormally warm temperature during the La Niña years over the positive PDO phase provided favorable oceanographic conditions for the habitats of O. bartramii, whereas a lower temperature on the fishing ground during the El Niño years over the negative PDO phase generally corresponded to a low CPUE. The same correlation was also found between CPUE and Chl a concentration anomaly. A possible explanation was proposed that the CPUE was likely related to the climateinduced variability of the large-scale circulation in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: high squid abundance often occurred in a year with a significant northward meander of the Kuroshio Current. The Kuroshio Current advected the warmer and food-rich waters into the fishing ground, and multiple meso-scale eddies arising from current instability enhanced the food retention on the fishing ground, all of which were favorable for the life stage development of the western squid stocks. Our results help better understand the potential process that the climatic and oceanographic factors affect the abundance of the winter-spring cohort of O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • A mass balanced model of trophic structure and energy flows of a
           semi-closed marine ecosystem
    • Authors: Dongyan Han; Ying Xue; Chongliang Zhang; Yiping Ren
      Pages: 60 - 69
      Abstract: Abstract The marine ecosystem of the Jiaozhou Bay has degraded significantly in fisheries productivity and its ecological roles as spawning and nursery ground for many species of commercial importance has been declining in recent years. A mass-balanced trophic model was developed using Ecopath with Ecosim to evaluate the trophic structure of the Jiaozhou Bay for improving ecosystem management. The model were parameterized based on the fisheries survey data in the Jiaozhou Bay in 2011, including 23 species groups and one detritus group according to their ecological roles. The trophic levels of these ecological groups ranged from 1 (primary producers and detritus) to 4.3 (large demersal fishes). The estimated total system throughput was 12 917.10 t/(km2·a), with 74.59% and 25.41% contribution of the total energy flows from phytoplankton and detritus, respectively. Network analyses showed that the overall transfer efficiency of the ecosystem was 14.4%, and the mean transfer efficiency was 14.5% for grazing food chain and 13.9% for detritus food chain. The system omnivory index (SOI), Finn’s cycled index (FCI) and connectance index (CI) were relatively low in this area while the total primary production/total respiration (TPP/TR) was high, indicating an immature and unstable status of the Jiaozhou Bay ecosystem. Mixed trophic impact analysis revealed that the cultured shellfish had substantial negative impacts on most functional groups. This study contributed to ecosystem-level evaluation and management planning of the Jiaozhou Bay ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1071-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Fouling community characteristics in subtropical coastal waters of the
           southwestern East China Sea
    • Authors: Heshan Lin; Jianjun Wang; Wei Liu; Kun Liu; Shuyi Zhang; Xuebao He; Yaqin Huang; Junhui Lin; Jianfeng Mou; Chengxing Zheng; Tao Yan
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Abstract A fouling study was conducted in coastal waters southwest of the East China Sea between December 2013 and November 2014. A total of 84 species of fouling organisms belonging to 69 genera, 49 families, and 10 phyla were recorded over the entire year. The community composition was dominated by coastal warm-water species belonging to typical subtropical inner bay communities. The prosperous stage of settlement lasted from April to September, and the adhesion strength of the fouling organisms was the highest in summer. Sessile suspension feeders constituted the main core of settlement for the fouling community. Amphibalanus reticulatus was the most dominant and representative species of fouling organism, and other dominant species included Caprella equilibra, Ectopleura crocea, Anthopleura nigrescens, Stylochus ijimai, Spirobranchus kraussii, Crassostrea angulata, Perna viridis, Jassa falcata, Stenothoe valida, Sphaerozius nitidus, and Biflustra grandicella. The individuals in the fouling community showed a mutual dependence or constraint relationship due to competition for settlement space and food, and they exhibited a particular spatiotemporal distribution in accordance with adaptation to environmental factors. Temperature was the most important environmental factor determining the geographic distribution of fouling organisms. The temperature characteristics of species essentially reflect the differences in the fouling community composition in various climate zones. The species number, settlement stage, and settlement rate of fouling organisms are closely related to water temperature. Local natural environmental conditions (salinity, water currents, light, etc.) as well as human activity (such as aquaculture production) are all important factors affecting the settlement of fouling organisms.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1007-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Nematode community structure in relation to metals in the southern of
