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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Acta Oceanologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.295]   [H-I: 17]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0253-505X - ISSN (Online) 1869-1099
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Derivation of the thermal characteristics of mesoscale eddies
    • Authors: Xuan Chen; Jing Pan; Chongwei Zheng; Xi Zhang; Ming He
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Abstract This study aims at explaining the relationship between thermodynamic characteristics and direction of rotation of mesoscale eddies (MEs). The geometric characteristics of the MEs are under the following assumptions: the structure of the MEs is symmetrical, and changes of oceanic physical variables are close to linear features in the radial direction in the ME regions. Based on these assumptions, by using primitive equations without friction under a cylindrical coordinate system, the thermodynamic characteristics of the MEs are derived, showing that the conventional relationship of warm anticyclonic eddies with high sea surface height (SSH) and cold cyclonic eddies with low SSH is not consistent with the SSH and sea surface temperature (SST) observations of eddies. The results show that the symmetrical form is an ideal approximation for the geometric characteristics of MEs. In consideration of the above assumptions, there are advantages for derivation of the characteristics of the MEs under a cylindrical coordinate.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1036-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • An evaluation of input/dissipation terms in WAVEWATCH III using in situ
           and satellite significant wave height data in the South China Sea
    • Authors: Jichao Wang; Jie Zhang; Jungang Yang; Wendi Bao; Guoli Wu; Qifeng Ren
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: Abstract A WAVEWATCH III version 3.14 (WW3) wave model is used to evaluate input/dissipation source term packages WAM3, WAM4 and TC96 considering the effect of atmospheric instability. The comparisons of a significant wave height acquired from the model with different packages have been performed based on wave observation radar and HY-2 altimetry significant wave height data through five experiments in the South China Sea domain spanning latitudes of 0°–35°N and longitudes of 100°–135°E. The sensitivity of the wind speed correction parameter in the TC96 package also has been analyzed. From the results, the model is unable to dissipate the wave energy efficiently during a swell propagation with either source packages. It is found that TC96 formulation with the “effective wind speed” strategy performs better than WAM3 and WAM4 formulations. The wind speed correction parameter in the TC96 source package is very sensitive and needs to be calibrated and selected before the WW3 model can be applied to a specific region.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1038-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Temporal and spatial variability of the carbon cycle in the east of
           China’s seas: a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical modeling study
    • Authors: Xuanliang Ji; Guimei Liu; Shan Gao; Hui Wang; Miaoyin Zhang
      Pages: 60 - 71
      Abstract: Abstract In the east of China’s seas, there is a wide range of the continental shelf. The nutrient cycle and the carbon cycle in the east of China’s seas exhibit a strong variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. On the basis of a regional ocean modeling system (ROMS), a three dimensional physical-biogeochemical model including the carbon cycle with the resolution (1/12)°×(1/12)° is established to investigate the physical variations, ecosystem responses and carbon cycle consequences in the east of China’s seas. The ROMS-Nutrient Phytoplankton Zooplankton Detritus (NPZD) model is driven by daily air-sea fluxes (wind stress, long wave radiation, short wave radiation, sensible heat and latent heat, freshwater fluxes) that derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis2 from 1982 to 2005. The coupled model is capable of reproducing the observed seasonal variation characteristics over the same period in the East China Sea. The integrated air-sea CO2 flux over the entire east of China’s seas reveals a strong seasonal cycle, functioning as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere from June to October, while serving as a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere in the other months. The 24 a mean value of airsea CO2 flux over the entire east of China’s seas is about 1.06 mol/(m2·a), which is equivalent to a regional total of 3.22 Mt/a, indicating that in the east of China’s seas there is a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in sea water in the east of China’s seas has an increasing rate of 1.15 μatm/a (1μtm/a=0.101 325 Pa), but pH in sea water has an opposite tendency, which decreases with a rate of 0.001 3 a–1 from 1982 to 2005. Biological activity is a dominant factor that controls the \({p_{C{O_2}air}}\) in the east of China’s seas, and followed by a temperature. The inverse relationship between the interannual variability of air-sea CO2 flux averaged from the domain area and Niño3 SST Index indicates that the carbon cycle in the east of China’s seas has a high correlation with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-0977-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Chinese seventh Arctic scientific expedition
