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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Applied Physics A
  [SJR: 0.535]   [H-I: 121]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0947-8396 - ISSN (Online) 1432-0630
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Electrical and optical modeling of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61
           butyric acid methyl ester P3HT–PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells
    • Authors: Fathi Brioua; Mohamed Remram; Riad Nechache; Hicham Bourouina
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we investigate a two-dimensional theoretical model for the photon conversion through an integration of the optical and electrical part of multilayer system in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. The optical properties of the studied structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al, such as the exciton generation rate and the electrical field distribution, are predicted at vicinity of the active layer and have been used to solve Poisson and continuity, drift–diffusion equations of the electrical model which characterize the electrical behavior of semiconductor device using finite element method (FEM). The electrical parameters such as power conversion efficiency (PCE), open voltage circuit (V oc), short-circuit current density (J sc) and fill factor (FF) are extracted from the current–voltage (J–V) characteristics under illumination and in dark conditions. Highest external quantum efficiency (IPCE), up to 60%, is obtained around 520 nm, while a power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 3.62% is found to be in good agreement with the literature results. Integration of such theoretical approach into technological applications dealing with optoelectrical material performance will rapidly provide to the user accurate data outputs required for efficient validation of proof-of-concepts.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1288-4
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Microindentation on the porous copper surface modulations
    • Authors: Dursun Ekmekci; Fikret Yılmaz; Uğur Kölemen; Ömer Necati Cora
      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the mechanical properties of a surface modulation which was realized through compaction, and then sintering of copper powders. To this goal, Berkovich type of indenter and depth-sensing indentation technique were used in microindentation to measure the hardness and modulus of elasticity values at different features of compact. Indentations were performed with a peak force of 50 mN. Hardness values were obtained in 0.88–1.12 GPa range while the modulus of elasticity was recorded in the 70–111 GPa interval. Even though both modulus of elasticity and hardness values were noted to be different for copper powders and substrate, one-way ANOVA analyses showed that the differences in both modulus of elasticity and hardness values are insignificant. FE modeling of microindentation was also performed and validated. It was shown that the force–displacement values obtained from FE analyses are quite well in agreement with the experimental data.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1327-1
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Tailored biodegradable triblock copolymer coatings obtained by MAPLE: a
           parametric study
    • Authors: S. Brajnicov; P. Neacsu; A. Moldovan; V. Marascu; A. Bonciu; R. Ion; V. Dinca; A. Cimpean; M. Dinescu
      Abstract: Abstract Biocompatible and biodegradable coatings with controllable and tailored chemical and physical characteristics (i.e. morphology and roughness) are of great interest in bone related research applications. Within this research direction, in this work, a series of novel biodegradable coatings based on triblock copolymers poly(lactide-co-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene–glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL–PEG–PLCL) were obtained by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and their morphological characteristics and roughness were modulated by varying target composition and laser fluence. The coatings were used for preliminary in vitro testing with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. It was found that for a specific range of fluences, the main functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited thin films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are similar to the molecular structures of the initial material. Depending on the deposition parameters, significant changes in morphologies, i.e. material accumulation in the form of droplets, wrinkles, or carpet-like structures were revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy. The optimized coating characteristics were further correlated to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts response. The ability to control the morphology and to maintain unaltered the chemistry of the deposited material through MAPLE is an important step in creating functional bio-interfaces in the field of biomedical research and tissue engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1334-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Ion beam modification of structural and optical properties of GeO 2 thin
