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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Oceanologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.295]   [H-I: 17]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0253-505X - ISSN (Online) 1869-1099
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • China Argo project: progress in China Argo ocean observations and data
    • Authors: Zenghong Liu; Xiaofen Wu; Jianping Xu; Hong Li; Shaolei Lu; Chaohui Sun; Minjie Cao
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: This paper reviews the current achievements of the China Argo project. It considers aspects of both the construction of the Argo observing array, float technology, and the quality control and sharing of its data. The developments of associated data products and data applications for use in the fields of ocean, atmosphere, and climate research are discussed, particularly those related to tropical cyclones (typhoons), ocean circulation, mesoscale eddies, turbulence, oceanic heat/salt storage and transportation, water masses, and operational oceanic/atmospheric/climatic forecasts and predictions. Finally, the challenges and opportunities involved in the long-term maintenance and sustained development of the China Argo ocean observation network are outlined. Discussion also focuses on the necessity for increasing the number of floats in the Indian Ocean and for expanding the regional Argo observation network in the South China Sea, together with the importance of promoting the use of Argo data by the maritime countries of Southeast Asia and India.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1035-x
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Vertical development of a Prorocentrum donghaiense bloom in the coastal
           waters of the East China Sea: coupled biophysical numerical modeling
    • Authors: Ke Sun; Zhongfeng Qiu; Yijun He; Wei Fan; Zexun Wei
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: Algal blooms caused by Prorocentrum donghaiense occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) during spring in recent years. In this study, a coupled biophysical model was used to hindcast a massive P. donghaiense bloom that occurred in 2005 and to determine the factors influencing bloom initiation and development. The model comprised the Regional Ocean Modeling System tailored for the ECS that utilized a multi-nested configuration and a population dynamics model for P. donghaiense. Comparisons between simulations and observations revealed that the biological model is capable of reproducing the characteristics of P. donghaiense growth under different irradiances and phosphorus limitation scenarios. The variation of intracellular phosphorus and the effects of P. donghaiense on ambient nutrients conditions were also reproduced. The biophysical model hindcasted the hydrodynamics and spatiotemporal distributions of the P. donghaiense bloom reasonably well. Bloom development was consistent with observations reported in earlier studies. The results demonstrate the capability of the model in capturing subsurface incubation during bloom initiation. Then model’s hindcast solutions were further used to diagnose the factors controlling the vertical distribution. Phosphate appeared to be one of the factors controlling the subsurface incubation, whereas surface wind fields played an important role in determining P. donghaiense distribution. The results highlight the importance of nutrient-limitation as a mechanism in the formation of P. donghaiense subsurface layers and the dispersing of P. donghaiense blooms. This coupled biophysical model should be improved and used to investigate P. donghaiense blooms occurring in different scenarios.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-016-0965-z
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • The effect of Fe-Mn minerals and seawater interface and enrichment
           mechanism of ore-forming elements of polymetallic crusts and nodules from
           the South China Sea
    • Authors: Yao Guan; Xiaoming Sun; Xiaodong Jiang; Rina Sa; Li Zhou; Yi Huang; Yating Liu; Xiaojie Li; Rongfei Lu; Chi Wang
      Pages: 34 - 46
      Abstract: Ferromanganese crusts and nodules are important submarine mineral resources that contain various metal elements with significant economic value. In this study, polymetallic crusts and nodules obtained from the South China Sea (SCS) were determined by using X-ray power diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to systematically investigate and analyze the mineralogical and spectral characteristics of the Fe-Mn minerals. XRD measurements revealed that the SCS polymetallic crusts and nodules were composed of vernadite, quartz, and plagioclase. The nodules also contained todorokite. The Fe-phase minerals of the SCS crusts and nodules were composed of amorphous Fe oxide/hydroxide, and the Mn- and Fe-phases minerals exhibited relatively poor degrees of crystallization. FTIR results showed that the Fe-Mn minerals in the crusts and nodules included a large number of surface hydroxyl groups. These surface hydroxyl groups contained protons that could provide reactive sites for