Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.479
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1590-4261 - ISSN (Online) 1869-2044
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Inulinase hyperproduction by Kluyveromyces marxianus through codon
           optimization, selection of the promoter, and high-cell-density
           fermentation for efficient inulin hydrolysis
    • Abstract: This study aimed to overexpress an inulinase gene in Kluyveromyces marxianus to achieve the inulinase overproduction and preparation of ultra-high-fructose syrup. First, the inulinase gene (INU1 gene) was overexpressed through codon optimization and selection of a suitable promoter. Then, the inulinase was overproduced by high-cell-density fermentation. Finally, ultra-high-fructose syrup was prepared. It was found that optimization of the codons of the native INU1 gene encoding inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus KM-0 made a recombinant strain KM-N70 carrying the optimized INU1N gene produce 251.4 U/mL of the inulinase activity. Furthermore, inulinase activity produced by a recombinant KM-KN16 strain carrying the optimized INU1N gene directed by the native TPS1 promoter from K. marxianus KM-0 reached 338.5 U/mL and expression level of the optimized INU1N gene in the recombinant KM-KN16 strain was also greatly enhanced. During a 10-L fermentation, the recombinant KM-KN16 strain could produce 374.3 U/mL of inulinase activity within 24 h, while during a high-cell-density fed-batch fermentation, the recombinant KM-KN16 strain could produce 896.1 U/mL of inulinase activity and OD600nm value of its culture reached 108. The crude inulinase preparation obtained in this study had an inulinase activity of 18,699.8 ± 736.4 U/g of the crude preparation. It was found that 90.3% of 332.4 g/L of inulin was hydrolyzed to produce 41.0 g/L of glucose and 256.0 g/L of fructose and 91.1% of 328.2 g/L of inulin in the extract of the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke was hydrolyzed to produce 48.3 g/L of glucose and 250.5 g/L of fructose by the crude inulinase preparation (75 U/g of the substrate) within 8 h. The hydrolysates contained major monosaccharides and a trace amount of trisaccharides and the monosaccharides were composed of around 85% fructose and 15% glucose. So far, any other yeasts available have produced only up to 120 U/mL of inulinase activity. Together, this made the recombinant KM-KN16 strain be the best inulinase producer at this moment. The inulinase activity of 18,699.8 ± 736.4 U/g of the crude preparation and the ultra-high-fructose syrup with 41.0 g/L of glucose and 256.0 g/L of fructose were obtained. The inulinase activity obtained in this study was the highest among all the inulinase activities produced by yeast, fungal, and bacterial strains obtained so far.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Genomic annotation and validation of bacterial consortium NDMC-1 for
           enhanced degradation of sugarcane bagasse
    • Abstract: Purpose This study aims at designing a consortium using rumen bacterial isolates for enhancing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SB) for efficient biofuel formation. Methods The microbial population was screened through biochemical and molecular tools along with enzymatic activity to obtain potential isolates for diverse cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme). Five strains (Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, and Microbacterium) were selected for designing the consortium NDMC-1. The hydrolytic efficiency of NDMC-1 was determined based on cellulase production with simultaneous rise in monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) concentration. Cellulolytic machinery of these isolates was further explored using genome sequencing. Result The isolates selected for consortia NDMC-1 interacted synergistically leading to enhanced cellulase production. Maximal endoglucanase (1.67 μmol ml−1 min−1), exoglucanase (0.69 μmol ml−1 min−1), and β-glucosidase (2.03 μmol ml−1 min−1) activity were achieved with SB as a sole carbon source after 48 h of incubation. Enhancement in SB hydrolysis employing NDMC-1 was evident by the increase in sCOD from 609 to 2589 mg/l and release of 1295 mg/l reducing sugar, comprising 59.8%, 8.23%, and 6.16% of glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose, respectively, which resulted in 5.5-fold rise in biogas production. On genome annotation, total 472 contigs from glycoside hydrolase family: 84 from Microbacterium arborescens ND21, 72 from Enterobacter cloacae ND22, 61 from Bacillus subtilis ND23, 116 from Paenibacillus polymyxa ND24, and 140 from Paenibacillus polymyxa ND25 were identified. On further analysis, total 33 cellulases, 59 hemicellulases, and 48 esterases were annotated in the reported genomes. Conclusion This work proposes the application of consortia-based bioprocessing systems over the conventionally favorable single organism approach for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • The overexpression of one single cbh gene making Trichoderma asperellum
           T-1 a better cellulase producer
    • Abstract: Trichoderma asperellum T-1, a traditional bio-control strain, is previously found to be potentially useful in the degradation of natural waste lignocellulose as it can ferment the natural materials without pretreatment. Many problems caused by substrate pretreatment can be therefore avoided. In this study, we intended to engineer a new strain to enhance its lignocellulose degradation ability by modifying the genome of T. asperellum T-1. A genetic transformation system mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL-1 (ATMT) was constructed on T. asperellum T-1. On this basis, the overexpressed strain was produced by transforming a recombinant cellobiosidase gene (cbh) under the control of inducible promoter of endo-1, 4-β-xylanase gene, into wild-type T. asperellum T-1. After resistance screening, multiple transmission, growth comparison, and enzyme activity determination, four transformants (M1, M2, M5, and M6) were obtained. Filter paper cellulase activity of these transformants reached, respectively, 36.2%, 30.6%, 32.9%, and 42.7% higher than the wild-type strain. Most importantly, the CMCase, β-glucosidase and xylanase activity were also increased, although only one cbh gene was overexpressed. This work indicated that the enhancement of cellulase production ability of T. asperellum T-1 can be promisingly feasible by genetic modification. And the xylanase gene’s promoter can be effectively used in genetic modification to promote T. asperellum T-1 to be more effectively used in lignocellulose degradation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Bacterial community in cold and alkaline environments of Hoh Xil basin in
           Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and isolation of potential sources of microbiota
    • Abstract: The Hoh Xil basin is the largest Cenozoic sedimentary basin in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) with an average altitude of above 5000 m. It is also the coldest region in the QTP. However, due to the difficulty of sample collection caused by the harsh natural environment, a limited number of studies have been conducted on soil microorganisms in this region. We used culture-dependent and independent methods to investigate the bacterial communities in desert soil (n1), saline–alkali land (n2), saline–alkali wetland (n3), and soda lake sediment (n4). The results showed distinct bacterial communities between different environmental types. We found that the Chao1 and Shannon diversity indices of n1 were significantly lower than those of n4 (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, all samples were dominated by representatives of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which were similar to the findings of previous studies on the desert soil in the same region. Moreover, we identified 10 strains of bacteria from 109 isolates, most of which belonged to Pseudomonas (90.8%). The growth of the isolate k9 was optimal at a high pH value (pH 10.0) and a low temperature (5 °C), and this stain could produce extracellular enzyme (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase) under alkaline (pH 10) and cold (5 °C) condition. These results demonstrate the diversity of bacteria in the Hoh Xil basin and identify potential psychrophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria with multiple types of extracellular enzyme activity.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Biodeterioration of Roman hypogea: the case study of the Catacombs of SS.
