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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1866-9565 - ISSN (Online) 1866-9557
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • The implication of the metallurgical traditions associated with Chinese
           style wagons from the royal Xiongnu tomb at Golmod 2 in Mongolia
    • Authors: Jang-Sik Park; Diimaajav Erdenebaatar; Gelegdorj Eregzen
      Pages: 1535 - 1546
      Abstract: Lavishly decorated wagons excavated from royal Xiongnu burials are generally regarded as tribute items from China offered to Xiongnu elites, symbolizing important political and economic interactions between the Xiongnu state (209 BC–155 AD) and the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD). This theory views such vehicles as having no relation to indigenous Xiongnu craftsmanship. Furthermore, specialized products delivered to the northern nomadic peoples from the Han state are often cited in support of the notion of Xiongnu dependency on foreign states for technological and political development. Expecting to find evidence of China’s traditional iron and bronze technology, we examined a number of key metallic components of these wagons excavated from the royal Xiongnu burial at Golmod 2 in central Mongolia, radiocarbon dated to 109 BC–AD 75. Surprisingly, the iron metallurgy in question was based primarily on the bloomery process while low tin bronze and arsenical copper alloys dominated the pertinent bronze production. These respective technological traditions are typical of Xiongnu manufacture but significantly different from traditional Han metallurgy. We interpret this evidence as suggesting the need for a more balanced evaluation of foreign influence on the rise and development of the Xiongnu state.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0476-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • The bronze artifacts from the Yejiashan site and the political presence of
           the Zhou dynasty in the middle Yangtze Plain: an application of lead
           isotope analysis
    • Authors: Di Mu; Wugan Luo; Fengchun Huang; Guoding Song
      Pages: 1547 - 1555
      Abstract: Lead isotope ratios of 15 Chinese bronze artifacts from the Yejiashan site (Suizhou City, Hubei Province) were analyzed and compared with copper ores across China. This study attempts to provide a new perspective to discuss the role that Zeng State played among all the vassal states in the early Zhou dynasty (ca. 1046–977 BC). The political presence of the Zhou dynasty in the middle Yangtze Plain is another main content of this paper. The lead isotopic characteristics of Chinese bronze artifacts between different historical periods are also in the scope of the study. By comparison, the lead isotopic ratios of the tested bronzes and copper deposits in the north Jiangxi Province show numerous overlaps. It indicates that the tested bronzes might have a single ore source, and this source was in the south of the Zhou dynasty. Combined with history and archaeological records, it is highly likely that the middle Yangtze Plain might be a part of the Zhou dynasty since the very beginning. Moreover, Zeng State might have a great influence in the ancient middle Yangtze Plain, and the nobles of Zeng State might even have authority to supervise certain area extending to Jiujiang. As lead isotopes of the bronzes appear to show a clear relation to chronology, the change of lead isotope patterns across times may further serve to distinguish the bronzes of the Western Zhou dynasty from the late Shang ones.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0478-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Archeometric characterization of prehistoric grindstones from Milazzo
           Bronze Age settlement (Sicily, Italy)
    • Authors: Marcella Di Bella; Francesco Italiano; Maria Clara Martinelli; Paolo Mazzoleni; Simona Quartieri; Gabriella Tigano; Alessandro Tripodo; Giuseppe Sabatino
      Pages: 1571 - 1583
      Abstract: The results of a petrographic and geochemical study carried out on archeological grindstones allow to provide new constraints on protohistoric commercial exchanges over the Mediterranean area. Eleven grindstones, discovered in an archeological site located in Milazzo (Messina, Sicily) and dated from the Early Bronze Age, have been investigated by geochemical and petrographic techniques. The raw materials are mainly volcanic rocks characterized by calc-alkaline and K-alkaline affinities with volcanic arc geochemical signature. Only one sample, made of basalt belonging to the Na-alkaline series, shows an intraplate signature. The comparison with the available literature data for similar rocks allowed constraining the volcanic origin of the exploited lavas. While the intraplate-type raw material came from Mt. Etna Volcano (Sicily), the arc-type volcanic rocks are mostly trachyandesites, basaltic andesites, and one rhyolite. Although most of them come from the Aeolian Arc, a provenance of some samples from the Aegean Arc cannot be excluded. This last region could represent the most probable provenance area for the rhyolite sample.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0483-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Who ate the birds: the taphonomy of Sarakenos Cave, Greece
