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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR)
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.456
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1433-2833 - ISSN (Online) 1433-2825
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The achievement of higher flexibility in multiple-choice-based tests using
           image classification techniques
    • Abstract: In spite of the high accuracy of the existing optical mark reading (OMR) systems and devices, a few restrictions remain existent. In this work, we aim to reduce the restrictions of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) within tests. We use an image registration technique to extract the answer boxes from answer sheets. Unlike other systems that rely on simple image processing steps to recognize the extracted answer boxes, we address the problem from another perspective by training a machine learning classifier to recognize the class of each answer box (i.e., confirmed, crossed out or blank answer). This gives us the ability to deal with a variety of shading and mark patterns, and distinguish between chosen (i.e., confirmed) and canceled answers (i.e., crossed out). All existing machine learning techniques require a large number of examples in order to train a model for classification; therefore, we present a dataset including six real MCQ assessments with different answer sheet templates. We evaluate two strategies of classification: a straightforward approach and a two-stage classifier approach. We test two handcrafted feature methods and a convolutional neural network. At the end, we present an easy-to-use graphical user interface of the proposed system. Compared with existing OMR systems, the proposed system has the least constraints and achieves a high accuracy. We believe that the presented work will further direct the development of OMR systems toward reducing the restrictions of the MCQ tests.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Real-time Kinect-based air-writing system with a novel analytical
    • Abstract: Air-writing is an attractive method of interaction between human and machine due to lack of any interface device on the user side. After removing existing limitations and solving the current challenges, it can be used in many applications in the future. In this paper, using the Kinect depth and color images, an air-writing system is proposed to identify single characters such as digits or letters and connected characters such as numbers or words. In this system, automatic clustering, slope variations detection, and a novel analytical classification are proposed as new approaches to eliminate noise in the trajectory from the depth image and hand segmentation, to extract the feature vector, and to identify the character from the feature vector, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed system can successfully identify single characters and connected characters with the average recognition rate of 97%. It provides a better result than other similar approaches proposed in the literature. In the proposed system, the character recognition time is quite low, about 3 ms, because of using a novel analytical classifier. Evaluation of 4 classifiers shows that the proposed classifier has a higher speed and precision than the SVM, HMM, and K-nearest neighbors classifiers.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Metro maps for efficient knowledge learning by summarizing massive
           electronic textbooks
    • Abstract: As the number of textbooks soars, people may be stuck into thousands of books when learning knowledge. In order to provide a concise yet comprehensive picture for learning, we propose a novel framework, called MM4Books, to automatically build metro maps for efficient knowledge learning by summarizing massive electronic textbooks. We represent each book in digital libraries as a sequence of chapters, and then obtain learning objects by clustering the semantically similar chapters via an unsupervised clustering method to create a learning graph, and then build the metro map by applying an integer linear programming-based technique to select a collection of high informative and fluent but low redundant learning paths from the learning graph. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first work to address this task. Experiments show that our proposed approach outperforms all the state-of-the-art baseline approaches, and we also implemented a practical MM4Books system to prove that users can really benefit from the proposed approach for knowledge learning.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Plug-and-play approach to class-adapted blind image deblurring
    • Abstract: Most of the existing single-image blind deblurring methods are tailored for natural images. However, in many important applications (e.g., document analysis, forensics), the image being recovered belongs to a specific class (e.g., text, faces, fingerprints) or contains two or more classes. To deal with these images, we propose a class-adapted blind deblurring framework, based on the plug-and-play scheme, which allows forward models of imaging systems to be combined with state-of-the-art denoisers. We consider three patch-based denoisers, two suitable for images that belong to a specific class and a general purpose one. Additionally, for images with two or more classes, we propose two approaches: a direct one, and one that uses a patch classification step before denoising. The proposed deblurring framework includes two priors on the blurring filter: a sparsity-inducing prior, suitable for motion blur and a weak prior, for a variety of filters. The results show the state-of-the-art performance of the proposed framework when applied to images that belong to a specific class (text, face, fingerprints), or contain two classes (text and face). For images with two classes, we show that the deblurring performance is improved by using the classification step. For these images, we choose to test one instance of the proposed framework suitable for text and faces, which is a natural test ground for the proposed framework. With the proper (dictionary and/or classifier) learning procedure, the framework can be adapted to other problems. For text images, we show that, in most cases, the proposed deblurring framework improves OCR accuracy.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
