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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.862
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Simulating effects of aerosols on rainfall in southern Africa
    • Authors: Svante Henriksson; Anu-Maija Sundström; Micky Josipovic; Pieter van Zyl; Johan Paul Beukes
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Climate-aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM is employed to study effects of aerosol air pollution on rainfall in southern Africa. Aerosols effect the climate through light scattering and absorption, modification of cloud properties, and other indirect effects. The simulation model simulates the global climate on a grid and aerosol emissions from all major economic sectors as provided by the GAINS emission model. Using different model setups, we can separate the effect of aerosol light absorption due to black carbon and other aerosols, that of aerosols interacting with clouds through acting as cloud condensation nuclei and that through the ocean response. This is the first study of its kind to employ aerosol station measurements for model validation. Comparisons are done with previous plentiful studies for south Asia with many similarities in aerosol and rainfall climatology. We conclude that aerosols likely have a weak, negative effect on rainfall with internal variability dominating the simulation results, consistently with observed historical records. Aerosol light absorption does not seem to have a strong impact on rainfall. Meanwhile, the complexity of the problem also leaves uncertainty to the results. Regionally, the results show an opposite pattern of greenhouse gas projections that suggest a wet-get-wetter and dry-get-drier development due to global warming.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0619-8
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Seasonal variation of airborne allergenic fungal spores in ambient PM 10
           —a study in Guwahati, the largest city of north-east India
    • Authors: Rajyalakshmi Garaga; C. K. R. Avinash; Sri Harsha Kota
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Fungal spores in ambient particulate matter (PM) is one of the major constituents which can adversely affect human health. For the first time, an investigation was conducted for 1 year at a residential region in north-east India to study the seasonal variation of PM10-associated fungal spore concentration and their diversity. Using fine particulate sampler, samples were collected at 12 h intervals for 1 week of every month during July 2016–June 2017. Twelve-hour averaged PM10 concentration was 79.74 μg/m3 and 103.47 μg/m3 during day and night time, respectively. Fungal spore concentration was 126 (54–294) CFU/m3 during day time and 107 (55 to 161) CFU/m3 during night time. Seven individual genera of fungal spores, namely Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Curvularia, Rhizopus, and Non-sporing isolates, were identified. Strong correlations between the Cladosporium and Penicillium (R = 0.83) and Cladosporium and Aspergillus (R = 0.82) were observed, which are well-known asthma allergens. Penicillium (30%), Fusarium (41%), and Aspergillus (25%) were the dominant fungi species in winter, monsoon, and summer seasons, respectively. Fungal spore concentrations peaked during summer and were least during monsoon. Fungal concentrations were negatively correlated with precipitation (R = − 0.25). Fungal counts had more significant positive correlation with temperature in non-rainy samples (R = 0.80), compared to negligible correlation (R = − 0.16) in all samples.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0624-y
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Atmospheric pollutants: modeling with Aermod software
    • Authors: Joaci dos Santos Cerqueira; Helder Neves de Albuquerque; Francisco de Assis Salviano de Sousa
      Pages: 21 - 32
      Abstract: In the operation of thermoelectric power plants, fossil fuels are burned, generating air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOX), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the objective of this study was to simulate the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from the Borborema S.A thermal power plant, using the Aermod View program as a tool to evaluate the concentrations resulting from the simulation and to make comparisons with allowable levels according to current law. Thus, the emission sources of chimney air pollutants of a thermal power plant in 2016 were evaluated using the Aermod View, Aermet View, and WRPLOT View software. Regarding the pollutants generated, NOx values at 1 h showed NO2 concentration over the primary and secondary standards allowed by law, with a maximum concentration of 1680 μg/m3, about five times higher than the primary standard and eight times the secondary. The simulation indices for the concentrations of PM, SOx, NOx, and CO, even though they are appeared very low, except NO2 at 1 h, it was observed that these pollutants can affect the health of the local population, fauna and flora, in view of the process of bioaccumulation, which is inherent to organisms, which directly or indirectly absorb substances or chemical compounds.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0626-9