    • Authors: Zbigniew M. Bochenski; Teresa Tomek; Krzysztof Wertz; Małgorzata Kaczanowska; Janusz K. Kozłowski; Adamantios Sampson
      Pages: 1603 - 1615
      Abstract: The taphonomic analysis of avian remains from Sarakenos Cave reveals that, contrary to previous suggestions, many bird bones excavated there represent food remains of the Eagle Owls rather than humans. The conclusion is based on the presence of traces of digestion, beak and claw punctures, and indirect evidence that includes relative preservation of particular elements, species composition, the lack of cut marks, and the absence of numerous traces of burning. Specimens with medullary bone and traces of digestion indicate that the owls killed breeding females in spring. Since it is unlikely that owls shared the cave with humans at the same time, it supports the notion based on archeological evidence that human groups did not inhabit it permanently.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0488-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Success of a flexible behavior. Considerations on the manufacture of Late
           Epigravettian lithic projectile implements according to experimental tests
    • Authors: Rossella Duches; Marco Peresani; Paolo Pasetti
      Pages: 1617 - 1643
      Abstract: It is generally recognized that the function and modality of hafting are the main factors influencing mental templates, and consequently, stone tool standardization. But what role do technical knowledge and traditions play' In this study, we investigate the interaction between mental templates and technological choices in the manufacture of Late Epigravettian projectile implements. The examined specimens come from different dwelling phases of the Dalmeri rock shelter (Italian Alps). Technological analyses suggest that lithic production systems gradually simplified their structure over time, implying a shift in technical investment from shaping on the core to a subsequent shaping on the derived flake blank. However, correlations between the dimensions and morphological features among the armatures from the different units suggest that mental templates remained unchanged throughout the Alleröd. Experimentation attests to the frequent combined application of different retouching techniques. Further, the variability in their arrangement denotes the absence of strict rules and the Epigravettian capability to recognize the most situationally suitable method. In the Dalmeri rock shelter, the standardization of lithic projectile implements is therefore a result of flexibility in retouching, framed in a production system characterized by a progressive simplification. A such rapidly produced and responsive technology must have been encouraged by Late Glacial climatic and environmental changes and the occupation of alpine territories previously inaccessible. Thus, the flexibility of technical behaviors turns out to be a key element in the transformation of Late Epigravettian societies during this period, enabling them to adapt and evolve in response to environmental, social, and economic changes.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0473-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • One, two, three phytoliths: assessing the minimum phytolith sum for
           archaeological studies
    • Authors: Debora Zurro
      Pages: 1673 - 1691
      Abstract: The number of phytolith studies has increased steadily in the last decades in palaeoecological as well as archaeological research, and phytolith analysis is currently recognised as a proper area of expertise within archaeobotany. This has led towards a strengthening in the standardisation of the different steps involved in analysis; e.g. sampling strategies, laboratory extraction or processing of plant material/soils for the creation of reference collections. In spite of this, counting procedures remain one of the areas that could be further developed. The aim of this paper is to assess representativeness of phytolith count size in archaeological samples and specifically to assess whether an increase in total number of individuals counted influences the number or distribution of morphotypes observed. Two statistical tests are performed to evaluate the representativeness of count size: phytolith sum variability analysis (PSVA) and morphotype accumulation curve (MAC). The analyses show the relationship among the number of counted phytoliths, the variability (that is, the number of different morphotypes identified) and the stabilisations of the MACs. Results allow us to support the standard count size in phytolith studies, which ranges from 250 to 300 particles. Together with a quick scan, this strategy should produce a precise and clear phytolith assemblage for archaeological studies.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0479-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Agriculture and exploitation of wild plants at Chalcolithic (4th to 3rd
           millennium cal BC) sites in Sardinia (Italy)
    • Authors: Mariano Ucchesu; Maria Rosaria Manunza; Diego Sabato
      Pages: 1693 - 1702
