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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Applied Physics A
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.481
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0947-8396 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0630
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • The impact of methyl methacrylate hydroxyethyl methacrylate loaded with
           silver nanoparticles on mechanical properties of paper
    • Authors: Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan; Wael Sabry Mohamed
      Abstract: Effect of silver nanoparticles on MMA/HEMA behavior in enhancing and restoring the lost chemical bonds of paper was estimated in the current study through the study of mechanical strengths (tensile and elongation), infrared spectrum and environmental microscopic examination. The results of tensile strength and elongation rate showed the effectiveness of nanoparticles in supporting paper properties under the influence of accelerated aging via the bond at 1630 cm−1 that is responsible for the bonds of silver ions and cellulose. Simultaneously, the micrographs showed that the type of fiber walls impacted the effectiveness of the copolymer where the completely pure cellulose cells absorbed the copolymer, while the presence of lignin reduced the absorption which helped create interface cross-links between fibers via the adsorbed copolymer on the surface.
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1989-3
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Structural, dispersion and optical functions studies of UV-irradiated
           erythrosine B thin films prepared by spin coating technique
    • Authors: T. Atwee; H. M. El-Mallah; H. M. Zeyada; D. G. El-Damhogi
      Abstract: XRD Diffraction measurements show that the powder of erythrosine B has poly-structure but very homogeneous thin films of erythrosine B have been successfully performed on a quartz substrate using the spin coating techniques and the structure of deposited films has been changed into amorphous form. The effect of UV radiation onto the erythrosine B thin films has been studied. XRD diffraction spectra indicate no influence of UV radiation upon the amorphous structure of erythrosine B thin films. The spectral behavior and optical properties of thin films were determined using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range 200–2500 nm. Optical measurements of pristine and UV-irradiated erythrosine B films showed normal dispersion of the refractive index n at λ > 850 nm and anomalous dispersion at λ < 850 nm. The dispersion curve showed different response to UV irradiation depending on the wavelength of incident light. The dispersion curve showed different response to UV irradiation depending on the wavelength of incident light. Some of dispersion parameters such as the high-frequency dielectric constant (ε∞), the lattice dielectric constant (εL), the dispersion energy (Ed), ratio of the free charge carrier concentration to effective mass (N/m*) and the oscillator energy (Eo) were calculated. The optical functions such as the real (ε1), imaginary (ε2) parts of the dielectric constant, the real (σ1), imaginary (σ2) parts of electrical conductivity, and the volume and the surface energy loss (VEL and SEL) were estimated and their response to UV irradiation was discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1964-z
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Deposition and characterization of spin-coated n -type ZnO thin film for
           potential window layer of solar cell
    • Authors: S. Hamrouni; M. S. AlKhalifah; M. S. El-Bana; S. K. Zobaidi; S. Belgacem
      Abstract: Spin-coating technique has been utilized to deposit ZnO thin films on ITO substrates. The dependence of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the prepared films on both the sol–pH values and annealing temperatures has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that the optimal sol–pH value was found to be 8 at annealing temperature 450 °C. At these conditions, the optical transmission and reflection data have also shown a clear enhancement in both the morphology and the grain size of the films. In addition, the analysis of I–V and C–V measurements of the Schottky Au/ZnO diode has shown a high agreement with both the investigated structural and optical properties. Furthermore, a new empirical method based on the calculated electrical parameters in the context of both the thermionic emission and Mott–Schottky models has been proposed to evaluate the approximate value of the electron effective mass in the conduction band of the ZnO (m* = 0.224 mo).
