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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2562 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2562 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Arabian Journal of Geosciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.319
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1866-7538 - ISSN (Online) 1866-7511
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Improvement of the simple regression model for river’ EC estimation
    • Abstract: The electrical conductivity (EC) is one of the main characteristics of river water quality, and its prediction is important for river water quality management. The simple regression models are widely used in water and environment studies and can be used for EC prediction when there are limited recorded data. The statistical improvement methods can be used to improve the accuracy of the simple regression models. The objectives of this study are the improvement of the prediction of EC of river flow based on river flow discharge data. Statistical methods include different combinations of logarithmic and inverse transformation with conventional simple linear and non-linear and novel segmented linear models used to improve EC prediction. Two data sets belonging to Zarringol and Ramian station located in northern Iran are used and root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias error (MBE) are selected to analyze the results. The results show underestimation behavior for investigated combinations of models and transformations. The logarithmic transformation has an improvement effect while inverse transformation decreases the accuracy of models. The segment linear model, due to its ability to fit on the non-monotonic behavior of data, provides better results than other studied simple linear and non-linear regression models. Finally, it is clear that the combination of logarithmic transformation and segmented linear model leads to the best improvement among different combinations of examined statistical improvement methods.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Effect of loading rates and stress paths on rock strengths: a novel
           approach based on experimental evidence
    • Abstract: Tests of rock strength under different loading rates and stress paths often lead to ambiguous results, as both factors are inter-playing each other. As a result, there is surprisingly little research into the study of unifying both factors when comparing the rock strengths from various triaxial compression tests. In this technical note, we propose a simple but rigorous mathematics expression to assess and compare the rock strengths under different loading rates and stress paths. To make the proposed method as accessible as possible to a broad application, we have derived the explicit forms of solutions for three popular rock failure criteria. We then examine and validate the proposed method using the results of triaxial tests on marbles and sandstones, based on the important Mohr-Coulomb criterion.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Study on pore size effect of low permeability clay seepage
    • Abstract: Low-permeability clays are characterized by a large amount of clay minerals and a special distribution of pore sizes, so their seepage behavior shows an obvious pore size effect. Therefore, conventional seepage theories show deviations in describing the seepage behavior of low-permeability clays. This paper analyzes two reasons for the pore size effect in low-permeability clay seepage: the pore distribution property and the electric double layer effect of the clay surface. Considering these two factors, the seepage theory of the pore size effect based on the microscale seepage of the circular tube model is proposed. The rationality of this theory is tested by the seepage experiments of natural undisturbed clay and artificial clay, and from these experiments, three beneficial conclusions are drawn: (1) The results of the pore size effect seepage theory are in good agreement with the experimental results and are better than the modified Kozeny-Carman equation; (2) The properties of the electric double layer have a certain regular influence on the seepage behavior of the clay; (3) Considering the properties of the soil pore size distribution, the results obtained by using the pore size effect theory are much closer to the experimental results than the results calculated using the average pore diameter of the clay.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Sikait U-Au-bearing lamprophyre dyke,
           South Eastern Desert, Egypt