    • Authors: Na Liu; Bin Kong; Lina Lin; Yan He; Yanguang Liu; Longshan Lin; Tao Zhang; Jianfang Chen
      Pages: 115 - 116
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1044-9
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Coupled carbon and sulfur isotope behaviors and other geochemical
           perspectives into marine methane seepage
    • Abstract: Abstract Methane seepage is the signal of the deep hydrocarbon reservoir. The determination of seepage is significant to the exploration of petroleum, gas and gas hydrate. The seepage habits microbial and macrofaunal life which is fueled by the hydrocarbons, the metabolic byproducts facilitate the precipitation of authigenic minerals. The study of methane seepage is also important to understand the oceanographic condition and local ecosystem. The seepage could be active or quiescent at different times. The geophysical surveys and the geochemical determinations reveal the existence of seepage. Among these methods, only geochemical determination could expose message of the dormant seepages. The active seepage demonstrates high porewater methane concentration with rapid SO4 2– depleted, low H2S and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), higher rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The quiescent seepage typically develops authigenic carbonates with specific biomarkers, with extremely depleted 13C in gas, DIC and carbonates and with enriched 34S sulfate and depleted 34S pyrite. The origin of methane, minerals precipitation, the scenario of seepage and the possible method of immigration could be determined by the integration of solutes concentration, mineral composition and isotopic fractionation of carbon, sulfur. Numerical models with the integrated results provide useful insight into the nature and intensity of methane seepage occurring in the sediment and paleooceanographic conditions. Unfortunately, the intensive investigation of a specific area with dormant seep is still limit. Most seepage and modeling studies are site-specific and little attempt has been made to extrapolate the results to larger scales. Further research is thus needed to foster our understanding of the methane seepage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
  • Evidence of China’s sea boundary in the South China Sea
    • Abstract: Abstract According to a series of important historical maps, i.e., the Location Map of the South China Sea Islands, the Nansha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Xisha Islands, Yongxing Island and Shidao Island, and Taiping Island (archived by the Territorial Administration Division of the Ministry of Interior of Republic of China in 1946), and the Administration District Map of the Republic of China published in 1948, the dashed line surrounding the South China Sea Islands represents China’s sea boundary in the South China Sea at that time. It was both connected with, and an extension of, the land boundary of China. At that time the dashed line was used to represent the waters boundaries while the solid line was used to represent the land boundary—a universal method used in maps that was then recognized internationally. The above observation provides historical and scientific evidence of China’s sea boundary in the South China Sea that is useful for the international maritime delimitation over the South China Sea area.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Geothermal investigation of the thickness of gas hydrate stability zone in
           the north continental margin of the South China Sea
    • Abstract: Abstract The exploration of unconventional and/or new energy resources has become the focus of energy research worldwide, given the shortage of fossil fuels. As a potential energy resource, gas hydrate exists only in the environment of high pressure and low temperature, mainly distributing in the sediments of the seafloor in the continental margins and the permafrost zones in land. The accurate determination of the thickness of gas hydrate stability zone is essential yet challenging in the assessment of the exploitation potential. The majority of previous studies obtain this thickness by detecting the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) layer on the seismic profiles. The phase equilibrium between gas hydrate stable state with its temperature and pressure