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1980-z
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Initial stages of delamination of the aluminum film from silicon wafer
    • Authors: K. Jagannadham
      Abstract: Aluminum films of thickness 0.5 µm were deposited on silicon substrates by pulsed laser physical vapor deposition. The substrate with the film was subjected to laser pulses from the backside of the wafer to initiate delamination of the film. Subsequently, the front side of the film was examined by atomic force, and optical and scanning electron microscopy, and found to contain blisters of different sizes. In addition, larger regions of the film debonded but did not spall. Transient thermo-reflectance was used to study the acoustic oscillations generated in the larger regions of the debonded film using the incidence of a pulsed laser beam with wave length of 532 nm and pulse repetition frequency 10 Hz. The periodicity of the acoustic oscillations was used to determine the size of the film that oscillated. The periods varied from 0.088 to 1.900 µs and the corresponding radii of the oscillating film from 296 to 6384 µm. The work of adhesion was found to reach a maximum value at blister radius close to 25 µm. There were no acoustic oscillations from the delaminated film in the blisters. Acoustic beats were also generated from larger debonded film by superposition of two acoustic oscillations. These results were used to investigate the initial stages of delamination of the films from the substrates.
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1984-8
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Stability of flexible composite stamps with thermal nanoimprint
    • Authors: Marc Papenheim; Wolfgang Eidemüller; Christian Steinberg; Andre Mayer; Johannes Götz; Dieter Nees; Hella-Christin Scheer
      Abstract: Flexible composite stamps are commonly used in low pressure and low temperature processes, e.g., UV-assisted nanoimprint, as they provide a good conformal contact between stamp and substrate. The composite stamps investigated here consist of two layers, a thin hard top layer to enable stable nanometre-scaled structures with high aspect ratio and a soft backplane to ensure conformal contact. Stamps with two different material combinations were investigated, OrmoStamp /PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) and h-PUA/s-PUA (polyurethane acrylate). The stability of both composite stamps was tested under harsh imprint conditions in a process at elevated temperature and pressure. Temperature and pressure loading results in strain in the top layer and may lead to break when the tensile strength is exceeded. To vary the stress level in the top layer, two different stamp designs were investigated, one with a thin backplane and one with a thicker backplane. The experimental results clearly show that a thin stamp (low stress level) is more stable than a thick stamp. Moreover, composite stamps are also suitable for a thermal imprint process when temperature and pressure remain limited.
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1990-x
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Effects of a low-pressure water jet assisting the laser etching of
           polycrystalline silicon
    • Authors: Xuehui Chen; Xiang Li; Wei Song; Chao Wu; Yao Zhang
      Abstract: Laser micromachining has proven to be a useful tool for the precision processing of semiconductors. In the hybrid laser–water jet micromachining process investigated in this research, a laser is used for heating and softening the work material (polycrystalline silicon, in this case), while a water jet is employed for shearing the softened material and subsequently removing it due to the high-velocity of the liquid jet impingement, as well as for cooling the material. Specifically, the use of a low-pressure water jet to assist with the laser etching of polycrystalline silicon was investigated in this study. The energy efficiency of the processing as well as the width, depth, and surface microstructure of the groove etched in the polycrystalline silicon using the composite process were considered. With increasing jet velocity, the integrated energy initially decreased before increasing and the overall groove depth decreased, then increased, and finally decreased again. When the incidence angle was 30°, the groove width in the polypolycrystalline silicon increased as the jet velocity increased from 8 and 28 m s−1, and the use of a low-pressure jet to assist with the laser etching resulted in etched surfaces smoother than those obtained in air and hydrostatic conditions. The experimental results prove that the low-pressure water-jet-assisted laser etching technique can overcome the problems of micro-crack, slag, and recast layer formation that affect traditional laser etching and consequently improve the quality of machined parts.
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1987-5
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Vertical organic field effect transistor: on–off state definition
           related to ambipolar gate biasing
    • Authors: Keli F. Seidel; Lucieli Rossi; Diana Jastrombek; Hypolito J. Kalinowski
      Abstract: We investigated a vertical organic field effect transistor (VOFET) behavior with an intermediate electrode formed by a tin (Sn) layer, whose growth presents a self-organized pattern grid with natural pores, fundamental to its operation. The choose of the materials to compose the channel formed by a fullerene ( \(\text {C}_{60}\) ) and a intermediate electrode of Sn brings a structure able to work with very low voltage and ambipolar gate biasing behavior, concomitantly. A explanation based on the importance of the roughness/pores in the intermediate electrode and the control of the energy barrier of the injection interface clarifies how to obtain the on–off state in unipolar VOFETs with ambipolar gate biasing. A theoretical basis support that when there is a low injection energy barrier inside and outside of the pores from a roughness intermediate electrode the electrical characterization its a combination of a very low voltage operation with a non negligible off-output current.
