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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Acta Informatica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.517
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0525 - ISSN (Online) 0001-5903
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • A core calculus for dynamic delta-oriented programming
    • Authors: Ferruccio Damiani; Luca Padovani; Ina Schaefer; Christoph Seidl
      Pages: 269 - 307
      Abstract: Delta-oriented programming (DOP) is a flexible approach to the implementation of software product lines (SPLs). Delta-oriented SPLs consist of a code base (a set of delta modules encapsulating changes to object-oriented programs) and a product line declaration (providing the connection of the delta modules with the product features). In this paper, we present a core calculus that extends DOP with the capability to switch the implemented product configuration at runtime. A dynamic delta-oriented SPL is a delta-oriented SPL with a dynamic reconfiguration graph that specifies how to switch between different feature configurations. Dynamic DOP supports also (unanticipated) software evolution such that at runtime, the product line declaration, the code base and the dynamic reconfiguration graph can be changed in any (unanticipated) way that preserves the currently running product, which is essential when evolution affects existing features. The type system of our dynamic DOP core calculus ensures that the dynamic reconfigurations lead to type safe products and do not cause runtime type errors.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-017-0293-6
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 4 (2018)
  • Algorithms for monitoring real-time properties
    • Authors: David Basin; Felix Klaedtke; Eugen Zălinescu
      Pages: 309 - 338
      Abstract: Real-time logics are popular specification languages for reasoning about systems intended to meet timing constraints. Numerous formalisms have been proposed with different underlying time models that can be characterized along two dimensions: dense versus discrete time and point-based versus interval-based. We present monitoring algorithms for the past-only fragment of metric temporal logics that differ along these two dimensions, analyze their complexity, and compare them on a class of formulas for which the point-based and the interval-based settings coincide. Our comparison reveals similarities and differences between the monitoring algorithms and highlights key concepts underlying our and prior monitoring algorithms. For example, point-based algorithms are conceptually simpler and more efficient than interval-based ones as they are invoked only at time points occurring in the monitored trace and their reasoning is limited to just those time points.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-017-0295-4
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 4 (2018)
  • Factorisation of transition systems
    • Authors: Raymond Devillers
      Pages: 339 - 362
      Abstract: It is well-known that the reachability graph of a sum of disjoint Petri nets is the disjoint product of the reachability graphs of the components. We shall consider here the converse problem, i.e., determine when and how a transition system may be decomposed in non-trivial concurrent factors, and extend the theory to more general labelled transition systems. Meanwhile, we shall develop interesting algebraic properties of disjoint products. The present paper is an extended version of Devillers (in: Desel, Yakovlev (eds) Proceedings 16th international conference on application of concurrency to system design (ACSD 2016), 2016).
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-017-0300-y
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 4 (2018)
  • The complexity of counting models of linear-time temporal logic
    • Authors: Hazem Torfah; Martin Zimmermann
      Pages: 191 - 212
      Abstract: We determine the complexity of counting models of bounded size of specifications expressed in linear-time temporal logic. Counting word-models is #P-complete, if the bound is given in unary, and as hard as counting accepting runs of nondeterministic polynomial space Turing machines, if the bound is given in binary. Counting tree-models is as hard as counting accepting runs of nondeterministic exponential time Turing machines, if the bound is given in unary. For a binary encoding of the bound, the problem is at least as hard as counting accepting runs of nondeterministic exponential space Turing machines, and not harder than counting accepting runs of nondeterministic doubly-exponential time Turing machines. Finally, counting arbitrary transition systems satisfying a formula is #P-hard and not harder than counting accepting runs of nondeterministic polynomial time Turing machines with a PSPACE oracle, if the bound is given in unary. If the bound is given in binary, then counting arbitrary models is as hard as counting accepting runs of nondeterministic exponential time Turing machines.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-016-0284-z
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2018)
  • Big data interpolation using functional representation
    • Authors: Hadassa Daltrophe; Shlomi Dolev; Zvi Lotker
      Pages: 213 - 225
      Abstract: Given a large set of measurement data, in order to identify a simple function that captures the essence of the data, we suggest representing the data by an abstract function, in particular by polynomials. We interpolate the datapoints to define a polynomial that would represent the data succinctly. The interpolation is challenging, since in practice the data can be noisy and even Byzantine where the Byzantine data represents an adversarial value that is not limited to being close to the correct measured data. We present two solutions, one that extends the Welch-Berlekamp technique (Error correction for algebraic block codes, 1986) to eliminate the outliers appearance in the case of multidimensional data, and copes with discrete noise and Byzantine data; and the other solution is based on Arora and Khot (J Comput Syst Sci 67(2):325–340, 2003) method which handles noisy data, and we have generalized it in the case of multidimensional noisy and Byzantine data.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-016-0288-8