           films deposited at various substrate temperatures using pulsed laser
           deposition
    • Authors: Mahendra Singh Rathore; Arun Vinod; Rambabu Angalakurthi; A. P. Pathak; Fouran Singh; Santhosh Kumar Thatikonda; Srinivasa Rao Nelamarri
      Abstract: Abstract High energy heavy ion irradiation-induced modification of high quality crystalline GeO2 thin films grown at different substrate temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 °C using pulsed laser deposition has been investigated. The pristine films were irradiated with 100 MeV Ag7+ ions at fixed fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. These pristine and irradiated films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman results of pristine films confirm the formation of hexagonal structure of GeO2 films, whereas the irradiation eliminates all the peaks except major GeO2 peak of (101) plane. It is evident from the XRD results that crystallite size changes with substrate temperature and SHI irradiation. The surface morphology of films was studied by AFM. The functional group of pristine and irradiated films was investigated by IR transmission spectra. Pristine films exhibited strong photoluminescence around 342 and 470 nm due to oxygen defects and a red shift in the PL bands is observed after irradiation. Possible mechanism of tuning structural and optical properties of pristine as well as irradiated GeO2 films with substrate temperature and ion beam irradiation has been reported in detail.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1310-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • CO and HCHO adsorption on FeO monowire devices: a DFT study
    • Authors: N. Kishore; K. Senthilkannan; T. Periyanayagi; R. Rubashri; S. Sriram
      Abstract: Abstract FeO monowire structures were constructed and optimized using density functional theory (DFT) to study the adsorption behavior of CO and HCHO gas phase molecules. The adsorption behavior of the target molecules was studied in terms of adsorption energy, charge density and the reaction time of the FeO monowire devices. Also, FeO monowire molecular devices are constructed to study the sensitivity of the devices towards CO and HCHO molecules using non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) with density functional theory. The zero bias electronic transport properties confirm the adsorption of the CO and HCHO on the FeO monowire devices. From the V–I characteristic and the differential conductance calculations, the FeO monowire device is more sensitive to HCHO than CO molecule. However, the CO-adsorbed FeO monowire device exhibits high order of NDR behavior and can be used as a functional group for fabricating data storage device based FeO monowire.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1330-6
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Performance of InGaAs short wave infrared avalanche photodetector for low
           flux imaging
    • Authors: Anand Singh; Ravinder Pal
      Abstract: Abstract Opto-electronic performance of the InGaAs/i-InGaAs/InP short wavelength infrared focal plane array suitable for high resolution imaging under low flux conditions and ranging is presented. More than 85% quantum efficiency is achieved in the optimized detector structure. Isotropic nature of the wet etching process poses a challenge in maintaining the required control in the small pitch high density detector array. Etching process is developed to achieve low dark current density of 1 nA/cm2 in the detector array with 25 µm pitch at 298 K. Noise equivalent photon performance less than one is achievable showing single photon detection capability. The reported photodiode with low photon flux is suitable for active cum passive imaging, optical information processing and quantum computing applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1321-7
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Study of graphitic microstructure formation in diamond bulk by pulsed
           Bessel beam laser writing
    • Authors: S. Kumar; B. Sotillo; A. Chiappini; R. Ramponi; P. Di Trapani; S. M. Eaton; O. Jedrkiewicz
      Abstract: Abstract The advantages of using Bessel beams for the generation of graphitic structures in diamond bulk are presented. We show that by irradiating the sample with a pulsed Bessel beam whose non-diffracting zone is of the same order of the sample thickness, it is possible to produce without any sample translation straight graphitic through-microstructures, whose size depends on the input pulse energy. The microstructure growth is investigated as a function of the number of irradiating pulses, and the femtosecond and picosecond regimes are contrasted.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1303-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Magnetic properties of Li 0.5 Fe 2.5 O 4 nanoparticles synthesized by
