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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Annals of Microbiology
  [SJR: 0.402]   [H-I: 26]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1590-4261 - ISSN (Online) 1869-2044
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Dynamics and diversity of a microbial community during the fermentation of
           industrialized Qingcai paocai, a traditional Chinese fermented vegetable
           food, as assessed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, DGGE and qPCR assay
    • Authors: Huipeng Liang; Liguo Yin; Yahao Zhang; Cong Chang; Wenxue Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Paocai is a traditional Chinese fermented food and typically produced via spontaneous fermentation. We have investigated the microbial community utilized for the fermentation of industrialized Qingcai paocai using the combination of Illumina MiSeq sequencing, PCR-mediated denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. Three main phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were identified by both MiSeq sequencing and PCR-DGGE. The dominant genera observed in the fermentation were Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Halomonas. Most genera affiliated with Proteobacteria or Bacteroidetes were detected more often during the earlier part of the fermentation, while Lactobacillus (affiliated with Firmicutes) was dominant during the later fermentation stages. Fungal community analysis revealed that Debaryomyces, Pichia and Kazachstania were the main fungal genera present in industrialized Qingcai paocai, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant during the fermentation process. The quantities of dominant genera Lactobacillus and Debaryomyces were monitored using qPCR and shown to be 109–1012 and 106–1010 copies/mL, respectively. During the later fermentation process of industrialized Qingcai paocai, Lactobacillus and Debaryomyces were present at 1011 and 108 copies/mL, respectively. These results facilitate further understanding of the unique microbial ecosystem during the fermentation of industrialized Qingcai paocai and guide future improvement of the fermentation process.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1321-z
  • Characterization of D -lactic acid, spore-forming bacteria and
           Terrilactibacillus laevilacticus SK5-6 as potential industrial strains
    • Authors: Budsabathip Prasirtsak; Sitanan Thitiprasert; Vasana Tolieng; Suttichai Assabumrungrat; Somboon Tanasupawat; Nuttha Thongchul
      Pages: 763 - 778
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we screened and isolated D-lactic acid-producing bacteria from soil and tree barks collected in Thailand. Among the isolates obtained, Terrilactibacillus laevilacticus SK5-6 exhibited good D-lactate production in the primary screening fermentation (99.27 g/L final lactate titer with 0.90 g/g yield, 1.38 g/L⋅h, and 99.00% D-enantiomer equivalent). Terrilactibacillus laevilacticus SK5-6 is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming, homofermentative D-lactate producer that can ferment a wide range of sugars to produce D-lactate. Unlike the typical D-lactate producers, such as catalase-negative Sporolactobacillus sp., T. laevilacticus SK5-6 possesses catalase activity; therefore, a two-phase fermentation was employed for D-lactate production. During an aerobic preculture stage, a high-density cell mass was rapidly obtained due to aerobic respiration. When transferred to the fermentation stage at the correct physiological stage (inoculum age) and proper concentration of cell mass (inoculum size), T. laevilacticus rapidly converted glucose into D-lactate under anaerobic conditions, resulting in a high final lactate titer (102.22 g/L), high yield (0.84 g/g), and high productivity (2.13 g/L⋅h). When the process conditions were shifted from an aerobic to an anaerobic environment, unlike other lactate-producing bacteria, the mixed acid fermentation route was not activated in the culture of T. laevilacticus SK5-6 during the fermentation stage when some trace oxygen still remained. Our study demonstrates the excellent characteristics of this isolate for D-lactate production; in particular, a high product yield was obtained without byproduct formation. Based on these key characteristics of T. laevilacticus SK5-6, we suggest that this isolate is a novel D-lactate producer for use in industrial fermentation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1306-y
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 11 (2017)
