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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1866-9565 - ISSN (Online) 1866-9557
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Technology, use-wear and raw material sourcing analysis of a c. 7500 cal
           BP lithic assemblage from Cabeço da Amoreira shellmidden (Muge, Portugal)
    • Authors: Eduardo Paixão; João Marreiros; Telmo Pereira; Juan Gibaja; João Cascalheira; Nuno Bicho
      Pages: 433 - 453
      Abstract: The onset of the Holocene is marked by new human ecological adaptations that are associated with the origins of the Mesolithic in the Atlantic Iberia coast. During the Mesolithic, shellmidden deposits become one of the most relevant and interesting prehistoric archeological contexts, interpreted has the result of intensive human ecological exploitation, and marked by new settlement and mobility patterns, and subsistence strategies. Based on techno-typological patterns and artifact density, each Muge shellmidden has been traditionally linked to a single and specific functionality, possibly reflecting the presence of different stylistic/ethnic groups in the territory. Therefore, characterizing settlement, mobility, site function, and technological patterns in each shellmidden is fundamental to understand the archeological record and answer major questions related to human ecological behavior during the onset of the new Holocene climatic setting. This paper presents new data on the Mesolithic from the Tagus valley, using the case study of the lithic assemblage from layer 2 of Cabeço da Amoreira shellmidden. From our interpretation, by combining lithic raw material characterization and sourcing, techno-typological and use-wear analysis, this study aims to represent an important step on understanding resource exploitation, technological systems and site function, in order to address intra and inter-site variability. In what concerns lithic raw materials, they can be found in the Pleistocene gravels that compose the upper section of the Cenozoic deposits of the River Tagus, including those underneath the site. Nevertheless, the geochemical results suggest that the chert used has correspondence with local, regional, and exogenous areas. In sum, by characterizing the Cabeço da Amoreira shellmidden lithic assemblage, results and data aim to contribute to the discussion and new interpretations on shellmiddens’ function and settlement occupation patterns during the Mesolithic.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-018-0621-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2019)
  • Assessing pubertal stage in adolescent remains: an investigation of the
           San Nicolás Maqbara burial site (Murcia, Spain)
    • Authors: Danielle M. Doe; Josefina Rascón Pérez; Oscar Cambra-Moo; Manuel Campo Martín; Armando González Martín
      Pages: 541 - 554
      Abstract: Despite its biological, social, and cultural importance, adolescence has been largely overlooked in historic groups as its measurement depends primarily on secondary sexual characteristics that cannot be observed in skeletal remains. Any information that can be obtained about this critical period permits for a better understanding of both life and death in historic populations. This study applies a newly outlined methodology by Shapland and Lewis (Am J Phys Anthropol 151:302–310, 2013; Am J Phys Anthropol 153:144–153, 2014) for assessing pubertal growth using osteological material to the San Nicolás Maqbara, a Hispano-Muslim burial site in the Spanish city of Murcia dating from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries AD. Despite an original sample of 80 adolescent skeletons, the methodology was applied to 54 individuals, of which 32 were assigned a pubertal stage. The San Nicolás adolescents experienced pubertal growth onset at a similar age to modern Spaniards but fell behind at achievement of peak height velocity (PHV). Delays in the attainment of later stages resulted in an extended adolescent growth period. Females progressed through the pubertal stages earlier and quicker than their male counterparts and were determined to be post-pubescent at 16–19 years of age while males had yet to reach this milestone in their late teenage years. As the developmental patterns of the San Nicolás adolescents appear to be quite similar to previously studied historic groups, it is suggested that the trends observed could be methodological artifacts or inherent to the study of osteological material.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0543-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2019)
  • Amber, beads and social interaction in the Late Prehistory of the Iberian
           Peninsula: an update
    • Authors: Carlos P. Odriozola; Ana C. Sousa; Rui Mataloto; Rui Boaventura; Marco Andrade; Rodrigo Villalobos García; José Ángel Garrido-Cordero; Eugenio Rodríguez; José María Martínez-Blanes; Miguel Ángel Avilés; Joan Daura; Montserrat Sanz; José Antonio Riquelme
      Pages: 567 - 595