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2018)
  • Generalized contexts for reaction systems: definition and study of dynamic
    • Authors: Roberto Barbuti; Roberta Gori; Francesca Levi; Paolo Milazzo
      Pages: 227 - 267
      Abstract: Reaction systems are a qualitative formalism for the modelling of systems of biochemical reactions. In their original formulation, a reaction system executes in an environment (or context) that can supply it with new objects at each evolution step. The context drives the behaviour of a reaction system: it can provide different inputs to the system that can lead to different behaviours. In order to more faithfully deal with open systems, in this paper we propose a more powerful notion of context having not only the capability to provide objects, but also to absorb (or remove) objects at each evolution step. For such reaction systems with generalized context we investigate properties of dynamic causality by revising the previously proposed concept of formula based predictor. A formula based predictor is a Boolean formula characterising all contexts that lead to the production of a certain object after a given number of steps. In this paper, we revise the theory of formula based predictors in order to deal with reaction systems executed in a context of the new kind. As applications, we show an example of interaction between biochemical pathways and a reaction system modelling cell metabolism and respiration.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-017-0296-3
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2018)
  • Average-energy games
    • Authors: Patricia Bouyer; Nicolas Markey; Mickael Randour; Kim G. Larsen; Simon Laursen
      Pages: 91 - 127
      Abstract: Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in \(\mathsf{NP}\cap \mathsf{coNP}\) and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-016-0274-1
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2018)
  • Parameterized linear temporal logics meet costs: still not costlier than
    • Authors: Martin Zimmermann
      Pages: 129 - 152
      Abstract: We continue the investigation of parameterized extensions of linear temporal logic (LTL) that retain the attractive algorithmic properties of LTL: a polynomial space model checking algorithm and a doubly-exponential time algorithm for solving games. Alur et al. and Kupferman et al. showed that this is the case for parametric LTL (PLTL) and PROMPT-LTL respectively, which have temporal operators equipped with variables that bound their scope in time. Later, this was also shown to be true for parametric LDL (PLDL), which extends PLTL to be able to express all \(\omega \) -regular properties. Here, we generalize PLTL to systems with costs, i.e., we do not bound the scope of operators in time, but bound the scope in terms of the cost accumulated during time. Again, we show that model checking and solving games for specifications in PLTL with costs is not harder than the corresponding problems for LTL. Finally, we discuss PLDL with costs and extensions to multiple cost functions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-016-0279-9
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2018)
  • Reachability analysis of reversal-bounded automata on
           series–parallel graphs
    • Authors: Rayna Dimitrova; Rupak Majumdar
      Pages: 153 - 189
      Abstract: Extensions to finite-state automata on strings, such as multi-head automata or multi-counter automata, have been successfully used to encode many infinite-state non-regular verification problems. In this paper, we consider a generalization of automata-theoretic infinite-state verification from strings to labelled series–parallel graphs. We define a model of non-deterministic, 2-way, concurrent automata working on series–parallel graphs and communicating through shared registers on the nodes of the graph. We consider the following verification problem: given a family of series–parallel graphs described by a context-free graph transformation system (GTS), and a concurrent automaton over series–parallel graphs, is some graph generated by the GTS accepted by the automaton' The general problem is undecidable already for (one-way) multi-head automata over strings. We show that a bounded version, where the automata make a fixed number of reversals along the graph and use a fixed number of shared registers is decidable, even though there is no bound on the sizes of series–parallel graphs generated by the GTS. Our decidability result is based on establishing that the number of context switches can be bounded and on an encoding of the computation of bounded concurrent automata that allows us to reduce the reachability problem to the emptiness problem for pushdown automata.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-016-0290-1
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2018)
  • On the decidability of the existence of polyhedral invariants in
           transition systems
    • Authors: David Monniaux
      Abstract: Automated program verification often proceeds by exhibiting inductive invariants entailing the desired properties. For numerical properties, a classical class of invariants is convex polyhedra: solution sets of system of linear (in)equalities. Forty years of research on convex polyhedral invariants have focused, on the one hand, on identifying “easier” subclasses, on the other hand on heuristics for finding general convex polyhedra. These heuristics are however not guaranteed to find polyhedral inductive invariants when they exist. To our best knowledge, the existence of polyhedral inductive invariants has never been proved to be undecidable. In this article, we show that the existence of convex polyhedral invariants is undecidable, even if there is only one control state in addition to the “bad” one. The question is still open if one is not allowed any nonlinear constraint.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0324-y
  • On the hardness of analyzing probabilistic programs
    • Authors: Benjamin Lucien Kaminski; Joost-Pieter Katoen; Christoph Matheja