  • An improved discriminative region selection methodology for online
           handwriting recognition
    • Abstract: The task of online handwriting recognition (HR) becomes often challenging due to the presence of confusing characters which are separable by a small region. To address this problem, we propose a “discriminative region (DR) selection” technique which highlights the discriminative region that distinguishes one character from another similar character. The existing DR selection approach for online handwriting often finds spurious DR when the intra-class shape variations become higher than the distinction between DRs of the two characters. The proposed technique which is an improved version of the existing approach can minimize the effect of high intra-class variations and results in robust DR selection. In addition, we propose an online HR system enabling DR-based processing in a single-stage classification framework. The use of hidden Markov model and support vector machine classifiers is explored to develop the HR system. The efficacy of the proposals is shown for character and word recognition tasks and evaluated on three databases: the locally collected Assamese character database, UNIPEN English character database and UNIPEN ICROW-03 word database. The recognition results are promising over the reported works.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Stroke order normalization for improving recognition of online handwritten
           mathematical expressions
    • Abstract: We present a technique based on stroke order normalization for improving recognition of online handwritten mathematical expressions (ME). The stroke order dependent system has less time complexity than the stroke order free system, but it must incorporate special grammar rules to cope with stroke order variations. The stroke order normalization technique solves this problem and also the problem of unexpected stroke order variations without increasing the time complexity of ME recognition. In order to normalize stroke order, the X–Y cut method is modified since its original form causes problems when structural components in ME overlap. First, vertically ordered strokes are located by detecting vertical symbols and their upper/lower components, which are treated as MEs and reordered recursively. Second, unordered strokes on the left side of the vertical symbols are reordered as horizontally ordered strokes. Third, the remaining strokes are reordered recursively. The horizontally ordered strokes are reordered from left to right, and the vertically ordered strokes are reordered from top to bottom. Finally, the proposed stroke order normalization is combined with the stroke order dependent ME recognition system. The evaluations on the CROHME 2014 database show that the ME recognition system incorporating the stroke order normalization outperforms all other systems that use only CROHME 2014 for training while the processing time is kept low.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Online signature verification based on string edit distance
    • Abstract: Handwritten signatures are widely used and well-accepted biometrics for personal authentication. The accuracy of signature verification systems has significantly improved in the last decade, making it possible to rely on machines in particular cases or to support human experts. Yet, based on only few genuine references, signature verification is still a challenging task. The present paper provides a comprehensive comparison of two prominent string matching algorithms that can be readily used for signature verification. Moreover, it evaluates a recent cost model for string matching which turns out to be particularly well suited for the task of signature verification. On three benchmarking data sets, we show that this model outperforms the two standard models for string matching with statistical significance.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • A comparative study of delayed stroke handling approaches in online
    • Abstract: Delayed strokes, such as i-dots and t-crosses, cause a challenge in online handwriting recognition by introducing an extra source of variation in the sequence order of the handwritten input. The problem is especially relevant for languages where delayed strokes are abundant and training data are limited. Studies for handling delayed strokes have mainly focused on Arabic and Farsi scripts where the problem is most severe, with less attention devoted for scripts based on the Latin alphabet. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the delayed stroke handling methods proposed in the literature. Evaluated methods include the removal of delayed strokes and embedding delayed strokes in the correct writing order, together with their variations. Starting with new definitions of a delayed stroke, we tested each method using both hidden Markov model classifiers separately for English and Turkish and bidirectional long short-term memory networks for English. For both the UNIPEN and Turkish datasets, the best results are obtained with hidden Markov model recognizers by removing all delayed strokes, with up to 2.13% and 2.03% points accuracy increases over the respective baselines. In case of the bidirectional long short-term memory networks, stroke order correction of the delayed strokes by embedding performs the best, with 1.81% (raw) and 1.72% (post-processed) points improvements above the baseline.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • A framework for information extraction from tables in biomedical