  • Genome sequencing of Pediococcus acidilactici (NRCC1), a novel isolate
           from dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius ) rumen fluid
    • Authors: Rakesh Ranjan; Ramesh J. Pandit; Srinivas M. Duggirala; Chaitanya G. Joshi; Shradhdha Sharma; Niteen V. Patil
      Abstract: Abstract The lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici has recently been reported to help in treating constipation, diarrhea, relieving stress, and enhancing growth rate and immune response in humans, birds, fishes, and small animals. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the whole genome of P. acidilactici NRCC1, a novel isolate from rumen fluid of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). The genome of P. acidilactici NRCC1 was assembled into 60 contigs, comprising 1,785,679 bp and 42.5% GC content. The 1705 CDS were predicted and annotated using the RAST server. The genome encodes numerous enzymes for utilization of different carbohydrates. It also harbors genes for antibiotic biosynthesis and many others which might confer probiotic properties. The comparative genome analysis with P. acidilactici DSM 20284 revealed some unique features in P. acidilactici NRCC1. Thus, the genome sequencing of P. acidilactici NRCC1 has opened up new horizons for further research in animal probiotics and feed supplements.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1320-0
  • Employing oxygen pulses to modulate Lachancea thermotolerans –
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chardonnay fermentations
    • Authors: Kirti Shekhawat; Tristan Jade Porter; Florian F. Bauer; Mathabatha E. Setati
      Abstract: Abstract Oxygen is sometimes deliberately introduced in winemaking at various stages to enhance yeast biomass formation and prevent stuck fermentation. However, there is limited information on how such interventions affect the dynamics of yeast populations. Our previous study in synthetic grape juice showed that oxygen supply enhances the persistence of Lachancea thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. The three non-Saccharomyces yeasts showed differences in growth as a function of oxygen. The present study focused on evaluating the influence of short oxygen pulses on population dynamics and the aroma profile of Chardonnay wine inoculated with L. thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results confirmed a positive effect of oxygen on the relative performance of L. thermotolerans. The mixed culture fermentation with L. thermotolerans with S. cerevisiae developed a distinct aroma profile when compared to monoculture S. cerevisiae. Specifically, a high concentration of esters, medium chain fatty acids and higher alcohols was detected in the mixed culture fermentation. The data also showed that the longer persistence of L. thermotolerans due to addition of oxygen pulses influenced the formation of major volatile compounds such as ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl caprate, ethyl-3-hydroxybutanoate, ethyl phenylacetate, propanol, isobutanol, butanol, isoamyl alcohol, hexanol, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, iso-valeric acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and decanoic acid.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1319-6
  • In-vitro assessment of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum
           WU-P19 isolated from a traditional fermented herb
    • Authors: Wilawan Palachum; Yusuf Chisti; Wanna Choorit
      Abstract: Abstract Samples of fermented herbs were used to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Of a total of 19 isolates, eight were resistant both to gastric acid and bile salts (glycocholic acid, GCA; taurocholic acid, TCA; glycodeoxycholic acid, GDCA; and taurodeoxycholic acid, TDCA). Most isolates exhibited a pH-dependent surface hydrophobicity: a pH of 4 conferred a greater hydrophobicity compared to a pH of 7. Based on the hydrophobicity characteristics, the LAB isolate WU-P19 from the traditional fermented herb Oroxylum indicum was selected for further study. WU-P19 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum WU-P19. The presence of bile salts GCA and GDCA in the culture medium induced production of the relevant bile salt hydrolase. Relative to controls, the presence of the bile salts in the culture medium affected the carbon and nitrogen contents of the cells and their hydrophobicity. Cells grown in a medium free of bile salts were morphologically different to cells grown in the presence of GCA and GDCA. WU-P19 was resistant to several antibiotics. It produced β-galactosidase and inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic bacteria at various levels. In vitro, L. plantarum WU-P19 adapted well to conditions typical of the various zones of the human gastrointestinal tract. In view of the promising results, in vivo evaluations are planned for the isolate WU-P19.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1318-7
