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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Arabian Journal of Geosciences
  [SJR: 0.417]   [H-I: 16]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1866-7538 - ISSN (Online) 1866-7511
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Imaging fracture distributions of the Al-Khuff Formation outcrops using
           GPR and ERT geophysical techniques, Al-Qassim area, Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Mansour S. Alhumimidi; Hussein M. Harbi; Mohammed S. Alfarhan; Kamal Abdelrahman; Carlos L.V. Aiken
      Abstract: Khuff Formation is of utmost importance in Saudi Arabia for oil and gas reservoir although it is composed mainly of limestone. This reason refers to the existence of intensive fractures which play a vital role in the increase in porosity and permeability of this formation. The fracture pattern in the study area was verified through 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR)-defined and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)-defined surveys. In this respect, ten of 2D GPR surveys were collected along an intersected grid of profiles covering the study area while ERT data were collected along three profiles of the GPR grid. The results were interpreted in light of the field-based structural and stratigraphic assessment of the outcropping rocks. The analysis of the inverted ERT and filtered GPR sections revealed the presence of fractures. Several resistivity and electromagnetic reflection anomalies were laterally and vertically identified across the measured sections clarifying fractures that extend to a depth of 24 m in the limestone. Most fractures are oriented vertical to sub-vertical dipping both east-west and north-south.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3059-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Feature extraction for hyperspectral remote sensing image using weighted
    • Authors: Lan Liu; Cheng-fan Li; Yong-mei Lei; Jing-yuan Yin; Jun-juan Zhao
      Abstract: Principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are linear feature extraction methods in terms of the second-order statistics and higher-order statistics and have good compatibility and complementarity. For the feature extraction of the hyperspectral remote sensing image, an approach of the combined PCA and ICA was followed in the real remote sensing classification applications. In this study, the weighted PCA-ICA method was introduced to extract the feature information from HJ-1A hyperspectral imager (HSI) image. And then the real airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) image case was performed by the distance similarity measure. Experimental results on HJ-1A HSI and AVIRIS images indicate that the proposed method can get high average accuracy of 89.55% and kappa coefficient of 0.8101 than the typical methods under certain condition with a suitable number of eigenvectors and weighted values.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3090-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Present environmental status of Al-Kharrar Lagoon, central of the eastern
           Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Talha A. Al-Dubai; Ramadan H. Abu-Zied; Ali S. Basaham
      Abstract: Al-Kharrar Lagoon is a fossil back-reef basin with hypersaline waters, situated 10 km northwest of Rabigh city, central of the eastern Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia. About 130 stations were selected for measurements of the lagoon’s water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water depths during March 2014. The common macro-algae, flora, and fauna were also sampled and identified. The present study aims to investigate the prevailing environmental parameters and their impact on the macro-fauna/flora of the lagoon. The average water depth of the lagoon was around 5 m and reached maximum values of 8 and 16 at the lagoon centre and inlet, respectively. The results showed that the lagoon’s surface water temperature and salinity have mean values of 25 °C and 40‰, but with extreme values of 30 °C and 45‰ that occurred only at the enclosed intertidal areas, respectively. Their dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were 6.5 mg/l and 8.3, respectively and the latter showing the highest values up to 8.5 in the intertidal areas dominated by the green cyanobacteria. These physicochemical conditions make the lagoon as a favorite place for the mangrove Avicennia marina, macro-algae, seagrasses (Halophila stipulacea and Cymodocea rotundata), and algal mats (Cyanobacteria) which dominate the intertidal and supratidal areas of the lagoon, tolerating extremely high-salinity and high-temperature conditions. On the other hand, corals were observed alive at the southern part of the lagoon, immediately south of the Al-Ultah Islet. Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and density in the lagoon’s water indicated that the water column consists of two layers throughout the year.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3083-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Isolation of wells contaminated by tannery industries using principal
