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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Oceanologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.295]   [H-I: 17]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0253-505X - ISSN (Online) 1869-1099
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • An oceanic eddy statistical comparison using multiple observational data
           in the Kuroshio Extension region
    • Authors: Jinlin Ji; Changming Dong; Biao Zhang; Yu Liu
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Eddy characteristics derived from different data resources are compared: sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and surface drifter trajectories. The comparison suggests that the eddy statistical characteristics are different using different variables to delineate eddies, but they show the similar trend. Based on the comparison, abnormal eddies with warm (cold) cores but counter-clockwise (clockwise) rotation are found in the Kuroshio Extension region.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-016-0882-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Derivation of the thermal characteristics of mesoscale eddies
    • Authors: Xuan Chen; Jing Pan; Chongwei Zheng; Xi Zhang; Ming He
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: This study aims at explaining the relationship between thermodynamic characteristics and direction of rotation of mesoscale eddies (MEs). The geometric characteristics of the MEs are under the following assumptions: the structure of the MEs is symmetrical, and changes of oceanic physical variables are close to linear features in the radial direction in the ME regions. Based on these assumptions, by using primitive equations without friction under a cylindrical coordinate system, the thermodynamic characteristics of the MEs are derived, showing that the conventional relationship of warm anticyclonic eddies with high sea surface height (SSH) and cold cyclonic eddies with low SSH is not consistent with the SSH and sea surface temperature (SST) observations of eddies. The results show that the symmetrical form is an ideal approximation for the geometric characteristics of MEs. In consideration of the above assumptions, there are advantages for derivation of the characteristics of the MEs under a cylindrical coordinate.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1036-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Cool water brought by upwelling in the Sanya Bay benefits corals in the
           background of global warming
    • Authors: Dingtian Yang
      Pages: 14 - 19
      Abstract: It has been reported that global warming has negative effects on coral ecosystems in the past 50 years and the effects vary in different ocean environment. In order to make clear the coral reef status in the background of global warming along the south coast of Hainan Island of China, satellite and in situ data are used to retrieve the information of the coral reef status and surrounding environmental factors. The results show that cool water induced by upwelling along the south coast of Hainan Island is found in the area every summer month, especially in the relatively strong El Niño years (2002–2003 and 2005). From the NOAA satellite data, degree heating week (DHW) index does not exceed 3 in Sanya Bay even in the relatively strong El Niño years. By comparison of a coral reef growth rate in the Sanya Bay with respect to El Niño events from 1957 to 2000, coral’s growth rate is relatively greater during 1972, 1991–1994 and 1998 El Niño event. By analyzing the environmental factors, it is found that the cool water induced by upwelling may be the main reason for protecting corals from global warming effects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1037-8
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • An evaluation of input/dissipation terms in WAVEWATCH III using in situ
           and satellite significant wave height data in the South China Sea
    • Authors: Jichao Wang; Jie Zhang; Jungang Yang; Wendi Bao; Guoli Wu; Qifeng Ren
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: A WAVEWATCH III version 3.14 (WW3) wave model is used to evaluate input/dissipation source term packages WAM3, WAM4 and TC96 considering the effect of atmospheric instability. The comparisons of a significant wave height acquired from the model with different packages have been performed based on wave observation radar and HY-2 altimetry significant wave height data through five experiments in the South China Sea domain spanning latitudes of 0°–35°N and longitudes of 100°–135°E. The sensitivity of the wind speed correction parameter in the TC96 package also has been analyzed. From the results, the model is unable to dissipate the wave energy efficiently during a swell propagation with either source packages. It is found that TC96 formulation with the “effective wind speed” strategy performs better than WAM3 and WAM4 formulations. The wind speed correction parameter in the TC96 source package is very sensitive and needs to be calibrated and selected before the WW3 model can be applied to a specific region.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1038-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • The temporal and spatial variations in the Pacific wind and wave fields
           for the period 2002–2011
    • Authors: Yao Xu; Fan Bi; Jinbao Song; Hailun He
      Pages: 26 - 36
