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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Oceanologica Sinica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.334
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0253-505X - ISSN (Online) 1869-1099
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton assemblages and its
           controlling factors in spring and summer in the Subei Shoal of Yellow Sea,
    • Abstract: The Subei Shoal is a special coastal area with complex physical oceanographic properties in the Yellow Sea. In the present study, the distribution of phytoplankton and its correlation with environmental factors were studied during spring and summer of 2012 in the Subei Shoal of the Yellow Sea. Phytoplankton species composition and abundance data were accomplished by Utermöhl method. Diatoms represented the greatest cellular abundance during the study period. In spring, the phytoplankton cell abundance ranged from 1.59×103 to 269.78×103 cell/L with an average of 41.80×103 cell/L, and Skeletonema sp. and Paralia sulcata was the most dominant species. In summer, the average phytoplankton cell abundance was 72.59×103 cell/L with the range of 1.78×103 to 574.96×103 cell/L, and the main dominant species was Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Skeletonema sp., Dactyliosolen fragilissima and Chaetoceros curvisetus. The results of a redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that turbidity, temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to silicate and SiO4-Si (DIN/SiO4-Si) were the most important environmental factors controlling phytoplankton assemblages in spring or summer in the Subei Shoal of the Yellow Sea.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Photosynthetic physiologies of phytoplankton in the eastern equatorial
           Indian Ocean during the spring inter-monsoon
    • Abstract: Phytoplankton physiologies are dynamic and have sensitive responses to the ambient environment. In this paper, we examine photosynthetic physiologies of phytoplankton communities with Phyto-PAM in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during the spring inter-monsoon. Environmental parameters were measured to investigate the coupling between phytoplankton photosynthetic physiologies and their habitats. During the cruise, the water column was highly stratified. The mixed layer extended to about 75 m and was characterized by high temperature (>28°C) and low nutrient level. The Fv/Fm values and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations were lower at the surface, as consequences of nutrient depletion and photo-inhibition. Subsurface Chl a maximum (SCM) occurred between 75 and 100 m, and had the highest Fv/Fm values. The formation of SCM was a balance between nutrient availability and light limitation. The SCM may contribute significantly to pelagic food web and primary production in the water column. Phytoplankton in different layers encountered different light, trophic and hydrographic dynamics and evolved distinct photosynthetic characteristics. Despite of co-limitation of nutrient limitation and photo-inhibition, phytoplankton in the surface layer showed their acclimation to high irradiance, had lower light utilization efficiencies (α: 0.061±0.032) and could exploit a wide range of light irradiance. Whereas, phytoplankton in the SCM layers presented the highest light utilization efficiencies (α: 0.146±0.48), which guaranteed higher photosynthetic capacities under low light level. These results provide insights into phytoplankton photo-adaption strategies in this less explored region.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • A hydrothermal investigation system for the Qianlong-II autonomous
           underwater vehicle
    • Abstract: Qianlong-II is a fully autonomous underwater vehicle designed for the investigation of submarine resources, particularly polymetallic sulfides. It was used to successfully explore hydrothermal fields on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Here, we summarized the exploration of hydrothermal systems using Qianlong-II, including detailed descriptions of its implementation along with the systems used for data management and fast mapping. We also introduced a method to remove platform magnetic interference using magnetic data while Qianlong-II is spinning. Based on hydrothermal anomalies collected by Qianlong-II, we developed a rapid method for locating hydrothermal vents. Taking one dive as an example, we systemically demonstrated the process for analyzing hydrothermal survey data to locate hydrothermal vents.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The in situ observation of modelled sea ice drift characteristics in the
           Bohai Sea