           component analysis
    • Authors: Colins Johnny Jesudhas; Sashikkumar Madurai Chidambaram; Kirubakaran Muniraj
      Abstract: The groundwater in the upper Kodaganar basin is contaminated due to the discharge of effluents from tannery industries. The water in the wells, whose physico-chemical characteristics are altered due to the influence of the effluents, is statistically analyzed. The physico-chemical variables such as EC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, F−, Cl−, HCO3 −,CO3 2−, NO3 −, SO4 2−, pH, and Crtotal were used for this study. An attempt was made to identify the contaminated wells based on suitability for drinking, suitability for industrial requirements, and through principal component analysis (PCA). Classification based on suitability helped in identifying the contaminated wells. However, this resulted in failure when identifying the wells that are contaminated by tanneries. PCA has proved to be effective in the segregation of contaminated wells influenced by tannery industries. The physico-chemical variables that are 13 in number are transformed into two orthogonal components and Eigen values based on the variance. The Eigen values are used to select the first two principal components PC1 (7.26) and PC2 (2.24) that accounted for 73.04% variance in the data. The components of the variables and the wells are plotted in a biplot to isolate the contaminated samples. The contaminated samples are analyzed in the spatial domain in geographic information system and found to be clustered around the tannery belt. The study reveals that 35% of the samples are contaminated due to discharge from tannery industries.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3092-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Petrographic and geochemical features of the dolostones at the
           Gölboğazı Formation (Upper Devonian), Southwest Konya, Turkey
    • Authors: Ali Müjdat Özkan; Emre Biçer
      Abstract: This paper describes the occurrence of dolostone and the mechanism of dolomitization of the Upper Devonian Gölboğazı Formation in the allochthonous Taurus Mountains Aladağ unit in Turkey. The Upper Devonian Gölboğazı Formation carbonates, with dominant ostracod-bearing mudstone and wackestone, formed tidal and subtidal environments, and some of these rocks were dolomitized from shallow to deep burial. On the basis of the field, the petrographic and geochemical features, four different replaceable and cement dolostone phases have been recognized. The replacive dolostones contain (1) very fine to fine crystalline planar-s dolostone (df1), (2) medium to coarse crystalline planar-s to planar-e dolostone (df2), (3) coarse to very coarse crystalline non-planar-a dolostone (df3), and (4) coarse to very coarse crystalline planar dolostone cement (df4). The replacive dolostones are disordered to moderate the ordered and calcium-rich. They are non-stoichiometric and have 46–59 mol% CaCO3 and 41–54 mol% MgCO3 total contents. The df1 dolostones have MgCO3 contents of 41–54 mol%, the df2 dolostones have 41–53 mol%, the df3 dolostones have 49 mol%, and the df4 dolostones have 49–50 mol%, respectively. The Gölboğazı dolostones have δ18O values of −9.44 to −2.20‰ Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) and δ13C values of −1.58 to +2.52 VPDB. Sr, Na, Mn, and Fe concentrations of replacive dolostones are 74–184, 148–593, below detection level (bdl)–619, and 1049–9233 ppm, respectively. The petrographic and geochemical data demonstrate that the replacive dolostones occurred prior to the chemical compaction at shallow to intermediate burial depths from Late Devonian seawater and/or seawater lightly modified by water–rock interaction process and later recrystallized by basinal brines at increasing burial depths and temperature. The North American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth element values of both limestone and dolostone show very similar rare earth element patterns characterized by slightly or considerably negative cerium (Ce) anomalies and a clear depletion in all rare earth element species. The dedolomitization observed in the Gölboğazı Formation is thought to occur by the oxidizing effect of the meteoric water in the shallow burial environment during the telodiagenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3087-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Water use efficiency of olive tree under two water treatments in Tunisian
           semi-arid conditions
    • Authors: Mortadha Ben Hassine; Olfa Boussadia; Ahmed Ben Abdelkader; Ines Moula; Mariem El Hafi; Mohamed Braham
