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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Arabian Journal of Geosciences
  [SJR: 0.417]   [H-I: 16]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1866-7538 - ISSN (Online) 1866-7511
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Satellite-based rainfall estimation and discharge measurement of Middle
           Indus River, Pakistan
    • Authors: Syed Muhammad Zubair Younis; Muhammad Majid; Ahmad Ammar
      Abstract: Abstract The impacts of floods and droughts are intensified by climate change, lack of preparedness, and coordination. The average rainfall in study area is ranging from 200 to 400 mm per year. Rain gauge generally provides very accurate measurement of point rain rates and the amounts of rainfall but due to scarcity of the gauge locations provides very general information of the area on regional scale. Recognizing these practical limitations, it is essential to use remote sensing techniques for measuring the quantity of rainfall in the Middle Indus. In this research, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) estimation can be used as a proxy for the magnitude of rainfall estimates from classical methods (rain gauge), quantity, and its spatial distribution for Middle Indus river basin. In order to use TRMM satellite data for discharge measurement, its accuracy is determined by statistically comparing it with in situ gauged data on daily and monthly bases. The daily R 2 value (0.42) is significantly lower than monthly R 2 value (0.82), probably due to the time of summation of TRMM 3-hourly precipitation data into daily estimates. Daily TRMM data from 2003 to 2012 was used as input forcing in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model along with other input parameters. The calibration and validation results of SWAT model give R 2 = 0.72 and 0.73 and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency = 0.69 and 0.65, respectively. Daily and monthly comparison graphs are generated on the basis of model discharge output and observed data.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3192-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Recovering the large gaps in Landsat 7 SLC-off imagery using weighted
           multiple linear regression (WMLR)
    • Authors: Asmaa Sadiq; Loay Edwar; Ghazali Sulong
      Abstract: Abstract Since 2003, the permanent failure of the scan line corrector (SLC) of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor has seriously limited the scientific applications and usability of ETM+ data. While a number of methods have been conducted to fill the regular un-scanned locations in ETM+ SLC-off images, only a few researches have been developed to recover the large gap areas in such images. In this study, an innovative gap filling method has been introduced to reconstruct the large gap locations in SLC-off images via multi-temporal auxiliary fill images. A correlation is established between the corresponding pixels in the target SLC-off image and two auxiliary fill images in parallel using the multiple linear regression (MLR) model in two successive steps. In the first step, almost half the gap locations have been recovered using the MLR model, then in the second step a weighted multiple linear regression (WMLR) algorithm is proposed to recover the remaining missing values. The simulated and actual case studies show that the proposed approach may provide a powerful tool for recovering the large gaps in SLC-off images, especially when there is a long time interval between the auxiliary fill images and the target SLC-off image.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3121-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Retraction Note to: Physiological comparative study of six wild grapevine
           ( Vitis sylvestris ) accession responses to salinity
    • Authors: Hend Askri; Fatma Gharbi; Saloua Rejeb; Ahmed Mliki; Abdelwahed Ghorbel
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3169-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Heterogeneity analysis of reservoir porosity and permeability in the Late
           Ordovician glacio-fluvial Sarah Formation paleovalleys, central Saudi
           Arabia
    • Authors: Islam El-Deek; Osman Abdullatif; Gabor Korvin