    • Abstract: The scientific literature is growing exponentially, and professionals are no more able to cope with the current amount of publications. Text mining provided in the past methods to retrieve and extract information from text; however, most of these approaches ignored tables and figures. The research done in mining table data still does not have an integrated approach for mining that would consider all complexities and challenges of a table. Our research is examining the methods for extracting numerical (number of patients, age, gender distribution) and textual (adverse reactions) information from tables in the clinical literature. We present a requirement analysis template and an integral methodology for information extraction from tables in clinical domain that contains 7 steps: (1) table detection, (2) functional processing, (3) structural processing, (4) semantic tagging, (5) pragmatic processing, (6) cell selection and (7) syntactic processing and extraction. Our approach performed with the F-measure ranged between 82 and 92%, depending on the variable, task and its complexity.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • KERTAS: dataset for automatic dating of ancient Arabic manuscripts
    • Abstract: The age of a historical manuscript can be an invaluable source of information for paleographers and historians. The process of automatic manuscript age detection has inherent complexities, which are compounded by the lack of suitable datasets for algorithm testing. This paper presents a dataset of historical handwritten Arabic manuscripts designed specifically to test state-of-the-art authorship and age detection algorithms. Qatar National Library has been the main source of manuscripts for this dataset while the remaining manuscripts are open source. The dataset consists of over 2000 images taken from various handwritten Arabic manuscripts spanning fourteen centuries. In addition, a sparse representation-based approach for dating historical Arabic manuscript is also proposed. There is lack of existing datasets that provide reliable writing date and author identity as metadata. KERTAS is a new dataset of historical documents that can help researchers, historians and paleographers to automatically date Arabic manuscripts more accurately and efficiently.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Building efficient CNN architecture for offline handwritten Chinese
           character recognition
    • Abstract: Deep convolutional neural networks-based methods have brought great breakthrough in image classification, which provides an end-to-end solution for handwritten Chinese character recognition (HCCR) problem through learning discriminative features automatically. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art CNNs appear to incur huge computational cost and require the storage of a large number of parameters especially in fully connected layers, which is difficult to deploy such networks into alternative hardware devices with limited computation capacity. To solve the storage problem, we propose a novel technique called weighted average pooling for reducing the parameters in fully connected layer without loss in accuracy. Besides, we implement a cascaded model in single CNN by adding mid output to complete recognition as early as possible, which reduces average inference time significantly. Experiments are performed on the ICDAR-2013 offline HCCR dataset. It is found that our proposed approach only needs 6.9 ms for classifying a character image on average and achieves the state-of-the-art accuracy of 97.1% while requires only 3.3 MB for storage.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Augmented incremental recognition of online handwritten mathematical
    • Abstract: This paper presents an augmented incremental recognition method for online handwritten mathematical expressions (MEs). If an ME is recognized after all strokes are written (batch recognition), the waiting time increases significantly when the ME becomes longer. On the other hand, the pure incremental recognition method recognizes an ME whenever a new single stroke is input. It shortens the waiting time but degrades the recognition rate due to the limited context. Thus, we propose an augmented incremental recognition method that not only maintains the advantage of the two methods but also reduces their weaknesses. The proposed method has two main features: one is to process the latest stroke, and the other is to find the erroneous segmentations and recognitions in the recent strokes and correct them. In the first process, the segmentation and the recognition by Cocke–Younger–Kasami (CYK) algorithm are only executed for the latest stroke. In the second process, all the previous segmentations are updated if they are significantly changed after the latest stroke is input, and then, all the symbols related to the updated segmentations are updated with their recognition scores. These changes are reflected in the CYK table. In addition, the waiting time is further reduced by employing multi-thread processes. Experiments on our dataset and the CROHME datasets show the effectiveness of this augmented incremental recognition method, which not only maintains recognition rate even compared with the batch recognition method but also reduces the waiting time to a very small level.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • A combined strategy of analysis for the localization of heterogeneous form