  • Insights into the diversity and metabolic function of bacterial
           communities in sediments from Chilean salmon aquaculture sites
    • Authors: Katherine M. Hornick; Alejandro H. Buschmann
      Abstract: Abstract Aquaculture is an extremely valuable and rapidly expanding sector worldwide, but concerns exist related to environmental sustainability. The sediment below aquaculture farms receives inputs of antimicrobials, metal-containing products, and organic matter from uneaten food and fecal material. These inputs impact the surrounding marine microbial communities in complex ways; however, functional diversity shifts related to taxonomic composition remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of pollution from marine fish farms on sediment bacterial communities. We compared the bacterial communities and functional bacterial diversity in surface sediments at salmon aquaculture and reference sites in Chiloé, southern Chile, using Roche 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the predictive metagenomics approach (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, PICRUSt). Bacterial diversity, measured as the inverse Simpson index, was significantly lower at aquaculture than at reference sites, while species richness, based on Chao’s estimator, was not significantly different. Nevertheless, community composition differed significantly between reference and aquaculture sites. We found that Gammaproteobacteria and several taxa involved in remediating metal contamination and known to have antimicrobial resistances were enriched at aquaculture sites. However, PICRUSt predicted functions indicated a degree of functional redundancy between sites, whereas taxonomic-functional relationships indicated differences in the functional traits of specific taxa at aquaculture sites. This study provides a first step in understanding the bacterial community structure and functional changes due to Chilean salmon aquaculture and has direct implications for using bacterial shifts as indicators of aquaculture perturbations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1317-8
  • Schizophyllan production by newly isolated fungus Schizophyllum commune
           IBRC-M 30213: optimization of culture medium using response surface
    • Authors: Aref Mohammadi; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Hajar Jamshidian Tehrani; Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Tayebeh Saleh; Alireza Chackoshian Khorasani
      Abstract: Abstract Schizophyllan (SPG) is a commercially attractive biopolymer produced by Schizophyllum commune. An investigation on the potential for SPG production by Iranian native S. commune was conducted based on culture medium, fermentation conditions and bioreactor type, . Nine native fungal strains were isolated from the northern forest of Iran at different times. Based on growth rate and SPG production, one strain was selected for further study. Optimal medium composition and inoculum size for maximizing SPG production and minimizing biomass were determined using central composite design by setting sucrose, yeast extract, inoculum size, carboxymethyl cellulose and oleic acid in the ranges of 50–200 g/L, 1–4 g/L, 2–10%, 2–12 g/L and 0.032–0.222%, respectively. The results showed that optimal results were obtained at 93.47 g/L sucrose, 1.87 g/L yeast extract, 7.68% inoculum size, 9.07 g/L carboxymethyl cellulose and 0.13% oleic acid, with maximum SPG production of 9.97 g/L and minimum biomass of 35.18 g/L. Under these optimal conditions, the production of SPG was studied in stirred tank and bubble column bioreactors. The results revealed greater production in the stirred tank because of better mixing of the culture medium. The SPG produced was characterized using rheometery, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance), scanning electron microscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The results of these characterizations demonstrated the similarity of the SPG produced by S. commune IBRC-M 30213 to commercial SPG. Thus, the SPG produced shows good potential as a polysaccharide for use in various industries.