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • The in situ pilot-scale phytoremediation of airborne VOCs and particulate
           matter with an active green wall
    • Authors: T. Pettit; P. J. Irga; F. R. Torpy
      Pages: 33 - 44
      Abstract: Atmospheric pollutant phytoremediation technologies, such as potted plants and green walls, have been thoroughly tested in lab-scale experiments for their potential to remove air pollutants. The functional value of these technologies, however, is yet to be adequately assessed in situ, in ‘high value’ environments, where pollutant removal will provide the greatest occupant health benefits. Air pollution in countries such as China is a significant public health issue, and efficient air pollution control technologies are needed. This work used pilot-scale trials to test the capacity of potted plants, a passive green wall and an active green wall (AGW) to remove particulate matter (PM) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) from a room in a suburban residential house in Sydney, Australia, followed by an assessment of the AGW’s potential to remove these pollutants from a classroom in Beijing. In the residential room, compared to potted plants and the passive green wall, the AGW maintained TVOCs at significantly lower concentrations throughout the experimental period (average TVOC concentration 72.5% lower than the control), with a similar trend observed for PM. In the classroom, the AGW reduced the average TVOC concentration by ~ 28% over a 20-min testing period compared to levels with no green wall and a filtered HVAC system in operation. The average ambient PM concentration in the classroom with the HVAC system operating was 101.18 μg/m3, which was reduced by 42.6% by the AGW. With further empirical validation, AGWs may be implemented to efficiently clean indoor air through functional reductions in PM and TVOC concentrations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0628-7
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Monitoring particulate matter in India: recent trends and future outlook
    • Authors: Pallavi Pant; Raj M. Lal; Sarath K. Guttikunda; Armistead G. Russell; Ajay S. Nagpure; Anu Ramaswami; Richard E. Peltier
      Pages: 45 - 58
      Abstract: Air quality remains a significant environmental health challenge in India, and large sections of the population live in areas with poor ambient air quality. This article presents a summary of the regulatory monitoring landscape in India, and includes a discussion on measurement methods and other available government data on air pollution. Coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentration data from the national regulatory monitoring network for 12 years (2004–2015) were systematically analyzed to determine broad trends. Less than 1% of all PM10 measurements (11 out of 4789) were found to meet the annual average WHO Air Quality Guideline (20 μg/m3), while 19% of the locations were in compliance with the Indian air quality standards for PM10 (60 μg/m3). Further efforts are necessary to improve measurement coverage and quality including the use of hybrid monitoring systems, harmonized approaches for sampling and data analysis, and easier data accessibility.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0629-6
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Integration of ANFIS model and forward selection method for air quality
    • Authors: Afsaneh Ghasemi; Jamil Amanollahi
      Pages: 59 - 72
      Abstract: In the last decade, air pollution in the city of Kermanshah has become a major concern. In this study, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed to predict five daily air pollutants in the atmosphere of Kermanshah city on the same day and 1 day in advance from 2014 to 2016. The selected pollutants were the particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). The temperature, relative humidity, dew point, wind speed, precipitation, pressure, visibility, and the pollutant concentration on the previous day were considered as predictors in the ANFIS model. In order to reduce the computational cost and time, the collinearity tests and forward selection (FS) technique were utilized to remove the redundant input variables and select the different combinations of input variables, respectively. Results showed that input combination for MODEL 2 (six input conditions) and MODEL 3 (five input conditions) performed well between observed and predicted values of CO in the same day forecasting (SDF) and 1 day in advance forecasting (1DAF). For other pollutants such as NO2, SO2, and PM10, the results obtained from MODEL 3 were better compared to the other input subset of the MODELs in the SDF and 1DAF. Developing the ANFIS model for O3 pollutant showed that MODEL 4 with the lowest normalized mean square error (NMSE) can be used to forecast the O3 concentration in both cases. It can be concluded that the integration of the FS method and ANFIS model led to an improvement in air quality forecasting.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0630-0
