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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Arabian Journal of Geosciences
  [SJR: 0.417]   [H-I: 16]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1866-7538 - ISSN (Online) 1866-7511
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Erratum to: Geotechnical and geophysical characterization of the
           Bouira-Algiers Highway (Ain Turck, Algeria) landslide
    • Authors: Brahim Meziani; Djamel Machane; Abderrahmane Bendaoud; Ghani Cheikh Lounis; El-Hadi Oubaiche; Souhila Chabane; Rabah Bensalem; Hakim Moulouel
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2953-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of thermal inertia of Abeokuta Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria
    • Authors: H.I. Kuforiji; O.D. Akinyemi; M.A. Busari; R. Bello
      Abstract: Thermal inertia (I) is an important parameter in the Earth’s thermal study. There is no doubt that correct and up-to-date knowledge of thermal inertia particularly as it is affected by the land use/cover will provide good and useful information to agriculturists and environmental scientists. In this work, thermal inertia of Abeokuta City of Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria, was determined. Map of the study area was gridded using 2-min resolution which gave 5 × 5 sampling points from where core samples were collected. Bulk density (ρ s ), thermal conductivity (λ s ), and heat capacity (C s ) of the samples were determined. The pattern of variation of the city view of I (in the order of ×103 Jm−2 s−1/2 K−1) showed that the main urban built-up part of the study area, Abeokuta South, had the highest I mean, 0.76160 with standard deviation of 0.032547 and standard error of 0.01455541. The trend also varied along each sampling latitudinal line. It ranges between 0.509 and 0.756 on latitude 7° 14′, 0.557 and 0.768 on latitude 7° 12′, 0.642 and 0.782 on latitude 7° 10′, 0.7 and 0.794 on latitude 7° 08′, and between 0.642 and 0.728 on latitude 7° 06′. Hence, we have estimated thermal inertia of Abeokuta using the thermophysical properties of the study area. Thermal inertia tends to gradually decrease with distance from the city center (Abeokuta South). This result is promising in possible future consideration of urban ground heat energy conversion to other forms of energy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2950-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Hydrocarbon reservoir characterization of “AY” field, deep-water Niger
           Delta using 3D seismic and well logs
    • Authors: Oluseun Adetola Sanuade; Adesoji Olumayowa Akanji; Michael Adeyinka Oladunjoye; Abayomi Adesola Olaojo; Julius O. Fatoba
      Abstract: Three-dimensional seismic and well log data from nine wells were used for the characterization of “AY” field in the deep-water, Niger Delta. Result shows that the field has a complex structural arrangement consisting of series of northeast-southwest-trending and northwest-dipping synthetic faults. Petrophysical evaluation of the available well logs helped in identifying 11 hydrocarbon-bearing sands noted as A1000, A1100, A1200, A2000, B2000, B2100, C3000, C3100, D4000, D4100, and E5000. Reservoirs A1000, A1100, A1200, A2000, B2000, C3000, and D4000 are gas-bearing sands while reservoirs B2100, C3100, D4100, and E5000 are oil bearing. The average effective porosity of these reservoirs ranges from 0.168 to 0.292; water saturation is estimated to be between 0.177 and 0.59 and net-to-gross (NTG) ratio from 0.081 to 0.734. Considering the uncertainty in the input petrophysical parameters as well as structural uncertainty particularly in fluid contact, the total hydrocarbon reserves in the field were estimated to vary between 266.942 and 334.457 Bscf and 132.612 and 150.036 MMbbl for gas and oil volumes, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2941-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • A fully coupled numerical modeling to investigate the role of rock
           thermo-mechanical properties on reservoir uplifting in steam assisted
           gravity drainage
    • Authors: Seyed Erfan Saberhosseini; Reza Keshavarzi; Kaveh Ahangari
      Abstract: One of the crucial consequences of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process is abnormal reservoir uplifting under thermal steam injection, which can significantly influence the reservoir rock deformation, specifically thin bed reservoirs and causes intensive failures and fractures into the cap rock formations. A thorough understanding of the influences of rock thermo-mechanical properties on reservoir uplifting plays an important role in preventing those aforementioned failures within design and optimization process in SAGD. In addition, coupling of reservoir porous medium and flowing of specific fluid with temperature as an additional degree of freedom with initial pore pressure and in-situ stress condition, are also very challenging parts of geomechanical coupled simulation which would be clearly explained. Thus, a