provides an opportunity to derive the thickness with the geothermal method. Based on the latest geothermal dataset, we calculated the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in the north continental margin of the South China Sea. Our results indicate that the thicknesses of gas hydrate stability zone vary greatly in different areas of the northern margin of the South China Sea. The thickness mainly concentrates on 200–300 m and distributes in the southwestern and eastern areas with belt-like shape. We further confirmed a certain relationship between the GHSZ thickness and factors such as heat flow and water depth. The thickness of gas hydrate stability zone is found to be large where the heat flow is relatively low. The GHSZ thickness increases with the increase of the water depth, but it tends to stay steady when the water depth deeper than 3 000 m. The findings would improve the assessment of gas hydrate resource potential in the South China Sea.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Assessing the vulnerability of changing coasts, Hainan Island, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Knowledge of coastline changes and vulnerability is of great importance to local government departments that are responsible for the management and development of coastal zones. To study the nature of change and vulnerability along the coasts of the Hainan Island, we collected a large number of sediment samples through the last few years, and reconstructed the changes of the coastline by combining the data of sediment grain-size analysis and the nautical charts/TM RS imaginary. Contrary to being almost free from erosion (as expected from the findings that the coastlines are in a relatively stable state), four major cities in Hainan (i.e., Haikou, Wenchang, Sanya and Changjiang) turned out to be suffered from a moderate coastal vulnerability primarily because of the large populations that impose considerable pressure on the coastlines. Thus, the assessment methodology utilized in this study, including both anthropogenic and natural factors, serves as a useful tool to obtain a comprehensive understanding of coastline vulnerability for local government, in terms of coastal management and adaptation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Deposition of duststorm particles during 2000–2012 in the South Yellow
           Sea, China based on satellite data
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, about 220 satellite images between 2000 and 2012 were obtained from FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, HJ-1A and HJ-1B to estimate the impact of duststorms on the South Yellow Sea (SYS), which serve as an important source of particles there. The analyzing results from the images support a total occurrence of 88 duststorms (including the locally-generated dusty weather) that affected the SYS during 2000–2012. The annual occurrence was about 4–10 times (10 times in 2000 and 2004; four times in 2009 and 2012), predominantly in March (29%), April (33%) and May (22%). By mapping the distribution of their frequency, the duststorms influencing the SYS were found primarily moving from the northwest (39 times, 44.3%) and west (37 times, 42%) to the study region with only 11 duststorms (12.5%) coming from the north and 1 duststorm (1%) from the southwest. We estimated that an annual amount of 0.5–3.5 million tons of sediment particles was brought to the SYS by the duststorms during 2000–2012.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Modeling the circulation and sediment transport in the Beibu Gulf
    • Abstract: Abstract Water circulation and sediment transport in the Beibu Gulf are important for its environmental protection and resource exploitation. By employing the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), we studied the seasonal variation of circulation, sediment transport and long-term morphological evolution in the Beibu Gulf. The simulation results show that the circulation induced by tide and wind is cyclonic both in winter and summer in the gulf and that the wind-driven circulation is stronger in winter than that in summer. The sediment concentration is higher in the Qiongzhou Strait, west of the Hainan Island and the coast of Vietnam and the Leizhou Peninsula. The sediment is transported westwards in winter and eastwards in summer in the Qiongzhou Strait. The west entrance of the Qiongzhou Strait is dominated by westward transport all the year round. The sediment discharged by rivers is deposited near the river mouths. The simulated result demonstrates that the sediment transport is mainly controlled by tidal induced bottom resuspension in the Beibu Gulf. Four characteristics are summarized for the distribution patterns of erosion and deposition. (1) The erosion and deposition are insignificant in most area of the gulf. (2) Sediment deposition is more significant in the mouths of Qiongzhou Strait. (3) The erosion is observed in the seabed of Qiongzhou Strait. (4) Erosion and deposition occur alternatively in the west of Hainan Island.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Recent changing patterns of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary caused