           Caspian Sea
    • Authors: Kazem Darvish Bastami; Mehrshad Taheri; Maryam Yazdani Foshtomi; Sarah Haghparast; Ali Hamzehpour; Hossein Bagheri; Marjan Esmaeilzadeh; Neda Molamohyeddin
      Pages: 79 - 86
      Abstract: Abstract Spatial distribution and structure of nematode assemblages in coastal sediments of the southern part of the Caspian Sea were studied in relation to environmental factors. By considering metals, organic matter, Shannon diversity index (H), maturity index (MI) and trophic diversity (ITD), ecological quality status of sediment was also determined. Fifteen nematode species belonging to eleven genera were identified at the sampling sites. Average density of nematode inhabiting in sediment of the studied area was 139.78±98.91 (ind. per 15.20 cm2). According to redundancy analysis (RDA), there was high correlation between metals and some species. Based on biological indicators, the studied area had different environmental quality. Generally, chemical and biological indices showed different results while biological indices displayed similar results in more sites.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1051-x
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Striking taxonomic differences in summer zooplankton in the northern South
           China Sea: implication of an extreme cold anomaly
    • Authors: Xiping Lian; Yehui Tan; Liangmin Huang; Linbin Zhou
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Abstract An extreme persistent cold anomaly was prevailing in the South China Sea in February 2008. In order to understand the effect of the cold anomaly on zooplankton community, the zooplankton composition, abundance and biomass were analyzed in the northern South China Sea in August 2007 and August 2008. A total of 467 zooplankton species representing 16 groups were identified, with 275 species in August 2007 and 351 in August 2008. Copepods were the most dominant zooplankton group in the study area. Compared with 2007, a dramatic decline was observed in the abundance of four dominant copepod species: Subeucalanus subcrassus, Temora discaudata, Nannocalanus minor and Temora turbinata in 2008. Moreover, zooplankton abundance declined from 133.37 ind./m3 in August 2007 to 75.49 ind./m3 in August 2008. In contrast, the abundance of medusa, such as Diphyes chamissonis, and tunicate, such as Doliolum denticulatum and Dolioletta gegenbauri, increased during the same season. Cluster analysis showed that there was a difference in zooplankton community structure between the two years. These variations in zooplankton communities were indicative of an anomalous oceanographic condition along with the extreme cold event in 2008.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0975-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Size fraction of phytoplankton and the contribution of natural plankton to
           the carbon source of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri in mariculture
           ecosystem of the Sanggou Bay
    • Authors: Zengjie Jiang; Meirong Du; Jinghui Fang; Yaping Gao; Jiaqi Li; Li Zhao; Jianguang Fang
      Pages: 97 - 105
      Abstract: Abstract The biomass and size fraction of phytoplankton in terms of chlorophyll a (Chl a) was measured during four cruises conducted in April, July, October 2013 and January 2014 in mariculture area, the Sanggou Bay, China. Results show that total Chl a levels in the surface seawater of the Sanggou Bay generally range from 0.10 to 20.46 μg/L, with an average value of 2.13 μg/L. Nano-phytoplankton was the most important size-fraction and accounted for about 65.1% of total Chl a. In order to evaluate the importance of the “protozoan trophic link” for energy transfer from the microbial loop to filter-feeding feeders, Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was then offered a natural planktonic community as potential prey. Results show that scallops obtained carbon source from natural plankton with the rate of 11 033.05 μg/(g·d). Protists (nanoflagellates and ciliates) were the dominant source of carbon retained by scallop (48.78%). The microbial loop provided 58.45% of the carbon source for farmed scallops. These results indicate that the microbial loop represent a valuable trophic resource in mariculture system of the Sanggou Bay.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0970-x
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Development of a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray for the detection of
           marine bacterioplankton community