    • Abstract: A 150-m-long mineralized lamprophyre dyke intrudes mylonite-mélange at the eastern side of Wadi Sikait and granite at its western side. Its petrographic, mineral, and geochemical characteristics were investigated in order to determine its genetic history as well as the petrogensis of the hosted mineralizations. Rocks of the Sikait lamprophyre dyke have a porphyritic and, less commonly, aphanitic texture. They consist of REEs-U-Th- and Nb, Ta-bearing minerals in addition to Au and native nickel, zircon, and fluorite. The ratios of LREEs to each of the HREEs, MREEs, and HFSE are relatively high. The U and Th contents in the part of the dyke existing in granite are slightly high than those in that hosted by the mylonite-mélange. The Sikait lamprophyre dyke has a calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to peraluminous. Its parent melts were derived from a mantle metasomatised by carbonatitic fluids. The protolith was subjected to slight to moderate partial melting in shallow to intermediate depths. During the emplacement of the dyke, U was released from its mineral precursors, transported, and redeposited under favorable condition. Its concentration in the part of the dyke hosted by granite was increased by the action of young surficial processes. On the other hand, Au was derived from the ophiolitic metagabbros and serpentinites that over thursted on the mylonites. It was precipitated from mesothermal and epithermal solutions. The Sikait dyke was affected by several alteration processes; the most common of which is hematitization and metasomatic carbonatization.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Spatial distribution of radionuclides in agricultural soil in the vicinity
           of a coal-fired brick kiln
    • Abstract: The spatial distributions of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K) in agricultural soils collected in the proximity of a coal-fired brick kiln located at Chittagong district were studied using HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The obtained mean activity concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were slightly higher than the world average values, which indicate the contribution of radionuclides via the fly ash deposition from the kiln. The maximum activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil samples collected at a distance of 120 m from the kiln were found to be 54.3 ± 11.3 Bq kg−1, 62.1 ± 18.2 Bq kg−1, and 572 ± 123 Bq kg−1, respectively; the levels show further decreasing trend in all directions (towards and away from the kiln). Associated radiological hazard indices were calculated in order to assess the radiation effects to human health and compared with the world-recommended values. Basic multivariate statistical analysis was performed to describe the statistical characteristics of the radionuclides. Lower values of radiological indices indicate that there is no probability of immediate health effect on workers and public living around the kiln due to the presence of natural radioactivity in the agricultural soils.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Integrated use of biochar and compost to improve soil microbial activity,
           nutrient availability, and plant growth in arid soil
    • Abstract: Soil amendments, such as compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, soil microbial activity, and plant growth. These organic amendments have the ability to increase soil fertility, carbon sequestration, and crop productivity. However, there is limited information available on the integrated application of biochar and compost on microbial and enzymatic activity, nutrients availability and plant growth in arid soil. The present study was designed to quantify the effect of biochar along with compost on soil microbial biomass (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus), enzyme (urease, alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase) activity, nutrients (N, P, K) availability in soil, and plant growth. The treatments comprise a control, biochar at 20 g kg−1 soil, compost at 20 g kg−1 soil, biochar + compost at (10 g kg−1 soil + 10 g kg−1 soil), biochar + compost at (15 g kg−1 soil + 5 g kg−1 soil), and biochar + compost at (5 g kg−1 soil + 15 g kg−1 soil). Tomato was grown as a test plant in the pot experiment. The results revealed that biochar and compost alone or in combinations proved statistically significant for Soil pH. Application of biochar at 20 g kg−1 soil proved useful and increased (130%) microbial biomass carbon (MBC) as compared with control. Compost at 20 g kg−1 soil increased alkaline phosphatase (143%), urease activity (10%) and plant nitrogen (33%) over control. However, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and dehydrogenase activity increased by 62, and 100% respectively in the treatment receiving biochar and compost at 10 + 10 g kg−1 soil compared to that in the control. Plant phosphorus and potassium contents were 34 and 70% higher in the treatment receiving biochar and compost at 5 + 15 g kg−1 soil than in the control. However, for plant parameters (plant height, plant fresh weight, and plant dry weight), the combination of biochar and compost at 15 + 5 g kg−1 soil was superior to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Radiation hazard of naturally occurring soil in FONGO TONGO-Cameroon