           by human activities
    • Abstract: Abstract To evaluate the controlling factors for coastline change of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary since 1974, we extracted the mean high tide line from multi-temporal remote sensing images that span from 1974 to 2014 at 2-year intervals. We chose 42 scenes to constrain the changing pattern of the Changjiang Estuary coastline, and implemented GIS technology to analyze the area change of the Changjiang (Yangtze) Subaerial Delta. Runoff, sediment discharge and coastal engineering were withal considered in the analysis of the coastline changes. The coastline has transgressed seaward since 1974, and a part of it presents inter-annual variations. The area of the Changjiang Subaerial Delta increased by 871 km2, with a net accretion rate of 21.8 km2/a. Based on the change of sediment discharge due to the major projects in the Changjiang River Basin, we divided the changing pattern of the coastline into three stages: the slow accretion stage (1974–1986), the moderate accretion stage (1987–2002), and the rapid accretion stage (2003–2014). Liner regression analysis illustrated that there is a significantly positive correlation between the area changes and sediment discharge in the Chongming Eastern Shoal and Jiuduansha. This suggested that sediment load has a fundamental effect on the evolution of the Changjiang Estuary. Construction of Deep Waterway in the North Passage of the Changjiang River (1998–2010) led to a rapid accretion in the Hengsha Eastern Shoal and Jiuduansha by influencing the hydrodynamics in North Passage. Coastal engineering such as reclamation and harbor construction can also change the morphology of the Changjiang Estuary. We defined a contribution rate of area change to assess the impact of reclamation on the evolution of Changjiang Estuary. It turned out that more than 45.3% of area increment of the Changjiang Estuary was attributed to reclamation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Diurnal variations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes
           from invasive Spartina alterniflora dominated coastal wetland in northern
           Jiangsu Province
    • Abstract: Abstract The invasions of the alien species such as Spartina alterniflora along the northern Jiangsu coastlines have posed a threat to biodiversity and the ecosystem function. Yet, limited attention has been given to their potential influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including the diurnal variations of GHG fluxes that are fundamental in estimating the carbon and nitrogen budget. In this study, we examined the diurnal variation in fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a S. alterniflora intertidal flat in June, October, and December of 2013 and April of 2014 representing the summer, autumn, winter, and spring seasons, respectively. We found that the average CH4 fluxes on the diurnal scale were positive during the growing season while negative otherwise. The tidal flat of S. alterniflora acted as a source of CH4 in summer (June) and a combination of source and sink in other seasons. We observed higher diurnal variations in the CO2 and N2O fluxes during the growing season (1 536.5 mg CO2 m–2 h–1 and 25.6 μg N2O m–2 h–1) compared with those measured in the non-growing season (379.1 mg CO2 m–2 h–1 and 16.5 μg N2O m–2 h–1). The mean fluxes of CH4 were higher at night than that in the daytime during all the seasons but October. The diurnal variation in the fluxes of CO2 in June and N2O in December fluctuated more than that in October and April. However, two peak curves in October and April were observed for the diurnal changes in CO2 and N2O fluxes (prominent peaks were found in the morning of October and in the afternoon of April, respectively). The highest diurnal variation in the N2O fluxes took place at 15:00 (86.4 μg N2O m–2 h–1) in June with an unimodal distribution. Water logging in October increased the emission of CO2 (especially at nighttime), yet decreased N2O and CH4 emissions to a different degree on the daily scale because of the restrained diffusion rates of the gases. The seasonal and diurnal variations of CH4 and CO2 fluxes did not correlate to the air and soil temperatures, whereas the seasonal and diurnal variation of the fluxes of N2O in June exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature. When N2O and CH4 fluxes were converted to CO2-e equivalents, the emissions of N2O had a remarkable potential to impact the global warming. The mean daily flux (MF) and total daily flux (TDF) were higher in the growing season, nevertheless, the MF and TDF of CO2 were higher in October and those of CH4 and N2O were higher in June. In spite of the difference in the optimal sampling times throughout the observation period, our results obtained have implications for sampling and scaling strategies in estimating the GHG fluxes in coastal saline wetlands.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Classifying the sedimentary environments of the Xincun Lagoon, Hainan