complexation of ore-forming elements in seawater. XPS results indicated that the surfaces of the Fe-Mn minerals mainly contained Fe, Mn, and O. Fe was present in the trivalent oxidation state, while Mn, which may contain several bivalent oxidation state, was present in the tetravalent and trivalent oxidation states. The SCS polymetallic crusts and nodules were compared with Pacific seamount crusts, and results showed that the surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups of the SCS crusts and nodules numbered more than the lattice oxygen (O2-). But the lattice oxygen of Pacific seamount crusts numbered more than the surface hydroxyl groups. This characteristic indicated that the degree of crystallization of Fe-Mn minerals from the Pacific Ocean was higher than that of minerals from the South China Sea. Comprehensive studies showed that ore-forming elements in the interface between seawater and the Fe-Mn minerals in the submarine ferromanganese crusts and nodules employed the following enrichment mechanisms: (1) the metal ion complexed with the surface hydroxyl of Fe-Mn minerals to form hydroxyl complexes, which were connected by coordination bonds or stable inner-sphere complexes that exchanged protons on the mineral surfaces; (2) the charged surfaces of the minerals and metal cations formed outer-sphere complexes, which made up the electrostatic double layer, through electrostatic adsorption; and (3) the metal cations isomorphously exchanged the Mn and Fe ions of the mineral lattice structure.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1004-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Estimation of genetic parameters for growth trait of turbot using Bayesian
           and REML approaches
    • Authors: Jiantao Guan; Weiji Wang; Yulong Hu; Mosang Wang; Tao Tian; Jie Kong
      Pages: 47 - 51
      Abstract: Bayesian and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approaches were used to estimate the genetic parameters in a cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus stock. The data set consisted of harvest body weight from 2 462 progenies (17 months old) from 28 families that were produced through artificial insemination using 39 parent fish. An animal model was applied to partition each weight value into a fixed effect, an additive genetic effect, and a residual effect. The average body weight of each family, which was measured at 110 days post-hatching, was considered as a covariate. For Bayesian analysis, heritability and breeding values were estimated using both the posterior mean and mode from the joint posterior conditional distribution. The results revealed that for additive genetic variance, the posterior mean estimate (σ a 2 =9 320) was highest but with the smallest residual variance, REML estimates (σ a 2 =8 088) came second and the posterior mode estimate (σ a 2 =7 849) was lowest. The corresponding three heritability estimates followed the same trend as additive genetic variance and they were all high. The Pearson correlations between each pair of the three estimates of breeding values were all high, particularly that between the posterior mean and REML estimates (0.996 9). These results reveal that the differences between Bayesian and REML methods in terms of estimation of heritability and breeding values were small. This study provides another feasible method of genetic parameter estimation in selective breeding programs of turbot.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1034-y
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Identification and molecular characterization of Cathepsin L gene and its
           expression analysis during early ontogenetic development of kuruma shrimp
           Marsupenaeus japonicus
    • Authors: Ying Qiao; Jun Wang; Yong Mao; Min Liu; Xiaohong Song; Yongquan Su; Chunzhong Wang; Zhipeng Zheng
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Cathepsin L gene is a member of the cysteine proteinase gene group. In this study Cathepsin L gene was isolated from Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-Cathepsin L) and the full-length DNA sequence was 1 963 bp. Mj-Cathepsin L protein showed high homologies with other Cathepsin L proteins documented in vertebrates, mollusks and other crustaceans. Expression analysis of Mj-Cathepsin L gene in different tissues revealed that it was predominant in hepatopancreas. During early ontogenetic development stages Mj-Cathepsin L showed a development-regulated expression, and the Mj-Cathepsin L showed a molting stage-regulated expression during the five molting stages, inferring its role in the ontogenic development of M. japonicus. Two kinds of forms of Mj-Cathepsin L protein: pro-Cathepsin L and Cathepsin L were measured in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine by Western Blotting.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0983-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • A novel beta-galactose-specific lectin of the tubeworm, Ridgeia piscesae ,
           from the hydrothermal vent
    • Authors: Lingwei Ruan; Haipeng Xu; Wenyang Lin; Hong Shi; Zhizhong Cui; Xun Xu