      Abstract: This paper present the results of archaeobotanical analysis carried out at two open-air sites dated to the first phase of the Copper Age, “Chalcolithic” (4th to 3rd millennium cal BC) in Sardinia. The sediment was systematically floated, a total of 3142 l was sampled and 4014 charred plant remains were identified. Chalcolithic agriculture in Sardinia was primarily based on the cultivation of Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare var. nudum and Triticum aestivum/durum. Possible cultivated legumes of Vicia/Lathyrus, Vicia/Pisum and cf. Pisum sativum were identified. Linum sp. was also present, which may have been cultivated and exploited in Sardinia by the Chalcolithic community. The diet of the Chalcolithic community was complemented by the consumption of edible fruits such as Ficus carica, Sambucus sp. and Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris. Typical Mediterranean shrubs such as Pistacia lentiscus, Juniperus sp., Cistus sp., Malva sp. and Thymelaea hirsuta were also found.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0493-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Was the ancient harbour of Catania (Sicily, southern Italy) buried by
           medieval lava flows'
    • Authors: Carla Bottari; Maria Serafina Barbano
      Pages: 1737 - 1750
      Abstract: The question about the existence of an ancient harbour at Catania is a matter of debate between ancient and modern scholars. No decisive information has been found so far, although numerous hypotheses have been proposed in literature. Since the fifth century BC, historians have documented that numerous naval armadas landed in the port of Catania. However, the current morphology of the Catania coastline has not any protected inlet that could have offered a shelter to hundreds of ships. Starting from historiographical descriptions of the Catania harbour and of the different lava flows occurring since 2500 BC, we sought to infer the most probable area of landing. To address this purpose, literary sources and historical iconographic documentation, combined with geological data and archaeological records, were collected and analysed, in order to verify whether historical documents were consistent with the palaeotopography of the area. The analysis suggests that the main harbour of Catania was probably located north-east of the town, between the S. Giovanni Li Cuti inlet and the Ognina bay, before being filled with some medieval lava flows (during 1100–1400 AD). The apparent silence of the local historical sources on the destruction of the port may well be related to the 1169 earthquake that devastated Catania (causing 15,000 fatalities) and a large part of eastern Sicily. It is therefore likely that the few survivors paid little attention to the lava flow invading the harbour.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0490-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • New insights into Byzantine glass technology from loose mosaic tesserae
           from Hierapolis (Turkey): PIXE/PIGE and EPMA analyses
    • Authors: Elisabetta Neri; Isabelle Biron; Marco Verità
      Pages: 1751 - 1768
      Abstract: This study focuses on the Byzantine glass tesserae from Hierapolis (Phrygia, central Turkey). Fifty-seven samples of loose tesserae from two sites in the town (the theatre and the church of St. Philip) are analysed by particule-induced X-ray emission and particule-induced gamma ray emission and electron probe X-ray microanalysis to obtain the chemical composition and identify the colourants and opacifiers. The aims are to add new information to the scant knowledge of the Byzantine glassmaking technology, to constrain the chronology of the mosaics and to trace the supply routes of the tesserae. In the destruction layers of the theatre, tesserae produced following the Roman glassmaking technology (natron glass opacified by calcium and lead antimonate) were found. They were made using a Levantine 1 raw glass, generally attributed to the early Byzantine period (fifth to sixth c.). In the church, the samples attest a technological change from Roman tradition, and a complex pattern according to building history (two phases are attested, probably in the sixth and eighth to ninth c.), and a multiplicity of supply. Three glass types and some recipes not attested before in this chronological range for the production of tesserae are documented, such as the use of a local low-chlorine natron glass for the production of black and red tesserae, the blue colouring by a source of cobalt with zinc in a natron glass tessera and the opacification with tin oxide (both in a lead-free and in a high-lead natron glass), as well as with quartz.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0492-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • New insights into the neolithisation process in southwest Europe according
           to spatial density analysis from calibrated radiocarbon dates
    • Authors: Oreto García Puchol; Agustín Diez Castillo; Salvador Pardo-Gordó
      Pages: 1807 - 1820