      Abstract: Olive trees are grown under high evaporative demand and less precipitations that are variable in time and space especially in semi-arid conditions. The objective of this work is to determine the most efficient water treatment applied in an olive field (Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali) from the 98th to the 294th Julian day, in Tunisian semi-arid conditions. The choice of this time frame was done to control the effect of irrigation on the trees behavior in the irrigation period of the year (from April to October) and determine the most sensitive phenological stages to irrigation. For this reasons, two water treatments were applied: T100% (irrigation at 100% of Available Water Content (AWC)) and T50% (irrigation at 50% AWC). The results show that, according to leaf water potential, carbon isotope discrimination, and olive production parameters, the T50% AWC water treatment is the most efficient. The leaf water potential of the two water treatments applied has not exceeded −2.5 MPa during the whole experiment which indicates that the trees of the two water treatments were not stressed. The T50% AWC shows a water use efficiency of 5.18 g/l compared to 2.93 g/l for T100% water treatment. This result demonstrate that Chemlali cultivar valorizes better low quantities of water rather than high quantities, so saving 50% of water resources applied will ensure the sustainability of water resources and stability of olive production.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3088-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Insight into sequence stratigraphic and structural framework of the
           onshore Niger Delta Basin: Integrating well logs, biostratigraphy, and 3D
           seismic data
    • Authors: Chidozie Izuchukwu Princeton Dim; K. Mosto Onuoha
      Abstract: Stratigraphic and structural interpretative studies have been carried out within the paralic sequence of Agbada Formation in the Niger Delta Basin. The method of study involved integrating sequence stratigraphic techniques with well logs, biostratigraphy, and 3D regional seismic data obtained from several producing fields in the Coastal Swamp depobelt of the onshore Niger Delta Basin. This was targeted at establishing regional sequence stratigraphic and structural framework from well log correlation and seismic mapping so as to better define hydrocarbon leads. Well log correlation using stratigraphic bounding surfaces such as maximum flooding surfaces (MFSs) and sequence boundaries (SBs) indicates that the stratigraphic package was deposited within the Middle to Late Miocene (8.5 to 12.1 Ma) age. Recognized depositional sequences revealed differential thickening and thinning of the associated system tracts (lowstand system tract (LST), transgressive system tract (TST), and highstand system tract) (HST)). This observed stratal behavior has been attributed to the influence of syndepositional tectonic structures that characterize the Coastal Swamp depobelt, which lies within the extensional zone. Flattening of MFSs at various ages indicates observable basinward shift of the depositional center. The genetic units of LST and HST serve as good hydrocarbon reservoir whereas HST and TST constitutes mainly the source and seal packages rocks in the area. Structural interpretation revealed the occurrence of simple/faulted rollover anticline, collapsed crest, regional hanging wall and footwall, horst block, and subdetachment fault structural styles that constitute the key hydrocarbon entrapment mechanisms. Structural top maps show fault-dependent closures which dominate the extensional zone, which could form possible hydrocarbon leads and prospects that should be targeted during exploration studies for development.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3070-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Soil salinization and critical shallow groundwater depth under saline
           irrigation condition in a Saharan irrigated land
    • Authors: Zied Haj-Amor; Hossein Hashemi; Salem Bouri
      Abstract: In the arid irrigated lands, understanding the impact of shallow groundwater fluctuation on soil salinization has become crucial. Thus, investigation of the possible options for maintaining the groundwater depth for improving land productivity is of great importance. In this study, under saline irrigation condition, the effects of shallow groundwater depth on water and salt dynamics in the root-zone of date palms were analyzed through a particular field and modeling (SWAP) investigation in a Tunisian Saharan oasis (Dergine Oasis). The model was calibrated and validated against the measured soil water content through the date palm root-zone. The good agreement between measured and estimated soil water content demonstrated that the SWAP model is an effective tool to accurately simulate the water and salt dynamics in the root-zone of date palm. Multiple groundwater depth scenarios were performed, using the calibrated SWAP model, to achieve the optimal groundwater depth. The simulation results revealed that the shallow groundwater with a depth of ~80 cm coupled with frequent irrigation (20 days interval) during the summer season is the best practice to maintain the adequate soil water content (>0.035 (cm3 cm−3) and safe salinity level (<4 dS m−1) in the root-zone layer. The results of field investigation and numerical simulation in the present study can lead to a better management of lands with shallow water table in the Saharan irrigated areas.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3093-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Seismic interpretation and structural modelling of Kupe field, Taranaki