    • Abstract: Sea ice drift is mainly controlled by ocean currents, local wind, and internal ice stress. Information on sea ice motion, especially in situ synchronous observation of an ice velocity, a current velocity, and a wind speed, is of great significance to identify ice drift characteristics. A sea ice substitute, the so-called “modelled ice”, which is made by polypropylene material with a density similar to Bohai Sea ice, is used to complete a free drift experiment in the open sea. The trajectories of isolated modelled ice, currents and wind in the Bohai Sea during non-frozen and frozen periods are obtained. The results show that the currents play a major role while the wind plays a minor role in the free drift of isolated modelled ice when the wind is mild in the Bohai Sea. The modelled ice drift is significantly affected by the ocean current and wind based on the ice–current–wind relationship established by a multiple linear regression. The modelled ice velocity calculated by the multiple linear regression is close to that of the in situ observation, the magnitude of the error between the calculated and observed ice velocities is less than 12.05%, and the velocity direction error is less than 6.21°. Thus, the ice velocity can be estimated based on the observed current velocity and wind speed when the in situ observed ice velocity is missing. And the modelled ice of same thickness with a smaller density is more sensitive to the current velocity and the wind speed changes. In addition, the modelled ice drift characteristics are shown to be close to those of the real sea ice, which indicates that the modelled ice can be used as a good substitute of real ice for in situ observation of the free ice drift in the open sea, which helps solve time availability, safety and logistics problems related to in situ observation on real ice.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Sea-level rise impact on the evolution of a microtidal Mediterranean
           coastline without human-made structures—a case of the Port aux
           Princes-Sidi Daoued coastline, Gulf of Tunis, NE-Tunisia
    • Abstract: The evolution of the natural and pristine Mediterranean coastline Port aux Princes-Sidi Daoued (Gulf of Tunis, NE-Tunisia) is studied during the period of 1887–2010 on the basis of an ancient minute of bathymetry (1887) and aerial photographs treated by numerical photogrammetric methods. Morphological changes of the coastline shows a general retreat despite the absence of the various anthropogenic actions. Adding to the drift currents and the currents of high energy that are generated by the N-W dominant waves along steeply sub-marine funds, the erosion is mainly due to the sea level rise which increased since the beginning of the 2000s. The Port aux Princes-Sidi Daoued coastline works as a single littoral cell limited by Jbel Korbous to the SW and the fishing harbor of Sidi Daoued to the N-E.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Sedimentary characteristics comparison and genesis analysis of the
           deepwater channel in the hydrate enrichment zones on the north slope of
           the South China Sea
    • Abstract: Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is one of the important clean energy at present and even in the future. The study of its sedimentary environment and minerogenetic condition has long been a hot issue that has received much concern from geologists all over the world. China has successfully obtained the samples of NGH in Shenhu and Dongsha sea areas in 2007, 2013 and 2015, respectively. From this, the continental slope north of the South China Sea becomes an important test site for the study of NGH sedimentary genesis and minerogenetic condition. NGH has been found in Shenhu, Dongsha and Qiongdongnan areas within the continental slope north of South China Sea, at different depths of water, with different sedimentary characteristics, gas genesis, and minerogenetic conditions. Using a seismic sedimentology theory, combining seismic facies results of each facies, sedimentary facies and evolution of each area are documented in turn establishing a sedimentary model by considering palaeogeomorphology, sea level change and tectonic movement. The channel system and MTD (Mass Transport Deposition) system among these three areas were compared focusing on the developing position, appearance and controlling factors. Relative location among three areas is firstly defined that Dongsha area in a nearprovenance steep upper slope, Shenhu area in a normal gentle slope and Qiongdongnan area in an awayprovenance flat plain. Besides, their channel systems are classified into erosional, erosional-aggradational and aggradational channel, and MTD systems into headwall domain, translational domain and toe domain.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The spatial distribution of major and trace elements of surface sediments
           in the northeastern Beibu Gulf of the South China Sea