      Abstract: The identification of archaeological amber has been used in Iberian prehistory to evidence long-distance exchanges and engage Iberia in networks that connect western Europe with central and northern Europe, the emergence of social complexity, and the consolidation of trade networks. However, until now, no comprehensive analytical study of the Iberian amber has been produced to support any of the interpretive models currently in use. This paper approaches the analysis of Iberian Peninsula amber artefacts by considering their provenance (based on FTIR characterization), chronology, and spatial relationship with other exotica. Our work increases the number of analyzed artefacts to 156 (24%), out of the c. 647 currently known for the Iberian Peninsula. Based on these new data and a review of Murillo-Barroso and Martinón-Torres (2012), this overview outlines amber consumption patterns from the 6th to 2nd millennia BCE and demonstrates long-distance amber exchange connecting Iberia with the Mediterranean region from the Neolithic period onwards.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0549-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2019)
  • Provenance investigation of Roman marble sarcophagi from Nicopolis,
           Epirus, Greece: revealing a strong artistic and trade connection with
    • Authors: Dimitris Tambakopoulos; Theodosia Stefanidou-Tiveriou; Eleni Papagianni; Yannis Maniatis
      Pages: 597 - 608
      Abstract: A large number of marble sarcophagi have been discovered in the extensive cemeteries of ancient Nicopolis, ranging in date from the Hadrianic period to the middle of the third c. AD. The archaeological study, based on typological and stylistic criteria, indicates that many sarcophagi are imported from Athens, while a large part seems to be the product of local workshops that often follows closely Attic models. In order to identify securely the marble used for the sarcophagi, and therefore the sources used by the local workshops, 14 representative sarcophagi from the Archaeological Museum of Nicopolis were sampled and subjected to full scientific provenance analysis. This involved a combination of (a) in situ examination of the whole objects using optical techniques for measuring grain sizes and translucency, and recording of inclusions, veins and other features; (b) stable isotope analysis; and (c) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results revealed a clear preference in the Pentelic marble: 12 out of 14 sarcophagi made in that marble, while 1 sarcophagus was made of marble from Thasos and 1 of an unidentified grey, coarse-grained, dolomitic marble. Pentelic marble was identified in sarcophagi considered as imports from Attica—as expected, but also in local products following attic models, with or without incorporating motifs from other places. This wide use of Pentelic marble for the local production, as well as the importation of Attic finished products, both luxurious options, designates the overall economic prosperity of Roman Nicopolis, but also its close trade and artistic connections with Athens.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0556-8
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2019)
  • In situ non-invasive characterization of pigments and alteration products
           on the masonry altar of S. Maria ad Undas (Idro, Italy)
    • Authors: Lavinia de Ferri; Francesca Mazzini; Davide Vallotto; Giulio Pojana
      Pages: 609 - 625
      Abstract: A non-invasive characterization study has been performed and here presented for the first time on the masonry altar of S. Maria ad Undas, a parish medieval church on the Idro (Brescia, Italy) lakeshore. The determination of painting materials and of alteration products represent the one of the first steps, together with art history studies, of a wider project aimed to the valorization of the site. Images collected under UV light in fluorescence and reflectance mode provided useful information about the presence of organic residual materials attributable to the application of lost gilding details, while the readability of some particulars was greatly improved with respect to what observable in visible light. Moreover, near infrared (NIR) images led to hypothesize the presence of green earths in green painted areas. Raman and reflectance spectroscopy allowed the identification of the pigments and of several alteration products, such as plattnerite, which derived by the degradation of the lead-based ones, hydromagnesite, gypsum, and niter, as well as of carbon-based depositions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0550-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2019)
  • The wet and the dry, the wild and the cultivated: subsistence and risk
           management in ancient Central Thailand
    • Abstract: Increasing the productivity and yield of rice in Central Thailand has been a key focus of international and local government policy. Efforts have centered around producing a second winter season of irrigated rice. However, a series of droughts in the region have led to widespread crop failure. We carry out a re-evaluation of weather station and environmental data and combine this with new information from a key archeological site in Central Thailand, Phromthin Tai, whose occupation covers a long and critical period of Thai prehistory. Based on these data, we argue that farmers in the area employed an adaptive and resilient agricultural and wild-plant-food-based subsistence system that was adapted to the region’s high variability in rainfall. This subsistence system bridged the divide between the wild and cultivated and between wet and dry farming. The temporal and spatial diversity inherent in this system makes it vulnerable to destruction by agricultural policies that focus singly on improving yields.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Archaeometric characterization of common and cooking wares from the Late
           Antique city of Valentia (Valencia, Spain)