      Abstract: Abstract The Late Ordovician glacio-fluvial Sarah Formation is an important tight gas reservoir target in Saudi Arabia. This study uses statistical methods to characterize the petrophysical heterogeneity of the paleovalleys of the Sarah Formation that crop out in central Saudi Arabia. Four paleovalleys were studied: Bukayriyah, Hanadir, Sarah, and Khanasir Sarah. Several lithofacies were identified in each that vary in texture, porosity, permeability, and facies abundance that reflect periods of ice advance and retreat. The heterogeneity analysis is based on three statistical measures, namely, the coefficient of variation, the Dykstra-Parsons coefficient, and the Lorenz coefficient. The coefficient of variation values is in the 0.62–1.94 range, indicating an extremely heterogeneous distribution. The Dykstra-Parsons coefficient values are in the 0.56–0.88 range, suggesting very high to extremely high heterogeneity in the reservoirs. The Lorenz coefficient correlates well with the Dykstra-Parsons coefficient for paleovalleys of the Sarah Formation. The heterogeneity parameters studied here indicate that the outcrops of Sarah Formation paleovalleys represent heterogeneous to very heterogeneous reservoirs, which may be attributed to complex depositional and diagenetic variations that have affected the porosity and permeability distribution.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3146-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Morphotectonic controls of groundwater flow regime and relating
           environmental impacts in Northwest Sinai, Egypt
    • Authors: Ahmed E. El-Rayes; Mohamed O. Arnous; Akram M. Aziz
      Abstract: Abstract The frequent appearance of some hydro-environmental hazard features, such as waterlogging and soil salinization along the susceptible zones at Northwest Sinai area (NWSA), has put serious challenges and obstacles for a correct and efficient land use planning of this region, for several decades. Although previous studies have shown that the whole region of Northern Sinai is greatly affected by the tectonic movements associated with the Syrian Arc folding system (SAS), NWSA is barren of any obvious surficial structures. The current work aims to investigate the effect of subsurface tectonic features on the hydrogeologic regime of NWSA. Hydrogeological and remote sensing data were integrated with ground geophysical gravity and magnetic measurements, using the geographic information system. Data integration asserts the role played by buried tectonic features not only in governing the landforms of the upper water-bearing quaternary formations but also in controlling their flow regime. Two major subsurface structures were identified through interpreting the geophysical measurements. A buried dome-like structure, dominating the central part of the mapped area, coincides with the radial flow pattern observed on the water table map. At the southwestern corner of the study area, an elevated groundwater level, caused by continuous groundwater accumulation at the discharge boundary, is superimposing a subsurface block-faulted depression. The waterlogging features (saturation of the soil by groundwater and inundation of local depressions due to rising of water table) dominating the discharge lowlands of NWSA support the conclusion that a buried block-faulted structure exerts a strong influence on the thickness and groundwater flow regime of the shallow quaternary aquifer.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3188-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Wrench tectonics of Abu Gharadig Basin, Western Desert, Egypt: a
           structural analysis for hydrocarbon prospects
    • Authors: Mohammad Abdelfattah Sarhan
      Abstract: Abstract Mapping based on the interpreted seismic data covering the Abu Gharadig Basin in the northern Western Desert has revealed that the deposition of the Upper Cretaceous succession was controlled by dextral wrench tectonics. This dextral shear accompanied NW movement of the African Plate relative to Laurasian Plate. Structural depth maps of the Cenomanian Bahariya Formation and the Turonian-Coniacian D and A members of Abu Roash Formation display a clear NE-SW anticline dissected by NW-SE normal faults. This anticline represents one of the en echelon folds characterizing the wrench compressional component. The interpreted normal faults reflect the extensional T-fractures associated with the wrenching tectonics. The interaction between the aforementioned NE-SW anticline with the NW-SE extensional faults further confirms the effect of the Upper Cretaceous dextral wrench tectonic. However, the influence of this wrench tectonics was gradually diminishing from the Cenomanian up to the Coniacian times. The NW-SE compressional stress of the dextral wrench compressional component during the Cenomanian up to Coniacian age was greater in NW direction than the SE direction. Three mapped structural closures which are predicted to be potential hydrocarbon traps belonging to the Bahariya Formation and Abu Roash D Member, and are recommended to be drilled in the study area, with potential reservoirs. The regularity of the en echelon array of both anticlines and normal faults within the wrench zones suggests additional closures may be located elsewhere beside the study area.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3176-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • The El Achour (Algiers, Algeria) landslide delimitation using the H/V
           ambient vibration method
    • Authors: Ghani Cheikh Lounis; Omar Mimouni; Djamel Machane; Amina Bacha