    • Abstract: A multi-index analysis including grain size, major and trace elements is performed on the surface sediments from the northeastern Beibu Gulf to trace the sources of the sediments and to understand the controlling factors for elements distribution. The mean grain size exhibits a wide variation ranging from 0.09Φ to 8.05Φ with an average value of 5.33Φ. The average contents of major elements descend in an order of c(SiO2)>c(Al2O3)>c(Fe2O3)>c(CaO)>c(MgO)>c(K2O)>c(Na2O)>c(TiO2)>c(P2O5)>c(MnO), while those of trace elements exhibit a descending order of c(Sr)>c(Rb)>c(V)>c(Zn)>c(Cr)>c(Pb)>c(Ni)>c(Cu)>c(As). On the basis of elementary distribution characteristics and statistical analyses, the study area is divided into the four zones: Zone I is located in the northeastern coastal area of the gulf, which receives large amount of fluvial materials from local rivers in Guangxi and Guangdong, China, and the Qiongzhou Strait; Zone II is located in the center of the study area, where surface sediments exhibits a multiple source; Zone III is located in the Qiongzhou Strait, where surface sediments are dominated by materials from the Zhujiang River and Hainan; Zone IV is located in the southwest of the study area, where surface sediments are mainly originated from the Red River and Hainan. The statistical analyses of sediment geochemical characteristics reveal that the grain size, which is mainly influenced by hydrodynamics and mineral composition of terrigenous materials, is the leading factor controlling the elementary distribution. Meanwhile, impacts from anthropogenic activities and marine biogenic process will also be taken into consideration.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Weather induced subtidal flows through multiple inlets of an arctic
           microtidal lagoon
    • Abstract: Estuarine processes in the arctic lagoons are among the least studied but important subjects, especially considering the rapid warming of arctic water which may change the length of ice-free period in the summer. In this paper, wind-driven exchange flows in the micro-tidal Elson Lagoon of northern Alaska with multiple inlets of contrasting widths and depths are studied with in situ observations, statistical analysis, numerical experiments, a regression model on the basis of dynamics, and remote sensing data. Water velocity profiles were obtained from a bottom deployed acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the northwestern Eluitkak Pass connecting the Beaufort Sea to the Elson Lagoon during a 4.9 day ice-free period in the summer of 2013. The subtidal flow is found correlated with wind (R2 value ~96%). Frequently occurring east, northeast and north winds from the arctic atmospheric high- and low-pressure systems push water from the Beaufort Sea into the lagoon through the wide inlets on the eastern side of the lagoon, resulting in an outward flow against the wind at the narrow northwestern inlet. The counter-wind flow is a result of an uneven wind forcing acting through the asymmetric inlets and depth, an effect of “torque” or vorticity. Under northwest wind, the exchange flow at the northwestern inlet reverses its direction, with inward flows through the upwind northwestern inlet and outward flows through the downwind eastern inlets. A regression model is established based on the momentum equations and Taylor series expansions. The model is used to predict flows in July and August of 2015 and July of 2017, supported by available Landsat satellite images. About 73%–80% of the time the flows at Eluitkak Pass are out of Elson Lagoon for the summer of 2015 and 2017. Numerical experiments are conducted to corroborate the findings and illustrate the effects under various wind conditions. A quasi-steady state balance between wind force and surface pressure gradient is confirmed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Wave packet solutions in a bounded equatorial ocean and its interannual
           and decadal variabilities
    • Abstract: Linearized shallow water perturbation equations with approximation in an equatorial β plane are used to obtain the analytical solution of wave packet anomalies in the upper bounded equatorial ocean. The main results are as follows. The wave packet is a superposition of eastward travelling Kelvin waves and westward travelling Rossby waves with the slowest speed, and satisfies the boundary conditions of eastern and western coasts, respectively. The decay coefficient of this solution to the north and south sides of the equator is inversely proportional only to the phase velocity of Kelvin waves in the upper water. The oscillation frequency of the wave packet, which is also the natural frequency of the ocean, is proportional to its mode number and the phase velocity of Kelvin waves and is inversely proportional to the length of the equatorial ocean in the east-west direction. The flow anomalies of the wave packet of Mode 1 most of the time appear as zonal flows with the same direction. They reach the maximum at the center of the equatorial ocean and decay rapidly away from the equator, manifested as equatorially trapped