      Abstract: The agricultural way of life spreads throughout Europe via two main routes: the Danube corridor and the Mediterranean basin. Current archaeological literature describes the arrival to the Western Mediterranean as a rapid process which involves both demic and cultural models, and in this regard, the dispersal movement has been investigated using mathematical models, where the key factors are time and space. In this work, we have created a compilation of all available radiocarbon dates for the whole of Iberia, in order to draw a chronological series of maps to illustrate temporal and spatial patterns in the neolithisation process. The maps were prepared by calculating the calibrated 14C date probability density curves, as a proxy to show the spatial dynamics of the last hunter-gatherers and first farmers. Several scholars have pointed out problems linked with the variability of samples, such as the overrepresentation of some sites, the degree of regional research, the nature of the dated samples and above all the archaeological context, but we are confident that the selected dates, after applying some filters and statistical protocols, constitute a good way to approach settlement spatial patterns in Iberia at the time of the neolithisation process.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0498-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • The shrinkage cracks and the diameter of the log: a experimental approach
           toward fuel management by Patagonian hunter-gatherer (Paredón Lanfré
           site. Río Negro Province, Argentin)
    • Authors: L. Caruso Fermé; I. Théry-Parisot; A. Carré; P. M. Fernández
      Pages: 1821 - 1829
      Abstract: The anthracological study of Paredón Lanfré (Patagonia, Argentina) highlights the presence of radial cracks with a marked difference between the percentage of affected coniferous charcoal (Fitzroya cupressoides and Austrocedrus chilensis) compared to the angiosperms (e.g., Nothofagus antarctica and Nothofagus dombeyi). The aim of this work was to obtain experimental comparison data from two Patagonian conifers to understand the prehistoric combustion behavior of the region. These results showed a discrepancy between the average of shrinkage cracks made with green wood fires and those with dry wood fires. The study of the caliber of charcoal recovered from Paredón Lanfré showed significant differences between the samples of F. cupressoides and A. chilensis. The calculation of correlation between size and shrinkage cracks suggests for both species that the size is not related to the number of registered shrinkage cracks in charcoal studied. Therefore, the gauge would not be a variable which could influence the presence of shrinkage cracks in the charcoal. Consequently, the difference of average shrinkage cracks between the two specimens may result from another variable that remains to be identified.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0487-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Non-destructive microstructural characterization of a bronze boat model
           from Vetulonia
    • Authors: Antonio Brunetti; Francesco Grazzi; Antonella Scherillo; Marco E. Minoja; Gianfranca Salis; Sergio Orrù; Anna Depalmas
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of the archaeometric analysis performed on a nuragic bronze statuette, representing a boat model decorated with zoomorphic figurines, made in Sardinia during the early Iron Age. The bronze boat model was found in the Etruscan tomb of the Duce located in Vetulonia (Italy) and dated no later than the second half of the seventh century bc. The Vetulonia boat model represents an extraordinary example of this type of objects, exhibiting a high level of complexity from the manufacturing point of view and an unusual choice of the subjects represented by the figurines. The study was performed by means of Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction, a non-destructive method able to give us quantitative information on phase composition and microstructure.
      PubDate: 2018-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0731-6
  • Understanding conflagration of one-story mud-brick structures: an
           experimental approach
    • Authors: Igor Kreimerman; Ruth Shahack-Gross
      Abstract: Many Near Eastern destruction layers are characterized by burnt, partially collapsed, mud-brick structures. Despite the prominence of these layers in archaeological field research, the processes that generated these layers are little understood. In order to explain field observations and identify patterns that may be useful for archaeological interpretation, experimental burning of miniature single-story mud-brick structures was conducted. Two types of structures—covered by vegetal roofs or by mud-plastered roofs—were conducted. Each experiment was duplicated. Temperatures in chambers, walls, roofs, and floors were recorded continuously. Bricks, floor, and roof sediments were sampled and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after the burned structures cooled down. The results showed that ignition of vegetal roofs does not produce a pattern recognizable in Near Eastern destruction layers, while chamber ignition within mud-plastered roofed structures produces patterns that most resemble field evidence. These include (a) upper portions of walls and mud roofs witness temperatures above 500 °C resulting in a mineralogical change that is identifiable by FTIR, (b) no significant heat in floor deposits, (c) higher temperatures in upper parts than the bottom portions of walls, (d) external walls experience heat diffusion to the outside environment and do not burn through, and (e) internal walls can burn through. The directly measured temperatures correlate with reconstructed temperatures via FTIR and with brick color patterns. Future field research should explore color patterns in cross-sections of mud-brick walls and apply FTIR spectroscopy to reconstruct distribution of heat across destruction levels.