      Abstract: Abstract We present in this work investigations using seismic ambient vibration to delimitate the El Achour landslide (Algiers), upon which independent geotechnical studies were carried out. Acquisition campaign of ambient vibration on the El Achour site on June 2009 and June 2015, over a surface of about 2 ha, consisted of 64 records of ambient noise with a 10 to 20 m grid size. This approach consists of simple, light, and fast H/V acquisitions, in order to determine the extension of the unstable zone, the depth of the sliding surface, and to test the effectiveness of this method. Two peaks were interpreted as one being for the sliding surface and the other for the lithological interface. As results, in the stable area, they are satisfactory. Indeed, the points in this area are not intermediate peaks which could be related to potential sliding surfaces, which led us to think that we could delineate, using this method, the unstable area from the stable area. The HVSR method allows to determine the thickness of the geological formations and to highlight the lateral and vertical facies changes in broad area.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3175-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • A novel approach to estimate the variations in stresses and fault state
           due to depletion of reservoirs
    • Authors: Pouria Behnoud far; Mohammad Javad Ameri; Mostafa Orooji
      Abstract: Abstract Geomechanical changes may occur in reservoirs due to production from reservoirs. Study of these changes has an important role in upcoming operations. Frictional equilibrium is one of the items that should be determined during the depletion as it may vary with respect to time. Pre-existing faults and fractures will slide in regions where there is no frictional equilibrium. Hence, it may be concluded that reduction in pore pressure can initiate the sliding of faults. Whereas, it is also possible that faults will not exist after a certain time as production recovers the equilibrium. Casing shearing or lost circulation may be occurred due to faulting. In reservoirs which depletion leads to frictional equilibrium, decrease of fractures and faults leads to some variations in permeability. Hence, predicting the effect of depletion on frictional equilibrium is required in dealing with casing shearing or lost circulation in drilling of new wells. In addition, permeability modeling will be more precise during the life of reservoirs. Estimation of necessary time to create or vanish faults is vital to be successful in production from wells or drilling new wells. Achieving or loosing of equilibrium mainly depends on in situ stresses and rate of production. Estimation of the in situ stresses at the initiation state of reservoir is the key to study the state of faults. The next step is to predict the effects of depletion on in situ stresses. Different models are suggested in which decrease of horizontal stresses is predicted as function of pore pressure variation. In these models, different assumptions are made such as simplifying the poroelastic theory, ignoring the passing time, and considering the geometry of reservoir. In this article, a new model is proposed based on theory of inclusions and boundary element method. This state-of-the-art model considers the geometry of reservoir. In addition, changes of in situ are obtained as a function of time to reach to a more precise model capable of applying during the reservoir life. Finally, the model is imposed on real cases. The effect of depletion on faults is studied in reservoirs of normal and strike-slip stress regimes, and conventional and proposed models are compared. For this aim, in the first step, mechanical earth models of these two reservoirs are built using logging and coring data. Stress polygon method and poroelastic horizontal strain model are used for strike-slip and normal regimes, respectively. In reservoir 1 which is in a strike-slip stress regime, a fault is distinguished in formation microimaging (FMI) log. For this reservoir, the required time to achieve to frictional equilibrium is calculated. In the reservoir 2, the potential depth of fault sliding is analyzed and required time for faulting in that depth is predicted. The predicted time for satisfaction of frictional equilibrium using the proposed model has a significant difference with the predicted time using the previous methods. In addition, the proposed model predicts that different parts of reservoir 2 are willing for faulting during depletion. The previous model determines only one point that faulting may happen. It is necessary to use this new model to consider different important factors such as geometry and time to gain more accurate predictions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3184-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • New insight of the geological structures and tectonic framework of Ahnet
           and northwestern part of Tin Zaouatine terranes (western Hoggar, Algeria)
           constraints from aeromagnetic, gamma ray, and remote sensing data