    • Abstract: This contribution presents the results of the archaeometric characterization of Late Roman pottery from the city of Valencia (Spain). The ceramic samples, including common wares, amphorae, and cooking wares, have been characterized using WD-X-ray fluorescence for the chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction for the mineralogical study, and optical microscopy by thin-section analysis for the mineralogical and petrographic characterization. The results show a wide range of fabrics with cooking wares of imported origin. The most important result is, however, the identification of a possible regional ware that resembles African cooking wares but that could have been locally or regionally produced, as well as the possible production in the area of some common wares. These results provide a better insight into the production and distribution of Late Roman ceramics in the area and contribute to a better understanding of trade dynamics in the Western Mediterranean for imported wares.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • The ancient use of colouring on the marble statues of Hierapolis of
           Phrygia (Turkey): an integrated multi-analytical approach
    • Authors: Susanna Bracci; Silvia Vettori; Emma Cantisani; Ilaria Degano; Marco Galli
      Abstract: The interest about the extent of the polychromy of ancient artefacts has increased in the last 10 years, increasing our knowledge on classical art, still often perceived as perfectly white. As a consequence, the development of methodologies allowing the detection and interpretation of the traces of colour remaining on the surfaces of archaeological artefacts has gained momentum. This paper presents the results of a multi-disciplinary research carried out about the painting materials used in producing selected marble statues excavated from the archaeological site of Hierapolis of Phrygia (Turkey), integrating the art-historical approach and the archaeometric data. The artefacts discussed in this paper were excavated in the archaeological site of Hierapolis in the course of several years by the Italian archaeological mission (MAIER). The objects include the reliefs and decorative statuary of the Severan Theatre and the statues excavated from the North Agora of the archaeological site, which are currently preserved in the museum of Hierapolis-Pamukkale. The analytical protocol, based on non-invasive imaging techniques (ultraviolet fluorescence images—UVf and visible induced luminescence—VIL), was performed directly outdoor, in the archaeological site. Few microsamples were selected, collected and subjected to laboratory analyses (XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS and HPLC-DAD). The integrated protocol allowed for the identification of the colouring materials used in producing the polychromies under study.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00803-w
  • Diet, cuisine and consumption practices of the first farmers in the
           southeastern Baltic
    • Authors: Harry K. Robson; Raminta Skipitytė; Giedrė Piličiauskienė; Alexandre Lucquin; Carl Heron; Oliver E. Craig; Gytis Piličiauskas
      Abstract: With the arrival of the Early Neolithic Globular Amphora and Corded Ware cultures into the southeastern Baltic, ca. 2900/2800–2400 cal BC, a new type of economy was introduced, animal husbandry. However, the degree to which this transformed the subsistence economy is unknown. Here, we conducted organic residue analyses of 64 ceramic vessels to identify their contents. The vessels were sampled from 10 Lithuanian archaeological sites dating across the Subneolithic-Neolithic transition to the Early Bronze Age (ca. 2900/2800–1300 cal BC). Our results demonstrate that regardless of location or vessel type, many ceramics were used to process aquatic resources. Against our expectations, this association continued even after marked economic change concurrent with the migration of pastoralists from central and southeastern Europe, as evidenced by recent ancient DNA analysis of human remains. Moreover, we observed dairy fats in pottery from all cultures of the Early Neolithic (i.e. Rzucewo, Globular Amphora and Corded Ware) but unlike other regions of Europe, it seems that these were incorporated into indigenous culinary practices. Furthermore, some vessels were used to process plant foods, and others may have been used for the production and/or storage of birch bark tar. However, evidence for domesticated plant processing, for example millet, was absent. We show that organic residue analysis of pottery provides a different picture of past consumption patterns compared to the stable isotope analysis of human remains from isolated burials where a clear dietary shift is evident.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00804-9
  • Dry, rainfed or irrigated' Reevaluating the role and development of
           rice agriculture in Iron Age-Early Historic South India using
           archaeobotanical approaches
    • Authors: Eleanor Kingwell-Banham
