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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

 Astronomy and Astrophysics Review   [SJR: 4.511]   [H-I: 44]   [21 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1432-0754 - ISSN (Online) 0935-4956    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2352 journals]
• Active galactic nuclei: what’s in a name'
• Authors: P. Padovani; D. M. Alexander; R. J. Assef; B. De Marco; P. Giommi; R. C. Hickox; G. T. Richards; V. Smolčić; E. Hatziminaoglou; V. Mainieri; M. Salvato
Abstract: Abstract Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are energetic astrophysical sources powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies, and present unique observational signatures that cover the full electromagnetic spectrum over more than twenty orders of magnitude in frequency. The rich phenomenology of AGN has resulted in a large number of different “flavours” in the literature that now comprise a complex and confusing AGN “zoo”. It is increasingly clear that these classifications are only partially related to intrinsic differences between AGN and primarily reflect variations in a relatively small number of astrophysical parameters as well the method by which each class of AGN is selected. Taken together, observations in different electromagnetic bands as well as variations over time provide complementary windows on the physics of different sub-structures in the AGN. In this review, we present an overview of AGN multi-wavelength properties with the aim of painting their “big picture” through observations in each electromagnetic band from radio to $$\gamma$$ -rays as well as AGN variability. We address what we can learn from each observational method, the impact of selection effects, the physics behind the emission at each wavelength, and the potential for future studies. To conclude, we use these observations to piece together the basic architecture of AGN, discuss our current understanding of unification models, and highlight some open questions that present opportunities for future observational and theoretical progress.
PubDate: 2017-08-23
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-017-0102-9
Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 1 (2017)

• Giant star seismology
• Authors: S. Hekker; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard
Abstract: Abstract The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.
PubDate: 2017-06-15
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-017-0101-x
Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 1 (2017)

• The realm of the galaxy protoclusters
• Authors: Roderik A. Overzier
Abstract: Abstract The study of galaxy protoclusters is beginning to fill in unknown details of the important phase of the assembly of clusters and cluster galaxies. This review describes the current status of this field and highlights promising recent findings related to galaxy formation in the densest regions of the early universe. We discuss the main search techniques and the characteristic properties of protoclusters in observations and simulations, and show that protoclusters will have present-day masses similar to galaxy clusters when fully collapsed. We discuss the physical properties of galaxies in protoclusters, including (proto-)brightest cluster galaxies, and the forming red sequence. We highlight the fact that the most massive halos at high redshift are found in protoclusters, making these objects uniquely suited for testing important recent models of galaxy formation. We show that galaxies in protoclusters should be among the first galaxies at high redshift making the transition from a gas cooling regime dominated by cold streams to a regime dominated by hot intracluster gas, which could be tested observationally. We also discuss the possible connections between protoclusters and radio galaxies, quasars, and $$\hbox {Ly}\alpha$$ blobs. Because of their early formation, large spatial sizes and high total star-formation rates, protoclusters have also likely played a crucial role during the epoch of reionization, which can be tested with future experiments that will map the neutral and ionized cosmic web. Lastly, we review a number of promising observational projects that are expected to make significant impact in this growing, exciting field.
PubDate: 2016-11-11
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0100-3
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