           Island, by system cluster and principal component analyses
    • Abstract: Abstract An understanding of the sedimentary environment in relation to its controlling factors is of great importance in coastal geomorphology, ecology, tourism and aquaculture studies. We attempt to deal with this issue, using a case study from the Xincun Lagoon, Hainan Island in southern China. For the study, surficial sediment samples were collected, together with hydrodynamic and bathymetric surveys, during August 2013. Numerical simulation was carried out to obtain high-spatial resolution tidal current data. The sediment samples were analyzed to derive mean grain size, sorting coefficient, skewness and kurtosis, together with the sand, silt and clay contents. The modern sedimentary environments were classified using system cluster and principal component analyses. Grain size analysis reveals that the sediments are characterized by extremely slightly sandy silty mud (ESSSM) and slightly silty sand (SSS), which are distributed in the central lagoon and near-shore shallow water areas, respectively. Mean grain size varies from 0 to 8.0Ф, with an average of 4.6Ф. The silt content is the highest, i.e., 52% on average, with the average contents of sand and clay being 43% and 5%, respectively. There exists a significant correlation between mean size and water depth, suggesting that the surficial sediments become finer with increasing water depth. Cluster analyses reveals two groups of samples. The first group is characterized by mean grain size of more than 5.5Ф, whilst the second group has mean grain size of below 3.5Ф. Further, these groups also have different correlations between mean grain size and the other grain size parameters. In terms of the tidal current, the average values of the root mean square velocity (RMSV) are 7.5 cm/s and 6.9 cm/s on springs and neaps, respectively. For the RMSVs that are higher than 4 cm/s, a significant positive correlation is found between the content of the 63–125 μm fraction and the RMSV, suggesting that the RMSV determines the variability of the very fine sand fraction. Based on system cluster and principal component analyses (PCA), the modern sedimentary environments are classified into three types according to the grain size parameters, RMSVs and water depth data. The results suggest the importance of grain size parameters and high-spatial resolution hydrodynamic data in differentiating the coastal sedimentary environments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Analysis of the characteristics of offshore currents in the Changjiang
           (Yangtze River) estuarine waters based on buoy observations
    • Abstract: Abstract A buoy of 10 m in diameter was used to record the current speed and direction in a vertical profile in the offshore area of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary (with an average water depth of 46.0 m) for one year. The results include: (1) the currents rotate clockwise and the current direction is consistent in a vertical profile without clear seasonal variations. (2) The horizontal current speeds are generally high, with a maximum of 128.5 cm/s occurring in summer and 105.5 cm/s appearing in winter commonly close to the surface. The average current speeds in the vertical profile fall in the same range (the differences are less than 8.0 cm/s), with the maximum of 47.0 cm/s occurring in summer and 40.8 cm/s in winter. The average current speed during spring tides is twice that during neap tides (26.5 cm/s). (3) Significant differences of speeds are observed in the vertical profile. The maximum current speed occurs at either surface (spring and winter) or sub-surface (summer and autumn), with the minimum current speed appearing at the bottom. The maximum average current speed of all layers is 57.9 cm/s, which occurs in the 18-m layer during summer. (4) The average speed of the residual currents ranges from 7.5 cm/s to 11.3 cm/s, with the strongest occurring in spring and weakest in winter. The residual currents of all layers are eastward during spring and winter, whereas northeastward or northward during summer and autumn. (5) The currents in the offshore of Changjiang Estuary are impacted collectively by diluted Changjiang River discharge, the Taiwan Warm Current, monsoon and tides.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Br/Cl, I/Cl and chlorine isotopic compositions of pore water in shallow
           sediments: implications for the fluid sources in the Dongsha area,
           northern South China Sea