      Abstract: We study the hardness of deciding probabilistic termination as well as the hardness of approximating expected values (e.g. of program variables) and (co)variances for probabilistic programs. Termination We distinguish two notions of probabilistic termination: Given a program P and an input \(\sigma \) ... ...does P terminate with probability 1 on input \(\sigma \) ' (almost-sure termination) the expected time until P terminates on input \(\sigma \) finite' (positive almost-sure termination) For both of these notions, we also consider their universal variant, i.e. given a program P, does P terminate on all inputs' We show that deciding almost-sure termination as well as deciding its universal variant is \(\varPi ^0_2\) -complete in the arithmetical hierarchy. Deciding positive almost-sure termination is shown to be \(\varSigma _2^0\) -complete, whereas its universal variant is \(\varPi _3^0\) -complete. Expected values Given a probabilistic program P and a random variable f mapping program states to rationals, we show that computing lower and upper bounds on the expected value of f after executing P is \(\varSigma _1^0\) - and \(\varSigma _2^0\) -complete, respectively. Deciding whether the expected value equals a given rational value is shown to be \(\varPi ^0_2\) -complete. Covariances We show that computing upper and lower bounds on the covariance of two random variables is both \(\varSigma _2^0\) -complete. Deciding whether the covariance equals a given rational value is shown to be in \(\varDelta _3^0\) . In addition, this problem is shown to be \(\varSigma ^0_2\) -hard as well as \(\varPi ^0_2\) -hard and thus a “proper” \(\varDelta _3^0\) -problem. All hardness results on covariances apply to variances as well.
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0321-1
  • Identity-based signatures in standard model
    • Authors: Huiyan Chen; Chenchen Zhang
      Abstract: Tight security proofs allow for shorter security parameters and better efficiency. In this paper, we firstly present a new signature scheme, SSSTR, which is strongly existentially unforgeable under adaptively chosen message attacks and whose security is tightly related to Strong Diffie–Hellman assumption in the standard model, and then give two identity-based signatures which are existentially unforgeable under adaptively chosen message and identity attacks and whose security is also tightly related to Strong Diffie–Hellman assumption in the standard model.
      PubDate: 2018-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0322-0
  • Equivalence checking of Petri net models of programs using static and
           dynamic cut-points
    • Authors: Soumyadip Bandyopadhyay; Dipankar Sarkar; Chittaranjan Mandal
      Abstract: Extensive optimizing and parallelizing transformations are carried out on programs, both by (untrusted) compilers and human experts, before deploying them on some platform architecture which is by and large parallel. It is therefore important to devise some suitable modelling paradigm which is capable of capturing parallelism in such a way that proving equivalence of the source programs and their transformed versions becomes easier. In the present work, an untimed Petri net model with data constraints, called CPN model (Coloured Petri net), is used to model the parallel behaviours. Being value based, such models depict more vividly the data dependencies which lie at the core of such transformations; accordingly, they are likely to provide more suitable internal representations (IRs) of both the source and the transformed programs than the IRs like sequential control flow graphs (CFGs). A path based equivalence checking method for CPN models with rigorous treatment of the complexity and correctness issues have been presented. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0320-2
  • A generalised theory of Interface Automata, component compatibility and
    • Authors: Sascha Fendrich; Gerald Lüttgen
      Abstract: Interface theories allow system designers to reason about the composability and compatibility of concurrent system components. Such theories often extend both de Alfaro and Henzinger’s Interface Automata and Larsen’s Modal Transition Systems, which leads, however, to several issues that are undesirable in practice: an unintuitive treatment of specified unwanted behaviour, a binary compatibility concept that does not scale to multi-component assemblies, and compatibility guarantees that are insufficient for software product lines. In this article we show that communication mismatches are central to all these problems and, thus, the ability to represent such errors semantically is an important feature of an interface theory. Accordingly, we present the error-aware interface theory EMIA, where the above shortcomings are remedied by introducing explicit fatal error states. In addition, we prove via a Galois insertion that EMIA is a conservative generalisation of the established Modal Interface Automata theory.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0319-8
  • Negotiation as concurrency primitive
    • Authors: Jörg Desel; Javier Esparza; Philipp Hoffmann
      Abstract: This paper introduces negotiations, a model of concurrency close to Petri nets, with multi-party negotiations as concurrency primitive. We study two fundamental analysis problems. The soundness problem consists in deciding if it is always possible for a negotiation to terminate successfully, whatever the current state is. Given a sound negotiation, the summarization problem aims at computing an equivalent one-step negotiation with the same input/output behavior. The soundness and summarization problems can be solved by means of simple algorithms acting on the state space of the negotiation, which however face the well-known state explosion problem. We study alternative algorithms that avoid the construction of the state space. In particular, we define reduction rules that simplify a negotiation while preserving the sound/non-sound character of the negotiation and its summary. In a first result we show that our rules are complete for the class of weakly deterministic acyclic negotiations, meaning that they reduce all sound negotiations in this class, and only them, to equivalent one-step negotiations. This provides algorithms for both the soundness and the summarization problem that avoid the construction of the state space. We then study the class of deterministic negotiations. Our second main result shows that the rules are also complete for this class, even if the negotiations contain cycles. Moreover, we present an algorithm that completely reduces all sound deterministic negotiations, and only them, in polynomial time.