fully coupled thermo-poro-elastic geomechanical model with finite element codes was performed in ABAQUS to investigate the role of rock thermo-mechanical parameters on reservoir vertical uplift during steam injection. It is clearly observed that, any increase in rock thermo-mechanical properties specifically rock’s thermal properties such as specific heat, thermal expansion, and formation’s thermal conductivity, have significant influences on reservoir uplift. So by coupling the temperature as an additional degree of freedom with the coupled pore-fluid stress and diffusion finite element model of SAGD process, the more realistic simulation will be conducted; hence, the errors related to not having heat as an additional degree of freedom will be diminished. In addition, Young’s modulus and specific heat are the rock thermo-mechanical parameters which have the maximum and minimum effects on the reservoir uplift, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2937-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Geochemistry of deep-sea sediments in two cores retrieved at the mouth of
           the Coatzacoalcos River delta, western Gulf of Mexico, Mexico
    • Authors: Mayla A. Ramos-Vázquez; John S. Armstrong-Altrin; Leticia Rosales-Hoz; María L. Machain-Castillo; Arturo Carranza-Edwards
      Abstract: Coastal margins, especially the river-influenced coastal areas, are considered as active interfaces between the continental and oceanic environments, which have huge dispersal of detrital materials and heavy metal input. It is well determined that the fine-grained sediments are important reservoir for the accumulation of heavy metals. In this study, we analyzed the radiocarbon age, texture, organic matter, carbonate content, and geochemical compositions of two sediment cores (GM42 and GM44) retrieved in front of the Coatzacoalcos River mouth basin, southwestern Gulf of Mexico (∼864 and 845 m water depth, respectively). Our objective was to infer the sedimentation rate, intensity of weathering, provenance, and influence of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal contamination in sediments. The radiocarbon-age measurements of mixed planktonic foraminifera for core GM44 reveals an age of 21,289 ± 136 cal. years B.P., which fall within the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21000 ± 2000 years B.P). The calculated sedimentation rate for core GM42 (~0.013 cm/year) is lower than in core GM44 (0.022 cm/year), which is probably due to the variations in detrital sediment input and/or seafloor topography. The weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical index of weathering (CIW), and plagioclase index of alteration (PIA) suggested that the source area experienced low to moderate intensity of chemical weathering under warm to humid climatic conditions. The SiO2/Al2O3, Al2O3/Na2O, and K2O/Al2O3 ratio values indicated moderate to high compositional maturity. The major and trace element concentrations suggested that the sediments were likely derived from intermediate source rocks. The heavy metal contents indicated that the sediments were not contaminated by the industrial waste disposals supplied by the Coatzacoalcos River. The redox proxy sensitive elements such as V, Cr, Cu, and Zn indicated an oxic depositional environment for the deep-sea sediment cores. The application of discrimination diagrams for the geochemistry data revealed a passive margin setting for the sediment cores. The compositional variations observed at the upper sections (<30 cm) between the two sediment cores revealed that the type of detrital sediments supplied by the Coatzacoalcos River to the deep sea area is not uniform, which is also revealed by the variation in sedimentation rate.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2934-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of carnallite content on mechanical properties of Maha Sarakham
           rock salt
    • Authors: Amornrat Luangthip; Naphaphat Wilalak; Thanittha Thongprapha; Kittitep Fuenkajorn
      Abstract: Mechanical characterization tests are performed to determine the effects of carnallite contents on the strength, elasticity, and time-dependent parameters of rock salt specimens obtained from the Lower Member of the Maha Sarakham formation. The specimens are prepared with carnallite content (C %) varying from 0% (pure halite) to 100% (pure carnallite). The compressive and tensile strengths and elastic moduli of the specimens exponentially decrease with increasing C %. Specimens with higher C % tend to dilate more than those with lower C %, as evidenced by the increasing of the Poisson’s ratio. The strength reduction due to the carnallite content decreases as the confining pressures increase. The elastic, visco-elastic, and visco-plastic parameters of the creep test specimens are defined as a function of C %. They rapidly decrease with increasing C %. Pure halite tends to behave as the Burgers material while pure carnallite behaves as the Maxwell material. The different creep rates and deformation mechanisms between halite and carnallite explain the occurrences and structures of potash ore deposit at the shelves and flanks of the salt domes and anticlines in the salt basin.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2945-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Geostatistical lithofacies modeling of the upper sandstone member/Zubair