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Lectins are sugar-specific binding proteins or glycoproteins that play important physiological roles in cellular recognition and regulation. And they are also valuable in medicine and pharmacy. Tubeworm is the representative species around the hydrothermal vent in the deep sea. They have developed unique mechanisms to adapt to the harsh environment. In this study, a 1 092 bp cDNA, designed as rpgal, was first cloned and characterized from the tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae. Sequence analysis showed that RPGAL had low homology with the known galectin. And it had two homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains, which is the characteristic of the tandem-repeat type galectins. The RPGAL was successfully recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Analysis of biological activity revealed that RPGAL was metal ion independent and it could agglutinate all the vertebrate erythrocytes tested. It was stable at 10–50°C and pH 5–10. And the hemagglutinating activity of RPGAL was strongly inhibited by D-Lactose and lipopolysaccharide. Although RPGAL had no effect on the microorganisms tested, it showed anti-tumor activity towards HeLa cells and HT1080 cells, which was accomplished by apoptosis. The study demonstrated that RPGAL was a novel galectin and provided a potential candidate for therapy of anti-tumor.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1052-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • In situ diet of the copepod Calanus sinicus in coastal waters of the South
           Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea
    • Authors: Xiaoyan Yi; Yousong Huang; Yunyun Zhuang; Hongju Chen; Feifei Yang; Weimin Wang; Donghui Xu; Guangxing Liu; Huan Zhang
      Pages: 68 - 79
      Abstract: Copepods are a key trophic link between primary producers and predatory animals at higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the in situ composition of the copepod diet is critical for the accurate evaluation of trophic relationships and energy transfer in marine food webs. In this study, we applied a PCR-based cloning technique developed previously to investigate the in situ diet of Calanus sinicus, an ecologically important largesized calanoid copepod that dominates in the shelf waters around China, Japan and Korea. Analyses of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from the copepod diet revealed the diverse food composition of C. sinicus from two stations (Y19 in the South Yellow Sea and B49 in the Bohai Sea). A total of 43 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, which belonged to 13 diverse lineages: Bacillariophyta, Dinoflagellata, Dictyochophyceae, Chrysophyta, Katablepharidophyta, Pelagophyceae, Apusozoa, Hydrozoa, Ctenophora, Echinodermata, Tunicata, Chaetognatha and marine fungi. The results indicate that during an algae bloom, C. sinicus can graze on the bloom causative species. When the abundance of phytoplankton in ambient water is relatively low, C. sinicus can choose eggs, larvae, or organic particles/detritus of various metazoans, especially hydrozoans and ctenophores, as alternative food sources. Our result suggests that C. sinicus is an omnivorous species, and its prey choice may depend on the food availability in the ambient waters.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0974-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Response of microbial biomass and bacterial community composition to
           fertilization in a salt marsh in China
    • Authors: Yuexin Ma; Wei Tao; Changfa Liu; Jiao Liu; Zhiping Yang; Jin Li; Jichen Liu
      Pages: 80 - 88
      Abstract: The effects of nitrogen (N) addition on microbial biomass, bacterial abundance, and community composition in sediment colonized by Suaeda heteroptera were examined by chloroform fumigation extraction method, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in a salt marsh located in Shuangtai Estuary, China. The sediment samples were collected from plots treated with different amounts of a single N fertilizer (urea supplied at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg (nitrogen content in sediment) and different forms of N fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4NO3, each supplied at 0.2 g/kg (calculated by nitrogen). The fertilizers were applied 1–4 times during the plant-growing season in May, July, August, and September of 2013. Untreated plots were included as a control. The results showed that both the amount and form of N positively influenced microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, and bacterial abundance. The DGGE profiles revealed that the bacterial community composition was also affected by the amount and form of N. Thus, our findings indicate that short-term N amendment increases microbial biomass and bacterial abundance, and alters the structure of bacterial community.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1048-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Prevalence of Bacillus sp. among the biofilm forming community on Ti
           surface in marine environment
    • Authors: Chokkalingam Priya; Ganessin Aravind; Wilson Richard Thilagaraj
      Pages: 89 - 94