      PubDate: 2018-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0714-7
  • Archaeometric constraints by multidisciplinary study of Richborough 527
           amphorae and yellow clays from the C.da Portinenti pottery workshop
           (Lipari Island, Italy)
    • Authors: Marcella Di Bella; Maria Amalia Mastelloni; Angela Baldanza; Simona Quartieri; Francesco Italiano; Alessandro Tripodo; Davide Romano; Fabio Leonetti; Giuseppe Sabatino
      Abstract: During the archeological excavations carried out from 1993 to 1995 at C.da Portinenti, at Lipari Island, a pottery workshop dated to Roman age—including a kiln dump containing both Richborough 527 type amphora wastes and ceramic shreds—was discovered. The Richborough 527 amphorae had been used to transport local volcanic and hydrothermal products throughout the Roman Empire. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary archaeometric study carried out with the aim to shed light on the provenance of the raw materials used in the production of the Richborough 527 amphorae. To achieve this goal, amphora wastes and a sample of yellow clays stored in the archeological excavation area have been analyzed, and the data were compared to those available for clays coming from Lipari and from the Messina Province. The overall results indicate that (i) a volcanic sand from Portinenti Valley was used as temper in the ceramic mixture; (ii) the geochemical features and the fossils present in the ceramic paste are compatible with marine Pleistocene clayey deposits of the Messina Province and incompatible with the clays of Lipari island; (iii) the yellow clays found in the excavation area were not used to produce the Richborough 527; and (iv) the analyzed wastes are the results of a poorly controlled firing temperature during the ceramic artifact production.
      PubDate: 2018-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0727-2
  • The ‘long’ sixteenth century: a key period of animal husbandry
           change in England
    • Authors: Idoia Grau-Sologestoa; Umberto Albarella
      Abstract: Although many historians have extensively discussed the agricultural history of England between the Late Middle Ages and the Modern Era, this period of crucial changes has received less attention by archaeologists. In this paper, zooarchaeological evidence dated between the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern period is analysed to investigate changes in animal husbandry during the ‘long’ sixteenth century. The size and shape of the main domestic animals (cattle, sheep, pig and chicken) is explored through biometrical data and discussed in line with evidence of taxonomic frequencies, ageing and sex ratios. Data from 12 sites with relevant chronologies and located in different areas of the country are considered. The results show that, although a remarkable size increase of animals occurred in England throughout the post-medieval period, much of this improvement occurred as early as the sixteenth century. The nature and causes of such improvement are discussed, with the aim of understanding the development of Early Modern farming and the foundations of the so-called Agricultural Revolution.
      PubDate: 2018-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0723-6
  • Agricultural production in the 1st millennium BCE in Northwest Iberia:
           results of carbon isotope analysis
    • Authors: Adrián Mora-González; Andrés Teira-Brión; Arsenio Granados-Torres; Francisco Contreras-Cortés; Antonio Delgado-Huertas
      Abstract: This work presents the first results of carbon isotope (δ13C) analysis of seeds (Triticum dicoccum, Triticum aestivum/durum, Triticum cf. spelta and Hordeum vulgare L.) from archaeological contexts from the settlement sites of A Fontela and Castrovite in Northwest Iberia, which cover a chronological range between 1050 cal BC and 25 cal AD. In addition, 142 present-day wheat seeds from 16 plots cultivated in 2014 and 2015 across this region were analysed. The results obtained for A Fontela and Castrovite were − 23.6‰ (between − 25.3 and − 21.4) and − 24.0‰ (between − 26.6 and − 21.8), respectively. Taking into account changes in the isotope composition of atmospheric carbon (δ13Catm), the Δ13C values were 17.5‰ (A Fontela) and 18.0‰ (Castrovite). In Castrovite, differences between storage facilities were detected, which could be related to the exploitation of different areas for cultivation, possibly indicating a family-based organization of agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0721-8
  • Coastal mobility and lithic supply lines in northeast New Guinea
    • Authors: Dylan Gaffney; Glenn R. Summerhayes
      Abstract: This paper investigates how coastal mobility and a community’s place within regional trade networks intersect with technological organisation. To do this, we identified different types of lithic production and exchange during the late pre-colonial period at three coastal sites around Madang in northeast New Guinea. The study is the first major technological and sourcing study in this area. Consistent with terrestrial models, lithic technological analysis crucially shows that groups with higher levels of coastal mobility (1) were reducing a wider range of lithic materials and (2) reduced material less intensively than groups with indirect access. Conversely, groups with lower coastal mobility levels (1) were flaking a restricted range of lithic materials and (2) reduced material more intensively. Geochemical analysis, using X-ray fluorescence, shows that at all three sites obsidian artefacts exclusively derived from Kutau/Bao (Talasea) in West New Britain. This indicates that, by about 600 years ago through to the late nineteenth century, the Kutau/Bao source had become a specialised export product, being fed into major distribution conduits operational along the northeast coast. Importantly, there is no evidence for exchange with other sources such as Admiralties or Fergusson Island obsidian. This is contrastive to the Sepik coast, where obsidian from the Admiralties Islands featured prominently alongside West New Britain obsidian, and suggests the emergence of different coastal supply lines feeding the northeast Madang coast and the north Sepik coast.