           Basin, New Zealand
    • Authors: Syed Mohammad Talha Qadri; Mohammad Aminul Islam; Mohamed Ragab Shalaby; Abul Khaleq Mohammad Eahsan ul Haque
      Abstract: Kupe field is a gas condensate field located in the southern Taranaki Basin. In the present study, 3D seismic and well log data sets were used to interpret and model Kupe structures. The primary objective of the study was to develop a structural model for the complete reservoir package in the Kupe field which composes of three horizons the North Cape, Farewell and Otaraoa formations. The three horizons were interpreted using time section and then converted into depth domain using the velocity model. The results demonstrate the successful establishment of the structural model to incorporate fault framework model, structural mechanics and geometric distributions of the structural features in the complex Southern Inversion Zone of Taranaki Basin. The reservoir package experienced extensional and contractional regimes during Late Cretaceous to Eocene and Eocene to Miocene epoch, respectively; as a consequence, both normal and reverse styles of faulting are observed. Normal faulting is more obvious in the sections taken from the northern part of the seismic cube while reverse faulting is more prominent in southern parts of the seismic cube. Reservoir package is compartmentalized by moderate- to high-angle (35°–87°) dip slip faults with NE–SW orientation. The proposed 3D structural model provides a unique combination of subseismic interpretations and a geostatistical modelling approach for understanding major fault mechanism, and it provides a significant platform for designing future drilling campaigns for Kupe field’s development.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3078-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Soil-structure interaction of existing buildings near the active fault
           zone (Burdur-Turkey)
    • Authors: Mehmet Ozcelik; Gulcan Sarp
      Abstract: Turkey is located in a tectonically active region. In the recent years, earthquakes occurred in settlement areas caused people dead and substantial damage to buildings. In order to reduce damages of possible earthquake effects on the buildings and people’s strengthening, the buildings and structuring in safer areas is increasingly gained importance. The Burdur city, situated at the tectonically active northeastern part of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ), SW Turkey. This fault zone is approximately 300 km in length, and it contains several normal faults with left lateral oblique slip components. The Burdur settlement area is situated on the tectonically active fault segments of the FBFZ. This paper focuses on soil-structure interaction of existing buildings in Burdur settlement area built near the active FBFZ. In order to highlight the high risky, potentially risky, and low risky buildings for guiding decisions on retrofitting or renewal these buildings. In the study, to test and quantify the spatial distribution of the buildings built on the high or low liquefaction risk zones, the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics for hot and cold spot determination are applied to buildings which are weighted with the ground water level. According to results, the NE of the area buildings was built in high liquefaction prone areas. However, in the SW of the area buildings were built in low liquefaction prone areas. Other potentially risky areas located in the center of the area include those along some of the dried streams deposits, which produce the loose young soils that are particularly susceptible to liquefaction.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3085-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Separation, upgrading, and mineralogy of placer magnetite in the black
           sands, northern coast of Egypt
    • Authors: Abdel-Aal M. Abdel-Karim; Mohamed G. Barakat