      Abstract: Prevalence of bacterial species involved in biomineralization of manganese on titanium (Ti) surfaces in marine environment was revealed in this research work. This study involves one year sea water exposure of Ti and their periodical biofilm characterization was carried out to quantify the manganese oxidizing bacterial (MOB) presence in the biofilm formed on titanium surfaces. The total viable count study of Ti coupons exposed to sea water for one year resulted in 60% of the MOB in overall biofilm population. The biochemical characterization of MOB isolates were performed for the genus level identification of the seven bacterial isolates. Further, the seven strains were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Evolutionary analysis was performed using MEGA 7 to obtain closely related strains within the groups. The manganese oxidizing ability of the bacterial isolates were determined with Leucoberbelin Blue Assay (LBB) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy studies (AAS). The results show that among the isolated marine MOB species, Bacillus sp. and Leptothrix sp. have the maximum Mn oxidizing property. The microtitre plate assay was performed to determine the biofilm forming ability of the isolated marine MOB species. All the results have confirmed the prevalence of Bacillus sp. among the biofilm colonizers on Ti surfaces when exposed in sea water.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1045-8
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Distribution of reactive aluminum under the influence of mesoscale eddies
           in the western South China Sea
    • Authors: Jiaxing Liu; Linbin Zhou; Yehui Tan; Qiong Wang; Zifeng Hu; Jiajun Li; Xin Jiang; Zhixin Ke
      Pages: 95 - 103
      Abstract: To understand the distribution of aluminum (Al) under the influence of mesocale eddies in the western South China Sea (SCS), sea level anomaly, geostrophic current, environmental parameters and reactive Al were investigated in the western SCS in August 2013. The highest reactive Al concentration ((180±64) nmol/L) was observed in the surface waters, indicating a substantial atmospheric input. Vertically, the reactive Al decreased from the surface high concentration to the subsurface minima at the depth of chlorophyll a (Chl a) maxima and then increased again with depth at most of the stations. The average concentration of reactive Al in the upper 100 m water column was significantly lower in the cyclonic eddy ((137±6) nmol/L) as compared with that in the noneddy waters ((180±21) nmol/L). By contrast, the average concentrations of Chl a and silicate in the upper 100 m water column were higher in the cyclonic eddy and lower in the anticyclonic eddy. There was a significant negative correlation between the average concentrations of reactive Al and Chl a in the upper 100 m water column. The vertical distribution of reactive Al and the negative correlation between reactive Al and Chl a both suggest that the reactive Al in the upper water column was significantly influenced by biological removal processes. Our results indicate that mesoscale eddies could regulate the distribution of reactive Al by influencing the primary production and phytoplankton community structure in the western SCS.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1046-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Numerical investigation of influence of wave directionality on the water
           resonance at a narrow gap between two rectangular barges
    • Authors: Ruijia Jin; Bin Teng; Dezhi Ning; Ming Zhao; Liang Cheng
      Pages: 104 - 111
      Abstract: A three-dimensional time-domain potential flow model with second-order nonlinearity was applied to simulate the wave resonance in a gap between two side-by-side rectangular barges. In the model, the velocity potential was decomposed into the incident potential and unknown scattered potential which was obtained by solving the boundary integral equation. The fourth-order predict-correct method was applied to enforce the free surface conditions in the time integration. The influence of the wave direction on the first and second-order gap surface elevations was investigated. The results reveal that the incident wave angle does not affect the resonant wave frequency and the maximum surface elevation at resonance always occurs at the middle location along the gap. However, the corresponding maximum wave surface elevation at resonance varies with the incident wave angle. The location of the maximum wave elevation shifts either upstream or downstream along the gap, depending on the relative magnitude of incident wave frequency to the resonant frequency.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1006-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Assessing the uncertainties of phytoplankton absorption-based model
           estimates of marine net primary productivity
    • Authors: Zui Tao; Sheng Ma; Xiaofeng Yang; Yan Wang
      Pages: 112 - 121