    • Authors: Massinissa Amara; M. Hamoudi; S. Djemaï; A. Bendaoud; G. Dufréchou; W. M. Jessell; H. Boubekri; K. Ouzegane; M. Guemmama; D. Machane
      Abstract: Abstract The Ahnet and Tin Zaouatine terranes are located in the southern sector of the Algerian Desert and are part of the Tuareg Shield, which was built up during east-west shortening (Pan-African orogeny). This paper presents a new 1/200,000 geological and tectonic map of the Tin Tanet Firt sheet map (mainly of the Ahnet terrane and the northwestern part of the Tin Zaouatine terrane). Enhancement and processing of multispectral satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+) combined with field campaign and airborne geophysics was used to discriminate geological lithologies and tectonic structures. We define six geological domains: (i) Palaeozoic formation and Cambrian continental facies and plutonic rocks, (ii) Late- to post-orogenic plutonic rocks, (iii) synchronous orogenic plutonic rocks, (iv) Neoproterozoic formation, (v) Mesoproterozoic volcanics, metasedimentary rocks, and associated plutonic rocks, and (vi) Late Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks. Airborne magnetic data and textural features derived from remote sensing and fieldwork allow us to identify faults and shear zones that affect the whole studied terrane. Interpreted tectonic lines and foliation paths leads us to suggest a deformation model which involves two deformation pahses: an older N-S to NNE-SSW shortening D1 and a younger D2 defined by the N-S trend and a compressional character revealed in the Ahnet terrane and Camp Zohra Complex domain which is considered a continuum deformation split into three phases that affect and form structures of the whole Ahnet and the northwestern part of Tin Zaouatine terranes at the Pan-African orogeny. The most recent stress field recorded in this region is expressed as NE-SW strike-slip faults.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3060-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Rock strata movement and subsidence based on MDDA, an improved
           discontinuous deformation analysis method in mining engineering
    • Authors: Jian-ping Zuo; Yun-jiang Sun; Yue-chun Li; Jin-tao Wang; Xu Wei; Long Fan
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a new program MDDA (mining discontinuous deformation analysis) has been developed to simulate the continuous excavation process in mining engineering based on the existing discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA). Through MDDA simulation, both the real-time stress distribution and evolution of rock strata movement during the mining process could be effectively obtained. A simple example was used to test the effectiveness of MDDA. The calculation results from MDDA well agreed with the theoretical results of the example. MDDA was applied to simulate roof falling and stress field evolution during mining process. The lateral pressure coefficient almost had no influence on rock strata subsidence in spite of some influence on roof fracture mechanics. What is more, the strata subsidence laws of MDDA simulation were approximately consistent with the Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) and similar simulation results.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3190-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Ostracod assemblages from the uppermost Pliensbachian and Lower Toarcian
           of the Traras Mountains (Tlemcen Domain, north Algeria)
    • Authors: C. Soulimane; M. Reolid; A. Marok
      Abstract: Abstract This work presents a taxonomic study of the Upper Pliensbachian-Lower Toarcian ostracods from the Traras Mountains situated in northwestern of Algeria. The ostracod fauna comprises 8 families, 11 genera and 20 species. Important changes in the composition of the ostracod assemblages have been recorded related to the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary and the Polymorphum-Levisoni zonal boundary (the biotic crisis related to the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event). This turnover is denoted by the uppermost Pliensbachian assemblages dominated by the families Healdiidae and Cytherellidae to the upper part of Levisoni Zone with the assemblages dominated by the families Protocytheridae and Polycopidae. Ten species of ostracods are recognised for the first time from the Lower Toarcian of the North Gondwana palaeomargin (Bairdia kempfi, Bairdiacypris dorisae, B. triangularis, Ektyphocythere bizoni, Ogmoconcha convexa, Paracypris sp. and Polycope cincinnata). The comparison with other regions (intrafamilial comparison and qualitative comparison) reveals close relationships between the location of the basins and their taxonomic compositions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3180-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • Human health risk as a basis for prioritizing air quality monitoring
           stations in a megacity: a case study
    • Authors: Kamal Jyoti Maji; Anil Kumar Dikshit; Ashok Deshpande