      PubDate: 2017-12-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1316-9
  • Diversity and characterization of Azotobacter isolates obtained from rice
           rhizosphere soils in Taiwan
    • Authors: Syuan-Lu Chen; Meng-Ke Tsai; Yuh-Ming Huang; Cheng-Hua Huang
      Abstract: Abstract Azotobacter species, free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria, have been used as biofertilizers to improve the productivity of non-leguminous crops, including rice, due to their various plant growth-promoting traits. The purposes of this study were to characterize Azotobacter species isolated from rice rhizospheres in Taiwan and to determine the relationship between the species diversity of Azotobacter and soil properties. A total of 98 Azotobacter isolates were isolated from 27 paddy fields, and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to identify Azotobacter species. The characteristics of these Azotobacter strains were analyzed including carbon source utilization and plant growth-promoting traits such as nitrogen fixation activity, indole acetic acid production, phosphate-solubilizing ability, and siderophore secretion. Of the 98 strains isolated in this study, 12 were selected to evaluate their effects on rice growth. Four species of Azotobacter were identified within these 98 strains, including A. beijerinckii, A. chroococcum, A. tropicalis, and A. vinelandii. Of these four species, A. chroococcum was predominant (51.0%) but A. beijerinckii had the highest level of nucleotide diversity. Strains within individual Azotobacter species showed diverse profiles in carbon source utilization. In addition, the species diversity of Azotobacter was significantly related to soil pH, Mn, and Zn. Members of the same Azotobacter species showed diverse plant growth-promoting traits, suggesting that the 98 strains isolated in this study may not equally effective in promoting rice growth. Of the 12 strains evaluated, A. beijerinckii CHB 461, A. chroococcum CHB 846, and A. chroococcum CHB 869 may be used to develop biofertilizers for rice cultivation because they significantly promoted rice growth. This study contributes to the selection of suitable Azotobacter strains for developing biofertilizer formulations and soil management strategies of Azotobacter for paddy fields.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1312-0
  • Scenedesmus sp. cultivation using commercial-grade ammonium sources
    • Authors: Jimmy Soares; Robson Kriiger Loterio; Rinamara Martins Rosa; Michel Oliveira Santos; Antônio Galvão Nascimento; Nerilson Terra Santos; Thomas Christopher Rhys Williams; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Marcio Arêdes Martins
      Abstract: Abstract The use of commercial-grade nutrients such as agricultural fertilizers is important for commercial microalgae cultivation, and this is particularly the case for biofuel production which is associated with low added value. Nitrogen is a very important macronutrient in microalgae cultivation, and ammonium sources are cheaper than nitrate sources. However, the growth response and cellular composition can be altered by the different nutrient sources. In the study reported here, we investigated the effects of different ammonium doses and commercial-grade macronutrients from agricultural fertilizers on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. BR003, a promising genus for biofuel production. Five growth media were developed using fertilizers and evaluated during Scenedesmus sp. cultivation under autotrophic conditions. The growth media differed in terms of their composition and concentration of macronutrients. We found that all commercial-grade media supported equal or higher cell concentrations, dry weight, water-soluble proteins, neutral carbohydrates, and total lipid production compared to the conventional BG11 medium. However, the commercial-grade growth medium with the highest ammonium content affected the coenobium pattern of Scenedesmus sp. BR003. Commercial-grade nutrient sources were a low-cost alternative to improve the growth of Scenedesmus sp. BR003. The different fertilizers also allowed for manipulation of microalgae chemical composition and phenotypic plasticity to target traits of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate the potential of using ammonium from agricultural fertilizers as a nitrogen source in combination with other commercial-grade macronutrients sources. In addition, this work demonstrates the ability of a robust Scenedesmus strain to grow in media of different compositions, even when a high dosage of ammonium was used.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1315-x
  • Scenedesmus vacuolatus cultures for possible combined laccase-like
           phenoloxidase activity and biodiesel production
    • Authors: Dora Allegra Carbone; Immacolata Gargano; Pasquale Chiaiese; Antonino Pollio; Raffaele Marotta; Giuseppe Olivieri; Gabriele Pinto