    • Abstract: Abstract The Dongsha area is one of the most promising target areas for gas hydrate exploration in the South China Sea (SCS). The study of pore water geochemistry has played a key role in Chinese gas hydrate exploration. Br/Cl, I/Cl and δ 37Cl in pore water were applied here in tracing gas hydrate occurrence, chemical evolution of pore fluids and water/rock interactions in low temperature sediment environments. The samples were collected from Sites HD255PC and HD309PC in the Dongsha area in 2004. At Site HD255PC, we found the elevated Br/Cl, I/Cl and decreased SO4/Cl at the depth of 4–5 m, suggestive of a laterally migrated fluid probably generated from the gas hydrate occurrence. The range of δ 37Cl is–0.54‰ to +0.96‰, and positive δ 37Cl at 4–5 m interval should be related with different diffusion rates between 35Cl and 37Cl. At Site HD309PC, a laterally migrated fluid was also found at the depth of 3–4 m, with the Br/Cl two times to that of the seawater and decreased I/Cl, indicating the fluid has no relationship with the gas hydrate. In this site, the chlorine isotopic composition varies from–0.7‰ to +1.9‰. Extra high Br/Cl might relate with the deep generated fluid. At higher temperature and pressure, the Br/Cl of the fluid is elevated during the hydrous silicate formation, while positive δ 37Cl is also associated with the same mechanism.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • The response of sedimentary record to catchment changes induced by human
           activities in the western intertidal flat of Yalu River Estuary, China
    • Abstract: Abstract The response to the catchment changes of the sedimentary environment of the western intertidal flat of Yalu River Estuary was investigated by analyzing the vertical variations of the grain size of sediment cores, along with the hydrologic data and human activities in the catchment. The results demonstrated a stepwise decreasing trend for the variations of both the sediment load and water discharge into the sea, which could be divided into three stages as 1958–1970, 1971–1990 and 1991–2009. Reservoir construction and the changes of catchment vegetation coverage turned out to be the two predominant contributors to the changes. There are four periods for the variation of the sensitive components of the sediment cores from 1940 to 2010, i.e., 1940–1950, 1951–1980, 1981–1990 and 1991–2010. The vertical distribution of grain size in the cores mainly varied with the changes of vegetation coverage in the catchment and reservoir construction from 1960 to 1980, whereas it varied depending on the intensity of water and soil erosion in the catchment from 1980 to 1990. Despite the further reduction of the water and sediment input into the sea from 1990 to 2009, this period was characterized by coarsening trends for the grain size of sediment in the estuarine intertidal flat and correspondingly, the significantly increased silt contents of the sensitive component.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Typhoon events recorded in coastal lagoon deposits, southeastern Hainan
    • Abstract: Abstract Coastal lagoon deposits provide evidence for the magnitude and frequency of past tropical cyclones prior to instrumental records and historical documentation. In the present study, we attempt to analyze the sedimentary records containing typhoon information for the northern South China Sea region. For this purpose, sediment cores were collected from two coastal lagoons in the southeastern Hainan Island, and were analyzed in laboratory to derive the data sets about grain size, organic and inorganic carbon contents, and deposition rates. The grain size and organic-inorganic carbon data were used to formulate the proxies of typhoon events. The deposition rates, as calculated using the CRS 210Pb method, are around 0.5 mm/a for both lagoons, on the basis of which an age model is established. Within the cores, sedimentary layers associated with 35 typhoon events have been identified. On such a basis, a 350 year history of local typhoon activities is reconstructed by incorporating the 210Pb dating results, typhoon-induced sedimentation patterns and the historical documents. A comparison of the frequency of typhoon occurrence with the regional climate records indicates that the observed changes in tropical cyclone activity patterns, as revealed by the lagoon sedimentary records, may be related to El Niño, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), sunspot, and other potential climate drivers that affect the tropical cyclone variability. This study demonstrates that the sedimentary record of storms can be analyzed in combination with historical documents, to provide meaningful information on past storm activities and their long-term variability.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • Processes of small-scale tidal flat accretion and salt marsh changes on