      Abstract: Domestic rice agriculture had spread across the mainland Indian subcontinent by c.500 BC. The initial spread of rice outside the core zone of the central Gangetic Plains is thought to have been limited by climatic constraints, particularly seasonal rainfall levels, and so the later spread of rice into the dry regions of South India is largely supposed to have relied on irrigation. This has been associated with the development of ritual water features in the Iron Age (c.1000–500 BC), and to the subsequent development of tanks (reservoirs) during the period of Early Historic state development (c.500 BC–500 AD). The identification of early irrigation systems within South Asia has largely relied on early historical texts, and not on direct archaeological evidence. This initial investigation attempts to identify irrigated rice cultivation in the Indian subcontinent by directly examining rice crop remains (phytolith and macrobotanical data) from four sites. The evidence presented here shows that, contrary to accepted narratives, rice agriculture in the Iron Age-Early Historic South India may not have been supported by irrigated paddy fields, but may have relied on seasonal rainfall as elsewhere in the subcontinent. More caution is urged, therefore, when using terms related to ‘irrigation’ and ‘agricultural intensification’ in discussions of the Iron Age and Early Historic South Asia and the related developments of urbanism and state polities.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00795-7
  • Geochemical and mineralogical relations of three ceramic complexes from
           the formative period (2000–300 BC) in Costa Rica
    • Authors: Geraldine Conejo-Barboza; Francisco Corrales-Ulloa; Paola Fuentes-Schweizer; Luis Obando-Acuña; J. L. Ruvalcaba-Sil; Mavis L. Montero
      Abstract: The formative period in Costa Rica (2000–300 BC) refers to the consolidation of agricultural practices, the appearance of pottery, and the beginning of a village lifestyle. In this context, ceramics are of interest as they lack fundamental surveys with analytical techniques to understand the relations among the ceramic complexes and their technology. Eighty-one ceramic samples from three complexes of the formative period in Costa Rica were analyzed with micro-destructive techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Information about the mineral and elemental composition was thus gathered, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) leading to hierarchical clustering in dendrograms. We explored the correlation of ceramic complexes Tronadora, Chaparrón, and La Montaña through studying their elemental composition, minerals, and geological features. Each complex was examined with a dendrogram of its elemental composition to assess the correlation of ceramic forms within the complex. Based on the association found among these ceramic forms for each complex, we suggest that the Tronadora and Chaparrón complexes had access to more than one source of raw materials. Such findings are related to the geology of the zone and the minerals discovered near each site. PCA shows a close association between Tronadora and Chaparrón with elements such as Cl and Pb, as opposed to La Montaña in which Rb, Fe, Zn, and Cu were present. Our investigation provides technical evidence for some archeological hypotheses proposed for the interaction among these three ceramic complexes.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00796-6
  • Lithic refits as a tool to reinforce postdepositional analysis
    • Authors: Esther López-Ortega; Xosé-Pedro Rodríguez-Álvarez; Andreu Ollé; Sergi Lozano
      Abstract: Studies of archaeological assemblages recovered from palimpsests encounter difficulties related not only to their nature (the preservation of the remains), but also to the formation of the accumulation itself: the evidence of the different human occupations that the accumulation contains and its temporal resolution. Layer TD10.1 of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) is a 1-m-thick palimpsest from which 48,000 faunal remains and more than 21,000 lithic artefacts have been recovered. Several interdisciplinary studies have shown that TD10.1 is not the result of an intense and long-term occupation of the cavity, but rather the consequence of several repeated occupation events. Additionally, micro-morphological analyses demonstrate that there were only minimal postdepositional disturbances of the sedimentary context containing the artefacts. This paper presents results obtained from the study of lithic refits in a sample from the TD10.1 assemblage, posing the hypothesis that the position and relative distance separating the refitted elements show that they were in fact found in primary position. While in other cases, “raw material units” have been used as a tool to distinguish activity areas and occupational episodes, in this study we use refits to learn about the possible movement—or lack thereof—of the artefacts within the area of the site due to postdepositional factors. The use of refits is proposed as a support or supplement to other kinds of analyses of the postdepositional processes that affect the formation of archaeological layers.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00808-5
  • A traceological approach to the use of Laguna Azul during the Late
           Holocene (from ca. 2000 years BP) in Norpatagonia, Argentina
    • Authors: V. Lynch; E. Terranova