      Abstract: Abstract A key aspect of the industrial development of microalgal production processes is the excessive cost of biomass production. A solution is a combination of biodiesel production and wastewater treatment. The microalga Scenedesmus has a high lipid content and a potential extracellular phenoloxidase activity, which could improve the phycoremediation of phenolic pollutants. In this work, the most suitable growth conditions to obtain this twofold aim were analyzed. First, different strains of Scenedesmus vacuolatus microalga were tested at different pH, salinity and CO2 concentration in the gas phase. The two most promising strains were then cultivated in autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, and were investigated in terms of efficient nitrogen removal, fatty acid profile and maximized extracellular phenoloxidase activity in the medium. The results showed two extreme conditions: (1) biomass productivity doubled when photobioreactors were sparged with 5% CO2 supplemented air with respect to cultures sparged with air (the steady state values of strain 53 were 0.138 g L−1 day−1 in the presence of air, and 0.243 in the presence of CO2 addition), and N-starvation under 5% CO2enhanced the transesterified fraction of lipids (strain 53 FAME fraction in the presence of N-starvation was 33%, in the presence of nitrogen FAME fraction was 22%); (2) phenoloxidase activity was completely suppressed by presence of 5% CO2 in the gas phase (strain 53 0.21 U mL−1), indicating clear catabolite repression for the induction of this enzyme in the algal metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1309-8
  • Decrease of N -nitrosodimethylamine and N -nitrosodiethylamine by
           Lactobacillus pentosus R3 is associated with surface-layer proteins
    • Authors: Yaqing Xiao; Peijun Li; Mei Xu; Wu Wang; Conggui Chen
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of five strains of meat-borne bacteria to decrease N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and to elucidate the mechanism in Mann-Rogosa-Sharp (MRS) broth. Lactobacillus pentosus R3 was found to be the most effective in decreasing the concentration of the two N-nitrosamines (NAs) in MRS broth, with a rate of 22.05% for NDMA and 23.31% for NDEA. The concentration of the two NAs could not be reduced by either extracellular metabolites or intracellular extracts of Lb. pentosus R3 (P > 0.05), and proteinaceous substances in the cell debris were found to be responsible for the decrease. These were surface-layer proteins (SLPs) located on the cell wall. Therefore, the decrease in NDMA and NDEA by Lb. pentosus R3 is associated with its SLPs. Lb. pentosus R3 may be developed as a starter culture in the production of fermented foods with lower NAs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1314-y
  • In vitro rumen fermentation of soluble and non-soluble polymeric
           carbohydrates in relation to ruminal acidosis
    • Authors: Darwin; Anne Barnes; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch
      Abstract: Abstract The end-products of dietary carbohydrate fermentation catalysed by rumen microflora can serve as the primary source of energy for ruminants. However, ruminants provided with continuous carbohydrate-containing feed can develop a metabolic disorder called “acidosis”. We have evaluated the fermentation pattern of both soluble monomeric and non-soluble polymeric carbohydrates in the rumen in in vitro fermentation trials. We found that acidosis could occur within 6 h of incubation in the rumen culture fermenting sugars and starch. The formation of lactic acid and acetic acid, either alone or in mixture with ethanol, accounted for high build-up of acid in the rumen. Acidosis resulted even when only 20% of a normal daily feed load for all soluble and non-soluble carbohydrates was provided. DNA-based microbial analysis revealed that Prevotella was the dominant microbial species present in the rumen fluid.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1307-x
  • Presence of pathogenic bacteria in ice cubes and evaluation of their
           survival in different systems
    • Authors: Luca Settanni; Raimondo Gaglio; Carlo Stucchi; Simone De Martino; Nicola Francesca; Giancarlo Moschetti
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, 60 samples of ice cubes produced at different levels (domestic, restaurant and industrial facilities), within a restricted geographical area, were investigated for their general microbiological characteristics through the analysis of populations other than enteric bacteria. Total mesophilic bacteria were in the range 1.01 × 102–9.55 × 103, 3.12 × 102–6.31 × 103 and 1.30 × 102–3.99 × 103 CFU/100 mL of thawed ice from domestic freezer (DF), stock boxes (SB) for self-production performed with ice machines in bars and pubs, and from sales packages (SP) of industrial productions, respectively. Some DF and SP samples were negative for the presence of total psychrotrophic bacteria, showing that there are no specific microbial groups associated with ice. Pseudomonads were found in the majority of ice samples analyzed. The levels of contamination of the ice samples were significantly different among the three ice cube production levels. The samples produced at domestic level and those collected from bars and pubs were characterised by the highest cell densities. The colonies representative for the different bacterial morphologies were randomly picked up from plates, purified to homogeneity and subjected to the phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. Fifty-two strains representing 31 species of eight bacterial genera were identified, with the most numerous groups included in Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Acinetobacter. A consistent percentage of the microorganisms identified from ice are known agents of human infections, and their presence indicate an environmental contamination. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ice cubes to transfer pathogenic agents to consumers, a bar consumption was simulated with different drink systems added with ice cubes artificially contaminated with the strains found at dominant levels (Acinetobacter lwoffii ICE100, Bacillus cereus ICE170, Pseudomonas putida ICE224 and Staphylococcus haemolyticus ICE182), and the results showed a consistent reduction of bacterial risk due to alcohol, CO2, pH and antibacterial ingredients of vodka, whisky, Martini, peach tea, tonic water and coke.