waves. The flow anomalies of the wave packet of Mode 2 appear as the zonal flows with the same direction most of the time in half of the ocean, and are always 0 at the center of the entire ocean which indicates stagnation, while decaying away from the equator with the same speed as that of Mode 1. The spatial structure and oscillation period of the wave packet solution of Mode 1 and Mode 2 are consistent with the changing periods of the surface spatial field and time coefficient of the first and second modes of complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of flow anomalies in the actual equatorial ocean. This indicates that the solution does exist in the real ocean, and that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) are both related to Mode 2. After considering the Indonesian throughflow, we can obtain the length of bounded equatorial ocean by taking the sum of that of the tropical Indian Ocean and the tropical Pacific Ocean, thus this wave packet can also explain the decadal variability (about 20 a) of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The B/Ca and Cd/Ca of a subsurface-dwelling foraminifera Pulleniatina
           obliquiloculata in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean: implications for the
           subsurface carbonate chemistry estimation
    • Abstract: Pulleniatina obliquiloculata shells from 16 core-top samples from the tropical Indo-Pacific Oceans are analyzed for the ratios of boron and cadmium to calcium (B/Ca and Cd/Ca). The B/Ca ratios show a very weak positive relationship with [B(OH)4-] and the dissolved carbonate species at the apparent calcification depth of P. obliquiloculata. The boron partition coefficients (KD) between P. obliquiloculata B/Ca and seawater [B(OH)4-]/[HCO3-] distribute around 1.1×10-3–1.3×10-3 with a mean value of (1.19±0.12)×10-3, and are significantly related to the nutrient concentration, especially phosphate. The lack of any clear correlation between the P. obliquiloculata B/Ca and seawater carbonate chemical parameters suggests that the physiochemical controls on boron incorporation are masked by the complexity of natural seawater condition. But the significant dependence of KD on nutrient may likely be explained by a nutrient related growth-rate effect. Cd/Ca of P. obliquiloculata shows significant correlation with seawater phosphate concentration, and its partition coefficients (DCd) are significantly related to temperature. A first-principle methodology of P. obliquiloculata B/Ca is applied, with the aid of Cd/Ca as a phosphate proxy and a constraint on KD, to estimating sea water carbonate chemistry (e.g., pH). The results are fairly promising and allow us to propose the possibility to apply the combination of B/Ca and Cd/Ca proxies (and also Mg/Ca and δ18O for estimating temperature and salinity) for the paleoreconstruction of seawater carbonate chemistry.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The influence of runoff and wind on the dispersion patterns of suspended
           sediment in the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Estuary based on MODIS data
    • Abstract: Cloud-free moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Estuary (ZRE) taken between 2002 and 2012 are retrieved and used to study the spatial and temporal patterns of suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) across the estuary under runoff, wind, and tropical storm conditions. Five typical dispersal patterns of suspended sediments in the estuary are defined: Case I shows generally low SSCs under low dynamics; Case II shows a river-dominant dispersal pattern of suspended sediments from the outlets, particularly from Modaomen, Jiaomen, Hengmen, and others; Case III shows wind-dominant dispersal of high SSCs derived from the west shoal and southwesterly transport under a strong NE wind; Case IV is the combination of relatively large runoff and wind; and Case V is caused by a strong tropical storm with high river discharge and wind, which is characterized by the high SSCs across the entire estuary that are transported eastward by winddriven and buoyancy currents outside the estuary. Runoff is a dominant factor that controls seasonal and annual SSC variations in the ZRE, with the area of high SSCs being largest in the summer and smallest in the spring. The correlation coefficients between the monthly averaged river-suspended sediment discharge and the area of the high SSCs are approximately 0.6. The wind power over the west shoal increases with a wind speed, which induces more sediment resuspension and shows a close relationship between the wind speed and high SSC area.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Undrained shear strength evaluation for hydrate-bearing sediment overlying
           strata in the Shenhu area, northern South China Sea