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Evaluation of EU air quality standards through modeling and the FAIRMODE
           benchmarking methodology
    • Authors: Jonilda Kushta; Georgios K. Georgiou; Yiannis Proestos; Theodoros Christoudias; Philippe Thunis; Chrysanthos Savvides; Christos Papadopoulos; Jos Lelieveld
      Pages: 73 - 86
      Abstract: We evaluate air quality modeling over the East Mediterranean using the benchmarking methodology developed in the framework of the Forum for Air Quality Modelling in Europe (FAIRMODE). FAIRMODE aims to provide a harmonized approach of model evaluation for regulatory purposes. We test the methodology by assessing the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) against ground-based air quality observations over Cyprus, a member state of the European Union. Two nested domains are used (at 50- and 10-km horizontal grid spacing) with the comparison performed over the innermost domain. We consider performance indicators reflecting regulations for air quality standards (maximum daily 8-hourly mean ozone, hourly nitrogen dioxide, and daily fine particulate matter concentrations). The WRF-Chem model is found to satisfy the proposed performance objectives regarding ozone and NO2, though it underestimates the latter in urban areas possibly due to uncertainties in emission inventories. Fine particulate matter is well represented by the model, except on days with strong influence from natural sources, highlighting the necessity for fine-tuning dust mobilization and transport in the region. The objectives are fulfilled even though discrepancies exist between model and observations. Our results indicate the need for more stringent performance criteria at relatively low concentrations. Overall, we find that the methodology provides in-depth information and relevant statistical metrics to guide air quality and model assessments for monitoring compliance with the EU Air Quality Directives and other guidelines to limit the impact of air pollution on human health and ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0631-z
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Assessing relative differences in smoke exposure from prescribed, managed,
           and full suppression wildland fire
    • Authors: Don Schweizer; Haiganoush K. Preisler; Ricardo Cisneros
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: A novel approach is presented to analyze smoke exposure and provide a metric to quantify health-related impacts. Our results support the current understanding that managing low-intensity fire for ecological benefit reduces exposure when compared to a high-intensity full suppression fire in the Sierra Nevada of California. More frequent use of fire provides an opportunity to mitigate smoke exposure for both individual events and future emission scenarios. The differences in relative exposure between high-intensity, low-intensity, and prescribed burn were significant (P value < 0.01). Suppressing fire not only appears to shift the health burden of the emissions to a future date but also increases the intensity and number of people exposed in a single exposure. Increased use of ecologically beneficial fire may further be optimized to reduce human exposure through advantageous use of good dispersal conditions and incorporating a mitigation strategy that includes poor dispersal when smoke is largely over wilderness or other natural areas. Accepting naturally occurring fire typical of the environmental system benefits forest health and reduces public exposure to smoke.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0633-x
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Ozone: a critical contaminant produced during gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
           on aluminum alloys—resolving the short- versus long-duration sampling
    • Authors: Thomas Neil McManus; Assed N. Haddad
      Pages: 97 - 106