    • Abstract: In the present investigation, natural radioactivity in soil samples from the bauxite ore deposit in FONGO TONGO municipality of Menoua Division, Western Cameroon was assessed using gamma spectrometry. Priory analysis, the detector was calibrated for both energy and efficiency using standard sources. The investigated soil samples of NDIFONDA and APOUH were randomly collected. The observed specific activities of primordial radionuclides in soil from both study areas were comparably higher than the reference values of UNSCEAR, however varied within the exemption levels recommended in the IAEA basics safety standards. The observed average values of radium equivalent activity were 299.58 Bq/kg in NDIFONDA and 425.86 Bq/kg in APOUH. The observe value in APOUH were relatively higher than the recommended save value by ICRP while that of NDIFONDA were lower. Because majority of the houses in the study site are made of brick concrete, radiological health hazard parameters (air-absorbed dose rate (D) and total annual effective dose (ET)) were estimated to evaluate public exposure to natural radiation from soil. The observed values for D and ET were relatively higher than the recommended value of UNSCEAR (143 and 0.48 mSv/year, respectively) in both sites. In addition, the calculated values of excess lifetime cancer risk were slightly higher than the worldwide averages. Finding of this study revealed that long-term exposure to natural radiation in the study area might contribute to some health disease. Therefore, further studies need to be carried out to assess long-term exposure risk to radiation priory exploration of the mine.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Dynamic behavior of soil and rock mixture using cyclic triaxial tests and
           X-ray computed tomography
    • Abstract: This paper aims at investigating the meso-scale mechanisms that result in damage evolution in soil and rock mixtures (SRM). Although the macroscopic cyclic stress–strain response of SRM has been well investigated, the mesoscopic damage cracking mechanisms are still not well understood. In this work, artificial SRM sample with a rock block percentage (RBP) of 30% (mass ratio) was investigated by carrying out cyclic triaxial compression tests with a constant stress amplitude and low strain level, under tomographic monitoring using a 450 kV industrial X-ray computed tomography (CT). A series of 2D CT images were obtained at different loading stages throughout the test and from different positions in the sample using CT scanning. The results show that the hysteresis loop presents a sparse–dense–sparse pattern caused by the accumulation of plastic strain during the test. Besides, parameters of damping ratio and resilient modulus vary as increasing cycles, much energy loss, and decreasing resilient ability occur with large plastic strain. The study also finds that a linear relationship exists between the hysteresis loop area and total crack area extracted from the CT images. Volumetric dilatancy caused by the damage cracking behavior has closed link with the evolution of hysteresis loop, which are controlled by the meso-structural changes during sample deformation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Neotectonic structures imaged by seismic velocity along the Isparta Angle
    • Abstract: The Isparta Angle (IA) is formed as a morphotectonic pattern and located in the north of the Antalya Gulf. It is a seismotectonically very active zone as in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The shape of Isparta Angle is a wedge-like with flanks oriented NE–SW in the west and NW–SE in the east rather than compressional E–W-oriented structures preceding its present shape. It results from the clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation of the Anatolian Plate from the Early Paleocene to the Early Pliocene. In this study, we determined the neotectonic pattern of the IA by using arrival time data of P and S waves. We assessed the 3-D tomographic images from the data of local earthquakes. The tomographic results verified the major tectonic structures and discontinuities in the studied area. The results have revealed the young structural heterogeneities related to the seismotectonic zones. While the higher Vp and Vs distributions are determined in the shallow levels of the earth, low-velocity perturbations are extensively distributed at deeper levels of the crust. The seismotectonic activity, seen along heterogeneous zones, denotes the high-velocity perturbation and is related to the pre-existing faults. The results of checkerboard tests showed that the anomalies are reliable down to approximately 40 km depth. From the middle to the lower crust, the low-velocity zones are related to the geophysical and geological evidence in the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) and the existence of mantle material is consistent with the partial melt in the upper mantle. Furthermore, the present study revealed the new active zones from 3-D tomographic results: the NW-trending Yalvaç, NE-trending Gelendost, and approximately N–S-trending Eğirdir–Kovada grabens existing in the northern core of IA.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age and geochemical characteristics of the acid