    • Abstract: The undrained shear strength of shallow strata is a critical parameter for safety design in deep-water operations. In situ piezocone penetration tests (CPTU) and laboratory experiments are performed at Site W18-19 in the Shenhu area, northern South China Sea, where China’s first marine hydrate exploitation operation is due to be located. The validation of the undrained shear strength prediction model based on CPTU parameters. Different laboratory tests, including pocket penetrometer, torvane, miniature vane and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests, are employed to solve empirical cone coefficients by statistical and mathematical methods. Finally, an optimized model is proposed to describe the longitudinal distribution of undrained shear strength in calcareous clay strata in the Shenhu area. Research results reveal that average empirical cone coefficients based on total cone resistance, effective resistance, and excess-pore pressure are 13.8, 4.2 and 14.4, respectively. The undrained shear strength prediction model shows a good fit with the laboratory results only within specific intervals based on their compaction degree and gas-bearing conditions. The optimized prediction model in piecewise function format can be used to describe the longitudinal distribution of the undrained shear strength for calcareous clay within all depth intervals from the mud-line to the upper boundary of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). The optimized prediction result indicates that the effective cone resistance model is suitable for very soft to firm calcareous clays, the excess-pore pressure model can depict the undrained shear strength for firm to very stiff but gas-free clays, while the total cone resistance model is advantageous for evaluating the undrained shear strength for very stiff and gassy clays. The optimized model in piecewise function format can considerably improve the adaptability of empirical models for calcareous clay in the Shenhu area. These results are significant for safety evaluations of proposed hydrate exploitation projects.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • A preliminary study on an upper ocean heat and salt content of the western
           Pacific warm pool region
    • Abstract: On the basis of Argo profile data of the temperature and salinity from January 2001 to July 2014, the spatial distributions of an upper ocean heat content (OHC) and ocean salt content (OSC) of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) region and their seasonal and interannual variations are studied by a cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) decomposition, a maximum entropy spectral analysis, and a correlation analysis. Probable reasons for variations are discussed. The results show the following. (1) The OHC variations in the subsurface layer of the WPWP are much greater than those in the surface layer. On the contrary, the OSC variations are mainly in the surface layer, while the subsurface layer varies little. (2) Compared with the OSC, the OHC of the WPWP region is more affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The CSEOF analysis shows that the OHC pattern in mode 1 has strong interannual oscillation, with eastern and western parts opposite in phase. The distribution of the OSC has a positive-negative-positive tripole pattern. Time series analysis shows that the OHC has three phase adjustments with the occurrence of ENSO events after 2007, while the OSC only had one such adjustment during the same period. Further analysis indicates that the OHC variations are mainly caused by ENSO events, local winds, and zonal currents, whereas the OSC variations are caused by much more complex reasons. Two of these, the zonal current and a freshwater flux, have a positive feedback on the OSC change in the WPWP region.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The influence of irregular seafloor topography on the seismic wave field
           and migration imaging
    • Abstract: One of the problems experienced in marine geophysical exploration is that the layered features in the migration imaging profile are blurred and the seismic energy reflected is weaker in the middle or lower parts. In this study we model the seismic wavefield records in the undulating seafloor when there is both a slight change and significant change in seafloor topography to analyze its influence on the seismic reflection data and migration imaging profiles. We compare and analyze the wave field records collected at the same point on the original and modified velocity models, and the cross-bonding resulting migration imaging profiles. The results show that whether the seismic reflection data collection is performed along the direction of the survey line or against the direction of the survey line, slight changes in the seafloor topography have little effect on the wave field records and the migration profile, while significant changes in the seafloor topography have great effect on both the wave field records and migration profile.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The relative changes of a sea surface temperature in the South China Sea