      Abstract: Ozone is one of the gases produced during argon-shielded arc welding on aluminum alloys. Arc welding superimposes multiple episodes of intense emission of short duration onto the background level during the work shift. Short-duration exposures during welding were measured using colorimetric detector tubes and long-duration exposures, by colorimetric badges utilizing similar chemistry. Both devices were positioned on the lapel in the breathing zone. Many of the short-duration samples exceeded the 8-h TLV–TWA (threshold limit value–time-weighted average) of 0.08 ppm for moderate work during argon-shielded gas metal arc welding (GMAW) also known as metal inert gas (MIG) welding. Some short-duration samples exceeded the transient limit of 0.24 ppm (3× the TLV–TWA), and several exceeded the maximum of 0.40 ppm (5× the TLV–TWA). Exceedance of the maximum in jurisdictions using TLVs as exposure limits necessitates control measures including effective local exhaust ventilation and respiratory protection. Ozone was undetectable (< 0.04 ppm) during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. During long-duration sampling, almost all levels during GMAW were ≤ 0.08 ppm h (≤ 0.01 ppm averaged over 8 h), the limit of detection of the sampling device. As a result, ozone is a critical gaseous contaminant (requiring control measures) during GMAW (MIG welding). Protection of the eyes against irritation in sensitive individuals dominates other considerations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0634-9
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air associated with particles
           PM 2.5 in the Basque Country (Spain)
    • Authors: Miren Begoña Zubero Oleagoitia; Aitana Lertxundi Manterola; Jesús Ibarluzea Maurolagoitia; María Dolores Martínez López de Dicastillo; Jon Álvarez; Mikel Ayerdi Barandiaran; Amaia Irizar Loibide; Loreto Santa-Marina
      Pages: 107 - 114
      Abstract: The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent pollutants that are globally distributed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to analyze the levels of the priority PAHs in the PM2.5 fraction of air: naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzoanthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzoanthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, indenepyrene, acenaphthylene, in two urban industrial areas of the province of Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), (2) to describe seasonal variation, and (3) to identify the source of PAHs. The ∑PAH concentrations ranged from 0.85 to 9.86 ng/m3. We found statistical differences between sites of sampling (p < 0.05), with higher values in Azpeitia. The median value of benzo(a)pyrene was 0.05 ng/m3 (ranged from 0.05 to 1.12 ng/m3), lower than the threshold set by the European legislation. Statistical differences were found (p < 0.05) in relation to seasonal variation, with the highest levels registered in winter and in autumn. PAH ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that probably the vehicular emissions are the predominant source of PAHs.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0635-8
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • Correction to: Fragranced consumer products: effects on autistic adults in
           the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Pages: 127 - 127
      Abstract: The article Fragranced consumer products: effects on autistic adults in the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom, written by Anne Steinemann, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 25 September 2018 without open access.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0648-3
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2019)
  • The impact of thermal power plant Oslomej (Kichevo valley, Macedonia) on
           heavy metal contents (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd) in fruiting bodies of 15
           species of wild fungi
    • Authors: Emri Murati; Slavcho Hristovski; Mitko Karadelev; Ljupcho Melovski
      Abstract: Many mushroom species from the Kichevo valley (Republic of Macedonia) are consumed by the native human population regardless of the heavy metal content and uptake in the human body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the thermal power plant Oslomej on the extent of heavy metal accumulation in the fruiting bodies of selected fungi. The material of fruiting bodies of 15 species of wild fungi and soil samples were collected from 11 localities at three distances (0.5–0.75, 2.5–3.5, and 6–8 km, respectively) from the thermal power plant Oslomej in the period April 2012 to May 2014. We analyzed the content of seven heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, and Pb) by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the fruiting bodies that were not rinsed before drying. Significant correlation between the distance and content of certain heavy metals was found in 10 fungal species, especially in the cases of Ni and Cu and less in the cases of Cd, Pb, and Fe. Such correlations between heavy metal content in soils (total and extractable) and fruiting bodies were found mostly in the cases of Mn, Zn, Fe, Cd, and Cu. Also, the canonical discriminant analysis showed the impact of thermal power plant Oslomej on heavy metal patterns in Boletus aestivalis, Russula cyanoxantha, Cantharellus cibarius, and Hypholoma fasciculare. It can be concluded that both the pollution from the thermal power plant Oslomej and soil composition determine heavy metal content in the fruiting bodies of wild fungi.