      Abstract: The temporal and spatial variations in the wind and wave fields in the Pacific Ocean between 2002 and 2011 are analyzed using a third-generation wave model (WAVEWATCH III). The model performance for a significant wave height is validated using in situ buoy data. The results show that the wave model effectively hindcasts the significant wave height in the Pacific Ocean, but the errors are relatively large in the mid- and low-latitude regions. The spatial distributions and temporal variations in a wind speed and the significant wave height in the Pacific Ocean are then considered after dividing the Pacific Ocean into five regions, which show meridional differences and seasonal cycles. Regional mean values are used to give yearly average time series for each separate zone. The high latitude region in the Southern Hemisphere had a stronger significant wave height trend in the model results than regions at other latitudes. The sources and sinks of wave energy are then investigated. Their regional mean values are used to quantify variations in surface waves. Finally, the spectral analyses of the daily mean wind speeds and the significant wave heights are obtained. The significant wave height and the wind speed spectra are found to be connected in some ways but also show certain differences.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1039-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assimilating OSTIA SST into regional modeling systems for the Yellow Sea
           using ensemble methods
    • Authors: Xuanliang Ji; Kyung Man Kwon; Byoung-Ju Choi; Guimei Liu; Kwang-Soon Park; Hui Wang; Do-Seong Byun; Yun Li; Qiyan Ji; Xueming Zhu
      Pages: 37 - 51
      Abstract: The effects of sea surface temperature (SST) data assimilation in two regional ocean modeling systems were examined for the Yellow Sea (YS). The SST data from the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) were assimilated. The National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC) modeling system uses the ensemble optimal interpolation method for ocean data assimilation and the Kunsan National University (KNU) modeling system uses the ensemble Kalman filter. Without data assimilation, the NMEFC modeling system was better in simulating the subsurface temperature while the KNU modeling system was better in simulating SST. The disparity between both modeling systems might be related to differences in calculating the surface heat flux, horizontal grid spacing, and atmospheric forcing data. The data assimilation reduced the root mean square error (RMSE) of the SST from 1.78°C (1.46°C) to 1.30°C (1.21°C) for the NMEFC (KNU) modeling system when the simulated temperature was compared to Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) SST dataset. A comparison with the buoy SST data indicated a 41% (31%) decrease in the SST error for the NMEFC (KNU) modeling system by the data assimilation. In both data assimilative systems, the RMSE of the temperature was less than 1.5°C in the upper 20 m and approximately 3.1°C in the lower layer in October. In contrast, it was less than 1.0°C throughout the water column in February. This study suggests that assimilations of the observed temperature profiles are necessary in order to correct the lower layer temperature during the stratified season and an ocean modeling system with small grid spacing and optimal data assimilation method is preferable to ensure accurate predictions of the coastal ocean in the YS.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0978-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Comparison of TMI and AMSR-E sea surface temperatures with Argo
           near-surface temperatures over the global oceans
    • Authors: Xingrong Chen; Zenghong Liu; Chaohui Sun; Haiyan Wang
      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: Satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) microwave imager (TMI) and the advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the earth observing system (AMSR-E) were compared with non-pumped near-surface temperatures (NSTs) obtained from Argo profiling floats over the global oceans. Factors that might cause temperature differences were examined, including wind speed, columnar water vapor, liquid cloud water, and geographic location. The results show that both TMI and AMSR-E SSTs are highly correlated with the Argo NSTs; however, at low wind speeds, they are on average warmer than the Argo NSTs. The TMI performs slightly better than the AMSR-E at low wind speeds, whereas the TMI SST retrievals might be poorly calibrated at high wind speeds. The temperature differences indicate a warm bias of the TMI/AMSR-E when columnar water vapor is low, which can indicate that neither TMI nor AMSR-E SSTs are well calibrated at high latitudes. The SST in the Kuroshio Extension region has higher variability than in the Kuroshio region. The variability of the temperature difference between the satellite-retrieved SSTs and the Argo NSTs is lower in the Kuroshio Extension during spring. At low wind speeds, neither TMI nor AMSR-E SSTs are well calibrated, although the TMI performs better than the AMSR-E.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1040-0
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Temporal and spatial variability of the carbon cycle in the east of
           China’s seas: a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical modeling study
    • Authors: Xuanliang Ji; Guimei Liu; Shan Gao; Hui Wang; Miaoyin Zhang
      Pages: 60 - 71