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an objective methodology for determining the optimum number of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network based on human health risk (HHR). The case study is related to HHRs in terms of mortality and morbidity (hospital admission) due to adverse effects of air pollution in 41 wards in Delhi in India, which were evaluated using Ri-MAP model developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations of the air pollutants total suspended particles (TSP) or its surrogate, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are applied. It was found that an average total mortality was 1150 [631–1852 at 95% confidence interval (CI)], cardiovascular mortality was 450 (440–665 at 95% CI), respiratory mortality was 170 (96–288 at 95% CI), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity was 176 (2–333 at 95% CI) for every one million population in Delhi according to 2008 population statistics. There were 20 wards which had mortality and morbidity higher than the average. It may be concluded that pollution control authorities need to monitor air quality in these 20 identified locations having high health risk more rigorously. From the result, it was also seen that the excess number of mortality and morbidity in Delhi was basically due to particulate matter (PM) than due to gaseous pollutants. Hence, the pollution control authorities in Delhi urgently need proper management policy to improve ambient air quality in terms of TSP levels.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3186-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 18 (2017)
       
  • A MODIS-based modeling scheme for the estimation of downward surface
           shortwave radiation under cloud-free conditions
    • Authors: Eslam Javadnia; Ali Akbar Abkar; Per Schubert
      Abstract: Abstract Atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) plays an important role in radiation modeling and partly determines the accuracy of estimated downward surface shortwave radiation (DSSR). In this study, Iqbal’s model C was used to estimate DSSR under cloud-free conditions over the Koohin and Chitgar sites in Tehran, Iran; the estimated DSSR was based on (1) our proposed hybrid modeling scheme where the AOD is retrieved using the Simplified Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (SARA), ground-based measurements at the AERONET site in Zanjan and (2) the AOD from the Terra MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Several other Terra MODIS land and atmospheric products were also used as input data, including geolocation properties, water vapor, total ozone, surface reflectance, and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance. SARA-based DSSR and MODIS-based DSSR were evaluated with ground-based DSSR measurements at the Koohin and Chitgar sites in 2011 and 2013, respectively; the averaged statistics for SARA-based DSSR [R 2 ≈ 0.95, RMSE ≈ 22 W/m2 (2.5% mean value), and bias ≈ 3 W/m2] were stronger than those for MODIS-based DSSR [R 2 ≈ 0.79, RMSE ≈ 51 W/m2 (5.8% mean value), and bias ≈ 34 W/m2]. These results show that the proposed hybrid scheme can be used at regional to global scales under the assumption of future access to spatially distributed AERONET sites. Additionally, the robustness of this modeling scheme was exemplified by estimating the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) during a dust storm in Southwest Asia. The results were comparable to those of previous studies and showed the strength of our modeling scheme.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3187-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 17 (2017)
       
  • Fractal dimension of pore space in carbonate samples from Tushka area
           (Egypt)
    • Authors: Yi Ding; Andreas Weller; Zeyu Zhang; Mohamed Kassab
      Abstract: Abstract To investigate inhomogeneous and porous structures in nature, the concept of fractal dimension was established. This paper briefly introduces the definition and measurement methods of fractal dimension. Three different methods including mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption (BET) were applied to determine the fractal dimensions of the pore space of eight carbonate rock samples taken from West Tushka area, Egypt. In the case of fractal behavior, the capillary pressure P c and cumulative fraction V c resulting from MICP are linearly related with a slope of D-3 in a double logarithmic plot with D being the value of fractal dimension. For NMR, the cumulative intensity fraction V c and relaxation time T 2 show a linear relation with a slope of 3-D in a double logarithmic plot. Fractal dimension can also be determined by the specific surface area S por derived from nitrogen adsorption measurements and the effective hydraulic radius. The fractal dimension D shows a linear relation with the logarithm of S por . The fractal dimension is also used in models of permeability prediction. To consider a more comprehensive data set, another 34 carbonate samples taken from the same study area were integrated in the discussion on BET method and permeability prediction. Most of the 42 rock samples show a good agreement between measured permeability and predicted permeability if the mean surface fractal dimension for each facies is used.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3173-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 17 (2017)
       