      Abstract: The black sand magnetite is a raw material to produce iron and steel. High content magnetite in the top meter beach sands of the north-west of El-Burullus Lake of Egypt is separated and mineralogically and geochemically investigated. Magnetite content obtained by laboratory techniques varies between 2.92 and 0.11 wt%, with 1.15 wt% average. It represents about one third of the total economic heavy mineral (31.6 wt%). The western and northern halves of the study area are richer in magnetite content (1.33–1.51 wt%) than the eastern and southern halves (0.80–0.98 wt%). On the other hand, the average value of magnetite obtained by ore dressing techniques is 1.13 wt% with a recovery of 98.3 wt%. About 306 samples at a 1-m depth of a grid pattern 200 m × 200 m nearly parallel and perpendicular to the shoreline were covered the area. Microscopic study shows that the magnetite concentrate occurs as irregular, octahedral, or abnormal spherical grains and represented either by fresh homogeneous black or heterogeneous exsolved grains with ilmenite. XRD data indicate that the sample is composed mainly of magnetite grains. Grain size distribution suggests a very fine sand size modal class of more than 93 wt% of the particles. The fine sand size class contains 5.21 wt% magnetite grains. The abnormal spherical grains are mostly more coarser than the associated magnetite concentrate, so they are easily concentrated by sieving process. The contents of iron oxide and titanium dioxide of octahedral magnetite vary from 73.3 to 91.5 and 2.0 to 16.0 wt%, with 85 and 6.0 wt% averages, respectively. On the other hand, these contents of the abnormal spherical one are variable from 81.4 to 95.6 wt%, with 90.3 wt% averages for iron oxide and from 0.3 to 4.0 wt%, with 1.3 wt% average for titanium dioxide. The tonnage of magnetite using laboratory and ore dressing techniques is 182,850 and 179,670 t, respectively. The chemical data of the investigated magnetite suggest their basic volcanic rock origin of the Blue Nile provenance and can be considered as a good indicator for the volcanic source of the Ethiopian plateau.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3075-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Workflow of integration of digital outcrop modeling and sedimentology of
           the Early Triassic Upper Khartam Member of Khuff Formation, central Saudi
    • Authors: Mutasim Osman; Osman Abdullatif; Mohammed Al-Farhan
      Abstract: The Permian–Triassic Khuff Formation is considered to be the most prolific for the natural gas production in the world. The Khuff reservoirs exhibit vertical and lateral heterogeneities which cannot be fully captured within the interwell spacing from the subsurface data. The Upper Khartam Member in central Saudi Arabia represents an excellent outcrop analog for the upper parts of Khuff-B and the whole Khuff-A reservoirs. The main objective of this study is to reconstruct digital outcrop model of the Upper Khartam Member. This study included sedimentological data and digital laser scanning modeling. Four stratigraphic sections were measured to cover the whole outcrop of Upper Khartam, and a composite section was constructed. The investigations revealed that the studied outcrop of Upper Khartam comprises six lithofacies associations deposited in three depositional settings: offshore (deep–shallow subtidal zone), foreshoal, and shoal complex. The terrestrial laser scanner was used to scan the outcrop from four different scan positions. The Polyworks software was used for the processing and to produce the photorealistic model for Upper Khartam. ArcGIS combined with the Geo Analysis Tool was utilized to interpret the digital models. The digital modeling allows accurate structural and statistical measurements of lithofacies and integrated with the traditional field data on it and examined the lateral continuity and the architecture of the strata in the outcrop. Also, the model revealed the architecture and the continuity of the reservoir units as well as the barriers or the non-reservoir units within the studied outcrop. The integration of the results of this work with subsurface data might help to provide better understanding and prediction of the quality of Khuff reservoirs in the subsurface.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3082-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Vulnerability assessment of coastal areas to sea level rise from the
           physical and socioeconomic parameters: case of the Gulf Coast of Bejaia,
    • Authors: Fahem Djouder; Makhlouf Boutiba