      Abstract: Satellite-derived phytoplankton pigment absorption (a ph) has been used as a key predictor of phytoplankton photosynthetic efficiency to estimate global ocean net primary production (NPP). In this study, an a ph-based NPP model (AbPM) with four input parameters including the photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K d(490)), euphotic zone depth (Z eu) and the phytoplankton pigment absorption coefficient (a ph) is compared with the chlorophyll-based model and carbon-based model. It is found that the AbPM has significant advantages on the ocean NPP estimation compared with the chlorophyll-based model and carbonbased model. For example, AbPM greatly outperformed the other two models at most monitoring sites and had the best accuracy, including the smallest values of RMSD and bias for the NPP estimate, and the best correlation between the observations and the modeled NPPs. In order to ensure the robustness of the model, the uncertainty in NPP estimates of the AbPM was assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation. At first, the frequency histograms of simple difference (δ), and logarithmic difference (δ LOG) between model estimates and in situ data confirm that the two input parameters (Z eu and PAR) approximate the Normal Distribution, and another two input parameters (a ph and K d(490)) approximate the logarithmic Normal Distribution. Second, the uncertainty in NPP estimates in the AbPM was assessed by using the Monte Carlo simulation. Here both the PB (percentage bias), defined as the ratio of ΔNPP to the retrieved NPP, and the CV (coefficient of variation), defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean are used to indicate the uncertainty in the NPP brought by input parameter to AbPM model. The uncertainty related to magnitude is denoted by PB and the uncertainty related to scatter range is denoted by CV. Our investigations demonstrate that PB of NPP uncertainty brought by all parameters with an annual mean of 5.5% covered a range of–5%–15% for the global ocean. The PB uncertainty of AbPM model was mainly caused by a ph; the PB of NPP uncertainty brought by a ph had an annual mean of 4.1% for the global ocean. The CV brought by all the parameters with an annual mean of 105% covered a range of 98%–134% for global ocean. For the coastal zone of Antarctica with higher productivity, the PB and CV of NPP uncertainty brought by all parameters had annual means of 7.1% and 121%, respectively, which are significantly larger than those obtained in the global ocean. This study suggests that the NPPs estimated by AbPM model are more accurate than others, but the magnitude and scatter range of NPP errors brought by input parameter to AbPM model could not be neglected, especially in the coastal area with high productivity. So the improving accuracy of satellite retrieval of input parameters should be necessary. The investigation also confirmed that the SST related correction is effective for improving the model accuracy in low temperature condition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1047-8
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 6 (2017)
  • Meso-scale eddy in the South China Sea simulated by an eddy-resolving
           ocean model
    • Authors: Baoxin Feng; Hailong Liu; Pengfei Lin; Qi Wang
      Pages: 9 - 25
      Abstract: Mesoscale eddies (MEs) in the South China Sea (SCS) simulated by a quasi-global eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model are evaluated against satellite data during 1993–2007. The modeled ocean data show more activity than shown by the satellite data and reproduces more eddies in the SCS. A total of 345 (428) cyclonic eddies (CEs) and 330 (371) anti-cyclonic eddies (AEs) generated for satellite (model) data are identified during the study period, showing increase of ~24% and ~12% for the model data, respectively. Compared with eddies in satellite, the simulated eddies tend to have smaller radii, larger amplitudes, a slightly longer lifetime, faster movement and rotation speed, a slightly larger nonlinear properties (U/c) in the model. However, the spatial distribution of generated eddies appears to be inhomogeneous, with more CEs in the northern part of SCS and fewer AEs in the southern part. This is attributed to the exaggerated Kuroshio intrusion in the model because the small islands in the Luzon Strait are still not well resolved although the horizontal resolution reaches (1/10)°. The seasonal variability in the number and the amplitude of eddies generated is also investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1058-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 5 (2017)
  • The variation of turbulent diapycnal mixing at 18°N in the South China
           Sea stirred by wind stress
    • Authors: Yongzheng Liu; Zhao Jing; Lixin Wu
      Pages: 26 - 30