           solution combustion method
    • Authors: P. Naderi; S. M. Masoudpanah; S. Alamolhoda
      Abstract: Abstract In this research, lithium ferrite (Li0.5Fe2.5O4) powders were prepared by solution combustion synthesis using glycine and citric acid fuels at various fuel to oxidant molar ratios (ϕ = 0.5, 1 and 1.5). Phase evolution, microstructure and magnetic properties were characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry techniques. Single-phase lithium ferrite was formed using glycine fuel at all fuel to oxidant ratios, while some impurity α-Fe2O3 phase was appeared using citric acid fuel at ϕ ≥ 1. The phase and crystallite size mainly depended on the combustion rate through fuel type. Bulky microstructure observed for citric acid fuel was attributed to its slow combustion, while the fast exhausting of gaseous products led to spongy microstructure for glycine fuel. The highest saturation magnetization of 59.3 emu/g and coercivity of 157 Oe were achieved for the as-combusted powders using glycine fuel.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1304-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • In-process debris removal in femtosecond laser processing
    • Authors: Tetsuya Abe; Satoshi Hasegawa; Hidetomo Takahashi; Michiharu Ota; Yoshio Hayasaki
      Abstract: Abstract Debris deposited around laser-processed structures, which is a critical issue in high-precision laser processing, should be removed. A new method for laser cleaning of debris was developed. A glass surface was irradiated with a line-focused beam for laser cleaning, together with a focused beam for laser processing. Both beams were formed by computer-generated holograms (CGHs) displayed on a spatial light modulator. The distance between the two beams was controlled with the CGHs, and the time difference was controlled with an optical delay line. These optical structures were the novel aspect of our laser processing system. When two beams were superposed at the same position on a sample, we did not find a suitable beam parameter for debris removal, but we found that the processing area was spatially enlarged depending on the temporal overlap. In contrast, when two beams separated by an adequate distance were radiated on a sample, we found suitable beam parameters for debris removal. Debris removal was effectively performed when the scanning speed of the laser beams was low, because the low scanning speed produced a temperature higher than the glass transition temperature, and the heated and melted debris was ablated due to a smaller ablation threshold than that of the glass substrate. This in-process laser debris removal method has the advantages of needing no additional equipment other than the optics, no additional operations, no special materials, and no specific operating environment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1333-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Effect of preparation methods on the properties of titania nanoparticles:
           solvothermal versus sol–gel
    • Authors: Davoud Dastan
      Abstract: Abstract Titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP’s) have been prepared by solvothermal and sol–gel techniques using different surfactants such as acetic acid (AA), oleylamine (OM), and AA + OM. The solution was thermally treated at growth temperature 180 °C in solvothermal method. TiO2 powder, prepared using both methods, was subjected to post heat treatment at 550 and 950 °C. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of TiO2 NP’s was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The structural and thermal properties of titania NP’s are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). TEM and FESEM images illustrated various shapes of titania NP’s such as irregular spherical, rounded rectangular, truncated rhombic, oval, and rod-like structure in presence of different surfactants. Moreover, TiO2 particles prepared by sol–gel method were almost 40 times greater than those prepared by solvothermal method. In addition to the improvement in the crystallinity, thermal stability has been enhanced due to consolidation of individual particles at higher annealing temperature in solvothermal technique. Furthermore, a reduction in the degradation temperature and phase transformation of TiO2 NP’s were conspicuously corroborated after post-heat treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1309-3
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Structure and dielectric properties of (Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3)1−x Na x (Ti 0.9
           Sn 0.1)1−x Nb x O 3 ceramics
    • Authors: Hanen Ghoudi; Souad Chkoundali; Abdelhedi Aydi; Kamel Khirouni