      PubDate: 2017-11-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1311-1
  • Safety, probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacilli isolated
           from unpasteurised ovine and caprine cheeses
    • Authors: Dobroslava Bujnakova; Eva Strakova
      Abstract: Abstract Eleven Lactobacillus plantarum from Slovak ovine and caprine lump and stored cheeses, and from four commercial probiotic and yogurt cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus acidophilus) identified using a Maldi-TOF MS analysis were screened in vitro for selected aspects correlated with safety (antibiotic susceptibility patterns, biochemical and haemolytic activity, presence of genes responsible for biogenic amines production), functional traits (including acid, bile tolerance and antimicrobial activity), ecological roles (ability to produce biofilms), and technological applications (acidification and milk coagulation capacity) for assurance of their quality and diversity. The antibiotic susceptibility showed two L. plantarum strains, 19l5 and 18l4, with the presence of the non-wild-type ECOFFs (epidemiological cut-off) for clindamycin and/or gentamicin. All these strains expressed a high acid tolerance at pH 2.5 after a 4 h exposure (bacteria viability varied between 60% and 91%), and bile resistance at 0.3% oxgall ranged from 60% to 99% with no haemolytic activity. Three wild L. plantarum strains, 17l1, 16l4, 18l2, had no harmful metabolic activities, and formed strong biofilms that were measured by a crystal violet assay. Simultaneously, the acid cell-free culture supernatant (ACFCS) from L. plantarum 18l2 had a marked inhibitory effect on the viability of the pathogens as evaluated by flow-cytometry, and also exhibited fast acidification and milk coagulation. As a result, we conclude that L. plantarum 18l2 can be included as part of the created lactobacilli collection that is useful as a starter, or starter adjunct, in the dairy industry, due to its desirable safety and probiotic characteristics, together with rapid acidification capacity compared with other investigated strains from commercially accessible products.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1310-2
  • Improving isobutanol titers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with
           over-expressing NADPH-specific glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1)
    • Authors: Ruiqi Feng; Jingzhi Li; Aili Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Isobutanol is a more promising biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model eukaryote, has the potential advantage to produce isobutanol because of its greater tolerance to higher alcohols. NADPH is a key cofactor for isobutanol synthesis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1) is one of the main NADPH-supplying sources in S. cerevisiae. In this study, we investigated the effects of over-expressing ZWF1 on isobutanol titers. Our results showed that engineered strain HZAL-7023 produced 6.22 mg isobutanol per g glucose, which increased by 6.64-fold compared with the parent strain, while engineered strain HZAL-7023 22-ZWF1 produced 11.46 mg isobutanol per g glucose, which increased by 1.82-fold compared with engineered strain HZAL-7023. These results suggested that improvement of NADPH supply through over-expressing ZWF1 contributed to isobutanol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. These results also verified the proposed concept of increasing isobutanol titers in S. cerevisiae by resolving cofactor imbalance. Finally, this study provides a new strategy for enhancing isobutanol biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1304-0
  • Characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria exhibiting the
           potential for growth promotion and phosphorus nutrition improvement in
           maize ( Zea mays L.) in calcareous soils of Sinaloa, Mexico
    • Authors: Jesús A. Ibarra-Galeana; Claudia Castro-Martínez; Rosario A. Fierro-Coronado; Adolfo D. Armenta-Bojórquez; Ignacio E. Maldonado-Mendoza