Abstract: Abstract Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now, it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky, which has been studied for decades in the infrared, optical, and X-ray bands. I follow the transformation of radio astronomy by reviewing the main components of the radio sky at the bright and faint ends, the issue of their proper classification, their number counts, luminosity functions, and evolution. The overall “big picture” astrophysical implications of these results, and their relevance for a number of hot topics in extragalactic astronomy, are also discussed. The future prospects of the faint radio sky are very bright, as we will soon be flooded with survey data. This review should be useful to all extragalactic astronomers, irrespective of their favourite electromagnetic band(s), and even stellar astronomers might find it somewhat gratifying.
PubDate: 2016-09-29
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0098-6
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Erratum to: Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and
evolution
PubDate: 2016-07-22
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0097-7
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Time delay cosmography
• Authors: Tommaso Treu; Philip J. Marshall
Abstract: Abstract Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.
PubDate: 2016-07-21
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0096-8
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution
Abstract: Abstract Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN ( $$L_{1.4\,\mathrm{GHz}} > 10^{24}$$  W $$\hbox {Hz}^{-1}$$ ) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts ( $$z < 0.7$$ ), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff–Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.
PubDate: 2016-06-03
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0094-x
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Accurate abundance analysis of late-type stars: advances in atomic physics
• Authors: Paul S. Barklem
Abstract: Abstract The measurement of stellar properties such as chemical compositions, masses and ages, through stellar spectra, is a fundamental problem in astrophysics. Progress in the understanding, calculation and measurement of atomic properties and processes relevant to the high-accuracy analysis of F-, G-, and K-type stellar spectra is reviewed, with particular emphasis on abundance analysis. This includes fundamental atomic data such as energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities, as well as processes of photoionisation, collisional broadening and inelastic collisions. A recurring theme throughout the review is the interplay between theoretical atomic physics, laboratory measurements, and astrophysical modelling, all of which contribute to our understanding of atoms and atomic processes, as well as to modelling stellar spectra.
PubDate: 2016-05-31
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0095-9
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Erratum to: Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies
• Authors: Rainer Beck
PubDate: 2016-02-29
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0092-z
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Complex organics in space from Solar System to distant galaxies
• Authors: Sun Kwok
Abstract: Abstract Recent observational and experimental evidence for the presence of complex organics in space is reviewed. Remote astronomical observations have detected $$\sim$$ 200 gas-phased molecules through their rotational and vibrational transitions. Many classes of organic molecules are represented in this list, including some precursors to biological molecules. A number of unidentified spectral phenomena observed in the interstellar medium are likely to have originated from complex organics. The observations of these features in distant galaxies suggests that organic synthesis had already taken place during the early epochs of the Universe. In the Solar System, almost all biologically relevant molecules can be found in the soluble component of carbonaceous meteorites. Complex organics of mixed aromatic and aliphatic structures are present in the insoluble component of meteorites. Hydrocarbons cover much of the surface of the planetary satellite Titan and complex organics are found in comets and interplanetary dust particles. The possibility that the early Solar System, or even the early Earth, have been enriched by interstellar organics is discussed.
PubDate: 2016-02-29
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0093-y
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Accretion disks in luminous young stellar objects
• Authors: M. T. Beltrán; W. J. de Wit
Abstract: Abstract An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and, therefore, predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared wavelength regions. We make summaries and comparisons of the physical properties, kinematics, and dynamics of these circumstellar structures and delineate trends where possible. Amongst others, we report on a quadratic trend of mass accretion rates with mass from T Tauri stars to the highest mass young stellar objects and on the systematic difference in mass infall and accretion rates.
PubDate: 2016-01-11
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0089-z
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• GG Tau: the ringworld and beyond
• Authors: Anne Dutrey; Emmanuel Di Folco; Tracy Beck; Stéphane Guilloteau
Abstract: Abstract In binary stellar systems, exoplanet searches have revealed planetary mass companions orbiting both in circumstellar and in circumbinary orbits. Modelling studies suggest increased dynamical complexity around the young stars that form such systems. Circumstellar and circumbinary disks likely exhibit different physical conditions for planet formation, which also depends on the stellar separation. Although binaries and higher order multiple stars are relatively common in nearby star-forming regions, surprisingly few systems with circumbinary distributions of proto-planetary material have been found. With its spectacular ring of dust and gas encircling the central triple star, one such system, GG Tau A, has become a unique laboratory for investigating the physics of circumsystem gas and dust evolution. We review here its physical properties.
PubDate: 2016-01-11
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0091-5
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016)

• Mars: a small terrestrial planet
• Abstract: Abstract Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by a dozen of missions over the last two decades. In situ data have provided ground truth for remote-sensing data and have opened a new era in the study of Mars geology. While large sections of Mars science have made progress and new topics have emerged, a major question in Mars exploration—the possibility of past or present life—is still unsolved. Without entering into the debate around the presence of life traces, our review develops various topics of Mars science to help the search of life on Mars, building on the most recent discoveries, going from the exosphere to the interior structure, from the magmatic evolution to the currently active processes, including the fate of volatiles and especially liquid water.
PubDate: 2016-11-16
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-016-0099-5

• Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies
• Authors: Rainer Beck
Abstract: Abstract Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20–30 $$\upmu$$ G) and in central starburst regions (50–100 $$\upmu$$ G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10–15 $$\upmu$$ G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. “Magnetic arms” between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with forthcoming radio telescopes like the Square Kilometre Array.
PubDate: 2015-12-29
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0084-4
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2015)

• Authors: Anuschka Pauluhn; Martin C. E. Huber; Peter L. Smith; Luis Colina
Abstract: Abstract Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as “photometry”—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope’s performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric “calibration” of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.
PubDate: 2015-12-21
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0086-2
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2015)

• The extragalactic gamma-ray sky in the Fermi era
• Authors: Francesco Massaro; David J. Thompson; Elizabeth C. Ferrara
Abstract: Abstract The Universe is largely transparent to $$\gamma$$ -rays in the GeV energy range, making these high-energy photons valuable for exploring energetic processes in the cosmos. After 7 years of operation, the Fermi  Gamma-ray Space Telescope has produced a wealth of information about the high-energy sky. This review focuses on extragalactic $$\gamma$$ -ray sources: what has been learned about the sources themselves and about how they can be used as cosmological probes. Active galactic nuclei (blazars, radio galaxies, Seyfert galaxies) and star-forming galaxies populate the extragalactic high-energy sky. Fermi observations have demonstrated that these powerful non-thermal sources display substantial diversity in energy spectra and temporal behavior. Coupled with contemporaneous multifrequency observations, the Fermi results are enabling detailed, time-dependent modeling of the energetic particle acceleration and interaction processes that produce the $$\gamma$$ -rays, as well as providing indirect measurements of the extragalactic background light and intergalactic magnetic fields. Population studies of the $$\gamma$$ -ray source classes compared to the extragalactic $$\gamma$$ -ray background place constraints on some models of dark matter. Ongoing searches for the nature of the large number of $$\gamma$$ -ray sources without obvious counterparts at other wavelengths remain an important challenge.
PubDate: 2015-12-19
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0090-6
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2015)

• Extragalactic HI surveys
• Authors: Riccardo Giovanelli; Martha P. Haynes
Abstract: Abstract We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric “blind” HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.
PubDate: 2015-12-09
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0085-3
Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1 (2015)

• The legacy of Venus Express: highlights from the first European planetary
mission to Venus
• Authors: Pierre Drossart; Franck Montmessin
Abstract: Abstract The ESA/Venus Express mission spent more than 8 years in orbit around Venus to extensively study its atmosphere, ionosphere and plasma environment and unveil new aspects of its surface. Extensive reviews of the work of Venus Express are underway, to cover in-depth studies of the new face of Venus revealed by Venus Express and ground-based concurrent observations. This paper intends to give a summarized and wide overview of some of the outstanding results in all the science areas studied by the mission. This paper will first review the main aspects of the mission and its instrumental payload. Then, a selection of results will be reviewed from the outermost layers interacting with the Solar wind, down to the surface of Venus. As Venus Express is already considered by space agencies as a pathfinder for the future of Venus exploration, perspectives for future missions will be given, which will have to study Venus not only from orbital view, but also down to the surface to solve the many remaining mysteries of the sister planet of the Earth.
PubDate: 2015-11-20
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0088-0
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2015)