      Abstract: The study area (the Gulf of Bejaia) is a coastal zone of about 70 km long in the eastern-central part of the Algerian coast. The coastline characterized by sandy beaches, hotels and tourist facilities, airport, port, villages and towns has known during these last decades several threats like storms, floods and erosion. The present work concerns the mapping of the physical and socioeconomic vulnerability of the Gulf Coast of Bejaia to sea level rise, using Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) and geospatial tools. The Physical CVI (CVIPhys) is calculated from seven physical variables: geomorphology, coastal slope, coastal regional elevation, sea level rise rate, shoreline erosion/accretion rates, tidal range and significant wave height. On the other hand, the parameters population, cultural heritage, roads, railways, land use and conservation designation constitute, for their part, the socioeconomic CVI (CVIeco). The values obtained from the calculation of CVIPhys vary between 3.53 and 81.83. These results revealed that 22.42 km of the studied coastline has a low physical vulnerability, 21.68 km a high vulnerability and 15.83 km a very high vulnerability, indicating that the most part of the coastline (53.59%) is vulnerable to sea level rise. According to the obtained values of CVIeco, the most vulnerable areas of high and very high risk represent 31.81 km of the total coastline. They were found along the western (Bejaia and Tichy) and eastern (Aokas, Souk El Tenine and Melbou) coast, while the least vulnerable stretches, covering 38.19 km of the total length of the coast, occupy the rest of the area. This study highlighted areas that will be most affected by future sea level rise (SLR) and storm events. It revealed that several development projects of Bejaia Gulf Coast, including tourist expansion areas, are planned in sites identified as very vulnerable. The results obtained from this assessment could guide local planners and decision-makers in developing coastal management plans in the most vulnerable areas.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3062-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 14 (2017)
  • Multi-criteria GIS modeling for optimum route alignment planning in outer
           region of Allahabad City, India
    • Authors: Mukund Pratap Singh; Pitam Singh
      Abstract: A route alignment planning has various stages. At different stages, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is required. This paper integrates geographical information system (GIS) and MCDA for designing the optimum route alignment. A GIS-based model using the multi-criteria decision analysis for finding the optimum route alignment to design major road from a source to a destination within two locations is proposed. Three different levels of analysis were performed in this study such as criteria map analysis, surface cost analysis, and least-cost path analysis. The optimum route has the least cost and satisfies other environmental, technical, social, and economic criteria. The proposed model is implemented to design optimum route alignment between two locations in the outer area of Allahabad City, India. Four route alignments are created, and one of the best routes is chosen.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3076-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 13 (2017)
  • Imagery of the metamorphic bedrock roof of the Sahel active fault in the
           Sablettes (Algiers) reclaimed area by ambient vibration HVSR
    • Authors: Mohamed Yacine Tebbouche; Djamel Machane; Souhila Chabane; El-Hadi Oubaiche; Aghiles Abdelghani Meziani; Dalila Ait Benamar; Hakim Moulouel; Ghani Cheikh Lounis; Rabah Bensalem; Abderrahmane Bendaoud
      Abstract: The Sablettes (Algiers) coastal reclaimed fringe region, located on the hanging wall of the Sahel active fault, is subject to different types of geological hazard such as flood and tsunami, coastal uplift, earthquake, liquefaction, landslide, and site effects. In this present work, we used ambient vibration HVSR for imaging the bedrock. The thickness of the sedimentary column under the backfill layer is unknown, and the coastal reclaimed areas are prone to strong amplification of seismic waves. The determination of the depth of the metamorphic base allowed us to establish a mapping of the bedrock roof surface. The 3D representation of this surface enabled us to present models of tectonic structures in this basement (i.e., fault, fold). This analysis will make it possible to make better evaluation of the amplification after having determined the depth of the metamorphic basement exceeding 240 m, which is supposed to have velocities close to those of the seismological basement, as well as the thicknesses of the different layers surmounting it.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3074-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 13 (2017)
  • Evidence of bottom-redox conditions during oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE2)
           in Wadi Bazina, Northern Tunisia (Southern Tethyan margin)
    • Authors: Z. Touati