      PubDate: 2018-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1982-x
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Investigation of electrical and compositional properties of SiO 2 /Au/SiO
           2 for nonvolatile memory application
    • Authors: Arun Vinod; Mahendra Singh Rathore; Srinivasa Rao Nelamarri
      Abstract: In this work, the effects of annealing temperature on the compositional, morphological and electrical properties of SiO2/Au/SiO2 trilayer structure are investigated. SiO2 and Au layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation techniques, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic images reveal the formation of Au nanocrystals. Atomic force micrographs show the variation in surface roughness with annealing temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was employed to estimate the thickness of the trilayer structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the formation of Au nanocrystal and SiO2 tunneling and blocking layers. The hysteresis curve indicates the role of Au nanocrystals in charge storage characteristics of the device structure.
      PubDate: 2018-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1961-2
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Influence of substrates on the properties of titanium nitride films
           deposited by DC reaction magnetron sputtering
    • Authors: Peng Gu; Xinghua Zhu; Jitao Li; Haihua Wu; Hui Sun; Dingyu Yang
      Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) films were successfully deposited on different substrates (glass, SiO2 and Si) by direct-current (DC) reaction magnetron sputtering technique, and the structural, optical and electrical properties of samples were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns showed the films deposited on Si substrates exhibit best crystallinity with a growth preferred orientation of (200) plane. Atomic force microscopy images revealed the films deposited on Si substrates exhibit best uniform distribution of grain size. Raman spectra indicated the Raman shifts of films on SiO2 and Si substrates moved towards higher frequency compared to films on glass substrates. Reflectance spectra suggested that the films deposited on Si substrates show highest reflectance in the infrared region and reached 0.98 at 900 nm. The films deposited on Si substrates presented the lowest resistivity of 50 µΩ cm.
      PubDate: 2018-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1981-y
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Attempt to tune the dielectric and optical properties in PVA/ZnO composite
           using tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether for light emitting devices
    • Authors: O. Elkalashy; E. Sheha
      Abstract: Tuning the dielectric constant of the optical materials is of prime importance to optimize their efficiency. Polyvinyl alcohol and tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl (TEGDME) matrix hybrid nanocomposites, featuring zinc oxide embedded in the polymer were fabricated by solution casting technique. TEM images showed that the introduction of tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether reduces the dimensions of ZnO particles and displays good distribution of the zinc oxide nanoparticles with very little particle agglomeration, respectively. The presence of tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether increases the optical energy gap of the composite from 3.6 to 4 eV. The Intensity and broadening of photoemission increase with increasing the ratio of TEGDME. The I–V measurements of the fabricated Cu/(PVZO/TEGDME)/Cu cell under different sun light intensity revealed that the resistivity of the composite decreases with increasing sun light intensity and the presence of tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether reduces the resistivity and increases the sensitivity of the composite to sun light. The tunable dielectric constant and optical properties of these polymer composites are demonstrated by increasing the TEGDME contents in the composites, making these composites potentially useful for optimizing optical and electronic devices.