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-019-00665-0
  • Observations on changes in Korean Changma rain associated with climate
           warming in 2017 and 2018
    • Authors: Y. S. Chung; H. S. Kim
      Abstract: The period of prolonged summer rain in Korea called Changma was studied. Changma, also known as Meiyu in China and Baiu in Japan, is an integral part of the East Asian Summer Monsoon System. Until the 1980s, the Changma rainy season in Korea occurred from late June and July for 30 to 40 days or approximately 4 to 5 weeks. This study investigated whether changes have been observed in the timing and amounts of precipitation associated with Changma. From the analysis of meteorological data obtained in 2017 and 2018, it is observed that the length of the rainy season has shortened to 2 to 3 weeks in agreement with the earlier studies. Furthermore, during the rainy season, there were many days of no rain and partly cloudy days. Although an active elongated-linear Changma front was common in the past, it was found that an inactive Changma front with a large meridional amplitude has caused intermittent rain showers for several hours from linear convective cloud streaks. In recent years, this has produced large variations in rainfall amounts among regional measuring stations in Korea. Climate warming in the north side of the Changma front has resulted in less contrast with the warm-moist air in the south side of it from the Pacific Ocean. This has resulted in a weaker and inactive quasi-stationary front which has caused a discontinuous broken Changma front and sporadic showery days. It is also observed that maritime polar air mass, mP, over the Okhotsk Sea of far eastern Russia has not affected the Changma front over the Korean Peninsula. Overall, this study found that the characteristics of past Changma fronts have changed significantly in recent years. The present observations imply the need of further studies on climate change and summer rainfall including water management.
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-00658-5
  • Evaluation of particulate matter deposition in the human respiratory tract
           during winter in Nanjing using size and chemically resolved ambient
    • Authors: Xiaoyuan Liu; Dongyang Nie; Kai Zhang; Ziyao Wang; Xiaoqian Li; Zhihao Shi; Yiyi Wang; Lin Huang; Mindong Chen; Xinlei Ge; Qi Ying; Xingna Yu; Xingang Liu; Jianlin Hu
      Abstract: Size-segregated ambient aerosols were collected by a five-stage impactor at a suburban Nanjing site during the winter of 2016–2017 to estimate the chemical composition and size distribution of particles deposited in different parts of the human respiratory tract. Chemical compositions of carbonaceous aerosols, water-soluble ions, and trace heavy metals were measured. Particulate matter (PM) mass deposited in nasopharyngeal (NOPL), tracheobronchial (TB), and pulmonary (P) was obtained by integrating the size-dependent deposition fractions. During the sampling period, the average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 108.8 ± 30.8 and 77.2 ± 24.2 μg/m3, respectively. Organic matter and water-soluble ions were major components in fine particles. The fine particles had a significant contribution to the particulate pollution in winter Nanjing. The mass concentration of particles increases significantly from the clean days to the pollution days, especially for particles in 1–2.5 μm. The proportion of NO3− and undetected components in particulate matter increases on pollution days, while the proportion of elemental carbon (EC), SO42−, and NH4+ decreases. During the study period, the total particulate matter deposit per minute in the NOPL, TB, and P was 1.06 ± 0.35, 0.10 ± 0.03, and 0.42 ± 0.14 μg, respectively, assuming normal respiration of tidal volumes of 1450 cm3 per breath and 15 breaths per minute. Particles in 2.5–10 μm had the highest deposition mass in NOPL of 0.57 ± 0.16 μg, while particles in < 0.5 μm had the highest deposition mass in TB (0.03 ± 0.01 μg), and particles in 1–2.5 μm had the highest deposition mass in P (0.14 ± 0.06 μg). The total particulate matter deposited in the NOPL, TB, and P increased from 0.79 ± 0.25, 0.08 ± 0.02, and 0.30 ± 0.09 μg on the clean days to 1.23 ± 0.29 μg, 0.12 ± 0.03 μg, and 0.49 ± 0.11 μg on the pollution days. More secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA) and metals (especially Zn, Cr, and Cu) were in the PM deposited in TB and P than in the ambient PM, while more undetected components in the PM deposited in NOPL. The chemical composition fractions deposited in a specific region were different from those measured in the ambient atmosphere, indicating that health effect studies of PM should consider the deposition rates of PM in the human respiratory tract, in addition to the ambient size and chemical characteristics of ambient PM.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-019-00663-2
  • Health risk associated with potential source regions of PM 2.5 in Indian
    • Authors: Shovan Kumar Sahu; Hongliang Zhang; Hao Guo; Jianlin Hu; Qi Ying; Sri Harsha Kota