           since the Pliocene
    • Abstract: The reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST) is a key issue in research on paleoceanography. The recently related studies are mainly concentrated on the Quaternary. The skeletons of a typical species of benthonic foraminifer (Amphistegina radiata) in the top 0–375.30 m interval of Well “Xike-1” reef core, Shidao Island, the Xisha Islands, are uniformly selected. The ratios of magnesium to calcium concentrations and other indicators are analyzed by an electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with the purpose of estimating the paleo-SSTs since the Pliocene and further investigating the periodic change law of paleoclimate in the South China Sea (SCS). Meanwhile, the geologic significance of paleoclimatic events in the SCS is discussed with global perspectives. The results indicate that the paleo-SSTs reconstructed by the ratios of magnesium to calcium concentrations in the SCS show a general periodic trend of “high–low–high–low” in values changes since the Pliocene. By comparison, the fluctuations of reconstructed paleo-SSTs are much stronger in the Quaternary. Moreover, the variations of the ratios of magnesium to calcium concentrations in the A. radiata skeletons have recorded a series of major paleoclimatic events since the Pliocene, of which the Quaternary glaciation events and the Arctic ice cap forming events during the late Pliocene are more significant. Thus, using the changes of the ratios of magnesium to calcium concentrations in the A. radiata skeletons from Well “Xike-1” reef core to reflect the relative changes of paleo-SSTs is a relatively feasible and reliable way in the SCS, which is also proved by the correlation of drilling cores characteristics in this area.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The vertical heat transport of internal solitary waves over the
           continental slope in the northern South China Sea
    • Abstract: An integrated analysis of internal solitary wave (ISW) observations obtained from two moorings over the continental slope in the northern South China Sea (SCS) leads to an assessment of the vertical heat transport of the ISWs. The clusters of ISW packets are phase-locked to the fortnightly cycle of the semidiurnal tide. The ISWs appear during large semidiurnal tides, and there is a period of 5–6 d when no ISWs are observed. The effect of the ISWs on the continental slope heat budget is observed. The ISWs can modify a local temperature field in which the temperature in the upper layer can be changed by O (100) °C after the ISWs passed the mooring. Both ISWinduced diffusion and ISW-induced advection contribute to the temperature variation. The estimates imply an average vertical heat flux of 0.01 to 0.1 MW/m2 in the ISWs in the upper 500 m of the water column. The vertical heat transport ranges from 0.56 to 2.83 GJ/m2 with a mean value of 1.63 GJ/m2. The observations suggest that the vertical heat transport is proportional to the maximum vertical displacement.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Miocene paleoenvironmental evolution based on benthic foraminiferal
           assemblages in the Lufeng Sag, northern South China Sea
    • Abstract: The Miocene epoch marks the most crucial period during the Cenozoic cooling trend, characterized by the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and a series of short–lived cooling events (Miocene isotope events). To understand the paleoenvironmental evolution along the shallow water shelf in the South China Sea during the Miocene, the benthic foraminiferal assemblage and total organic carbon content (TOC) were analyzed at Hole LF 14 located in the Lufeng Sag, northern South China Sea. Three benthic foraminiferal assemblages (e.g., the Uvigerina spp. assemblage, the Cibicides spp. assemblage, and the Cibicidoides spp. assemblage), corresponding to different watermass conditions, were recognized based on Q–mode factor analysis. Early studies suggested that Hole LF14 was deposited under semienclosed bay, middle to outer shelf or even upper bathyal environment during ~18.7–4.53 Ma. The dominant Uvigerina spp. assemblage was characterized by low diversity and shallow infaunal to infaunal species, indicating a warm, low–oxygenation and eutrophic conditions since the Early Miocene to MMCO (~18.7–14.24 Ma). An abrupt sea level drop and significant faunal changes were recorded during 14.24–13.41 Ma, suggesting development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheets, which resulted in a drop of sea level and change in benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the shallow water shelf. Beyond the Uvigerina spp. assemblage, the Cibicides spp. assemblage became important during the middle–late Middle Miocene (14.24–11.54 Ma). This assemblage was dominated by epifaunal species with relative high diversity, suggesting high–energy, high–oxygenation and oligotrophic conditions with episodic supply of organic food. The dominant Cibicidoides spp. assemblage with high diversity, indicates a mesotrophic conditions with relative high–oxygen content during the Late Miocene to Pliocene (11.54–4.53 Ma). The appearance and continuous occurrence of Ammonia spp. and Pseudorotalia spp. since 10.02 Ma, may reflect the influence of the Kuroshio Current.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Multi-year assessment of paralytic shellfish toxins in hard clam species