      Abstract: In the east of China’s seas, there is a wide range of the continental shelf. The nutrient cycle and the carbon cycle in the east of China’s seas exhibit a strong variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. On the basis of a regional ocean modeling system (ROMS), a three dimensional physical-biogeochemical model including the carbon cycle with the resolution (1/12)°×(1/12)° is established to investigate the physical variations, ecosystem responses and carbon cycle consequences in the east of China’s seas. The ROMS-Nutrient Phytoplankton Zooplankton Detritus (NPZD) model is driven by daily air-sea fluxes (wind stress, long wave radiation, short wave radiation, sensible heat and latent heat, freshwater fluxes) that derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis2 from 1982 to 2005. The coupled model is capable of reproducing the observed seasonal variation characteristics over the same period in the East China Sea. The integrated air-sea CO2 flux over the entire east of China’s seas reveals a strong seasonal cycle, functioning as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere from June to October, while serving as a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere in the other months. The 24 a mean value of airsea CO2 flux over the entire east of China’s seas is about 1.06 mol/(m2·a), which is equivalent to a regional total of 3.22 Mt/a, indicating that in the east of China’s seas there is a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in sea water in the east of China’s seas has an increasing rate of 1.15 μatm/a (1μtm/a=0.101 325 Pa), but pH in sea water has an opposite tendency, which decreases with a rate of 0.001 3 a–1 from 1982 to 2005. Biological activity is a dominant factor that controls the \({p_{C{O_2}air}}\) in the east of China’s seas, and followed by a temperature. The inverse relationship between the interannual variability of air-sea CO2 flux averaged from the domain area and Niño3 SST Index indicates that the carbon cycle in the east of China’s seas has a high correlation with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0977-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Sources and conservative mixing of uranium in the Taiwan Strait
    • Authors: Rongrong Cen; Yanna Liu; Na Xing; Min Chen; Hua Cheng; Yihua Cai
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: Seawater samples are collected in the spring of 2013 from the Taiwan Strait for the analysis of uranium (U) concentrations and isotopic compositions using MC-ICP-MS, and the geochemical behavior patterns of U in the Taiwan Strait are then investigated. Average concentrations of individual U isotopes are (3.23±0.14) μg/kg for 238U, (2.34±0.09)×10–2 μg/kg for 235U and (2.05±0.07)×10–4 μg/kg for 234U. Correspondingly, the U isotopic compositions are 155±18 for δ234U and 138±2 for 238U:235U. The U concentrations and isotopic ratios in the Taiwan Strait are similar to those of open ocean seawater, suggesting the dominance of the open ocean input to the strait’s U pool. However, river input, as suggested by the slightly lower salinity than that of the open ocean, also affected the U concentrations and isotopic compositions in the strait. From a compilation of U concentrations in the Taiwan Strait and adjacent areas, including the Jiulong Estuary and Zhujiang Estuary, the Xiamen Bay and the northern South China Sea, a strong and significant relationship between U concentration and salinity [U:S; U=(0.093 4±0.002 4)S+(0.092 0±0.061 5)] is revealed, suggesting conservative mixing of U in the Taiwan Strait. To better understand the U geochemistry in the Taiwan Strait, a multiple endmembers mixing model is applied to estimate the contributions of potential sources. The open ocean seawater contributed 69%–95% of U in the Taiwan Strait, with river water approximately 2%, and dust deposition only around 0.13%. Therefore, the model results supported the open ocean input source and the conservative mixing behavior of U derived from the observation of U concentrations and isotopic ratios and U:S ratios. The sediment interstitial water may be an important source of U to the Taiwan Strait with a possible contribution of 3%–29%, consistent with previous investigations based on radium isotopes. However, further investigations are warranted to examine the U concentration in the sediment interstitial water and its input to the overlying seawater in the Taiwan Strait.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0985-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Major and trace element geochemistry of the mid-Bay of Bengal surface
           sediments: implications for provenance
    • Authors: Jingrui Li; Shengfa Liu; Xiuli Feng; Xingquan Sun; Xuefa Shi
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: The major and trace elements in 110 surface sediment samples collected from the middle of the Bay of Bengal (mid-Bay of Bengal) are analyzed to investigate provenance. Si levels are highest, followed by Al, and the distributions of these two elements are identical. The average CIA* (chemical index of alteration) value is 72.07, indicating that the degree of weathering of the sediments in the study area is intermediate between those of sediments of the Himalayan and Indian rivers. Factor analyses and discrimination function analyses imply that the two main provenances are the Himalayan and the Indian continent. The inverse model calculation of the Ti-normalized element ratios of the Bay of Bengal sediments indicate an estimated average contribution of 83.5% and 16.5% from the Himalayan and peninsular Indian rivers to the study area, respectively. The Himalayan source contributes more sediment to the eastern part of the study area, whereas the western part receives more sediment from the Indian Peninsula than did the eastern part. The primary mechanisms for deposition of sediments in the study area are the transport of Himalayan matter by turbidity currents and river-diluted water and the transport of Indian matter to the study area by a surface circulation in the Bay of Bengal, particularly the East India Coastal Current.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1041-z
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • The evolution characteristics of main waterways and their control
           mechanism in the radial sand ridges of the southern Yellow Sea
    • Authors: Kefeng Chen; Jinhai Zheng; Chi Zhang; Nairui Wang; Chunyan Zhou