      Abstract: Abstract (Ba0.7Sr0.3)1−x Na x (Ti0.9Sn0.1)1−x Nb x O3 ceramics with compositions x = 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method. These ceramics were examined by X-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements over a broad temperature and frequency ranges. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed a single-perovskite phase crystallized in a cubic structure, for x < 0.8, and in tetragonal, for x ≥ 0.8, with Pm3m and P4mm spaces groups, respectively. Two types of behaviors, classical ferroelectric or relaxor, were observed depending on the x composition. It is noted that temperatures T C (the Curie temperature) or T m (the temperature of maximum permittivity) rise when x increases and the relaxor character grows more significantly when x composition decreases. To analyze the dielectric relaxation degree of relaxor, various models were considered. It was proven that an exponential function could well describe the temperature dependence of the static dielectric constant and relaxation time.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1284-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Synthesis and application of new fluorescent dyes in dye-sensitized solar
           cells
    • Authors: Mozhgan Hosseinnezhad; Shohre Rouhani
      Abstract: Abstract Four novel fluorescent organic dyes DH1, DH2, DH3 and DH4 containing iminodibenzyl were prepared as photosensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells. The fluorescence dyes and their corresponding intermediates were purified and characterized by analytical methods. The results confirmed the corresponding structure fluorescent dyes and their intermediates. The ultraviolet absorption investigation of fluorescent dyes in solution and on photoanode shows that the dyes form J-type aggregation on photoanode substrate. Fluorometric investigation shows fluorescence in the red region for all organic dyes. Redox properties and density functional theory calculation for all synthesized dyes ensured thermodynamically charge transfer from excited state to conduction band photoanode. Photophysical and photovoltaic properties of fluorescent dyes have been studied in dye-sensitized solar cells devices. The results show the rather high conversion efficiency of 4.48, 4.63, 4.95 and 5.09% of each individual dye, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1315-5
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Enhance luminescence property of Er in Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 TiO 3 ceramics by
           gradient permeation method
    • Authors: Wan Q. Cao; Ran L. Wang; Feng L. Zhou; M. M. Ismail; Rui K. Pan
      Abstract: Abstract A method of core–shell-like gradient permeation of Er3+ on the surface of grain was used to prepare xEr3+-Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramics. The structure and photoluminescence properties were investigated both on the gradient and homogenous doping. The XRD patterns exhibited a single rhombohedra phase. The photoluminescence measurements showed a maximum value at x = 1.5 wt% for the gradient xEr3+-Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramics, and a maximum value at x = 2.0 wt% for the homogenous one, also critical concentrations of elimination of segregation of large strip grains. Significantly, an enhanced efficiency of bright green emission at about 550 nm was observed in the gradient Er3+-Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramics. In structure a critical concentration of elimination of segregation of large strip grains corresponds to the highest PL peak. The possible mechanism was discussed that concentration quenching effect is supposed due to the degeneration effect of multi-rare earth ions to allow energy transfer accompany with non-radiative loss. Gradient concentration will cause gradient overlapping energy levels to restrict energy transfer to enhance luminescence effect.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1298-2
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Surfactant effect on synthesis and electrochemical properties of
           nickel-doped magnesium oxide (Ni–MgO) for supercapacitor applications
    • Authors: B. Saravanakumar; S. Muthulakshmi; G. Ravi; V. Ganesh; A. Sakunthala; R. Yuvakkumar
      Abstract: Abstract Nickel-doped magnesium oxide (Ni–MgO) nanopowders were successfully synthesized by employing a simple sol–gel process by adopting different surfactants such as Hexamine, CTAB and PEG-400. XRD results clearly revealed the formation of face centered cubic structure. The characteristic PL peaks observed at 401, 490 and 552 nm are owing to charge transfer characteristic in surface state of the obtained product. The characteristic IR peaks observed at 445 and 854 cm−1 could be attributed to Mg–O stretching vibration and the peak appeared at 1036 cm−1 belongs to Mg–O vibrations modes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results clearly revealed the uniform distribution of thin nanolayer morphology in different direction for Ni–MgO (CTAB) product, the mixture of nanolayer and nanoparticle configurations for Ni–MgO (Hexamine) product and more agglomerated particle formation for Ni–MgO (PEG-400) product. The electrochemical studies were carried out to estimate the specific capacitance of Ni–MgO (CTAB) product at low scan rate 10 mV/s which showed an excellent value of 360.5 F/g. The GCD studies for synthesized Ni–MgO (CTAB) nanolayer morphology have superior specific capacitance of 96 F/g at 1 A/g with the excellent specific capacitance. The materials stability for 5000 charging and discharging cycles retains 68% of the specific capacitance 83 F/g at current density of 5 A/g.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1293-7