    • Authors: Wei Zhao; Jingjing Wang; Yajie Liang; Zhiyong Huang
      Pages: 106 - 114
      Abstract: Abstract A better understanding of bacterioplankton community shifts following change in marine environments is critical to predict the marine ecosystem function. In order to get a snapshot of the microbial taxonomy profiling of a wide range marine area, a quick, convenient and low cost method would be favorable. In this study, we developed a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray using ARB software, which contained 447 probes targeting 160 families of marine bacteria. The specificity, sensitivity and quantitative capability of this microarray were assessed by single cloned 16S rRNA genes. The reliability of this microarray was tested by eight environmental samples. The results showed that the microarray was specific, only 1.16% false results were detected in five single-clone hybridization tests. The microarray could detect DNA samples as few as 1 ng/μL and the signal intensity could reflect the relative abundance of the bacteria in the range of 1 ng/μL to 100 ng/μL of DNA concentration. Hybridization with environmental samples showed that it can discriminate bacterioplankton communities by sites and time. High throughput sequencing results from the eight samples confirmed the hybridization results. It indicated that this developed microarray could be used as a convenient tool to monitor the bacterioplankton community in marine environment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1055-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi : an endosymbiont in the marine
           parasitic ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans
    • Authors: Ying Qiao; Jun Wang; Yong Mao; Min Liu; Ruanni Chen; Yongquan Su; Qiaozhen Ke; Kunhuang Han; Weiqiang Zheng
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: Abstract Vibrio harveyi, known as a pathogenic bacterium caused severe secondary bacterial infections of the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, was identified as an endosymbiont in the marine parasitic ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans. Meta 16S sequencing method was used to identify the bacterial flora in C. irritans, and V. harveyi was isolated via culture-dependent method. Vibrio harveyi was observed in cytoplasm of C. irritans at the stage of tomont both by transmission electron microscopy and by Fluorescence in situ hybridization; no signal, however, was detected in nucleus area. The relationship between V. harveyi and C. irritans and the role of endosymbiotic V. harveyi in C. irritans merit further investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1050-y
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • China is making significant progress in the nomenclature of international
           undersea features
    • Authors: Chengbing Song; Yang Zhou; Yi Luo
      Pages: 120 - 121
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1119-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Molecular cloning, expression pattern and phylogenetic analysis of Guanine
           nucleotide exchange factor Vav2 in lamprey, Lampetra japonica
    • Authors: Yinglun Han; Jun Li; Lei Xu; Qinghua Ma; Meng Gou; Yue Pang; Xin Liu; Qingwei Li
      Abstract: Abstract The Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2 (Vav2) is a member of the Vav family that serves as an important regulators for the Rho family of Ras-related GTPases. In the current study, an ortholog (Lj-Vav2) of Vav2 was identified in the lamprey (Lampetra japonica). To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship of Vav2, the metazoan genome databases were analyzed to mine the ortholog of Vav. It was found that Vav2 genes were only existed in vertebrates and Lj-Vav2 was the original one found in agnathans. The evolutionary dynamics of conserved motifs of Vav2 were explored using combined amino acid sequence as markers, and it is revealed that the Calponin homology (CH) domain, Dbl-homologous (DH) domain, Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, Cysteine-rich (C1) domains, Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain were conserved throughout the Vav2 gene family in vertebrates during gene evolution. Relative quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the Lj-Vav2 was distributed in the heart, kidney, supraneural myeloid body, liver, gill and lymphocyte-like cells. The Lj-Vav2 was found to be expressed in these tissues, and the level of which was upregulated in lymphocyte-like cells after the animal was stimulated with LPS. These results indicated that the Lj-Vav2 might be involved in the immune response of lymphocyte-like cells in lamprey. Meanwhile, our findings provided a foundation for further investigation of the function of Lj-Vav2 in the primary vertebrate.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1095-y
       
 
 
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