           intrusive rocks in the Lhaguo Tso area of Bangong-Nujiang suture zone,
    • Abstract: The Bangong-Nujiang suture zone lies in the central part of the Tibetan Plateau. It is not only an important plate suture zone, which has direct controlling effect on magmatic activities and tectonic evolution of South Qiangtang and North Gangdese, but it is also an important metallogenic belt. Its tectonic evolution is closely related to the evolution history of the whole Tibetan plateau. In this paper, zircon U-Pb dating of the acid intrusive rocks in Lhaguo Tso has been conducted. Chronologically, the rock types are medium-fine-grained granodiorite (γδaK1) → medium-grained granodiorite (γδbK1) → fine-grained biotite adamellite (ηγβaK1) → medium-fine-grained biotite adamellite (ηγβbK1). The formation time ranges from 113.7 to 100.3 Ma, and the magmatic activity is concentrated in Lower Cretaceous, coincided with the Lower Cretaceous magmatism of the Northern Gangdese terrane. The intrusive rocks in the research area are characterized by high silica (SiO2 = 59.96~78.03%), potassium-rich (K2O = 2.04~4.71%), alkali-rich (K2O + Na2O = 6.08~8.5%), peralkaline to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.89~1.25), and high calc-alkaline to shoshonitic. The intrusive rocks in each stage are obviously enriched with LREE and high field elements (such as Th, Ta, Hf), and relatively depleted large ion lithophile elements (such as Ba, K, Sr). Total REE ranges from 82.53 × 10−6 to 203.91 × 10−6, with LREE/HREE of 82.53 × 10−6~203.91 × 10−6, (La/Sm)N of 1.68~14.77, (Gd/Yb)N of 0.92~1.84, and middle negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.07~0.94). Based on the above discussions, we propose that the geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks are consistent with those of arc-type magmas worldwide. Comprehensive research shows that Lhaguo Tso intrusive rocks in the Bangong-Nujiang Tethys ocean crust of southward subduction background, formed in a typical island arc tectonic background, suggesting that the Bangong-Nujiang ocean in the Lower Cretaceous (113~100 Ma) is still under the southward subduction of the Northern Gangdese terrane, may not have been closed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Statistical study of eolian sediment distribution risk in human ecosystems
           on the health of respiratory system and the eyes of inhabitants of Sistan,
           East Iran
    • Abstract: Sistan in east Iran is vast, low slope tectonic lowland of which a great portion is consisted of alluvial-saline lands of dried out Hamoon lakes. Sistan district with a population density of 43 people per square kilometer is the most densely populated human ecosystem in east Iran. This population is distributed in more than 1000 cities, villages, and nomadic settlements. Sistan plain is extensively exposed to vigorous winds. In the last 5 years, with the spread of drought and drastic reduction of Hirmand River’s water flow, dust storms have become more severe and long lasting. Winds of 120 days are the most significant wind in the region which starts every year at the end of the spring and lasts all through the beginning of autumn, with a mean velocity of 100 km/h. This research utilizes a survey/descriptive method coupled with medical documents to rank the risk of destructive eolian sediment dispersion in different regions of Sistan alongside the frequency of citizen’s reference to medical centers due to respiratory problems or eye damages caused by these sediments during the summer of 2017. The research findings show more risk of dispersion of eolian sediments in human environment in near the Iranian-Afghan border. The Level of the risk of respiratory and eye damages for citizens exposed to dust distribution with the rate of distribution of eolian sediments in the environment is statistically significant. Human ecosystems (1) Dehno-Piran, (2) Bazzi-Allari, (3) Muhammad-Shah-Karam, and (4) Abbas-Rostam regions in Sistan area have the highest risk for citizens due to respiratory problems and eye damages caused by eolian sediment dispersion.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Country-scale discontinuity analysis of AW3D30 and SRTM Global DEMS: case
           study in Turkey