           Marcellino and Pietro (Rome, Italy)
    • Abstract: No information exists on phototrophs growing on the stone surfaces of the Catacombs of SS. Marcellino and Pietro (the site was only recently opened to the public in 2014). Therefore, it was decided to characterise the microbial communities and to compare them with those of the other previously studied catacombs. Moreover, a new non-invasive strategy to reduce the phototrophic growth was tested. Phototrophic microorganisms were investigated under light and confocal laser scanning microscopes from samples collected non-invasively in situ. Tests were carried out to determine the effect of the application of two essential oils (from L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris) on biofilm photosynthetic activity. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and reflectance measurements in the visible range have been used to evaluate respectively, any chemical modification and discolouration on a frescoed stone that may occur after the application of the essential oils. At all the concentrations of essential oils, there was a quasi-immediate, large reduction in photosynthetic activity of the biofilms. At 10% essential oil concentration, there was no detectable photosynthetic activity after 15 min. At 1%, there was a need for two applications and after 5-day activity was undetectable. No effect of the essential oils on the substrate surface properties or colour modification of the fresco has been observed with the LIF prototype. Cyanobacterial typical of Roman catacombs were present in the sites investigated. Innovative and non-destructive strategies, involving the application of a combination of two essential oils, have been successfully tested and developed to prevent biodeterioration of these sites.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Biochemical analysis of elephant foot yam ( Amorphophallus paeoniifolius )
           lacto-pickle with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum
    • Abstract: Lacto-pickles are tangy, crisp, and definitely not intimidating to eat. We previously standardized fermentations of elephant foot yam (EFY) into lacto-pickle using different fermentation specifications. The aims of this work were to perform the effect of starter culture strain Lactobacillus plantarum (MTCC-1325) on chemical and biochemical properties of EFY lacto-pickle. In this study, we conducted the preprocessing of blanched EFY blocks/cubes in brine (NaCl, 8%, w/v) and inoculated with the starter culture (L. plantarum MTCC-1325). The impact of L. plantarum (MTCC-1325) during lacto-pickle fermentation and its effect on the antioxidant property, structural characterization (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), sensory analysis, and volatilome profile (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) of EFY lacto-pickle were determined. Inoculated samples showed significantly higher acidification of the brine, reaching a pH of 2.67 and titratable acidity (TA) of 2.8 g/L within 42 days of fermentation, suggesting potential antioxidant activity. The FTIR technique revealed the changes/deformation of functional groups and SEM study suggested the interaction/adhesion between starter culture L. plantarum (MTCC 1325) on EFY lacto-pickle. The starter culture used clearly influenced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles of EFY lacto-pickle. Moreover, EFY lacto-pickle produced with the starter culture significantly perceived a positive response in the overall acceptance. Overall results indicated the successful and accelerated EFY lacto-pickle was achieved when using L. plantarum (MTCC-1325) as starter culture and thus the possible use of this fortified product by the consumers in their diet.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Phytobacter nematintestini sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of
           Caenorhabditis elegans and conferring resistance to Bacillus nematocida
    • Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the strains and systematic classification of the three bacterial strains with strong colonization-resistance against pathogenic bacteria Bacillus nematocida B16, which were isolated from the intestine of free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in rotten fruit and soil. In this study, multilocus phylogenetic analysis was performed to study the taxonomic status of these bacterial strains base on the sequence of 16S rRNA, atpD, gyrB, infB, and rpoB. In addition, the digital DDH (DNA-DNA hybridization) and ANI (average nucleotide identity) analysis were carried out to confirm the classification conjugating morphological characteristics including bacterial colonies, cell shape, size and motility, and physiological characteristics. The results showed that three strains SCO41T, BX15, and BC7 from the intestine of C. elegans were Gram-stain-negative, facultative anaerobe, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped, catalase-positive, and oxidase-negative. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the three strains represent a novel bacterial species closely related to Phytobacter ursingii CAV1151T. Digital DDH and ANI analysis results revealed a significant sequence divergence between the novel strains and their closest relative P. ursingii, supporting their classification as a distinct species. Furthermore, these new strains can be clearly distinguished from P. ursingii by a number of morphological and physiological characteristics. A novel bacterial species, Phytobacter nematintestini sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is SCO41T (=CICC 24103T = KCTC 52362T).