      PubDate: 2018-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1970-1
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Tailoring the oxygen content of graphene oxide by IR laser irradiation
    • Authors: L. Silipigni; M. Fazio; B. Fazio; M. Cutroneo; L. Torrisi
      Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) foils, synthesized with the Hummers’ method, were IR laser treated in air and under vacuum at some laser fluences (300 and 600 mJ/cm2 in air and 200 mJ/cm2 under vacuum). Depending on the laser fluence and the used environment, it was possible to control the oxidation or reduction degree of GO foils. The evolution of the structural and compositional characteristics of the as-prepared GO films was examined through different physical characterization techniques. In particular, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface profilometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used. A preliminary Raman analysis was also carried out on some GO foils. The results suggest the gradual restoration of sp2 clusters within the sp3 matrix under vacuum or in air at high laser fluences. In these conditions, the partial reestablishment of planarity and an increase in the D/G intensity ratio are also observed. In air, at low laser fluences, the IR laser irradiation causes GO films oxidation, increase in roughness and greater exfoliation availability. The useful deduced information about morphology and composition make the IR laser treatment a simple method for controlling the physical properties of GO film by tailoring the oxygen functional groups, and consequently, for the production of tailor-made highly conductive and defect-free graphene-like materials or GO composites with metals and organic molecules or GO doped with heteroatoms.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1956-z
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis of carbon nano-spheres and nano-tubes by thermal plasma
           processing of polypropylene
    • Authors: Sina Mohsenian; Mahdieh Sadat Esmaeili; Jafar Fathi; Babak Shokri
      Abstract: Syntheses of carbon nano-spheres and nano-tubes has been experimentally investigated via thermal plasma treatment of polypropylene as a common plastic waste material. Samples were treated in a furnace fitted with a twin DC thermal plasma torch. The resultant solid products were analyzed to determine their composition and morphology by EDS, SEM and TEM analysis. EDS and SEM analysis indicated that if the arc current is more than 100 A, solid products mainly consist of carbon black nano-structures with no impurities. SEM images also showed that the most portion of solid carbons are nano-spheres, however, TEM analysis provided evidences for existing some carbon nano-tubes between nano-spheres. It also demonstrated that with increasing the arc current, diameter of nano-tubes decreases. This method for synthesis of carbon nano-structures may find a way to be considered in industrial waste disposal installation and enhance the economic efficiency of thermal plasma waste treatment technology. Since these valuable nano-structures can be produced from thermal plasma treatment of some non-useful and environmentally hazardous waste materials.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1983-9
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Reaction kinetics of equiatomic Fe–Mo solid solutions obtained by
           mechanical alloying: an X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy
           study
    • Authors: F. I. S. Silva; M. S. Pereira; I. F. Vasconcelos
      Abstract: The reaction kinetics of equiatomic Fe–Mo solid solutions produced by mechanical alloying were studied by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The materials were milled with velocities of rotation of 400 and 500 rpm for several milling times to obtain samples of various reaction stages. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the presence of two bcc phases, corresponding to metallic Fe and Mo, in all samples. Analysis of these diffractograms indicated diffusion of Mo within the Fe matrix and diffusion of Fe within the Mo matrix, as a result of the milling process. While the X-ray diffraction technique did not allow for the identification of a crystallographic phase being clearly transformed, making it difficult to study the reaction kinetics, using Mössbauer spectroscopy, it was possible to identify two magnetic phases that suffer transformation during the course of milling: a ferromagnetic sextet corresponding to metallic Fe and a paramagnetic doublet corresponding to Fe atoms with a majority of Mo neighbors (metallic Mo does not possess a magnetic moment). Both magnetic phases may be present in the bcc Fe matrix or the bcc Mo matrix. The transformation kinetics of the sextet were studied using a method based on a local description of phase volume transformation, depicted by the tribochemical activity parameter. The results were compared to published work on the application of this method to Fe–Cu and Fe–N systems. A behavior similar to that of Fe–N was observed, which, similar to the Fe–Mo system and as opposed to the Fe–Cu system, possesses a positive enthalpy of mixing.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1962-1
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • A facile approach to determine the unknown refractive index ( n ) and
           extinction coefficient ( k ) of novel encapsulant materials used in back
           contact PV modules
    • Authors: Asma Shamim; Muhammad Noman; Muhammad Zubair; Adnan Daud Khan; Saim Saher