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0713-8
  • An insight into Bronze Age subsistence strategy in forested Carpathian
           foothills, based on plant macro-remains
    • Authors: Magda Kapcia; Aldona Mueller-Bieniek
      Abstract: Lipnik site 5, from which a storage pit dated to the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1400–1100) was studied, gave more than 70 plant taxa in the extraordinarily well-preserved charred assemblage. In the paper, a detailed description of selected plants is presented followed by environmental interpretation. Acorns (Quercus) dominated in volume and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) in the number of specimens. The first large find of that late incomer north of the Carpathian Mountains is presented here. The pit users also used hulled wheat (einkorn, emmer, and spelt); barley; and probably peas. In the pit, a large number of grassland plants were noted accompanied by a very few remains of aquatic (Elatine) and forest herbaceous plants (Astrantia major). Weeds and ruderal plants were also present. The composition of plant remains is very unusual for this type of archeological feature, suggesting a mixed type of food strategy for its users, dominated by plant gathering and animal husbandry. The site is located in a newly settled ecotone zone, on the margin of fertile loess areas and mountain foothills.
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0720-9
  • A bunch of refits: 497D blade knapping assemblage of the Early Upper
           Paleolithic in Cova Gran (Northeast Iberia)
    • Authors: Jorge Martínez-Moreno; Rafael Mora Torcal; Alfonso Benito-Calvo; Miquel Roy Sunyer; Javier Sánchez-Martínez
      Abstract: Laminar knapping is a system of methods through which a recurrent series of elongated and morphometrically repetitive blanks are obtained. The appearance of this method is associated with cognitive changes that foster different paleoanthropological discussions. This article assesses the implications of the 497D lithic assemblage of Cova Gran (Northeast Pre-Pyrenees, Iberia), whose technical principles place it within the laminar knapping sphere in which the production of blades, bladelets, and flakes are interspersed. Refitting dynamic approach allows establishing physical connections, reflecting volumetric reduction integrate sequences of sequential blanks organized by the principle of technical predetermination. Techno-typological, contextual, and chronometric attributes enable the integration of 497D within an initial phase of the Upper Paleolithic. This is an important point; although laminar knapping is widely dispersed in space and time, it marks the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens associated with the Aurignacian (sensu lato), a tradition marking the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. This concept has been challenged by the proposal that the Châtelperronian laminar technocomplex was made by Homo neanderthalensis. These opposing positions fostered the Middle-Upper Paleolithic “transition” debate. Technical traits identified through refitting facilitate examination of similarities and differences between 497D and the Proto/Early Aurignacian and Châtelperronian. Observations arising from refitting in 497D influence characterization of the knapping method and its possible correlation with one of these Early Upper Paleolithic technocomplexes. These inferences broaden the goals usually associated with blade knapping, and encourage reconsideration of the classical definition of the laminar system.
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0726-3
  • Mineral composition and rock provenance of a prehistoric stone axe head
           from the surroundings of Nevestino village, Kyustendil District, SW
    • Authors: Irina Marinova; Petya Ivanova; Elena Tacheva; Oleg Vitov
      Abstract: This paper presents a petrographical study of a stone axe head which is an exhibit of the Historical Museum in the town of Kyustendil, SW Bulgaria, and is of supposed Bronze Age origin. The methods used comprise optical and electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. The results show that the stone axe head is made of microgabbro rock. This rock in mineral composition, mineral chemistry, and metamorphic alteration is similar to gabbro rocks of the Struma Diorite Formation, which crops out on large areas in SW Bulgaria. Thus, it is proposed that the rock provenance of the studied stone tool is the Vlahina Planina mountain or Osogovo Planina one since the nearest outcrops of the Struma Diorite Formation there are in a distance of ~ 4–5 km away from the place of finding. Use of local rock for production of an every-day tool reveals good knowledge of local natural materials by prehistoric people and suggests a settled way of life.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0725-4
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