           fields in ancient pre-printed records
    • Abstract: This paper deals with the location of handwritten fields in old pre-printed registers. The images present the difficulties of old and damaged documents, and we also have to face the difficulty of extracting the text due to the great interaction between handwritten and printed writing. In addition, in many collections, the structure of the forms varies according to the origin of the documents. This work is applied to a database of Mexican marriage records, which has been published for a competition in the workshop HIP 2013 and is publicly available. In this paper, we show the interest and limitations of the empirical method which has been submitted for the competition. We then present a method that combines a logical description of the contents of the documents, with the result of an automatic analysis on the physical properties of the collection. The particularity of this analysis is that it does not require any ground-truth. We show that this combined strategy can locate 97.2% of handwritten fields. The proposed approach is generalizable and could be applied to other databases.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • A comprehensive study of hybrid neural network hidden Markov model for
           offline handwritten Chinese text recognition
    • Abstract: This paper proposes an effective segmentation-free approach using a hybrid neural network hidden Markov model (NN-HMM) for offline handwritten Chinese text recognition (HCTR). In the general Bayesian framework, the handwritten Chinese text line is sequentially modeled by HMMs with each representing one character class, while the NN-based classifier is adopted to calculate the posterior probability of all HMM states. The key issues in feature extraction, character modeling, and language modeling are comprehensively investigated to show the effectiveness of NN-HMM framework for offline HCTR. First, a conventional deep neural network (DNN) architecture is studied with a well-designed feature extractor. As for the training procedure, the label refinement using forced alignment and the sequence training can yield significant gains on top of the frame-level cross-entropy criterion. Second, a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) with automatically learned discriminative features demonstrates its superiority to DNN in the HMM framework. Moreover, to solve the challenging problem of distinguishing quite confusing classes due to the large vocabulary of Chinese characters, NN-based classifier should output 19900 HMM states as the classification units via a high-resolution modeling within each character. On the ICDAR 2013 competition task of CASIA-HWDB database, DNN-HMM yields a promising character error rate (CER) of 5.24% by making a good trade-off between the computational complexity and recognition accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, DCNN-HMM can achieve a best published CER of 3.53%.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Special issue on deep learning for document analysis and recognition
    • PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Learning to detect, localize and recognize many text objects in document
           images from few examples
    • Abstract: The current trend in object detection and localization is to learn predictions with high capacity deep neural networks trained on a very large amount of annotated data and using a high amount of processing power. In this work, we particularly target the detection of text in document images and we propose a new neural model which directly predicts object coordinates. The particularity of our contribution lies in the local computations of predictions with a new form of local parameter sharing which keeps the overall amount of trainable parameters low. Key components of the model are spatial 2D-LSTM recurrent layers which convey contextual information between the regions of the image. We show that this model is more powerful than the state of the art in applications where training data are not as abundant as in the classical configuration of natural images and Imagenet/Pascal-VOC tasks. The proposed model also facilitates the detection of many objects in a single image and can deal with inputs of variable sizes without resizing. To enhance the localization precision of the coordinate regressor, we limit the amount of information produced by the local model components and propose two different regression strategies: (i) separately predict lower-left and upper-right corners of each object bounding box, followed by combinatorial pairing; (ii) only predict the left side of the objects and estimate the right position jointly with text recognition. These strategies lead to good full-page text recognition results in heterogeneous documents. Experiments have been performed on a document analysis task, the localization of the text lines in the Maurdor dataset.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Integrating scattering feature maps with convolutional neural networks for
           Malayalam handwritten character recognition