      Abstract: Determining the refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of materials is of core importance in optoelectronic and photonic devices. This study demonstrates a simple yet novel method to determine n and k of unusual encapsulant materials for back contact photovoltaic (PV) modules. To avoid the problem of encapsulant browning, two non-traditional encapsulant materials, i.e., polybutadiene ionomer and thermoplastic polyolefin, are utilized as an alternative to traditionally used ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The n and k samples were calculated by solving the optical parameters using MATLAB code which requires transmittance and reflectance values from spectrophotometer. To validate our proposed method, glass and EVA are used as a reference. The computation of refractive index of glass and EVA has achieved an accuracy of ± 0.007 and ± 0.006, respectively. Whereas computation of extinction coefficient of glass and EVA has achieved an accuracy of ± 2.37 × 10−6 and ± 4.69 × 10−6, respectively. Thus, calculated results of n and k for glass and EVA are found in good agreement as compared to the standard values, whereas the marginal difference is within acceptable experimental error. This method can serve as a tool to find n and k of non-standard materials prior to their deployment in PV modules.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1974-x
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Optical and electrical properties of nanostructured N,N ′-diphenyl-
           N,N′ -di- p -tolylbenzene-1,4-diamine organic thin films
    • Authors: A. El-ghandour; Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed; A. S. Awed; S. S. A. Obayya
      Abstract: In this paper, we introduce an extensive study on nanostructured thin films of an organic small molecule N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-di-p-tolylbenzene-1,4-diamine, (NTD). Further, the possibility of using NTD as a hole transport layer in optoelectronic devices is reported for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In this context, the thermal behaviour, crystal structure, optical absorption in ultraviolet–visible regions, and DC electrical conductivity of the as-deposited NTD thin films are investigated. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations show that NTD has a phase transition at a high temperature of 190 °C which may not affect its morphological stability. Further, the XRD patterns reveal that NTD thin films have an as-amorphous nature with some crystals. Additionally, optical investigations indicate that the indirect electronic transition from valence to conduction band is the most probable transition which agrees well with the amorphous structure of NTD thin films. The value of the mobility gap decreases from 2.74 to 2.51 eV when the thickness of the films increases from 80 to 200 nm. Furthermore, the absorbance lies below 370 nm and the thinnest film of thickness 80 nm achieves the highest absorbance. Further, the DC electrical measurements show that the NTD film has an activation energy of 378 meV. The DC conductivity is interpreted in terms of the variable range hopping (VRH) model. Based on our studies, NTD thin films are proposed with thickness range 50–80 nm to serve as a hole transport layer in white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs).
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1966-x
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Limiting efficiency factors and their consequences on quantum dot
           sensitized solar cells: a detailed balance study
    • Authors: Anurag Sahu; Kirankumar Hiremath; Ambesh Dixit
      Abstract: We carried out a detailed balance calculation of quantum dot sensitized solar cell based on widely used TiO2 as electron transport material and polysulfide electrolyte as hole transport material, considering the finite electrochemical potential level for these layers. The findings suggest that detailed balance efficiency decreases much faster for higher band gap quantum dots absorber as compared to that of ideal electron and hole transport layers. The detailed balance efficiency values are close to 20% without carrier multiplication for Eg near exciplex quantum dots, closer to experimental observation with finite Ediff limitation and without considering carrier multiplication, much smaller than the ideal case, which is close to 30% for ideal open circuit voltage. Thus, the present study shows the impact of limited/finite electron and hole transport material energy levels in designing QDSSCs, towards more realistic photovoltaic efficiency values.
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1963-0
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Ultrafast dynamics of a triphenylamine-based tri-branched derivative with
           potential application as two-photon polymerization initiator
    • Authors: Yaochuan Wang; Yongli Yan; Dajun Liu; Yizhuo Wang; Guiqiu Wang; Xiaoqiang Yu
      Abstract: A triphenylamine-based tri-branched derivative named 1,3,5-tris[p-(4-N,N-diphenylamino)vinylbenzene]benzene (TPAVBB) with intense two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF) emission was investigated by means of UV–Vis, one-photon/two-photon fluorescence. The maximum two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section of derivative TPAVBB in DMF solution was measured to be 546 GM at wavelength of 800 nm, which is the most commonly used wavelength in two-photon photopolymerization (TPP) and TPF cell imaging fields. Pump–probe and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to investigate the ultrafast responses of the tri-branched derivative. The formation and evolution processes of the intra-molecular charge transfer state were determined to be approximately picoseconds and several 100 picoseconds domain. The results indicate potential applications in TPP and TPF imaging fields.