           formation in south Rumaila oil field, Iraq
    • Authors: Watheq J. Al-Mudhafar
      Abstract: Geological facies modeling is a crucial problem for reservoir characterization as it affects the reservoir heterogeneities and fluid flow performance prediction. The main purpose of this research is to adopt a stochastic simulation to construct 3D lithofacies models of the tidal/estuarine depositional environment of the upper sandstone member in south Rumaila oil field, located in Iraq. Based on core measurements, the upper sandstone member has three main lithofacies: sand, shaly sand, and shale. Literature review indicates that the formation is encompassed of mainly sandstone with some inter-bedded shale zones. To reconstruct the 3D lithofacies model, the sequential indicator simulation (SISIM) was adopted to build the categorical image, pixel by pixel, considering the nonparametric condition distribution. Specifically, SISIM depends on the variogram to address and model the variation between any two spatial points from the available data. Therefore, 12 different variograms were constructed given the three lithofacies in four different azimuth directions: 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°.The resulting lithofacies models in the four selected azimuth directions have shown frequent tidal lithofacies channeling and indicate an approximate matching with the original description of the formation depositional environment of the tidal-dominated and sand-rich environment. The generated lithofacies model in 135° direction has sand channels prevailing towards the southeast shoreline of the reservoir. The created lithofacies model also preserves the reservoir complexity and heterogeneity because it was created using a high-resolution gridding system with approximately two million grids. Additionally, the resulting tidal lithofacies model ensures reservoir heterogeneity as the petrophysical properties are then distributed given each lithofacies with distinct indicator variograms.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2951-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Numerical transformation technique for coordinate systems in the Kingdom
           of Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Ahmad H. Alashaikh
      Abstract: In general, spatial data are not unified in the same coordinate system. The combination of data from different sources is considered a problematic practice in land surveying and geographic information systems (GIS). Therefore, there is a need to apply one of the coordinate transformation methods, in which have two types of transformations: analytical and numerical. The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection is widely used for maps in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), along with two different data: The World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and The National Geodetic Network (NGN). This makes the process of analytical transformation more complex. In this paper, a new numerical transformation technique using a second-degree polynomial is proposed. Both analytical and numerical (second-degree polynomial) transformation types were applied for a single group of study points. Coordinates obtained from both the methods were compared. Moreover, the proposed method was also verified against the conformity criterion. Results indicated that the proposed transformation technique is conformal and can be effectively used for KSA maps.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2903-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Types and nature of fracture associated with Late Ordovician paleochannels
           of glaciofluvial Sarah Formation, Qasim region, Central Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Jarrah Mohammed Ahmed Babiker; Mustafa Mohammed Hariri; Osman Abdullatif; Gabor Korvin
      Abstract: This study evaluates the Late Ordovician glaciofluvial deposits of the Sarah Formation and equivalent outcroppings in north, central, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The Sarah Formation also covers a wide area in the subsurface and is considered as an important target for unconventional tight gas reservoir. Defining the fracture types, nature, and distribution in outcrop scale might help to establish a successful fracture simulation model and behavior for the Sarah tight gas reservoir in the subsurface. This study investigates fracture characteristics for the Sarah Formation at Sarah paleochannel outcrops. The study revealed three sets of fractures, which have EW, NS, and SE-NW directions, and these fractures vary from open, resistive, and filled to resistive fractures. The closed fractures are