      Abstract: Detailed chemostratigraphy across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in northern Tunisia points to several prevailing paleoceanographic conditions during the deposition of organic-rich beds of Bahloul Formation. The sedimentological study shows that there is no correlation between color and CaCO3 content because both dark and light-colored intervals of Bahloul Formation are carbonate-rich. Stable isotope analysis displays a positive carbon isotope excursion characterized by four significant peaks (I to IV) which are ranging from 3.2 to 3.5‰. These peaks represent episodes of elevated rates of organic carbon burial during the C/T oceanic anoxic event (C/T boundary OAE2). The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary could be situated between the third isotopic peak and the filament event. The total organic carbon (TOC) measurements show values ranging from 0.28 to 6.19% with average value of 3.5%. This indicates that the Bahloul Formation shale is a very good oil source rock. The Hydrogen Index (HI) values range from 359 to 698 mg HC/g TOC. The T max values range from 390 to 438 °C. Binary diagrams HI vs. T max indicate a type II with values falling within the immature organic-matter range. The concentrations major elements reveal low values of Ti and K. The correlation between Al and Ti and K shows a significant correlation pointing to homogeneous provenance. Primary productivity indicators (Cu, Ba, and Ni) record its association with organic matter. Redox-sensitive elements such as U, V, and Mo and the high values of V/(V + Ni) ratio indicate a strongly reducing environment which led to the better preservation of the organic matter.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3053-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 13 (2017)
  • An improved fast level set method initialized with a combination of
           k-means clustering and Otsu thresholding for unsupervised change detection
           from SAR images
    • Authors: Armin Moghimi; Safa Khazai; Ali Mohammadzadeh
      Abstract: Detection of changes in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is an important challenge due to the effects of speckle noise on these images. In recent years, appropriate methods for SAR-based-change detection have been developed based on the level set methods (LSM). These methods need to set parameters for defining a proper initial contour. Moreover, the gradient information is only employed in the total energy of these methods for segmentation of the difference image. In this study, a novel method has been proposed for unsupervised change detection of multitemporal SAR images based on the improved fast level set method (IFLSM) initialized with a combination of k-means and Otsu techniques. The proposed method utilizes the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) fusion strategy and edge enhancement to achieve a noise-resistant difference image from the mean-ratio and log-ratio images. Afterward, the generated binary change map (CM) by applying a combination of k-means and Otsu techniques on the difference image is used as the initial contour to achieve a final CM on difference image using the IFLSM. To check advantages of the proposed method, experiments are applied on two sets of multitemporal SAR images corresponding to artificial Chitgar Lake (under reconstruction) in Tehran (Iran) taken by TerraSAR-X satellite in 2011 and 2012, and corresponding to San Pablo and Briones reservoirs in California (USA) acquired by ERS-2 satellite in 2003 and 2004. Results of proposed method were compared with results of some well-known unsupervised change detection methods. Experimental results prove the sufficiency of the proposed method in unsupervised change detection in terms of accuracy, implementation time, and computational complexity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3072-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 13 (2017)
  • Late Ordovician glacial and glacio-fluvial paleovalley architecture and
           sedimentation in southeast Jordan and northwest Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Ahmad Masri
      Abstract: Four recently discovered glacio-fluvial paleovalleys in southeast Jordan and northwest Saudi Arabia are described for the first time. The paleovalleys formed as a result of glacial erosion by series of sub-parallel valley glaciers during the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) southern hemisphere glaciation on the Arabian Plate. The southwest-northeast orientation of the paleovalleys, Proterozoic erratic clasts and paleocurrent vectors indicate the advance of glaciers and subsequent glacio-fluvial siliciclastics emanating from a paleo-ice sheet located to the south on the Arabian Shield. U-shaped, paleovalley cross-sectional morphologies and gently inclined longitudinal profiles indicate initial glacial erosion of the ‘finger-like’ paleovalleys, probably as wet-based valley glaciers, eroded up to 250 m depth into Late Ordovician marine bedrock formations. Paleovalley-fill sequences comprise a tripartite upwards succession: (a) basal sandstone-dominated tillite with well-rounded, grooved and striated granitoid and metamorphic basement clasts derived from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield together with locally derived, rounded and elongate boulders eroded from the local bedrock at the margins of the paleovalleys (Retrogradational Lowstand Sequence); (b) green chloritic siltstone (Zarqa Formation) deposited during a progradational sea-level rise with marine influence (Transgressive Sequence); (c) coarse-grained, trough cross-bedded sandstone (Sarah Formation) attributed to progradational fluvial sedimentation as glacial outwash. Rapid sea-level rise during latest Hirnantian to Early Llandovery time resulted in marine flooding of the glacio-fluvial alluvial plain and deposition of organic-rich mudstones representing transgressive and high-stand sequences.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3081-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 13 (2017)