      Abstract: The spatial and temporal variations of turbulent diapycnal mixing along 18°N in the South China Sea (SCS) are estimated by a fine-scale parameterization method based on strain, which is obtained from CTD measurements in yearly September from 2004 to 2010. The section mean diffusivity can reach ~10–4 m2/s, which is an order of magnitude larger than the value in the open ocean. Both internal tides and wind-generated near-inertial internal waves play an important role in furnishing the diapycnal mixing here. The former dominates the diapycnal mixing in the deep ocean and makes nonnegligible contribution in the upper ocean, leading to enhanced diapycnal mixing throughout the water column over rough topography. In contrast, the influence of the wind-induced near-inertial internal wave is mainly confined to the upper ocean. Over both flat and rough bathymetries, the diapycnal diffusivity has a growth trend from 2005 to 2010 in the upper 700 m, which results from the increase of wind work on the near-inertial motions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1067-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 5 (2017)
  • A study on the relationships between the wave height and the El Niño in
           the north area of the South China Sea
    • Authors: Shuzong Han; Yongbin Fan; Yangyang Dong; Shuangquan Wu
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: On the basis of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 20 a wind field reanalysis data, the wave field of the north area of the South China Sea is calculated with the combination of the HIRHAM wind field model and the SWAN wave model. Then a significant wave height compared with the El Niño index to study the relationships between these variables. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) the wave height of the South China Sea has a strong seasonal variation, the wave height is much larger in winter than in summer; (2) in the South China Sea, the monthly average wave height of the north area has a negative correlation with the Niño3.4 index, most area of the South China Sea has a moderate correlation and the area between Taiwan Province of China and Philippines is highly correlated; and (3) in the strong El Niño years, the significant wave height in the north area of the South China Sea is significantly smaller than in other years; if the El Niño index variability is greater, the wave height decreases. In contrast, the significant wave height in the north area of the South China Sea is larger in the strong La Niña years.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1059-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 5 (2017)
  • Role of surface warming in the northward shift of tropical cyclone tracks
           over the South China Sea in November
    • Authors: Jia Sun; Guihua Wang; Juncheng Zuo; Zheng Ling; Dahai Liu
      Pages: 67 - 72
      Abstract: Tropical cyclones (TCs) formed in the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) can cross the South China Sea (SCS) sometimes. It is found that the TC tracks in the SCS in November are shifted to the north after 1980 compared with those before 1980. Both data analyses and numerical simulations show that the surface warming in the SCS may contribute to this more northward shift. The warming produces a cyclonic atmosphere circulation anomaly in the northwestern SCS and an associated southerly in the central SCS steering the TCs to the north.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1061-8
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 5 (2017)
  • The September 16, 2015 M w 8.3 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: characteristics
           of tsunami wave from near-field to far-field
    • Authors: Zhiyuan Ren; Ye Yuan; Peitao Wang; Tingting Fan; Juncheng Wang; Jingming Hou
      Pages: 73 - 82
      Abstract: On September 16, 2015, an earthquake with magnitude of M w 8.3 occurred 46 km offshore from Illapel, Chile, generating a 4.4-m local tsunami measured at Coquimbo. In this study, the characteristics of tsunami are presented by a combination of analysis of observations and numerical simulation based on sources of USGS and NOAA. The records of 16 DART buoys in deep water, ten tidal gauges along coasts of near-field, and ten coastal gauges in the far-field are studied by applying Fourier analyses. The numerical simulation based on nonlinear shallow water equations and nested grids is carried out to provide overall tsunami propagation scenarios, and the results match well with the observations in deep water and but not well in coasts closed to the epicenter. Due to the short distance to the epicenter and the shelf resonance of southern Peru and Chile, the maximum amplitude ranged from 0.1 m to 2 m, except for Coquimbo. In deep water, the maximum amplitude of buoys decayed from 9.8 cm to 0.8 cm, suggesting a centimeter-scale Pacific-wide tsunami, while the governing period was 13–17 min and 32 min. Whereas in the far-field coastal region, the tsunami wave amplified to be around 0.2 m to 0.8 m, mostly as a result of run-up effect and resonance from coast reflection. Although the tsunami was relatively moderate in deep water, it still produced non-negligible tsunami hazards in local region and the coasts of farfield.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1005-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 5 (2017)
  • An advanced wind vector retrieval algorithm for the rotating fan-beam
    • Authors: Xuetong Xie; Ya Wen; Zhou Huang