      Abstract: This paper estimates the regional contribution of high PM2.5 concentration and associated mortality using HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis in eight Indian cities during 2015–2016. Health risk and mortality estimation were carried out using the Integrated Exposure Response function (IER) which was verified using our previous time series study in Delhi. Risk estimates from IER were observed to be slightly over-predicted (2.14%) when compared to health risk from time series study in Delhi. Health risk in the eight cities across the four seasons indicated higher chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer (LC), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and stroke in the northern (COPD = 1.35, LC = 1.50, IHD = 1.39, Stroke = 2.06) and eastern cities (COPD = 1.27, LC = 1.38, IHD = 1.35, Stroke = 1.93) as compared to in southern or western cities. Risk of stroke was observed to be the highest: North = 1.37–1.52, South = 1.20–1.31, East = 1.40–1.52, and West = 1.24–1.35 times to that of other diseases. Uttar Pradesh was observed to be a major contributor to premature mortality in Delhi, Lucknow, and Patna accounting for 30, 71, and 42% of total premature death due to high PM2.5 concentration during winter. Similarly, high PM2.5 concentration from West Bengal and Bangladesh was responsible for 52% of total premature mortality in Kolkata while the Indian Ocean was a major contributor to premature mortality in western and southern cities during winter. Reduction of both local and regional pollution is required to yield a significant reduction in pollution of all cities except Delhi and Lucknow where regional and local sources respectively are dominant.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-019-00661-4
  • A national analysis of the geographic aspects and ecological correlates of
           PM 2.5 in China based on ground observational data
    • Authors: Zhiqiang Hu; Charlie H. Zhang; Changhong Miao
      Abstract: Increasing studies have investigated the characteristics of fine particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) using ground-level observations among Chinese cities in recent years. This article analyzed the geographic aspects and ecological correlates of PM2.5 based on in situ ambient air quality observations for 367 cities and prefectures across China. Results of global and local Moran’s I analyses suggested a significant clustered pattern of PM2.5 across the country with hot spots mainly concentrated in cities located in the North China Plain. Spatially interpolated PM2.5 estimates showed that most of China’s territories experienced unhealthy concentrations of PM2.5 except during summer, while much larger proportions of China’s population was exposed to unhealthy PM2.5 all year round. Results from regression analyses suggested that the spatial variations of PM2.5 were positively associated with air pollution but inversely related to meteorological factors. Findings from this research can provide new insights into air pollution mitigation policies and public health efforts in China and beyond.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-019-00662-3
  • Forecast of daily PM 2.5 concentrations applying artificial neural
           networks and Holt–Winters models
    • Authors: Luciana Maria Baptista Ventura; Fellipe de Oliveira Pinto; Laiza Molezon Soares; Aderval S. Luna; Adriana Gioda
      Abstract: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been considered one of the most harmful atmospheric pollutants to the health. PM2.5 has as its main origin vehicular emissions, a characteristic source in megacities. In order to predict pollution episodes in different areas (rural, industrial, and urban), two models were applied, Holt–Winters (HW) and artificial neural network (ANN), using PM2.5 concentration time series. PM2.5 samples were collected using Hi-Vol samplers during a period of 24 h, every 6 days, from January 2011 to December 2013, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Meteorological data was also obtained for use in the models. The PM2.5 dataset was the longest obtained for this megacity and the Holt–Winters (HW) model was used, for the first time, to predict air quality. The results of the PM2.5 data series showed daily concentrations ranging from 1 to 65 μg m−3. The root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated for each model for the three sites. The HW model best explained the simulation of PM2.5 in the industrial area, since it presented the lowest RMSE (5.8 to 14.9 μg m−3). The ANN was the most appropriate model for urban and rural areas with RMSE between 4.2 to 9.3 μg m−3. Overall, both forecast models proved accurate enough to be considered useful tools for air quality management and can be applied in other world regions.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-00660-x
  • Deep learning PM 2.5 concentrations with bidirectional LSTM RNN
    • Authors: Weitian Tong; Lixin Li; Xiaolu Zhou; Andrew Hamilton; Kai Zhang