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: The comparison of the underwater topographic data in recent four decades shows that main waterways of the radial sand ridges area in the southern Yellow Sea tend to gradually migrate southward (scour depth and southward extension of the main channels in Xiyang, southward approach of Lanshayang Waterway and Xiaomiaohong Waterway on South Flank). Although there are various hypotheses about the cause and mechanism of the overall southward migration of the radial sand ridges, no universal and reliable understanding has been obtained so far. The mechanism of this process becomes a challenging problem which serves a key issue in the morphodynamics of the radial sand ridges and the harbor construction in this area. On the basis of the shoreline positions and underwater terrains at different development stages of the Huanghe Delta coast in northern Jiangsu Province, China since the northward return of the Huanghe River and flowed into the Bohai Sea, combined with the tidal wave numerical simulation study, the characteristics and hydrodynamic changes of the tidal wave system in the southern Yellow Sea at different evolution stages are investigated. It is shown that due to the shoreline retreat and the erosion of underwater delta, tidal current velocity is enhanced, and the enhanced area gradually migrates southward. It is revealed that this southward migration of a large-scale regional hydrodynamic axis is possibly a dominant mechanism leading to the overall southward migration of the radial sand ridges.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1042-y
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • The influence of earthquakes on Zhubi Reef in the Nansha Islands of the
           South China Sea
    • Authors: Lei Guo; Wenhuan Zhan; Fan Zhang; Jinchang Zhang; Yantao Yao; Jian Li; Yingci Feng; Mei Chen; Gong Cheng
      Pages: 99 - 108
      Abstract: It is exceedingly important to estimate the stability of coral reefs. In recent years, growing construction projects have been carried out on the reef flat in the South China Sea. As a special marine geotechnical medium, it is made of the reef debris underwent overwhelmingly long geological age. Reefs grow thickly on the carbonate platform after the Late Oligocene and have five to six main sedimentary facies. It can be used as a recorder to measure the occurrence time of recent earthquake. A model of reef body is presented to study the influence of earthquakes according to the geological structure characteristic of reefs in the Nansha Islands. Furthermore, GeoStudio is used to simulate stress and deformation situations within it under various earthquake intensities. A safety factor is calculated by the limit equilibrium method, and the possible scenarios of earthquake-induced landslides and sliding scale are defined with a Newmark sliding block method, as well as stress distribution and deformation behaviors. Therefore, the numerical results suggest that the connections between the coral reef and the earthquake are as follows: (1) the reef body has a good stability under self-gravity state; (2) after the earthquake, it may cause slope’s instability and bring out slumping when the safety factor is smaller than 1 (F S<1); (3) the safety factor decreases with the increasing earthquake intensity, and fluctuates around a particular value after a while; and (4) as a new developed part of the reef, the smaller shallow landslide will be easily subject to collapse caused by the earthquake. It is concluded that it is feasible to provide a reference for evaluating the stability of coral reef using a geotechnical engineering simulation method. This can help the engineering constructions in the South China Sea.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1008-0
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • A seasonal grade division of the global offshore wind energy resource
    • Authors: Chongwei Zheng; Chongyin Li; Chengzhi Gao; Mingyang Liu
      Pages: 109 - 114
      Abstract: Under the background of energy crisis, the development of renewable energy will significantly alleviate the energy and environmental crisis. On the basis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-interim) wind data, the annual and seasonal grade divisions of the global offshore wind energy are investigated. The results show that the annual mean offshore wind energy has great potential. The wind energy over the westerly oceans of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is graded as Class 7 (the highest), whereas that over most of the mid-low latitude oceans are higher than Class 4. The wind energy over the Arctic Ocean (Class 4) is more optimistic than the traditional evaluations. Seasonally, the westerly oceans of the Northern Hemisphere with a Class 7 wind energy are found to be largest in January, followed by April and October, and smallest in July. The area of the Class 7 wind energy over the westerly oceans of the Southern Hemisphere are found to be largest in July and slightly smaller in the other months. In July, the wind energy over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal is graded as Class 7, which is obviously richer than that in other months. It is shown that in this data set in April and October, the majority of the northern Indian Ocean are regions of indigent wind energy resource.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1043-x
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Chinese seventh Arctic scientific expedition
    • Authors: Na Liu; Bin Kong; Lina Lin; Yan He; Yanguang Liu; Longshan Lin; Tao Zhang; Jianfang Chen
      Pages: 115 - 116
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1044-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Identification of coastal water quality by multivariate statistical
           techniques in two typical bays of northern Zhejiang Province, East China
    • Authors: Ran Ye; Lian Liu; Qiong Wang; Xiansen Ye; Wei Cao; Qinyan He; Yanhong Cai