      Abstract: The lagoon environments were places recurrently visited and inhabited by hunter-gatherer groups throughout different areas of North Patagonia. These places were very important in the life of these mobile groups; they were part of their itineraries and they regularly returned to their shores. The Somuncurá plateau’s lagoons (Rio Negro province, Argentina) represent one of these spaces, where, in addition to a vital resource such as water, it can be found a greater variety and biological abundance, facilitating a certain shelter during mobility. The Laguna Azul site is one of these places, where the hunting blinds (known as “parapetos”) are the most outstanding anthropic modification of the landscape. In this paper, we present the results obtained from the lithic material recovered from one of these structures, which is the most abundant material in the record. The knowledge about the specific uses of these stone tools, obtained through the functional analysis, is deepened to determine trends in the manufacturing process and designs chosen. The studies developed in this paper will expand the understanding about the technological decisions implemented by the hunter-gatherers that inhabited the Somuncurá plateau during the Late Holocene.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00806-7
  • First direct evidence of broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum ) in Central
    • Authors: Lukáš Kučera; Jaroslav Peška; Pavel Fojtík; Petr Barták; Pavla Kučerová; Jaroslav Pavelka; Veronika Komárková; Jaromír Beneš; Lenka Polcerová; Miroslav Králík; Petr Bednář
      Abstract: Chemical analysis of archaeological objects is an important part of current investigations. In the presented study, a soil from an archaeological vessel from rescue excavation close to the village Držovice (Central Moravia Region, Czech Republic; findings dated to Eneolithic period) was analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and firstly in archaeological science by atmospheric pressure solids analysis probe with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Miliacin, a chemical marker of a broomcorn millet, was unambiguously confirmed by both techniques. The obtained results can help to understand the diet habits of Corded Ware population and connection between Central Europe and Asia, where broomcorn millet has been domesticated. The identification of miliacin as a “chemical imprint” of millet from the end of Eneolithic period of Moravia is therefore extraordinarily important.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00798-4
  • Neanderthal plant use and pyrotechnology: phytolith analysis from Roc de
           Marsal, France
    • Authors: Kristen Wroth; Dan Cabanes; John M. Marston; Vera Aldeias; Dennis Sandgathe; Alain Turq; Paul Goldberg; Harold L. Dibble
      Abstract: The plant component of Neanderthal subsistence and technology is not well documented, partially due to the preservation constraints of macrobotanical components. Phytoliths, however, are preserved even when other plant remains have decayed and so provide evidence for Neanderthal plant use and the environmental context of archaeological sites. Phytolith assemblages from Roc de Marsal, a Middle Paleolithic cave site in SW France, provide new insight into the relationship between Neanderthals and plant resources. Ninety-seven samples from all archaeological units and 18 control samples are analyzed. Phytoliths from the wood and bark of dicotyledonous plants are the most prevalent, but there is also a significant proportion of grass phytoliths in many samples. Phytolith densities are much greater in earlier layers, which is likely related to the presence of combustion features in those layers. These phytoliths indicate a warmer, wetter climate, whereas phytoliths from upper layers indicate a cooler, drier environment. Phytoliths recovered from combustion features indicate that wood was the primary plant fuel source, while grasses may have been used as surface preparations.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00793-9
  • Eneolithic subsistence economy in Central Italy: first dietary
           reconstructions through stable isotopes
    • Authors: Flavio De Angelis; Gabriele Scorrano; Cristina Martínez-Labarga; Francesca Giustini; Mauro Brilli; Elsa Pacciani; Mara Silvestrini; Mauro Calattini; Nicoletta Volante; Fabio Martini; Lucia Sarti; Olga Rickards
      Abstract: The paper aims to point out the subsistence in Eneolithic Central Italian communities by Stable Isotope Analysis. This period marked a tipping point in the food strategies because it was characterized by economic changes and several technological improvements leading to enhance land exploitation and livestock breeding. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis has been used to analyze the food consumption of 54 people belonging to 5 Eneolithic communities scattered throughout Central Italy, where no data have yet been published. The estimation of the main protein intake has been achieved in order to quantify the differences among these communities. The results are consistent with a diet mainly based on terrestrial resources, with no exclusive marine sources consumption, although their occasional usage cannot be ruled out, especially for selected funerary contexts. The data suggest an overall subsistence based on greater local resource procurement, supported by regional productivity maximization. A roughly homogeneous landscape could be outlined in Tuscany and Marche communities witnessing a shared diet preference that could be modified by local preferences. The fully developed trade routes between the two sides of the Apennines could address the overall dietary homogeneity of the studied communities, especially between Fontenoce di Recanati and the southern Tuscan human groups such as Grotta del Fontino and Buca di Spaccasasso, with lesser influence for Le Lellere and Podere Cucule that seem to suggest a more locally based subsistence, even though the funerary affinities do not match this overall diet homogeneity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00789-5