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1957-y
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Electrochemical detection of ammonia solution using tin oxide
           nanoparticles synthesized via sol–gel route
    • Authors: Sandeep Arya; Mohammad Riyas; Asha Sharma; Bikram Singh; Prerna; Pankaj Bandhoria; Saleem Khan; Vishal Bharti
      Abstract: In this work, electrochemical detection of ammonia solution (NH4OH) using sol–gel-synthesized tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles is investigated. Structural characteristics were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that confirmed the formation of tin oxide nanoparticles. Optical characterizations were also studied via UV–Vis–IR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. After successful confirmation of sol–gel synthesis, these tin oxide nanoparticles were deposited on patterned copper substrate via thermal evaporator. Analysis for sensing ammonia solution was carried out using a three electrode system via electrochemical workstation. Electrochemical technique incorporates the results of cyclic voltammetry. The results confirmed that the SnO2-deposited copper (Cu) platform successfully detect the presence of ammonia solution in double-distilled water. These results were further analyzed and compared with each indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass and pure copper substrate. Moreover, the tin oxide-deposited copper platform showed better performance than ITO substrate.
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1968-8
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Effect of nanofibrous porosity on the X-ray attenuation properties of
           electrospun n-Bi 2 O 3 /epoxy–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber mats
    • Authors: Bassam M. Abunahel; Ramzun Maizan Ramli; Khetam M. Quffa; Nurul Zahirah Noor Azman
      Abstract: In this study, the X-ray attenuation properties of electrospun nanoparticles (n)-Bi2O3/epoxy–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber mats with different filler loadings of n-Bi2O3 were compared as a function of X-ray tube voltages (40–100 kV) using a general radiography unit. It was found that the X-ray attenuation by the electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy–PVA nanofiber mats increased with the increment of filler loading except for the nanofiber mat with 12 wt% of n-Bi2O3 filler. This indicated that the nanofiber mat presents the lowest X-ray attenuation properties compared to the others with another filler loading. The result was explained by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image, which revealed that the 12 wt% of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy–PVA nanofiber mat has the highest amount of porosity compared to the other samples.
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1975-9
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Study of photovoltaic performance of Sb 2 S 3 /CdS quantum dot
           co-sensitized solar cells fabricated using iodine-based gel polymer
           electrolytes
    • Authors: Yufang Liang; Xiangli Zhong; Hongjia Song; Yuan Zhang; Dongguo Zhang; Yang Zhang; Jinbin Wang
      Abstract: In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) quantum dot (QD) co-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using iodine-based gel polymer electrolytes. It was noticed that in comparison with TiO2/Sb2S3 QDs, the short-circuit current (Jsc) and the photoconversion efficiency (η) of the fabricated photovoltaic device based on TiO2/CdS/Sb2S3 QDs increased from 5.61 to 8.35 mA/cm2 and 1.06–1.61%, respectively. The presence of a CdS buffer layer between TiO2 and Sb2S3 was attributed to the enhancement of Jsc and η. The CdS buffer layer promoted the growth of Sb2S3 and facilitated the transfer of electrons from Sb2S3 to TiO2 through the reorganization of band levels between CdS and Sb2S3. It was also observed that the polymer electrolytes effectively prevented the corrosion of Sb2S3 QDs. Therefore, it can be concluded that the outcomes of this research could expedite future work on novel Sb2S3 quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) based on polymer electrolytes with improved performance.
      PubDate: 2018-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-018-1953-2
      Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 8 (2018)
       
 
 
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