      PubDate: 2018-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0318-9
  • Verification of asynchronous systems with an unspecified component
    • Authors: Rosa Abbasi; Fatemeh Ghassemi; Ramtin Khosravi
      Abstract: Component-based systems evolve as a new component is added or an existing one is replaced by a newer version. Hence, it is appealing to assure the new system still preserves its safety properties. However, instead of inspecting the new system as a whole, which may result in a large state space, it is beneficial to reuse the verification results by inspecting the newly added component in isolation. To this aim, we study the problem of model checking component-based asynchronously communicating systems in the presence of an unspecified component against safety properties. Our solution is based on assume-guarantee reasoning, adopted for asynchronous environments, which generates the weakest assumption. If the newly added component conforms to the assumption, then the whole system still satisfies the property. To make the approach efficient and convergent, we produce an overapproximated interface of the missing component and by its composition with the rest of the system components, we achieve an overapproximated specification of the system, from which we remove those traces of the system that violate the property and generate an assumption for the missing component. We have implemented our approach on two case studies. Furthermore, we compared our results with the state of the art direct approach. Our resulting assumptions are smaller in size and achieved faster.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0317-x
  • Probabilistic bisimulation for realistic schedulers
    • Authors: Lijun Zhang; Pengfei Yang; Lei Song; Holger Hermanns; Christian Eisentraut; David N. Jansen; Jens Chr. Godskesen
      Abstract: Weak distribution bisimilarity is an equivalence notion on probabilistic automata, originally proposed for Markov automata. It has gained some popularity as the coarsest behavioral equivalence enjoying valuable properties like preservation of trace distribution equivalence and compositionality. This holds in the classical context of arbitrary schedulers, but it has been argued that this class of schedulers is unrealistically powerful. This paper studies a strictly coarser notion of bisimilarity, which still enjoys these properties in the context of realistic subclasses of schedulers: Trace distribution equivalence is implied for partial information schedulers, and compositionality is preserved by distributed schedulers. The intersection of the two scheduler classes thus spans a coarser and still reasonable compositional theory of behavioral semantics.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0313-1
  • An analysis of the M $$^X$$ X /M/1 queue with multiple working vacations
           by GI/M/1 type Markov process
    • Authors: Hongbo Zhang
      Abstract: In this paper, we analyze an M/M/1 queue with batch arrival and multiple working vacations. We describe the queueing model by a special GI/M/1 type Markov process with infinite phases, and by the matrix analytic method, we not only give the stationary queue length distribution of the model, but also obtain the exact number of vacations completed by the server.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0316-y
  • On path-controlled insertion–deletion systems
    • Authors: Henning Fernau; Lakshmanan Kuppusamy; Indhumathi Raman
      Abstract: A graph-controlled insertion–deletion system is a regulated extension of an insertion–deletion system. It has several components and each component contains some insertion–deletion rules. These components are the vertices of a directed control graph. A transition is performed by any applicable rule in the current component on a string and the resultant string is then moved to the target component specified in the rule. This also describes the arcs of the control graph. Starting from an axiom in the initial component, strings thus move through the control graph. The language of the system is the set of all terminal strings collected in the final component. In this paper, we investigate a variant of the main question in this area: which combinations of size parameters (the maximum number of components, the maximal length of the insertion string, the maximal length of the left context for insertion, the maximal length of the right context for insertion; plus three similar restrictions with respect to deletion) are sufficient to maintain computational completeness of such restricted systems under the additional restriction that the (undirected) control graph is a path' Notice that these results also bear consequences for the domain of insertion–deletion P systems, improving on a number of previous results from the literature, concerning in particular the number of components (membranes) that are necessary for computational completeness results.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0312-2
  • Preface for the special issue GandALF 2015
    • Authors: Javier Esparza; Enrico Tronci
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00236-018-0315-z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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