  • Hydrochemical evolution and arsenic release in shallow aquifer in the
           Titas Upazila, Eastern Bangladesh
    • Authors: Wael Kanoua; Broder Merkel
      Abstract: Groundwater arsenic (As) concentrations above 10 μg/L (World Health Organization; WHO standard) are frequently found in the Titas Upazila in Bangladesh. This paper evaluates the groundwater chemistry and the mechanisms of As release acting in an underground aquifer in the middle-northeast part of the Titas Upazila in Bangladesh. Previous measurements and analyses of 43 groundwater samples from the region of interest (ROI) are used. Investigation is based on major ions and important trace elements, including total As and Fe in groundwater samples from shallow (8–36 m below ground level: mbgl) and deep (85–295 mbgl) tube wells in the aforementioned ROI. Principal hydrochemical facies are Ca–HCO3, with circumneutral pH. The different redox-sensitive constituents (e.g., As, Fe, Mn, NH4, and SO4) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to differences regarding the redox equilibrium. Multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) was applied to reduce 20 chemical variables to four factors but still explain 81% of the total variance. The component loadings give hints as to the natural processes in the shallow aquifers, in which organic matter is a key reactant. The observed chemistry of As, Fe, and Mn can be explained by simultaneous equilibrium between Fe-oxide and SO4 reduction and an equilibrium of rhodochrosite precipitation/dissolution. A correlation test indicates the likeliness of As release by the reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides driven by the degradation of sediments organic matter. Other mechanisms could play a role in As release, albeit to a lesser extent. Reactive transport modeling using PHREEQC reproduced the observed chemistry evolution using simultaneous equilibrium between Fe-oxide and SO4 reduction and the equilibrium of rhodochrosite dissolution/precipitation alongside organic matter oxidation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3063-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 13 (2017)
  • Temporal changes in trace elements in brown soil and soybean after
           long-term fertilization
    • Authors: Muhammad Imran Ashraf; Na Li; Xiaori Han; Jinfeng Yang; Yue Wang; Shumao Fan; Muhammad Irshad; Qaisar Mahmood
      Abstract: In agricultural production, specific elements in soil and plants are very important for the soil quality and plant productivity. Trace elements and rare earth elements enter in agri-environment by the application of fertilizers and, through anthropogenic activities, pose important health impacts even at low concentration due to non-biodegradable nature with long half-life. The micro nutrients are essential for human body in a quantity most of less than 100 mg/day. The nutritional element uptake by plants is regulated by availability of the required elements and element accumulation ability of the plants. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the accumulation of trace and rare earth elements after long-term application of different fertilizers in soil and soybean uptake. The inorganic fertilizers (NKP) and pig manure were applied to maize-maize-soybean rotation in Alfisols (brown) soil since 1979. Atomic emission spectrometry along with inductively coupled plasma technique was applied to determine trace and rare earth elements. The accumulation pattern of trace elements (TEs) observed in soil was Ni > Co > Se > Mo and rare earth elements (REEs) was found as La > Nd > Tb > Y > Pr > Gd > Er > Yb > Lu. In soybean stem, the TE and REE concentrations were Se > Ni > Co > Mo and Pr > Gd > Er > Yb > Tb > Nd > Lu > La > Y, respectively. Elemental concentrations in the seed samples were Ni > Se > Mo > Co and Pr > Gd > Er > Yb > Tb > Nd > Lu > Y > La. The seed of soybean accumulated Co, Mo, Ni, Gd, Pr, Er, Lu, and Tb more than the stem. Higher concentrations of Se, Nd, Y, and Yb were found in soil. These elements were higher in soybean stem followed by the seed. However, these elements are within safe toxic level and light pollution level.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3080-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 13 (2017)
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