           the plain coast of Jiangsu Province, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Large-scaled reclamation modifies the coastal environment dramatically while accelerating the disappearance of salt marshes, which causes the degradation of the coastal ecosystem and the biodiversity function. In this study, we explored the changes of tidal flat and salt marsh coverage in a small-scale tidal flat with an area of ~160 000 m2 in the plain coast of Jiangsu Province, China. Human activities (e.g., the construction of dikes) are a crucial contributor that benefits for the tidal flat accretions and the following changes of salt marsh coverage. Located in the front of the man-made “concave coastline”, the study area is suitable for sediment accretion after the dike construction in the end of 2006. On the basis of the annual tidal surface elevation survey from 2007 to 2012, the sedimentation rates in the human influenced tidal flat varied from a few centimeters per year to 23 cm/a. The study area experienced a rapid accretion in the tidal flat and the expansion of the salt marsh, with the formation of a longshore bar, and a subsequent decline of the salt marsh. Breaking waves during the flooding tide brought much sediment from the adjacent tidal flat to the study area, which caused burial and degeneration of the salt marsh. The vertical grain size changes within a 66 cm long core in the study area also demonstrated the above changes in the tidal environment. This study indicates that the responses of small-scale tidal flat changes to reclamation are significant, and the rational reclamation would benefit for the new salt marsh formation in front of the dikes. Further research about the evolution of small scale tidal flat as well as the spatial planning of the polder dike should be strengthened for the purpose to maintain a healthier coastal environment.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • The ecological cost of land reclamation and its enlightenment to coast
           sustainable development in the northwestern Bohai Bay, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Land has been widely reclaimed in large area in coastal zones all over the world to relieve the pressure of land shortage, promoting social development and economic growth. Asia has become a focus of land reclamation with the rapid industrialization and urbanization. From the Binhai New Area of Tianjin to the Caofeidian New Area of Tangshan, the undergoing project of land reclamation on the northwest coast of Bohai Bay, China, is the largest in the world. To clarify the environmental issues and benefit sustainable development of the coastal zone, we conducted both retrospective and predictive assessments of the ecological cost caused by land reclamation on the northwest coast of Bohai Bay, China. We calculated the ecological costs of ten aspects of the four ecosystem services, i.e., supply, regulation, support and culture, with the monetary estimate approach. The results indicate that the ecological cost of the new land reclamation is US$971.9 million from 2000 to 2010 and that the cost will be US$702.1 million from 2010 to 2020. The costs of gas regulation and marine food supply account for the greatest parts of the total value. Suggestions for land reclamation oriented to sustainable development in the study area are put forward, including a rational planning based on the comprehensive evaluation, reducing the amount of land reclamation area, optimizing the structure of the reclaimed land, reclaiming land with the concept of “low impact development” and implementing ecological compensation mechanisms, etc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
  • China Argo project: progress in China Argo ocean observations and data
    • Authors: Zenghong Liu; Xiaofen Wu; Jianping Xu; Hong Li; Shaolei Lu; Chaohui Sun; Minjie Cao
      Abstract: Abstract This paper reviews the current achievements of the China Argo project. It considers aspects of both the construction of the Argo observing array, float technology, and the quality control and sharing of its data. The developments of associated data products and data applications for use in the fields of ocean, atmosphere, and climate research are discussed, particularly those related to tropical cyclones (typhoons), ocean circulation, mesoscale eddies, turbulence, oceanic heat/salt storage and transportation, water masses, and operational oceanic/atmospheric/climatic forecasts and predictions. Finally, the challenges and opportunities involved in the long-term maintenance and sustained development of the China Argo ocean observation network are outlined. Discussion also focuses on the necessity for increasing the number of floats in the Indian Ocean and for expanding the regional Argo observation network in the South China Sea, together with the importance of promoting the use of Argo data by the maritime countries of Southeast Asia and India.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13131-017-1035-x
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Heriot-Watt University
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