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Femtosecond and nanosecond laser decontaminations of biocidal-loaded
           wooden artworks
    • Authors: Birgit Angelika Schmidt; Simone Pentzien; Andrea Conradi; Jörg Krüger
      Abstract: Abstract Until the end of the 1980s, many wooden artworks underwent surface treatment by liquid preservatives, e.g., Hylotox-59. DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) crystal structures are formed on the wooden surfaces by the “blooming” of chlorine compounds by time. In addition to an aesthetic disturbance, it is assumed that DDT represents a health risk. Therefore, the removal of DDT crystals from the surfaces is requested. Contaminated wood with natural biocide ageing, gilded and wood carved elements, and wooden samples with paint layers were provided by the Schlossmuseum Sondershausen, Germany. Laser cleaning on selected surface areas on the objects was done by means of femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. For the same object, cleaning results using 30-fs laser pulses at 800-nm wavelength are compared to findings utilizing 10-ns laser pulses at 1064-nm wavelength. Before and after laser treatment, chlorine measurements at the same surface position were done by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) as an indicator for the presence of DDT. In this way, pointwise chlorine depletion rates can be obtained for the different pulse duration regimes and wavelengths. In addition, the object surfaces were examined using optical microscopy and multi-spectral imaging analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1316-4
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Evolution of the composition of nanoparticles formed by the nanosecond
           Nd:YAG laser irradiation of an aluminium target in N 2 –O 2 gas mixtures
           
    • Authors: L. Lavisse; M. Girault; P. Berger; J.-M. Jouvard; J.-L. Le Garrec; E. Carvou; F.-X. Ouf; F. Calvo; J. Yu; G.-D. Förster; V. Potin; S. Bourgeois; M. C. Marco de Lucas; J. B. A. Mitchell
      Abstract: Abstract Laser ablation of metallic targets in gas atmospheres gives rise to the formation of nanoparticle (NP) powders when high laser irradiances (i.e., > 1 GW/cm² for aluminium targets) are used. The properties of the NPs so formed vary as a function of the laser irradiation parameters and the pressure and composition of the ambient gas. Here, we studied the composition and structure of NPs formed by laser ablation of Al targets with a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm. The laser irradiance was 2.5 GW/cm2. N2–O2 gas mixtures containing different amounts of nitrogen (100–80 vol% N2) were used as ambient gas at atmospheric pressure. The influence of the ambient gas composition on the morphology and the structure of the NPs was studied ex-situ by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Their composition of light elements was determined by ion beam analysis. It was shown that together with metallic aluminium, different amounts of aluminium nitride and aluminium oxynitride were formed in the NPs as a function of the nitrogen concentration in the ambient gas. Below 95 vol% N2, the concentration of nitride phases decreases strongly. However, the formation of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) was not observed, whereas it was detected in NPs formed in air. A discussion of these results that takes into account the dynamics of the plasma plume is proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1283-9
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Laser pyrolysis synthesis of Sn–Fe–N@polycarbosilazane nanocomposites,
           characterization and evaluation as energy storage materials
    • Authors: Claudiu Teodor Fleaca; Florian Dumitrache; Ion Sandu; Elena Dutu; Alina Ilie; Ana-Maria Banici; Eugeniu Vasile; Codruta Vlaic; Andreas Bund; Gabriel Prodan
      Abstract: Abstract We report the single-step synthesis of novel tin-based core–carbosilazane shell nano-composites using laser pyrolysis technique. Controlled NH3 flows were used to entrain the vapors of volatile precursors: Sn(CH3)4 (TMT) and Fe(CO)5 injected through center for the core and [Si(CH3)3]2NH (HMDS) through the annular nozzle for the shell. Both NH3 and HMDS plays also the role of absorbers of the IR laser radiation. The obtained nanoparticles shown polydispersity with sizes from 5 up to around 120 nm, having spheroidal crystalline core—disordered shell morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images, where also short amorphous nanofibers were observed. The dominant crystalline phase β-Sn (having mean crystallite size between 22 and 29 nm) and minor tin-iron intermetallic and nitride phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. Infrared spectra show the presence of Si–N and Si–C bonds, pointing to a carbosilazane composition of the shells, accompanied by Si–O bonds due to partial oxidation after air exposure. Three different samples were obtained by keeping constant the Sn and Fe precursors flows and diminishing the HDMS flow, together with the corresponding NH3 flows. Preliminary tests of these materials as anodes for Li-ion battery showed an initial discharge capacity near 800 mAg/h which decreased to 300 mAh/g after 20 cycles for the sample having the highest Sn content.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1300-z