           along the coastline of Jiangsu Province, China
    • Abstract: Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are notorious neurotoxins that threaten public health and food safety worldwide. Although PST monitoring programs have recently been established throughout China, the profiles and variation of PSTs in important commercial clams (e.g., Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, and Meretrix meretrix) along the Jiangsu Province coastline remain largely unexplored. In this study, a validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method was used to examine PST profiles and levels in 540 clam samples from natural production areas along Jiangsu Province coastline during 2014–2016. Although the PST levels (≤6.38 μg saxitotoxin equivalents (eq)/kg) were consistently below European Union regulatory limits (≤800 μg saxitotoxin eq/kg) during this time period, saxitotoxin, decarbamoylsaxitotoxin, and gonyautoxins 1 and 4 were detected, and nearly 40% of the samples were saxitotoxin-positive. The PST levels also varied significantly by seasons, with peak values observed in May during 2014–2016. This is the first systematic report of PSTs in clams from Jiangsu Province, and additional research and protective measures are needed to ensure the safety of clams harvested in this area.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Grain size characteristics of the carbonate-free fraction of surface
           sediments from the Southwest Indian Ridge area and its geological
    • Abstract: The carbonate-free fraction of 20 surface sediments collected from the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) was studied by grain size analysis and mineralogical analysis with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristics of the carbonate-free fraction of the sediments were obtained, and related influential factors were discussed. The results show that the mean grain size of this fraction is in 1.96Φ–8.19Φ, with poorly sorting and unimodal, bimodal or irregular bimodal distribution patterns. Four grain size end members of the fraction are derived with the End Member Model method. The finest end member EM1 shows a significant contribution of terrigenous materials of the aeolian input and sediment carried by the bottom current. End member EM2 with medium size mainly reflects sediment of a siliceous bioclast origin. EM3 and EM4 are interpreted as representing the coarser volcanic materials related to bedrock weathering or volcanic activities. Multi-provenance is the dominant factor controlling the grain size pattern of the carbonate-free fraction of the sediments in that area. In addition, sediment transport processes such as the bottom current and wind are the minor factors that influence the grain size distribution of the carbonate-free fraction sediments.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Identification and characterization of a delta-12 fatty acid desaturase
           gene from marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana
    • Abstract: The cDNA of the delta-12 fatty acid desaturase gene, IgFAD2, was cloned from the marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana, a species capable of producing docosahexaenoic acid. Sequence analysis indicated that the open reading frame measured a length of 1 158 bp and encoded 386 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 42.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.2. Computational analysis of the protein sequence of IgFAD2 showed typical features of membrane-bound desaturase such as three conserved histidine boxes along with four membrane-spanning regions that were universally present among plant desaturases. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the abundance of IgFAD2 transcript was significantly upregulated under different environmental stresses including low temperature (15°C), high salinity (salinity of 62 and 93), and nitrogen starvation (220 μmol/L). Heterologous expression indicated that yeast cells transformed with a plasmid construct containing IgFAD2 could convert endogenous oleic acid (18:1Δ9, OA) into linoleic acid (18:2Δ9, 12, LA). These findings confirm that I. galbana IgFAD2 plays important roles in the biosynthetic pathways of unsaturated fatty acids.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
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