filled with ferruginated iron oxides and gypsum. The filled fractures (the thrust boundary) are found in the study area at the SE-NW strike fracture set, while open and resistive fractures are found mainly at S-N and E-W fracture sets, respectively. The syn-depositional filled fractures (iron oxides) are considered as the younger fracture sets while the open and resistive fractures are post-depositional fractures which may have resulted from uplift or tectonic movement. A general model representing the fracture pattern and the thrusting boundaries due to glacial movement was constructed. It has been noticed that the systematic occurrence of filled fractures (thrust boundaries) described the boundaries between different glacial events, which act as a fluid barrier (filled fractures) and decrease the reservoir quality. The finding of this study might be utilized as a guide and lead for exploration in the subsurface Sarah glacial deposits. It will also help to understand and speculate the nature pattern and distribution of fractures with the Sarah Formation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2922-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of ground water quality contaminants using linear regression
           and artificial neural network models
    • Authors: G. Charulatha; S. Srinivasalu; O. Uma Maheswari; T. Venugopal; L. Giridharan
      Abstract: Contamination of groundwater is one of the major health concerns in the rapidly urbanizing and industrializing world. Since groundwater is one of the most important resources for the domestic, industrial, and agricultural purposes, the quality and quantity is of prime importance. Nitrite which is a reduced form of nitrate ion is one of the potential contaminants in the groundwater. The detection of nitrite ion is one of the laborious works and also it gets easily oxidized to nitrate ion and hence modeling approaches for the nitrite concentration will be one of the resilient quantification techniques. In the present study, the effective performance of the linear and non-linear models such as multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR), artificial neural network (ANN), and the integrated technique of principal components and artificial neural network (PC-ANN) is evaluated in the prediction of the nitrite concentration. The MLR and PCR showed better results either in generation step or in the validation step but not both. ANN shows better results in both generation and validation steps but the results in the validation steps, though good but accuracy is comparatively lower than the generation step. In the case of PC-ANN, the prediction of the model is found to be good both in the generation and in the validation steps. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency test clearly illustrates better performance of PC-ANN in comparison with other models in the present study for the quantification of nitrite concentration in groundwater.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2867-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Peak flood estimation under overtopping and piping conditions at Vahdat
           Dam, Kurdistan Iran
    • Authors: Ata Amini; Alborz Arya; Afshin Eghbalzadeh; Mitra Javan
      Abstract: Estimation of maximum discharge and time of transfer dam break wave are among the main factors in provision of emergency action plan and safety assessment of dams. Most dam breaks begin with a breach in the body of the dam or flood overtopping. Estimation of maximum discharge for determining affected areas and also determination of hazards due to the dam break are essential issues. In this research, the dam break of Vahdat Dam located in Kurdistan, Iran, and in neighborhood of Sanandaj City was simulated by integrating ArcMap and HEC-RAS software and field observations. The necessary data was collected from the corresponding organizations. The Manning coefficient of the Gheshlagh River at downstream of the dam was estimated using the Manning coefficient relationships and field observations and measurements. The breach dimensions were determined using the conventional empirical relationships. The dam breaks in both overtopping and piping states were simulated. The maximum discharge values obtained from the modeling and empirical relationships were compared. The results indicated the substantial effect of selecting break types on the hydraulic characteristics of dam break wave in the river and downstream areas. While in the case of break due to the breach, selection of the methods for calculation of breach dimensions would affect the break and these relationships in various conditions would give different breach dimensions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2854-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments using the gamma dimensionless
           time-area method
    • Authors: T. Sabzevari