    • Abstract: Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based deep learning architectures are the state-of-the-art in image-based pattern recognition applications. The receptive filter fields in convolutional layers are learned from training data patterns automatically during classifier learning. There are number of well-defined, well-studied and proven filters in the literature that can extract informative content from the input patterns. This paper focuses on utilizing scattering transform-based wavelet filters as the first-layer convolutional filters in CNN architecture. The scattering networks are generated by a series of scattering transform operations. The scattering coefficients generated in first few layers are effective in capturing the dominant energy contained in the input data patterns. The present work aims at replacing the first-layer convolutional feature maps in CNN architecture with scattering feature maps. This architecture is equivalent to utilizing scattering wavelet filters as the first-layer receptive fields in CNN architecture. The proposed hybrid CNN architecture experiments the Malayalam handwritten character recognition which is one of the challenging multi-class classification problems. The initial studies confirm that the proposed hybrid CNN architecture based on scattering feature maps could perform better than the equivalent self-learning architecture of CNN on handwritten character recognition problems.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Fully convolutional network with dilated convolutions for handwritten text
           line segmentation
    • Authors: Guillaume Renton; Yann Soullard; Clément Chatelain; Sébastien Adam; Christopher Kermorvant; Thierry Paquet
      Abstract: We present a learning-based method for handwritten text line segmentation in document images. Our approach relies on a variant of deep fully convolutional networks (FCNs) with dilated convolutions. Dilated convolutions allow to never reduce the input resolution and produce a pixel-level labeling. The FCN is trained to identify X-height labeling as text line representation, which has many advantages for text recognition. We show that our approach outperforms the most popular variants of FCN, based on deconvolution or unpooling layers, on a public dataset. We also provide results investigating various settings, and we conclude with a comparison of our model with recent approaches defined as part of the cBAD ( international competition, leading us to a 91.3% F-measure.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10032-018-0304-3
  • Fixed-sized representation learning from offline handwritten signatures of
           different sizes
    • Authors: Luiz G. Hafemann; Luiz S. Oliveira; Robert Sabourin
      Abstract: Methods for learning feature representations for offline handwritten signature verification have been successfully proposed in recent literature, using deep convolutional neural networks to learn representations from signature pixels. Such methods reported large performance improvements compared to handcrafted feature extractors. However, they also introduced an important constraint: the inputs to the neural networks must have a fixed size, while signatures vary significantly in size between different users. In this paper, we propose addressing this issue by learning a fixed-sized representation from variable-sized signatures by modifying the network architecture, using spatial pyramid pooling. We also investigate the impact of the resolution of the images used for training and the impact of adapting (fine-tuning) the representations to new operating conditions (different acquisition protocols, such as writing instruments and scan resolution). On the GPDS dataset, we achieve results comparable with the state of the art, while removing the constraint of having a maximum size for the signatures to be processed. We also show that using higher resolutions (300 or 600 dpi) can improve performance when skilled forgeries from a subset of users are available for feature learning, but lower resolutions (around 100dpi) can be used if only genuine signatures are used. Lastly, we show that fine-tuning can improve performance when the operating conditions change.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10032-018-0301-6
  • Attribute CNNs for word spotting in handwritten documents
    • Authors: Sebastian Sudholt; Gernot A. Fink
      Abstract: Word spotting has become a field of strong research interest in document image analysis over the last years. Recently, AttributeSVMs were proposed which predict a binary attribute representation (Almazán et al. in IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 36(12):2552–2566, 2014). At their time, this influential method defined the state of the art in segmentation-based word spotting. In this work, we present an approach for learning attribute representations with convolutional neural networks(CNNs). By taking a probabilistic perspective on training CNNs, we derive two different loss functions for binary and real-valued word string embeddings. In addition, we propose two different CNN architectures, specifically designed for word spotting. These architectures are able to be trained in an end-to-end fashion. In a number of experiments, we investigate the influence of different word string embeddings and optimization strategies. We show our attribute CNNs to achieve state-of-the-art results for segmentation-based word spotting on a large variety of data sets.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10032-018-0295-0
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