      PubDate: 2019-03-09
  • Saccharification of Parthenium hysterophorus biomass using cellulase from
           Streptomyces sp. NAA2
    • Abstract: Parthenium hysterophorus biomass can be used as a non-conventional renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Therefore, the present work was designed to hydrolyze P. hysterophorus biomass using cellulase enzyme produced from an actinomycete, i.e., Streptomyces sp. NAA2 using P. hysterophorus biomass as a substrate. The isolate NAA2 was identified by molecular characterization of 16SrDNA. The enzyme production by strain NAA2 was enhanced by optimization studies conducted under submerged fermentation conditions using P. hysterophorus as a substrate. The crude enzyme produced under optimized conditions was used to hydrolyze alkali-acid pretreated P. hysterophorus biomass. The highest CMCase production was achieved in 4–5 days when steam-pretreated P. hysterophorus biomass was used at 1% (w/v) concentration, using 2 discs (1 disc = 5 × 107 spores/ml) of inoculum, an initial pH 6.5, temperature at 40 °C, an agitation speed of 120–150 rpm, and by supplementing fermentation medium with 1.5% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as additional carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the actinomycete strain NAA2 showed production of 0.967 ± 0.016 U/ml CMCase, 0.116 ± 0.08 FPU/ml FPase, and 0.22 ± 0.012 U/ml β-glucosidase enzymes. On utilizing the cellulase enzyme for biomass hydrolysis, maximum 18.2% saccharification yield (of cellulose 0.202 g/g) was achieved in 96 h when enzyme and substrate levels were 30 FPU/100 ml and 2% (w/v) respectively. Parthenium hysterophorus biomass can be hydrolyzed enzymatically yielding considerable amounts of total reducing sugars. It can, therefore, be used as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Also, it has the potential to act as a substrate for the production of cellulases. Furthermore, the improved cellulolytic potential of Streptomyces sp. NAA2 can be exploited in various industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • Effects of pH value on the expression of key iron/sulfur oxidation genes
           during bioleaching of chalcopyrite on thermophilic condition
    • Abstract: Physicochemical factors such pH value would affect the microbial metabolism during chalcopyrite bioleaching. To this end, the effects of pH on the expression of critical functional genes during bioleaching were evaluated. A mixed culture of moderate thermophiles was used for chalcopyrite bioleaching at initial pH values of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0, and bioleaching processes were monitored via measuring the physicochemical parameters. Quantitative real-time PCR assay was used to monitor the dynamics of microbial community structures and the expression of critical iron/sulfur oxidation genes (4Fe-4S ferredoxin and sulfate adenylyltransferase genes, respectively). Redundancy analysis and calculation of correlation coefficients were used to reveal linkages between gene expression and various physicochemical factors. The leaching processes at initial pH of 1.0 and 3.0 were prolonged compared with that at initial pH of 2.0. It was shown that Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus were the dominant species during the early stage in free and attached cells, respectively, while Ferroplasma thermophilum became predominant in the later phase. The gene expression in Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and Ferroplasma thermophilum was greatly affected by pH values. On the other hand, the relationship between pH and gene expression in Acidithiobacillus caldus was not significant. The study unraveled the importance of pH value on chalcopyrite bioleaching, and pH selectively influenced the expression of key functional genes of some specific species.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus plantarum : technological
           properties, biological activity, and potential application in the food
    • Abstract: Some lactic acid bacteria are capable of producing capsular or extracellular polysaccharides, with desirable technological properties and biological activities. Such polysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria are called exopolysaccharides and can be used to alter rheological properties, acting in processes involving viscosity, emulsification, and flocculation, among others. They may also be involved in prebiotic, probiotic, and biological activities, as well as having potential application in the food industry. In this mini-review, the objectives were to present some beneficial properties of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum that have not been commercially explored. For that, the article focused to summarize revision of current publications within the following topics: (1) rheological properties, (2) prebiotic properties, (3) biological activities, and (4) potential application in the food industry. EPS produced by Lb. plantarum can be used as gelling agent, emulsifier, or stabilizer for food products. The glucan nature of the produced EPS enhances probiotic properties of this LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum EPS has antioxidant, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities. Finally, there is an improvement in texture of fermented food products where Lb. plantarum is used as starter culture which is related to EPS production in situ. Therefore, EPS produced by Lb. plantarum have important and desirable properties to be explored for several applications, including health and food areas.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
  • Potentials of termite mound soil bacteria in ecosystem engineering for
           sustainable agriculture