      Abstract: Time-area (TA), which constitutes the basis for rainfall-runoff transformation in the Clark model, is conventionally derived from the tedious procedure of delineating isochrones. In the present study, by combining the Nash instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), in terms of the gamma function, and the Clark model, a new TA relationship (TAR) is introduced. This equation involves the Nash models’ parameters (i.e., the number of reservoirs, n, and the storage coefficient, k). Considering that n = 5 for ungauged catchments, the following equation for estimating k was obtained: k = t c /4.24, with t c being the time of concentration of the catchment. Finally, a gamma time-area (GTA) function was derived for estimating the time-area diagram (TAD) of catchments. The TADs derived from the GTA function were compared to the GIS-based TADs and those derived from the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) method and the kinematic wave (KW) model in four catchments, namely, Kasilian, Ajay, Jafarabad, and Shourandika. In the Kasilian catchment, the direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) was simulated using the Clark model based on the GTA and USACE methods and compared with the observed hydrographs. Results indicate that the coefficient of efficiency (CE) in the Kasilian catchment for the two methods is approximately 0.8, while the errors in the peak discharge prediction are 9 and 11.2% in the GTA and USACE methods, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2852-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Analyze the spatial distribution of lava flows in Al-Ays Volcanic Area,
           Saudi Arabia, using remote sensing
    • Authors: Saad Mogren; Hakim Saibi; Manoj Mukhopadhyay; Joachim Gottsmann; El-Khedr H. Ibrahim
      Abstract: The Al-Ays Volcanic Area (AAVA) experienced a massive earthquake swarm in 2009 under the Harrat Lunayyir (HL). To examine the space distribution of basaltic lava flows in AAVA, we present here an analysis of satellite images. This has helped to identify three generations of lava flows within AAVA for the first time, their spatial extent and relationship to geological features. Various remote sensing treatments were applied to the Landsat 8 image: (a) color composites, (b) band ratioing, (c) principal component analysis, and (d) a mathematical index. Spectral analysis of the maps assists with charting the spatial configuration of the lava flows. Total area occupied by basalts is ~677 km2, of which the oldest lava flows occupy almost 52% (354 km2) and the lavas of intermediate age share 43% (295 km2) while the recent lava flows merely share 5% (28 km2), including 6.8 km2 referring to the volcanic cones. It should be noted that the generation of lava flows outlines a rather small area, of ≤20 km radius, circumventing the swarm epicenter zone. These maps may prove useful in volcanic hazard mapping for the rugged terrain.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2889-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Palorbitolina (Blumenbach, 1805), Lower Cretaceous benthic foraminifera,
           of Iraq: evolutionary and stratigraphic implications
    • Authors: Mamoun Ubaid Mohammed
      Abstract: The current study indicates on the ability of the use of dimensional measurements obtained from the embryonic apparatus of the genus Palorbitolina Blumenbach and its temporal structural development, in determining early Late Barremian–Early Aptian geological formations of Iraq. Species with spherical or compressed protoconch and simple deutroconch represent early Late Barremian. On the other hand, increase of the protoconch size and its tendency to shift from a spherical to an elliptical shape, as well as the increase of secondary chamberlets to form a chain surrounding it, leads to the following: • In the upper part of the Early Aptian (except the latest parts), there is a concurrent occurrence of the species Palorbitolina lenticularis with a spherical protoconch and the species Palorbitolina ultima showing a protoconch with a tendency of slightly elliptical morphology and becoming completely surrounded from the side and the lower portions by secondary chamberlets. • In the latest parts of the Early Aptian, P. ultima disappears and P. lenticularis remains with the protoconch with an obvious elliptical shape.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2928-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study of performance of real-time satellite-derived rainfall
           in Swat Catchment
    • Authors: Muhammad Umar; Adil Latif; Syed Amer Mahmood