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: The rotating fan-beam scatterometer (RFSCAT) is a new type of satellite scatterometer that is proposed approximately 10 a ago. However, similar to other rotating scatterometers, relatively larger wind retrieval errors occur in the nadir and outer regions compared with the middle regions of the swath. For the RFSCAT with the given parameters, a wind direction retrieval accuracy decreases by approximately 9 in the outer regions compared with the middle region. To address this problem, an advanced wind vector retrieval algorithm for the RFSCAT is presented. The new algorithm features an adaptive extension of the range of wind direction for each wind vector cell position across the whole swath according to the distribution histogram of a retrieved wind direction bias. One hundred orbits of Level 2A data are simulated to validate and evaluate the new algorithm. Retrieval experiments demonstrate that the new advanced algorithm can effectively improve the wind direction retrieval accuracy in the nadir and outer regions of the RFSCAT swath. Approximately 1.6 and 9 improvements in the wind direction retrieval are achieved for the wind vector cells located at the nadir and the edge point of the swath, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1062-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 5 (2017)
  • The polarimetric features of oil spills in full polarimetric synthetic
           aperture radar images
    • Authors: Honglei Zheng; Yanmin Zhang; Yunhua Wang; Xi Zhang; Junmin Meng
      Pages: 105 - 114
      Abstract: Compared with single-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, full polarimetric SAR images contain not only geometrical and backward scattering characteristics, but also the polarization features of the scattering targets. Therefore, the polarimetric SAR has more advantages for oil spill detection on the sea surface. As a crucial step in the oil spill detection, a feature extraction directly influences the accuracy of oil spill discrimination. The polarimetric features of sea oil spills, such as polarimetric entropy, average scatter angle, in the full polarimetric SAR images are analyzed firstly. And a new polarimetric parameter P which reflects the proportion between Bragg and specular scattering signals is proposed. In order to investigate the capability of the polarimetric features for observing an oil spill, systematic comparisons and analyses of the multipolarization features are provided on the basis of the full polarimetric SAR images acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and Radarsat-2. The experiment results show that in C-band SAR images the oil spills can be detected more easily than in L-band SAR images under low to moderate wind speed conditions. Moreover, it also finds that the new polarimetric parameter is sensitive to the sea surface scattering mechanisms. And the experiment results demonstrate that the new polarimetric parameter and pedestal height perform better than other polarimetric parameters for the oil spill detection in the C-band SAR images.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1065-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 5 (2017)
  • Coupled carbon and sulfur isotope behaviors and other geochemical
           perspectives into marine methane seepage
    • Authors: Lihua Liu; Shaoying Fu; Mei Zhang; Hongxiang Guan; Nengyou Wu
      Abstract: Methane seepage is the signal of the deep hydrocarbon reservoir. The determination of seepage is significant to the exploration of petroleum, gas and gas hydrate. The seepage habits microbial and macrofaunal life which is fueled by the hydrocarbons, the metabolic byproducts facilitate the precipitation of authigenic minerals. The study of methane seepage is also important to understand the oceanographic condition and local ecosystem. The seepage could be active or quiescent at different times. The geophysical surveys and the geochemical determinations reveal the existence of seepage. Among these methods, only geochemical determination could expose message of the dormant seepages. The active seepage demonstrates high porewater methane concentration with rapid SO4 2– depleted, low H2S and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), higher rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The quiescent seepage typically develops authigenic carbonates with specific biomarkers, with extremely depleted 13C in gas, DIC and carbonates and with enriched 34S sulfate and depleted 34S pyrite. The origin of methane, minerals precipitation, the scenario of seepage and the possible method of immigration could be determined by the integration of solutes concentration, mineral composition and isotopic fractionation of carbon, sulfur. Numerical models with the integrated results provide useful insight into the nature and intensity of methane seepage occurring in the sediment and paleooceanographic conditions. Unfortunately, the intensive investigation of a specific area with dormant seep is still limit. Most seepage and modeling studies are site-specific and little attempt has been made to extrapolate the results to larger scales. Further research is thus needed to foster our understanding of the methane seepage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0998-y
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