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: The Hangzhou Bay (HZB) and Xiangshan Bay (XSB), in northern Zhejiang Province and connect to the East China Sea (ECS) were considerably affected by the consequence of water quality degradation. In this study, we analyzed physical and biogeochemical properties of water quality via multivariate statistical techniques. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) grouped HZB and XSB into two subareas of different pollution sources based on similar physical and biogeochemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified three latent pollution sources in HZB and XSB respectively and emphasized the importance of terrestrial inputs, coastal industries as well as natural processes in determining the water quality of the two bays. Therefore, proper measurement for the protection of aquatic ecoenvironment in HZB and XSB were of great urgency.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0981-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of natural prolongation with geological features on maritime
    • Authors: Wenxian Qiu; Xianglong Jin; Yinxia Fang; Kui Wang
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea entitled the coastal States to naturally extend the continental shelf, which has caused more drastic disputes of maritime delimitation. This paper devotes to clarifying the significant concept of natural prolongation through an effect method combing the legal principles and technical analysis. Firstly, the classic samples with respect of the development of geological features are traced. Based on these samples, the classification with a model is proposed in order to affirm the concept’s significance under certain geomorphologic situations. Lastly, scientific analysis is used to present two potential prolongation situations and emphasize that all the technical analysis on maritime delimitation should be complied with international law and protect the common interest of all the mankind.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1002-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2017)
  • Exposure to bifenthrin disrupts the development of testis in male
           Sebastiscus marmoratus
    • Authors: Jinshou Li; Fen Luo; Liyue Liu; Junfeng Ruan; Nannan Wang
      Pages: 57 - 61
      Abstract: Bifenthrin (BF) is a pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in agriculture, horticulture, and for residential purposes. However, few studies addressing the reproductive toxicity of BF on fishes are available. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of BF on testicular development in Sebastiscus marmoratus and to gain insight into its mechanism. After exposure to 1, 10 and 100 ng/L BF for 50 days, there was a reduced number of mature sperm and an abundance of the late stages of spermatocysts in the testes. The levels of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were decreased significantly after BF exposure. The activity of caspase-3 was increased in a dosedependent manner after BF exposure, TUNEL assay indicated that BF exposure resulted in the occurrence of apoptosis in the testes, which might be main reason for the inhibition of spermatogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1001-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2017)
  • The complete genome of hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ289
           and its phylogenetic relationship
    • Authors: Fangming Liu; Yibin Wang; Changfeng Qu; Zhou Zheng; Jinlai Miao; Hua Xu; Tian Xiao
      Pages: 88 - 93
      Abstract: Genus Pseudoalteromonas belongs to Family Pseudoalteromonadaceae in Gammaproteobacteria. A cold-adapted gram-negative bacterium, hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ289, was isolated from sea-ice of the Antarctica region, and sequenced the whole genome through the next generation sequencing platform. The assembly yielded three contigs representing two chromosomes and one plasmid with the sizes of 3.2 Mb, 636 kb and 1.8 kb, respectively. The G+C contents of genome were 40.83% and included 3 589 ORFs. Functional annotation indicated some potential roles in enzymatic activity and environmental adaptability. This study may help for understanding the population diverse, evolutionary ecology and the microbial interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0979-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2017)
  • The first quantitative ocean remote sensing by using Chinese
           interferometric imaging radar altimeter onboard TG-2
    • Authors: Jingsong Yang; Lin Ren; Gang Zheng
      Pages: 122 - 123
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1010-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 2 (2017)
  • China Argo project: progress in China Argo ocean observations and data
    • Authors: Zenghong Liu; Xiaofen Wu; Jianping Xu; Hong Li; Shaolei Lu; Chaohui Sun; Minjie Cao
      Abstract: This paper reviews the current achievements of the China Argo project. It considers aspects of both the construction of the Argo observing array, float technology, and the quality control and sharing of its data. The developments of associated data products and data applications for use in the fields of ocean, atmosphere, and climate research are discussed, particularly those related to tropical cyclones (typhoons), ocean circulation, mesoscale eddies, turbulence, oceanic heat/salt storage and transportation, water masses, and operational oceanic/atmospheric/climatic forecasts and predictions. Finally, the challenges and opportunities involved in the long-term maintenance and sustained development of the China Argo ocean observation network are outlined. Discussion also focuses on the necessity for increasing the number of floats in the Indian Ocean and for expanding the regional Argo observation network in the South China Sea, together with the importance of promoting the use of Argo data by the maritime countries of Southeast Asia and India.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1035-x
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