  • Investigation of the Kumdanlı and surrounding faults on the Eğirdir Lake
           by conducting ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles
    • Authors: Hasan Hüseyin Aksu; Mehmet Zakir Kanbur; Muhittin Görmüş
      Abstract: Abstract A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was performed on the Eğirdir Lake to obtain the structural properties of Kumdanlı and surrounding faults. GPR data was collected along ten profiles in various directions by using 100–200-MHz GPR antennas. The radar sections showed that the Kumdanlı Fault, SW-NE in direction, and also some other neighboring NW-SE normal faults have played an active role in forming the Eğirdir-Hoyran Lakes. The deformation and the geometry obtained from the results show that the Kumdanlı Fault is a sinistral strike-slip fault including oblique and segmented displacements. The other faults (Kemerdamı and Akkeçili) have mainly normal fault systems. Their trends are generally NW-SE in direction. It is also observed that they are younger than the Kumdanlı Fault system. These fault properties demonstrate the Eğirdir Lake side has an extensional structure trending SW-NE.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3162-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 17 (2017)
       
  • Prediction of slope stability using multiple linear regression (MLR) and
           artificial neural network (ANN)
    • Authors: Arunav Chakraborty; Diganta Goswami
      Abstract: Abstract The stability problem of natural slopes, filled slopes, and cut slopes are commonly encountered in Civil Engineering Projects. Predicting the slope stability is an everyday task for geotechnical engineers. In this paper, a study has been done to predict the factor of safety (FOS) of the slopes using multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). A total of 200 cases with different geometric and shear strength parameters were analyzed by using the well-known slope stability methods like Fellenius method, Bishop’s method, Janbu method, and Morgenstern and Price method. The FOS values obtained by these slope stability methods were used to develop the prediction models using MLR and ANN. Further, a few case studies have been done along the Jorabat-Shillong Expressway (NH-40) in India, using the finite element method (FEM). The output values of FEM were compared with the developed prediction models to find the best prediction model and the results were discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3167-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 17 (2017)
       
  • Incorporating hydro-mechanical coupling in an analysis of the effects of
           rainfall patterns on unsaturated soil slope stability
    • Authors: L. Z. Wu; Q. Xu; J. D. Zhu
      Abstract: Abstract Rainfall-induced landslides can cause loss of life and damage to property, infrastructure, and the environment. Rainfall patterns affect the pore-water pressure of unsaturated soil slopes, and are related to the slopes’ stability. Four rainfall patterns were chosen to represent natural rainfall patterns for an examination of rainfall infiltration into soil slopes using numerical models incorporating coupled water infiltration and deformation in unsaturated soils. Our analysis showed that rainfall patterns play a significant role in the distribution of the pore-water pressure in soil slopes, and influence the slope stability. The pore-water pressure profile of soil slopes and the factor of safety are affected by the ratio of rainfall intensity and the coefficient of permeability. The depth and shape of the shallow sliding plane of the landslide is closely related to the rainfall pattern; moreover, the results showed a correlation between the factor of safety of the slope and the rainfall intensity. This relationship can be described by a dimensionless rainfall intensity. The nonlinear relationship can be used to estimate the slope stability resulting from rainfall infiltration when the hydro-mechanical coupling in unsaturated soil slopes is considered.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3147-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 17 (2017)
       
  • The biostratigraphic and paleoecological importance of the subsurface
           Carboniferous microfossil assemblages from Faghur-1x well, Western Desert
           of Egypt