    • Abstract: The environmental deteriorating effects arising from the misuse of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agriculture has resulted in the pursuit of eco-friendly means of producing agricultural produce without compromising the safety of the environment. Thus, the purpose of this review is to assess the potential of bacteria in termite mound soil to serve as biofertilizer and biocontrol as a promising tool for sustainable agriculture. This review has been divided into four main sections: termite and termite mound soils, bacterial composition in termite mound soil, the role of bacteria in termite mound soil as biofertilizers, and the role of bacteria in termite mound soil as biocontrol. Some bacteria in termite mound soils have been isolated and characterized by various means, and these bacteria could improve the fertility of the soil and suppress soil borne plant pathogens through the production of antibiotics, nutrient fixation, and other means. These bacteria in termite mound soils could serve as a remarkable means of reducing the reliance on the usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farming, thereby increasing crop yield.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Antimicrobial activity and diversity of bacteria associated with Taiwanese
           marine sponge Theonella swinhoei
    • Abstract: Marine sponges often rely on other epiphytes for protection from harmful predators. To understand the diversity and antimicrobial activity present among epiphytic bacteria isolated from marine sponge. We used both the 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing method and the culture-based method to investigate the bacterial communities of Theonella swinhoei collected off the shore of southern Taiwan. Eight-hundred and eighteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% sequence similarity) were identified from 23,700 sponge-derived sequence tags. The bacteria associated with T. swinhoei were found to be highly diverse—as many as 12 different phyla of bacteria were identified. However, in terms of population evenness, the community was dominated by two phyla—Acidobacteria (71.54%) and Chloroflexi (19.60%). A total of 700 bacterial strains were isolated and cultured from samples of the sponge T. swinhoei. Within these culturable strains, only 12% were Actinomycetes. Despite the low percentage of Actinobacteria from the samples, among the 51 strains of culturable bacteria that showed high antimicrobial activity, a great majority (62%) were Actinomycetes (30 strains of Streptomyces and 1 strain each of Micromonospora and Brevibacterium). The remaining isolates that produced antimicrobial compounds were Gammaproteobacteria (10 strains of Pseudoalteromonas) and Firmicutes (8 and 1 strains of Bacillus and Paenibacillus, respectively). We speculated that many more Actinomycetes are yet to be isolated from T. swinhoei microbiota. Advanced techniques, such as high-throughput culture and culturome, should allow the isolation and purification of these medically important groups of bacteria from sponge.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Comparative study of growth temperature impact on the susceptibility of
           biofilm-detached and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus cells to
           benzalkonium chloride
    • Abstract: The present study investigated and compared the effect of growth temperature on the susceptibility of biofilm-detached and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus cells, to benzalkonium chloride (BAC). This study also highlights the impact of BAC on the bacterial physiology and the role of membrane fluidity regulation as a bacterial resistance mechanism. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BAC was characterized with micro-dilution growth inhibition assay. The BAC treatment was performed on S. aureus cultured at 20 °C and 37 °C, for 24 h. The morphology of S. aureus cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The loss of bacterial membrane integrity after BAC treatment was studied by monitoring the intracellular potassium ion leakage using the atomic absorption spectroscopy. The bacterial membrane total fatty acid composition, controlling the membrane fluidity, was analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that the resistance of S. aureus cells to BAC increased with the increase of growth temperature. The planktonic cells were more susceptible to BAC than biofilm-detached ones. The rise of growth temperature resulted in an increase of S. aureus membrane rigidity. Furthermore, a higher membrane fluidity was observed in planktonic cells when compared to that in the biofilm-detached ones. The resistance of S. aureus seems to depend on the growth temperature. Compared to planktonic cells, biofilm-detached cells showed a greater resistance to BAC. The BAC targets and disturbs the bacterial membrane. Membrane fluidity modulation is likely a one of resistance mechanisms for S. aureus to BAC at the cellular scale. Therefore, disinfection procedures, in food sector, should be adapted for bacteria detached from biofilm.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Probiotic potential and safety of enterococci strains