• Spontaneous magnetic reconnection
• Authors: R. A. Treumann; W. Baumjohann
Abstract: Abstract The present review concerns the relevance of collisionless reconnection in the astrophysical context. Emphasis is put on recent developments in theory obtained from collisionless numerical simulations in two and three dimensions. It is stressed that magnetic reconnection is a universal process of particular importance under collisionless conditions, when both collisional and anomalous dissipation are irrelevant. While collisional (resistive) reconnection is a slow, diffusive process, collisionless reconnection is spontaneous. On any astrophysical time scale, it is explosive. It sets on when electric current widths become comparable to the leptonic inertial length in the so-called lepton (electron/positron) “diffusion region”, where leptons de-magnetise. Here, the magnetic field contacts its oppositely directed partner and annihilates. Spontaneous reconnection breaks the original magnetic symmetry, violently releases the stored free energy of the electric current, and causes plasma heating and particle acceleration. Ultimately, the released energy is provided by mechanical motion of either the two colliding magnetised plasmas that generate the current sheet or the internal turbulence cascading down to lepton-scale current filaments. Spontaneous reconnection in such extended current sheets that separate two colliding plasmas results in the generation of many reconnection sites (tearing modes) distributed over the current surface, each consisting of lepton exhausts and jets which are separated by plasmoids. Volume-filling factors of reconnection sites are estimated to be as large as $${<}10^{-5}$$ per current sheet. Lepton currents inside exhausts may be strong enough to excite Buneman and, for large thermal pressure anisotropy, also Weibel instabilities. They bifurcate and break off into many small-scale current filaments and magnetic flux ropes exhibiting turbulent magnetic power spectra of very flat power-law shape $$W_b\propto k^{-\alpha }$$ in wavenumber k with power becoming as low as $$\alpha \approx 2$$ . Spontaneous reconnection generates small-scale turbulence. Imposed external turbulence tends to temporarily increase the reconnection rate. Reconnecting ultra-relativistic current sheets decay into large numbers of magnetic flux ropes composed of chains of plasmoids and lepton exhausts. They form highly structured current surfaces, “current carpets”. By including synchrotron radiation losses, one favours tearing-mode reconnection over the drift-kink deformation of the current sheet. Lepton acceleration occurs in the reconnection-electric field in multiple encounters with the exhausts and plasmoids. This is a Fermi-like process. It results in power-law tails on the lepton energy distribution. This effect becomes pronounced in ultra-relativistic reconnection where it yields extremely hard lepton power-law energy spectra approaching $$F(\gamma )\propto \gamma ^{-1}$$ , with $$\gamma$$ the lepton energy. The synchrotron radiation limit becomes substantially exceeded. Relativistic reconnection is a probable generator of current and magnetic turbulence, and a mechanism that produces high-energy radiation. It is also identified as the ultimate dissipation mechanism of the mechanical energy in collisionless magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascades via lepton-inertial-scale turbulent current filaments. In this case, the volume-filling factor is large. Magnetic turbulence causes strong plasma heating of the entire turbulent volume and violent acceleration via spontaneous lepton-scale reconnection. This may lead to high-energy particle populations filling the whole volume. In this case, it causes non-thermal radiation spectra that span the entire interval from radio waves to gamma rays.
PubDate: 2015-10-31
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0087-1
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2015)

• Radio emission from supernova remnants
• Authors: Gloria Dubner; Elsa Giacani
Abstract: Abstract The explosion of a supernova releases almost instantaneously about 10 $$^{51}$$ ergs of mechanic energy, changing irreversibly the physical and chemical properties of large regions in the galaxies. The stellar ejecta, the nebula resulting from the powerful shock waves, and sometimes a compact stellar remnant, constitute a supernova remnant (SNR). They can radiate their energy across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, but the great majority are radio sources. Almost 70 years after the first detection of radio emission coming from an SNR, great progress has been achieved in the comprehension of their physical characteristics and evolution. We review the present knowledge of different aspects of radio remnants, focusing on sources of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds, where the SNRs can be spatially resolved. We present a brief overview of theoretical background, analyze morphology and polarization properties, and review and critically discuss different methods applied to determine the radio spectrum and distances. The consequences of the interaction between the SNR shocks and the surrounding medium are examined, including the question of whether SNRs can trigger the formation of new stars. Cases of multispectral comparison are presented. A section is devoted to reviewing recent results of radio SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, with particular emphasis on the radio properties of SN 1987A, an ideal laboratory to investigate dynamical evolution of an SNR in near real time. The review concludes with a summary of issues on radio SNRs that deserve further study, and analysis of the prospects for future research with the latest-generation radio telescopes.
PubDate: 2015-09-16
DOI: 10.1007/s00159-015-0083-5
Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2015)

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