      Abstract: Abstract Greenhouse bioassays were used to examine the ability of selected strains of the rhizobacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bacillus flexus and B. megaterium to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to affect growth promotion and phosphorus nutrition in maize. These bacterial strains were found to decrease the pH and solubilize some forms of insoluble P, such as tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite, as well as to exhibit acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activities in culture medium, properties that are possibly involved in P solubilization. Inoculation of the strains separately and as a consortium of the three bacteria (S. meliloti, B. flexus and B. megaterium) in P-deficient soil (4.33 w/v P) fertilized without P improved plant height, shoot and root dry weight, as well as P nutrition in the maize plants. Use of the B. flexus and B. megaterium strains separately and in a consortium positively affected several growth parameters and P nutrition in plants supplemented with insoluble P. No effect was observed when pots in which the seedlings were growing were supplied with soluble fertilizer. A second assay using a P-deficient soil (6.64 w/v P) showed that inoculation with the consortium of B. flexus and B. megaterium significantly increased growth and total P content in maize plants. A dose–response P fertilization experiment using sterile P-deficient soil led us to conclude that inoculation to soil of the mixture of B. flexus and B. megaterium may improve P nutrition and growth to a level previously attained by the addition of soluble P-fertilizer at 40 w/v P. A non-sterile experiment showed a beneficial response with B. megaterium but not with B. flexus. We propose utilizing these bacteria in P-deficient alkaline soils in future field trials in order to evaluate their potential as biofertilizers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1308-9
  • Type I fimbriae mediate in vitro adherence of porcine F18ac+
           enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
    • Authors: Qiangde Duan; Rahul Nandre; Mingxu Zhou; Guoqiang Zhu
      Abstract: Abstract Type I fimbriae commonly expressed by Escherichia coli mediate initial attachment of bacteria to host epithelial cells. However, the role of type I fimbriae in the adherence of porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) to host receptors is unclear. In this study, we examined the role of type I fimbriae in the adherence and biofilm formation of F18ac+ ETEC by constructing mutant strains with deletion of type I fimbrial major subunit (fimA) or minor subunit (fimH). The data indicated that the isogenic ΔfimA and ΔfimH mutants showed significantly lower adherence to porcine epithelial IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 cells as compared to the F18ac+ ETEC parent strain. In addition, the adherence of F18ac+ ETEC to both cell lines was blocked by the presence of 0.5% D-mannose in the cell culture medium. In addition, both mutant strains impaired their ability to form biofilm in vitro. Interestingly, the deletion of fimA or fimH genes resulted in remarkable up-regulation of the expression of adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I). These results indicated that type I fimbriae may be required for efficient adherence of F18ac+ ETEC to pig epithelial cells and, perhaps, biofilm formation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1305-z
  • Differential response of single and co-inoculation of Rhizobium
           leguminosarum and Mesorhizobium ciceri for inducing water deficit stress
           tolerance in wheat
    • Authors: Sana Ullah; Muhammad Yahya Khan; Hafiz Naeem Asghar; Muhammed Javed Akhtar; Zahir Ahmad Zahir
      Abstract: Abstract Limited soil water availability is a major threat to agricultural productivity because it inhibits plant growth and yields. Various strategies have been adopted to mitigate water deficit stress in plants; however, using extremophilic microbes with plant growth promoting traits could be an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach to improve crop stress resilience. Rhizobia are well known for their symbiotic association with legumes, but they can also improve the fitness of non-legumes under stressed conditions. Thus, different rhizobial strains were isolated from nodules of two legumes (lentil and chickpea) and tested for osmoadaptation at