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Spinel ferrite nanoparticles for H 2 S gas sensor
    • Authors: Ahmad I. Ayesh; Mohammad Abu Haija; Adel Shaheen; Fawzi Banat
      Abstract: Abstract We investigate H2S gas sensors based on spinel ferrite CuFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by the co-precipitation method. This technique is an efficient and fast technique to produce nanoparticles. Furthermore, those nanoparticles are metal-oxide nanoparticles with magnetic properties that enable their retrieval and reuse for mutable times and applications. The produced nanoparticles are pressed in a form of disc, and placed between two electrical electrodes, with the top electrode with a grid structure to enable gas exposure. The study includes investigations of crystal structure, composition, morphology, and charge transport. The results revel that the produced nanoparticles are sensitive and selective to H2S which indicate their potential to be used for practical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1305-7
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of CNT–pyrolytic C-layer-coated Al foil: interfacial
           structures, reactions, and performances
    • Authors: Zuqiong Huang; Jian Li; Jianjun Yao; Hongming Zhou; Yuming Huang; Lihua Wang; Feng Zheng
      Abstract: Abstract Al foil coated with CNT–pyrolytic C layer of 300 nm (CNT-C/Al) was obtained by heating Al foil coated with CNTs and polymeric precursors in rolls at 580 °C. In CNT-C/Al, distribution of species containing C and Al in depth and crystal structures of these species were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that there are diffusion of Almetal and Al x O y to CNT-C layer and chemical reactions of carbon with Al x O y and Almetal at interface, resulting at Al–O–C and Al–C, respectively, which are clarified to be Al4O4C and Al4C3, respectively. Comparison experiments of CNT-C/Al and CNT-C/Al-control (control sample with Al4C3 undetected) show that interface reactions can improve coating adhesion and promote electrical performances of CNT-C/Al effectively. Aluminum solid electrolytic capacitors using CNT-C/Al display ESRs of 5 ± 0.5 mΩ and capacitances of 460–500 μF, in comparison with 8–50 mΩ and 400–500 μF, respectively, for the control samples. Outstanding long-time stabilities of the capacitors as well as CNT-C/Al are also presented with 94–97% retention of the initial capacitance and less than 15% increase in ESR after 1000 h in accelerated lifetime test at 125 °C.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1312-8
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Structural, magnetic, and electrical property of nanocrystalline
           perovskite structure of iron manganite (FeMnO 3 )
    • Authors: S. Gowreesan; A. Ruban Kumar
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, nanostructure FeMnO3 perovskite material was synthesis by sol–gel auto combustion method using the glycine as a chelating agent for the first time in the literature. The synthesized materials were investigated structural, electrical, and magnetic properties by various characterization techniques. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the density and specific surface value are 2.54 g/cm3 and 1.468 m2/g, respectively. FE-SEM investigated surface morphology in the nanoscale region. The FeMnO3 material is existing antiferromagnetism at room temperature. Electrical property such as dielectric constant, tangent loss, and impedance spectrum, Nyquist plot with an equivalent circuit, AC conductivity, and electric modulus was analysed. The real part of permittivity, dielectric tangent loss with varying with temperature shows that the behaviour of Maxwell–Wagner relaxation in the FeMnO3 might be observed oxygen vacancy. The Nyquist plot gives more information-related electrical conduction process and individual contribution of grain and grain boundaries. The resistance (Ω) and capacitance (farads) values are varied with increasing temperature. An electric modulus value is varied under suppression electrode polarization and shows the effect of bulk and grain boundaries.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00339-017-1302-x
      Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 11 (2017)
       
 
 
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