    • Abstract: The quantitative model of the Earth is provided by optical and radar space-borne remote sensing global digital elevation models (GDEMs). GDEMs are fundamental for many geo-spatial analysis and demanded by several applications that need topographical data. Recently released ALOS World 3D 30 m (AW3D30) and 1 arc-second (~ 30 m) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) C-band GDEMs have the advantages of high quality and free availability from JAXA and NASA and much in demand in scientific community. In this paper, we comprehensively analyzed the discontinuities between AW3D30 and SRTM C-band GDEMs in country-scale calculating and interpreting the influence of terrain inclination and land cover classes. The coherence between two GDEMs was estimated by absolute horizontal and vertical accuracy analysis in the basis of model-to-model validation approaches. During the analysis, standard deviation and normalized median absolute deviation of height differences between GDEMs were utilized as the main coherence indicators. The frequency distribution of height differences and the incoherent outliers were presented by error distribution graphics and height error maps, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated the significance of ascending and descending orbits, terrain inclination, and land cover on the discontinuities.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Potential hydrocarbon zone identification: a case study
    • Abstract: Formation depiction is the progression that describes both physical and chemical properties of rocks and fluids through the exploitation of available log or core data. Geologic formations are generally heterogeneous in nature. Different types of well logs like caliper, SP, resistivity, gamma, sonic, neutron, and density logs are used to characterize formations. Formation temperature (Tf), porosity (Φ), permeability (k), formation water resistivity (Rwf), formation water saturation (Sw), etc. are the main characteristics of a reservoir. In this study, a gas field located in Brahmanbaria district, Bangladesh, with latitude 24° 00′ 58.6″ N and longitude 91° 07′ 14.4″ E is examined. The geothermal temperature gradient was 0.00735 °C/m with a temperature of 43.33 °C at depth of 3535 m. Four sand zones (identified as B, D, F, and H), four shale zones (identified as A, C, E, and G), and four sand mixed with shale zones (specified as I, J, K, and L) were mapped between depth 2800 and 3557 m. The average porosities (combining sonic, neutron, and density porosities) of zones B, D, F, and H were 25.5%, 26.2%, 23.95%, and 20.65%, respectively, with permeabilities of 84.26 mD, 49.64 mD, 35.01 mD, and 296.38 mD. Considering all the parameters (porosity, permeability, resistivity, and formation water saturation), it is shown that zone H (3036–3186 m) is a more effective gas production zone.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Modeling the multiple time scale response of hydrological drought to
           climate change in the data-scarce inland river basin of Northwest China
    • Abstract: It is difficult to quantitatively assess the response of hydrological drought (HD) to climate change in the inland river basins of northwest China because of the complicated geographical environment and scarce data. To address this problem, we conducted a hybrid model by integrating the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the long short-term memory (LSTM) model, and the statistical downscaling method and selected the Aksu River Basin (ARB) as a typical representative of data-scarce inland river basin in northwest China to simulate its hydrological drought in the period of 1980–2015 based on reanalysis climate data and hydrological observation data. The coefficient of determination (R2), the mean absolute error (MAE), the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE), and the index of agreement d (d index) all showed high simulation accuracy of the hybrid model (R2 = 0.712, MAE = 0.304, NSE = 0.706, and d index = 0.901 of the Aksu River Basin), and the simulated effect of the hybrid model is much better than that of a single long short-term memory model. The simulated results in the Aksu River Basin by the model revealed that hydrological drought in the two subbasins (i.e. the Kumarik River Basin (KRB) and the Toshkam River Basin (TRB)) showed similar cycles on the seasonal scale, the interannual scale, and the interdecadal scale, which are mainly controlled and influenced by regional climate change. On the seasonal scale, the effect of precipitation and temperature on hydrological drought is not significant; on the interannual scale, precipitation is the key factor compared to temperature in inducing hydrological drought change; on the interdecadal scales, the correlations between precipitation, temperature, and hydrological drought were the strongest and most significant.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Comprehensive evaluation of Pléiades-1A bundle images for geospatial