  • The discovery and extraction of Chinese ink characters from the wood
           surfaces of the Huangchangticou tomb of Western Han Dynasty
    • Authors: Taixia Wu; Qian Cheng; Jiangfeng Wang; Shengkuan Cui; Shudong Wang
      Abstract: The traces of ancient characters were found from wooden block surfaces which was discovered from unearthed tomb called as “Huangchangticou” in Dingtao County, Shandong Province. The characters, which were written about 2000 years ago, were difficult to identify with the naked eye, as the wood surface has been contaminated and darkened due to efflorescence and mud stains, as well as exposure to oxygen and microorganisms. In this study, a ground-based shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer was used to detect these ink characters. Hyperspectral images with high spatial and spectral resolution were obtained from the wooden surfaces in a 1000–2500-nm band range. Combined with spectral analysis, the Chinese black ink characters were successfully extracted. More than 60 Chinese ink characters were found from the hidden surface of the two overlapped wood pieces. Interestingly, some mirror symmetry characters were also found on the face-to-face sides of the two pieces. The identification and interpretation of the characters provide insights into the specific date when they were written, as well as important archeological evidence to indicate such as the social status of the tomb’s owner, the time of construction, and manufacturing of segment for the royal family tomb in Han Dynasty.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00792-w
  • First insights into Chinese reverse glass paintings gained by non-invasive
           spectroscopic analysis—tracing a cultural dialogue
    • Authors: Simon Steger; Diana Oesterle; Rupprecht Mayer; Oliver Hahn; Simone Bretz; Gisela Geiger
      Abstract: This work presents a technical investigation of two Chinese reverse glass paintings from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A multi-analytical, non-invasive approach (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), Raman spectroscopy) was used to identify the pigments and classify the binding media. The results reveal a combined use of traditional Chinese and imported European materials. Several pigments like cinnabar, lead white, orpiment, carbon black and copper-arsenic green (probably emerald green) were found in both paintings; red lead, artificial ultramarine blue, Prussian blue and ochre appear in at least one of the paintings. The proof of limewash (calcite and small amounts of portlandite) as a backing layer in Yingying and Hongniang indicates that clamshell white was also used for reverse glass paintings. Drying oil was classified as a binding media in most areas of both paintings. However, the orange background of The Archer yielded prominent bands of both proteinaceous and fatty binder.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00799-3
  • A first approach to women, tools and operational sequences in traditional
           manual cereal grinding
    • Authors: Natàlia Alonso
      Abstract: The milling of cereals, other plants and materials is an activity that is essential to the subsistence of human societies. It is a task carried out for the most part by women. Querns are the most representative archaeological artefacts of this activity. However, querns are only a part of more complex operational sequences that stretch beyond these mechanisms and involve other tools such as mortars and sieves that yield a much broader range of cereal products than those commonly identified. This paper reviews a selection of publications from recent decades address this subject from the point of view of ethnography, ethnoarchaeology and archaeobotany, and takes into account a number of features serving to process the more common types of cereals.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00791-x
  • First in situ pXRF analyses of rock paintings in Erongo, Namibia: results,
           current limits, and prospects
    • Authors: Guilhem Mauran; Matthieu Lebon; Florent Détroit; Benoît Caron; Alma Nankela; David Pleurdeau; Jean-Jacques Bahain
      Abstract: Namibia is one of the southern African countries hosting the richest rock art heritage, with thousands of rock paintings. Although numerous studies investigated their distribution, style, and possible meaning, few are known about the materials used to perform these paintings. Our in situ study aimed at identifying the diversity of pigments and alterations of some rock paintings in the northwestern part of the Erongo (Namibia). It relies on extensive pXRF analyses of 35 figures from eight rock art sites of the area. Despite common limits of in situ pXRF analyses, the extensive number of figures analyzed and the original data treatment that we performed pioneered the first scientific analyses of the pigments from rock painting sites in the Erongo Mountains. Furthermore, the study also confirmed the presence of iron oxide pigments on a portion of wall exposed during the excavations carried out at the archeological site of Leopard Cave and of possibly datable alterations over several paintings, paving the way to future chronological analyses of past tradition of rock paintings in Central Namibia.
      PubDate: 2019-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12520-019-00787-7
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