    • Abstract: The aims of this research were to evaluate the safety and probiotic potential of Enterococcus spp. strains and select novel strains for future development of new functional fermented products. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, capacity of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation, hydrophobicity, tolerance to different pH values and NaCl content, mucin degradation, and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated. Considering the preliminary probiotic features and safety, the strains were selected for complementary tests: tolerance to gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and β-galactosidase activity, and presence of genes encoding virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and biogenic amines were also performed for the selected strains. Enterococcus faecium SJRP20 and SJRP65 resisted well to the GIT conditions, presented low adhesion property, produced β-galactosidase although they did not present genes implicated in adhesion, aggregation, and colonization. Enterococcus faecium SJRP65 showed fewer genes related to antibiotic resistance and virulence factors and presented good functional properties, with interesting features for future application in dairy products.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Influence of agronomic practices and pre-harvest conditions on the
           attachment and development of Listeria monocytogenes in vegetables
    • Abstract: Interest in fresh vegetables is on the increase due to their protective effects against several diseases. Listeria monocytogenes is a human pathogen easily found in vegetables. The purpose of this review article is to analyse the influence of the agricultural practices applied in pre-harvest, the environmental biotic and abiotic factors characterising the cultivation field, as well as the handling procedures at harvest that might greatly influence the presence and the levels of L. monocytogenes in fresh produce. This review article describes the routes of L. monocytogenes infections in relation to the agricultural practices commonly applied during vegetable cultivation. It also analyses the influence of the different cultivation systems as well as the main environmental factors and compares the effects of manual and mechanical harvest retrieving data from literature. Even though post-harvest sanitising is a common practice, fresh produce is still responsible for foodborne diseases. In the last years, the number of cases of human listeriosis is on the increase, and the consumption of fresh vegetables is being more frequently associated with these events. While still relatively rare, human listeriosis is one of the most serious food-borne diseases and continues to be one of the more lethal foodborne pathogens associated with vegetables. Seed decontamination represents an efficient operation to reduce microbial plant internalisation and diffusion. Since L. monocytogenes persists in soil for long periods, the hydroponic systems have been found to reduce its contamination of vegetables.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • “Saddle-shaped” dose-survival effect, is it a general and valuable
           phenomenon in microbes in response to heavy ion beam irradiation'
    • Abstract: We aimed to verify the “saddle-shaped” dose-survival effect of microbes in response to heavy ion beam irradiation (HI), and further determine the radiation parameter that affects saddle shape formation, and the relationship between the saddle region and the positive mutation rate. A bibliometric analysis was performed based on literature containing the dose-survival effect of microbes in response to HI, from which the data on the particle energies, ionic types, irradiated microbes, survival curves, and maximum positive mutation rates were assembled. Articles reporting a “saddle-shaped” survival curve accounted for 64% of the total relevant articles and possessed a high cited frequency. The predominant articles, authors, and institutions that reported the dose-survival effect of microbes in response to HI proposed the “saddle-shaped” survival curve. It was customarily low-energy (but not moderate- or high-energy) HI that induced the “saddle-shaped” dose-survival effect. In addition, the “saddle-shaped” dose-survival effect was general among ~ 30-genera microbes. More importantly, most of the saddle regions contained the survival fractions within 10–30%, which are customarily used to screen mutants due to a high positive mutation rate. Further, 87% of the maximum positive mutation rates were associated with the saddle region, and 58% were located in the peak of the saddle region. “Saddle-shaped” dose-survival effect is a reliable and general phenomenon among varieties of microbes customarily in response to low-energy HI. Meanwhile, saddle region is always accompanied with high positive mutation rates. Thus, this study will aid in microbial mutation breeding practices.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Degradation of chlorotoluenes and chlorobenzenes by the dual-species
           biofilm of Comamonas testosteroni strain KT5 and Bacillus subtilis strain
    • Abstract: The cooperation of Bacillus subtilis strain DKT and Comamonas testosteroni KT5 was investigated for biofilm development and toluenes and chlorobenzenes degradation. Bacillus subtilis strain DKT and C. testosteroni KT5 were co-cultured in liquid media with toluenes and chlorobenzenes to determine the degradation of these substrates and formation of dual-species biofilm used for the degradation process. Bacillus subtilis strain DKT utilized benzene, mono- and dichlorinated benzenes as carbon and energy sources. The catabolism of chlorobenzenes was via hydroxylation, in which chlorine atoms were replaced by hydroxyl groups to form catechol, followed by ring fission via the ortho-cleavage pathway. The investigation of the dual-species biofilm composed of B. subtilis DKT and C. testosteroni KT5 (a toluene and chlorotoluene-degrading isolate with low biofilm formation) showed that B. subtilis DKT synergistically promoted C. testosteroni KT5 to develop biofilm. The bacterial growth in dual-species biofilm overcame the inhibitory effects caused by monochlorobenzene and 2-chlorotoluene. Moreover, the dual-species biofilm showed effective degradability toward the mixture of these substrates. This study provides knowledge about the commensal relationships in a dual-culture biofilm for designing multispecies biofilms applied for the biodegradation of toxic organic substrates that cannot be metabolized by single-organism biofilms.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry for determination of yeast diversity in