    • Abstract: This paper presents the results of comprehensive evaluation of Pléiades 1A which is the first civilian satellite of Europe with sub-meter resolution. The analyses consist of radiometric evaluation, georeferencing accuracy assessment, pan-sharpening performance, digital surface/terrain model quality and vector map production. The effective resolution is estimated with a factor slightly below 1.0 for triplet panchromatic images, and signal to noise ratio is in the range of other comparable space borne images. The georeferencing accuracy was estimated with a standard deviation in X and Y directions in the range of 0.45 m by bias-corrected and sensor-dependent rational functional model. 3D standard deviation of ± 0.44 m in X direction, ± 0.51 m in Y direction and ± 1.82 m in the Z direction were reached in spite of the very narrow angle of convergence by the same mathematical model. The generated digital surface/terrain models were achieved with ± 1.6 m standard deviation in Z direction in relation to a reference digital terrain model. The pan-sharpened images were generated by various methods, and were validated by quantitative and qualitative analyses. Moreover, a vector map was generated in the level of detail 0 to analyse information content.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Geometric and tectonic analysis of Ad-Damm mega-scale fold: implication of
           Neoproterozoic Transpressive Regime in the west-central Arabian Shield
    • Abstract: A mega-scale fold is exposed near Jeddah city in the western-central part of the Arabian Shield. This fold extends NE for about 35-km long and 12-km width and occupies the northwestern block of a distinct linear feature known as Ad-Damm Shear Zone. It is composed essentially of foliated, sheared, and mylonitized metamorphic and plutonic rocks. Para and ortho-gneisses were an amphibolite facies condition whereas greenschist facies units were represented by metasedimentary and metavolcanics. Image processing and field-based structural analysis, in addition to micro structural investigations of the mega-scale fold, indicating that the ductile dextral-sense of shear was overprinted by a brittle regime associated with the evolution of Ad-Damm shear zone. The Ad Dam mega-scale fold is a shear-related structure, north plunging overturned anticline. Mylonitization and dextral shear-related structures were developed during a transpressional regime. The Ad-Damm fold is a structural system that illustrates the evolution history of the Arabian Shield associated with the development of the NE-wrench fault. This fault started as an early plastic followed later by a brittle tectonic regime. The present study indicates that Ad-Damm shear zone and several sub-parallel dextral shears of NE-trends which located in the western side of the Arabian Shield represent a conjugate antithetic shear to the NW- trending sinistral shear of the Najd fault system.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Coating of different silica sources containing hydroxyapatite for Ti6Al4V
           metal substrate using HVOF technique
    • Abstract: Biomaterials have been used to replace or support the human organs or tissues in many years. Titanium and its alloys are metallic biomaterials which bond strongly with bone and are compatible with the surrounding tissue. Hydroxyapatite (HAp:Ca10(P04)6(OH)2) is a calcium phosphate–based bioceramics and mostly used in coating of metallic biomaterials. In this study, HAp and bioactive glass powders were successfully prepared by sol-gel method. Diatomite, quartz sand, and bioactive glass were selected as SiO2 sources. Then, different SiO2 source–added HAp bioceramics were coated on Ti6AI4V metal substrate by HVOF method. Then, the characterization of the coatings was investigated. Thermal analysis of HAp powders was characterized by using TG-DSC. Mineralogical analysis of the coating material was performed by using XRD. Thicknesses and morphological analysis of the coating were done by SEM. According to the TG results, the total weight loss of HAp powers is 11.44% in the 100–1000 °C range. The characteristic peaks of HAp (2θ = 26° and 32°) were observed for pure HAp and doped HAp powders. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as secondary phases was detected in doped HAp powders. Pure HAp coating thickness was 186 μm. The thickness of coating decreased with additive as pure HAp.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Lithofacies analysis and economic mineral potential of a braided fluvial
           succession of NW Himalayan foreland basin Pakistan