    • Abstract: Abstract The microfossil assemblages of subsurface Carboniferous rocks from Faghur-1x were examined and identified. Their biostratigraphical and paleoenvironmental importance were investigated. The assemblage included well-preserved foraminifera like Omphalotis omphalota, Omphalotis sp. 2, Omphalotis sp. 3, Paraarchaediscus stilus, Paraarchaediscus koktjubensis, Archaediscus krestovnikovi, Archaediscus complanatus, Archaediscus inflatus, Archaediscus karreri, Diplosphearina inequalis, Eotubertina sp., Tetrataxis conica, Cribrostomum lecomptei, Palaeotextularia angulata, and Palaeotextularia longiseptata. This foraminiferal association indicates the late Viséan-early Serpukhovian. The other microfossils are gastropods, brachiopods, ostracods, crinoidal ossicles, frond-like fenestrate bryozoan types and stick-like colonies, echinoderms, microproblematica like Draffania biloba and algal Calcisphaera and the dasyclad Koninckopora. This microfossils assemblage points to the deposition in a restricted to open platform in a lagoonal framework environment. The Tehenu Basin is the eastern segment of northern African Sahara basins that provided refuge for the foraminiferal genera through the mass extinction events during the glacial Viséan-Serpukhovian times. However, its foraminiferal associations have lower diversities than the western basins, which indicate that it was more readily affected by the mass extinction event.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3181-z
       
  • Modeling and mapping of solar radiation using geostatistical analysis
           methods in Iran
    • Abstract: Abstract Because of economic and technical limitations, measuring solar energy received at ground level (R s ) isn’t possible in all parts of the country, and in only 12% of synoptic stations is this parameter measured and recorded. Thus, it should be estimated and modeled spatially based on other climatic variables using mathematical methods. In this research, many attempts have been made to introduce an air temperature-based model for Rs estimation, and then, based on the output of the mentioned models, several geostatistical methods have been tested, and finally an elegant spatial model is proposed for (Rs) zoning in Iran. In this regard, the relationships between the measured amounts of monthly solar radiation and other climatic parameters, such as a monthly average, maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and the number of sunny hours during the period 1970–2010, are examined and modeled. It was revealed that based on the linear relationship between the monthly average air temperatures and solar radiation values recorded in each of the stations, that the best-fit linear model, with R 2  = 0.822, MAE = 1.81, RMSE = 2.51%, and MAPE = 10.08, can be introduced for Rs estimation. Then, using the outputs of the proposed model, the amounts of (R s ) are estimated in another 171 meteorological stations (a total of 192 stations), and eight geostatistical methods (IDW, GPI, RBF, LPI, OK, SK, UK, and EBK) were investigated for zoning. Comparing the resulting variograms showed that in addition to proof of spatial correlation between solar radiation data, they can be applied for modeling changes in various directions. Analyzing the ratio of the nugget effect on the roof of the variograms showed that the Gaussian model with the lowest ratio (Co/Co + C = 0.883) and (R 2  = 0.972), could model the highest correlation between the data and, therefore, it was used for data interpolation. To select the best geostatistical model, R2, MAE, and RMSE were used. On this basis, it was found that the RBF method with R 2  = 0.904, MAE = 3.02, RMSE = 0.39% is the most effective. Also, the IDW method with R 2  = 0.90, MAE = 3.08, RMSE = 0.391%, compared to other methods is the most effective. In addition, for data validation, correlations between observed and estimated values of solar radiation were studied and found R 2  = 0.86.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3130-x
       
  • The role of organominerals in the lithification of calcareous lumps within
           the intertidal sediments of Bubiyan Island, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf
    • Abstract: Abstract Calcareous lumps of varying sizes and shapes are scattered on the landward part of the muddy intertidal flat along the southern coast of Bubiyan Island, northeast Kuwait. Two main lithotypes are recognized, namely, hard sandy crust fragments which are mostly formed of porous calcareous grainstone (bio-oosparite) and lithified muddy lumps that consist of calcareous wackestone (bio-micrite). They were originally eroded from the soft tidal flat sediments then lithified. Petrographic, mineralogical, and SEM/EDS examinations revealed that lithification of these calcareous lumps is attributed to cementation by biologically influenced organominerals, mainly high magnesium calcite and aragonite. The conditions responsible for the precipitation of these organominerals as well as variation in their mineralogy within each type of these calcareous lumps were discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12517-017-3182-y
       
 
 
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