           traditional cornelian cherry tarhana produced with different
           cereal/pseudocereal flours
    • Abstract: Purpose This study is to determine the dynamics in the microflora of cornelian cherry tarhana (CCT), a traditional food of Turkey, by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Methods Non-fermented and fermented CCT productions were performed by using flours of bread wheat, wholegrain hull-less barley, buckwheat, and clear flour. Identification of the isolates obtained from raw materials and various production steps of the CCT was performed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Dendograms were prepared by cluster analysis and the distances between the strains isolated during production stages and from cornelian cherry puree were determined. Results Totally, 231 isolates were obtained and 45.5% of them were identified at species level, 30.3% at genus level while 24.2% of the isolates could not be identified. It was found that microflora of cornelian cherry tarhana is mainly composed of yeasts. Thirty-two percent of the identified yeast isolates were Hanseniaspora uvarum and the others were Saccharomycescerevisiae (19.6%), Torulaspora delbrueckii (18.6%), Candida krusei (11.3%), Candida lusitaniae (9.3%), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (3.1%), Wickerhamomyces anomalus (2.1%), Candida kefyr (2.1%), Cyberlindnera fabianii (1%), and Candida parapsilosis (1%). Only two lactic acid bacteria could be isolated, which were Lactobacillus reuteri and Enterococcus spp., originating from buckwheat flour and clear flour, respectively. Dendograms revealed that some of the yeast strains isolated during production were originating from cornelian cherry. Conclusions Microflora of CCT was investigated for the first time. This is one of the few studies using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS for identification of food originated yeasts. Novel species–identified, endogenic yeasts which could have potential technological characteristics were introduced.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Review of inulinase production using solid-state fermentation
    • Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to critically analyze the recent literature covering the production of inulinase enzyme from various sources by solid-state fermentation and discuss various approaches to increase its production in solid-state fermentation, purification, and its properties. The review deals with the solid-state fermentative production of inulinase production. Inulinases have many applications in industries, such as for the production of ultra-high fructose syrup, biofuels, lactic acid, citric acid, and single-cell oil. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is more economic, requires smaller vessels, lowers water intake, reduces wastewater treatments, higher product yield, lesser chance of bacterial contamination, and lowers energy consumption. Furthermore, the crude products obtained from SSF can be directly used as the source of enzyme for biotransformation. Although many reports are available on a wide range of microbes which produces inulinases by SSF, it is important to isolate novel microbes for its production. Also, extensive research is going on to exploit unexplored sources for SSF. Higher yield of inulinases can be achieved by bioreactor modeling and proper monitoring of physical and chemical parameters in SSF.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Capability of plant growth-promoting bacteria in chromium-contaminated
           soil after application of composted tannery sludge
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to select bacterial strains with biochemical capability to tolerate high concentration of chromium (Cr) in soils. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were isolated from the root nodules of Phaseolus lunatus and grown in Cr-contaminated soil with the application of composted tannery sludge. Soils were collected from the experimental field with the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) in five rates: 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 CTS. Bacterial strains were isolated and evaluated for their biochemical capabilities for production of urease, protease, amylase, lipase, catalase, gelatinase, and indole-3-acetic acid, P solubilization, and Cr tolerance. A total of 54 PGPB were isolated from the nodules, being 40%, 37%, 13%, and 10% found in the treatments with 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1, respectively. The majority of these isolates presented positive responses for the tests of urease, catalase, and phosphate solubilization, while some isolates were positive for the test of protease, lipase, carboxymethyl cellulose, gelatinase, and amylase. We also observed a decrease in the number of isolates able to tolerate high concentration of Cr. Three strains (UFPI-LCC61, UFPI-LCC64, and UFPI-LCC87) presented high biochemical capability and tolerance to Cr. However, the isolate UFPI-LCC87 showed high biochemical capability and tolerance to the highest concentration of Cr. Our results indicated bacterial strains that present potential to be used in soils contaminated with Cr and also for promoting plant growth.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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