    • Abstract: This study has described detailed lithofacies analysis, clay mineralogy, and depositional setting, and highlighted economic mineral potential of late Miocene to Early Pliocene mid Siwalik Dhok Pathan Formation. The Siwalik fluvial sedimentary succession is 5300 m thick in the NW Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt known as Surghar-Shingar Range (SSR). The middle Siwalik (Dhok Pathan Formation) typically represents cyclic alternation of massive sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, and claystones in repeated fining upward rhythm with varied thicknesses from 807 to 1540 m. Detailed sedimentological investigations resulted in the identification of seven distinct lithofacies (Gt, St, Sh, Ss, Sl, Fm, and Fl) which had been deposited by sand-dominated bed load braided fluvial system. The facies Sh is hosting detrital uraninite identified through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-Ray diffraction analyses revealed that kaolinite, smectite (montmorillonite and saponite), illite, vermiculite, and chlorite (clinochlore and chamosite) are the main clay mineral suits present in the formation. The morphology of clay mineral suits is indicative of weathering products or contribution from the source areas. The absence of glass shards and mineral analcimolite evidenced that these smectite group clay minerals were not derived from the devitrification of volcanic ashes. The sedimentological analysis, mineralogical composition, and paleo-flow directions revealed that these sediments had been deposited by NS fluvial system presently known as Indus River system in this area. The rare earth element concentrations of sandstone and heavy minerals laminations (black sand) show enrichment of uranium (662 ppm), thorium (1374 ppm), La (975 ppm), Ce (2831 ppm), Pr (193 ppm), Nd (746 ppm), Gd (98 ppm), and Dy (50.8 ppm), which specify good indicative economic mineral potential of the formation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Electrode array and data density effects in 3D induced polarization
           tomography and applications for mineral exploration
    • Abstract: Synthetic resistivity and chargeability models are employed to study the electrode array and data density effects in inversion resolution for 3D induced polarization tomography. Results from the inversion tests with different electrode arrays illustrate that the inversion resolution for electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and induced polarization tomography (IPT) data with the dipole–dipole array perform better than the pole–pole array and pole–dipole array. In addition, the anomalous bodies with high impedance and high chargeability are hard to be reconstructed. In contrast, the ones with low resistivity and high chargeability can be well established. Results from the inversion tests with different data densities illustrate that the higher data density will yield better inversion resolution for the ERT and IPT data. We firstly employ the sensitivity analysis method and depth of investigation (
      DOI ) index method to evaluate the inversion results. Then, we present the observation-to-parameter ratio (OPR) and model-drift ratio (MDR) for discussing and evaluating the quality of the inverted maps, and the result shows that the correlation can reach to the limit when the data density reaches a certain OPR value of 44. Results from the synthetic inversion tests generally provide reference and guidance for employing the measuring electrode with a suitable arrangement and reasonable number in the field ERT and IPT surveys. Lastly, IPT method with dipole–dipole array has been employed in the mining area with the better prospect of mineral exploration northwest of Gansu Province, China. Moreover, the inverted maps reveal three ore bodies with high resolution.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Investigating the trend and time of precipitation and river flow rate
           changes in Lake Urmia basin, Iran
    • Abstract: In this study, the trend of precipitation and river flow rate changes in Lake Urmia basin (LUB) were investigated at two monthly and annual scales using the modified Mann-Kendall test (MMK) with complete removal of autocorrelation process. To this purpose, 42 rain gauge and 25 hydrometric stations were selected in Lake Urmia basin during the statistical period of 1984–2013. The results of studying the precipitation changes in the LUB indicated that this basin experienced a combination of decreasing and increasing trend during the studied statistical period. The decreasing precipitation trend was often observed at west and southwest stations of the basin. The increasing trend was observed in the southern and northeastern regions. The results of studying the changes in river flow rate of the studied stations in the LUB indicated that the trend of river flow rate is decreasing in most of the months. At an annual scale, the decreasing trend of river flow rate was also clearly observed across the basin at all stations. In addition, the decreasing trend of river flow rate is more severe in autumn and winter. The results of studying the time of changing point in the precipitation series showed that the time of changing point occurred between 1992 and 1998 at most of the stations that experienced a decreasing precipitation trend. The time of changing point of river flow rate in LUB occurred between 1994 and 1998. Two years after the reductions in precipitation, the decreasing trend of river flow rate occurred in the rivers.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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