      Abstract: Most of the conventional models require rainfall data for realistic modeling results, and where ground data is scarce, remotely sensed data plays a vital role. For monitoring, hydrological models require near real-time observations to allow for effective planning and forecasting. However, monitoring rainfall in mountainous region is difficult because of inaccessibility and sparse gauge density. However, the accurateness of these satellite estimates over different spatial and temporal scales is unknown. The study intended at carrying out a comparative analysis of satellite rainfall estimates as a substitution for ground-based rainfall observations in the Swat Catchment. Limited availability of temporally continuous available data records in Pakistan has been a problem and has effected the reliability of modeling results. As well as, data is not freely available and cost is the biggest hindrance to its usage. So, remotely sensed data plays a vital role both in terms of timely availability and its free of charge. For this region, only two remotely sensed gridded data products are freely available, i.e., NOAA RFE CA and TRMM RT. Respective two products have been analyzed by various verification statistics. RFE CA proves better probability of detection, false alarm ratio, threat score, and equitable threat score than TRMM RT. The outcome of this comparative study concludes that for hydrological modeling purposes, RFE CA data is the best choice in this region. The annual bias for RFE CA and TRMM RT is 14% (over-estimation) and 18% (under-estimation) over the years having coefficient of determination with the ground-based data of 0.87 and 0.76, respectively, on annual basis. The result shows the suitability of RFE CA for effective monthly rainfall-runoff modeling in Swat Catchment, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2894-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Sub-basin scale spatial variability of soil properties in Central Iran
    • Authors: Bahareh Aghasi; Ahmad Jalalian; Hossein Khademi; Norair Toomanian
      Abstract: Scientific information on the spatial variability of soil properties is essential for making sustainable soil and environmental management decisions. The spatial variation of soil electrical conductivity (EC), pH, carbonates, gypsum, gravel, clay, silt and sand in the Gavkhooni sub-basin, Central Iran was studied employing conventional statistics, geostatistics and a geographical information system (ArcGIS). By the method of random sampling within blocks, the study area was divided into 100 blocks of 6×6 km2 and in each block surface, samples (0–10 cm) were taken randomly. The EC content showed strong variation (CV>100%), pH and carbonates exhibited weak variation (CV<10%) and the other properties showed moderate variation. Soil parameters such as gravel, silt and gypsum were best fitted by a Gaussian model, sand and carbonates fitted best with a Spherical model and the remaining soil parameters were fitted to the Exponential model. Based on the models, the spatial correlation (range) of the soil properties greatly changed from 5.6 (sand) to 74.5 km (EC). Soil pH, EC, carbonates and clay had strong spatial dependence whereas the other properties had moderate spatial dependence. The spatial distribution maps were prepared using ordinary kriging interpolation. Comparison of the results using statistical methods indicated that kriging technique had satisfactory accuracy in characterizing the spatial variability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2921-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Multiple indicators prediction method of rock burst based on microseismic
           monitoring technology
    • Authors: Shuren Wang; Chunyang Li; Wenfa Yan; Zhengsheng Zou; Wenxue Chen
      Abstract: Rock burst prediction method for coal mining is one of the worldwide challenging problems. Based on a high precision microseismic monitoring system consisting of nine geophones installed in Qixing Coal Mine in China, abundant microseismic events were detected through the continuous monitoring for 80 days. The potential high risk areas of rock burst were determined by analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of microseismic events, which provides the basis for the early risk warning during the mining process. After a comprehensive analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of the microseismic events, a prediction model for rock burst prediction was built based on the principles of seismology and rock mechanics by setting four indicators as prediction parameters, such as the average number of microseismic events N, the average released energy E, the decrease Δb of the seismological parameter b, and the potential maximum seismic magnitude M m. It was found that all the four prediction indicators are useful for predicting rock burst but they could vary greatly in efficiency in the practical engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2946-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Hydrochemical characteristics and evaluation of the granite aquifer in the
           Alwadeen area, southwest Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Sattam Almadani; Hussain Alfaifi; Abdullah Al-Amri; Mohamed Fnais; Elkhedr Ibrahim; Kamal Abdelrahman; Mohammed Shehata; Faisal Zaidi