      Abstract: A better understanding of spatiotemporal distribution of PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations in a continuous space-time domain is critical for risk assessment and epidemiologic studies. Existing spatiotemporal interpolation algorithms are usually based on strong assumptions by restricting the interpolation models to the ones with explicit and simple mathematical descriptions, thus neglecting plenty of hidden yet critical influencing factors. In this study, we developed a novel deep-learning-based spatiotemporal interpolation model, which includes the bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) as the main ingredient. Our model is able to take into account both spatial and temporal hidden influencing factors automatically. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time of applying the bidirectional LSTM RNN in the spatiotemporal interpolation of air pollutants concentrations. We evaluated our novel method using a dataset that contains daily PM2.5 measurements in 2009 over the contiguous southeast region of the USA. Results demonstrate a good performance of our model. We also conducted simulations to explore the properties of spatiotemporal correlations. In particular, we found the temporal correlation is stronger than the spatial correlation.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0647-4
  • Chemical sensitivity, asthma, and effects from fragranced consumer
           products: National Population Study in the United Kingdom
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Consumer products, such as those with a fragrance, can adversely affect air quality and health. This national study in the United Kingdom (UK) investigated the prevalence of chemical sensitivity, a condition associated with chemical pollutant exposures, and the medical diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). In addition, it investigated the co-occurrence of chemical sensitivity with asthma and asthma-like conditions, and with fragrance sensitivity (adverse health effects from fragranced consumer products). Using a nationally representative population sample (n = 1100), an online survey was conducted of adults in the UK, comprising England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. The survey found that, across the UK population, 16.3% report chemical sensitivity; 6.6% medically diagnosed MCS; 25.3% are asthmatic, diagnosed with asthma (17.1%), an asthma-like condition (9.0%), or both; and 27.8% are fragrance sensitive. The conditions frequently co-occur: among the chemically sensitive, 57.0% are asthmatic and 77.7% are fragrance sensitive; and among asthmatics, 36.7% are chemically sensitive and 54.0% are fragrance sensitive. Air fresheners and deodorizers trigger health problems for 15.5% of the general population, 52.5% of chemically sensitive, and 38.8% of asthmatics. Disabling health problems can result from exposure to fragranced products for 41.7% of the chemically sensitive and 37.3% of asthmatics. Further, 21.2% of the chemically sensitive and 14.0% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Results indicate that chemical sensitivity is widespread in the UK, affecting over 5.7 million adults, with over 2.3 million diagnosed MCS, 8.9 million asthmatics, and 9.8 million fragrance sensitive. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is a critical step to reduce adverse health and societal effects.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-00655-8
  • How have the characteristics of air quality in a typical large Chinese
           city changed between 2011 and 2017'
    • Authors: Haibo Ji; Qin’geng Wang; Yiyong Yu; Yan Lu; Xin Qian
      Abstract: Great efforts have been made to control air pollution in China, and these have markedly changed air quality. Here, a detailed analysis of changes in air pollution in Nanjingbetween 2011 and 2017 based on hourly concentration measurements of six air pollutants is presented. The concentrations of most of these pollutants have decreased since 2013. This has resulted in the annual proportion of days meeting the new Chinese air quality standards increasing by 17.5%, as well as the proportion of days of severe or strong pollution decreasing by 8.0%. However, the ozone (O3) concentration increased between 2011 and 2017, and the number of days that O3 concentrations exceeded the Chinese standard dramatically increased from 8 days in 2011 to 60 days in 2017. Clearly, O3 has replaced fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as the most frequent dominant pollutant since 2016. Our results indicate that air pollution in Nanjing has evolved from being dominated by primary pollutants to being dominated by secondary pollutants, reflecting interaction of multiple emissions and chemical processes. Current policies and strategies need to be reassessed and modified to deal with interactions between emissions from different sources under variable meteorological conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-00659-4
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