four different polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) levels, i.e., − 0.05, − 0.65, − 1.57, and − 2.17 MPa. Two stress-tolerant rhizobial strains, SRL5 and SRC8, were selected to evaluate their potential to induce tolerance against water deficits in wheat grown at four different percentages of field capacity (FC; 40, 60, 80, and 100%). Rhizobial inoculation improved physiological parameters and growth of wheat under water deficit; however, co-inoculation of selected rhizobia was better than sole application. Grain yield was most limited at the highest level of water deficit but sole inoculation with SRC8 and SRL5 improved yield by 24% and 19%, respectively. Combined inoculation increased grain yield by up to 48% compared to the uninoculated control. Thus, rhizobia from different legumes possess enormous potential for improving the resilience of cereals (non-legumes) to water deficit stress. Moreover, co-inoculation of rhizobia could be more beneficial than their sole application.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1302-2
  • Green bio-dispersant removal efficacy estimation for controlling biofilms
           in cooling towers
    • Authors: Francesca Di Pippo; Francesca de Tora; Luciana Di Gregorio; Marco Buccolini; Rossano Capocecera; Simona Rossetti; Valter Tandoi
      Abstract: Abstract In this study the effect of green bio-dispersants on cooling water biofilm attachment has been investigated. As monitoring biofilm growth in industrial cooling systems is extremely complex and difficult, we developed a simple method to additively evaluate the effectiveness of green bio-dispersants on biofilms grown in two different lab-scale systems using, as inoculum, make-up water from an industrial cooling tower. The proposed method uses spectrophotometry to estimate the detached biomass after bio-dispersant action. The biofilm detachment rate and the removal percentage of biofilm were calculated after the use of six green bio-dispersants, two non-green dispersants and three controls at two different concentrations. Under all tested conditions, green bio-dispersants showed higher biofilm removal percentage and detachment rate than non-green additives. These results suggest that highly performing green additives could be recommended as a reasonable replacement for non-green additives for controlling biofilms in cooling towers, in accordance to the European Union’s REACH regulation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1301-3
  • Effect of trace elements and optimization of their composition for the
           nitrification of a heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium, Acinetobacter
           harbinensis HITLi7 T , at low temperature
    • Authors: Zejia Zheng; Weiguang Li; Xiaofei Huang; Wen Qin
      Abstract: Abstract The effects of trace elements on ammonium degradation performance and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion of Acinetobacter harbinensis HITLi7T at low temperature were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to obtain the optimal composition of trace elements and analyze their correlation. In this study, the results indicated that the ammonium removal performance could be enhanced by the presence of 0.1 mg L−1 Fe, Mn, or B in pure cultivation. When the concentrations of Fe and Mn were 0.2 mg L−1, the ammonium removal rates of the novel strain HITLi7T were 0.49 ± 0.01 mg L−1·h−1 and 0.58 ± 0.01 mg L−1·h−1, respectively, while it was the low concentration of 0.05 mg L−1 B that showed the maximum ammonium removal rate (0.56 ± 0.02 mg L−1·h−1) of strain HITLi7T. The regression model was obtained and the optimal formulation of trace elements was: B 0.064 mg L−1, Fe 0.12 mg L−1, and Mn 0.1 mg L−1. Based on these values, the experimental ammonium removal rate could reach 0.59 mg L−1·h−1, which matched well with the predicted response. The study also found that the addition of trace elements, causing high ammonium removal rates, resulted in a high polysaccharide (PS) ratio in the EPS secreted by Acinetobacter harbinensis HITLi7T. Especially under the optimal conditions, the PS ratio reached the highest value of 49.9%.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1298-7
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