      Abstract: This study was carried out in the Alwadeen area of Khamis Mushayt district of southwestern Saudi Arabia to evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of the shallow hard rock aquifers. These hard rock aquifers mostly comprise granites and contain significant quantities of groundwater that complement the available groundwater from the unconsolidated alluvial sediments in the nearby wadis. The field investigation indicates two main fracture sets which intersect each other and are oriented in the west-northwest and east-west directions. The granitic rocks in the area are intruded by coarse-grained and quartz-rich monzogranite and pegmatite veins. Hydrogeologically, the fracture systems are important since they facilitate the groundwater storage and assume the transmissive function during times of groundwater abstraction. Given the fact that groundwater in the fractured rock aquifers generally occurs at shallow depths, it may be exposed to contamination from surface and/or near-surface sources, and it is therefore important to evaluate its quality. To this end, a hydrochemical analysis was carried out on six groundwater samples collected from the area. The hydrochemistry revealed that the groundwater is fairly fresh, and facies analysis reveals mixed Na-Cl and Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 types. Overall, the results reveal that the groundwater is saturated with calcite and dolomite, but unsaturated with gypsum and halite. The degree of salinity increases in the direction of the groundwater flow due to increased rock-water interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2873-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Temporal and spatial variations in the engineering properties of the
           sediments in Ramganga River, Ganga Basin, India
    • Authors: Shaumik Daityari; Mohd Yawar Ali Khan
      Abstract: Development of infrastructure needs enormous natural Earth materials in the form of coarse and fine river aggregate materials. In India, flood plains of the Himalayan Rivers serve as an important source of river sand, leading to extensive sand mining. River Ramganga, the first major tributary of River Ganga, is one such river. In this study, 28 samples of river sediments across the stretch of the river were collected over two seasons: pre-monsoon and monsoon. The engineering properties of these sediments were studied with respect to the specifications of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to understand the suitability of their use as fine aggregates in construction. An attempt has also been made in this study to correlate the variability of these properties with respect to the location and time of collection to the Ramganga River Dam at Kalagarh, the contribution of major tributaries, and the effect of monsoon. A pattern emerges from the variation of the physical properties that is explicable by these factors, whereas in general, the variation of the chemical properties does not follow a regular pattern.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2915-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effect of bedding planes on wave velocity and AE characteristics of the
           Longmaxi shale in China
    • Authors: Feng Xu; Chunhe Yang; Yintong Guo; Lei Wang; Zhenkun Hou; Haoran Li; Xiaoming Hu; Tongtao Wang
      Abstract: The experimental work described in this paper was carried out in order to discover more about the effects of bedding planes on wave velocity and acoustic emission (AE) characteristics of shale. Two groups of specimens, which were collected from the Longmaxi shale outcrop in Chongqing, China and cored perpendicular and parallel to the bedding planes, were tested under uniaxial compression, and the wave velocity and AE were monitored. There were obvious differences in the acoustic characteristics of shale with different bedding plane orientations. The experimental results show that (1) the average increasing rates of P- and S-wave velocities were 39.86 and 54.41%, respectively, for the specimen with a load perpendicular to the bedding planes (Y-0). The P-wave velocity and axial strain of specimen show a marked logarithmic relationship. However, the average increasing rates of P- and S-wave velocities were 5.44 and 10.54%, respectively, for the specimen with a load parallel to the bedding planes (Y-90). The good linear relationship between P-wave velocity and axial strain before failure of specimen has been built. Generally, S-wave velocity was more sensitive to axial strain than P-wave velocity. (2) AE characteristics for Y-0 showed that a few signals → quiet period → stable increase → steep increase; for Y-90: quiet period → stable increase → sudden increase → sharp increase. The AE energy for two groups of specimens was concentrated on low and middle of amplitudes (45-80 dB), but the proportion of amplitudes (80–100 dB) and the total counts of AE for Y-0 was 1.95, 2.2 times as much as that for Y-90, respectively. The results preliminarily revealed the effect of bedding orientation on the wave velocity and AE properties of shale and may provide guidance for the improvement of acoustic logging and microseismic monitoring in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-2943-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
       
 
 
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