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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.862
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Air quality assessment in Algiers city
    • Authors: Dalila Belhout; Rabah Kerbachi; Helder Relvas; Ana Isabel Miranda
      Pages: 897 - 906
      Abstract: Abstract Very few studies related with the assessment and research of air pollutants have been initiated in Algiers, which is the political and economic capital of Algeria. This lack of studies is mainly due to the non-access and insufficiency of data, and also the failure of the air quality monitoring stations during the last years. For those reasons, the use of modeling tools can be useful to assess the air pollution levels and compare different control options. The main aim of this paper is to identify anthropogenic emission sources (road traffic, industrial, residential, and waste) which are considered key sources of air pollution in the greater Algiers, and to estimate the concentration levels of suspended particles with diameter ˂ 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over the studied area during 2012. For this purpose, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) was used. The results indicate that meteorology statistical measures present a perfect agreement between measured and predicted values. The index of agreement (IOA) for wind speed and its components is above 0.65, for temperature is 0.99, while for the air pollution, the comparison of predicted concentrations with measured ones shows similar results. The maximum concentration levels for PM10 (122 μg/m3) and for NO2 (91 μg/m3) are higher than the values established by national and international legislation, and the industrial districts are more affected by air pollution than the urban areas.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0589-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2018)
  • Particulate black carbon and gaseous emission from brick kilns in Greater
           Dhaka region, Bangladesh
    • Authors: Md Imdadul Haque; Kamrun Nahar; Md Humayun Kabir; Abdus Salam
      Pages: 925 - 935
      Abstract: Abstract Eighteen brick kilns of three brick-making technologies (Fixed Chimney Kiln (FCK), Zigzag, and Hoffmann) were selected to measure the concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) with Aerocet 531S (USA) sampler, black carbon (BC) with Magee Scientific, OT-21 Soot scan Transmissometer (USA), and gaseous pollutants (CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, and volatile organic carbon (VOC)) with Aeroqual 500 gas sampler (New Zealand) to understand the emission scenario from brick sector in Greater Dhaka region, Bangladesh. Emission factor (EF) of each pollutant was computed from their respective concentration for three brick kiln technologies. Ambient PM2.5 and PM10 were measured in brick kiln premises and 1 km far from the respective kilns to see the effect on the surrounding areas. The PM2.5 concentration was found on an average of 141 ± 86, 128 ± 72, and 110 ± 53 mg/m3 in FCK, Zigzag, and Hoffmann kilns, respectively. The average BC concentration was found 16.6 ± 7.1 (FCK), 11.8 ± 4.2 (Zigzag), and 8.9 ± 4.4 (Hoffmann) mg/m3. FCK has a greater emission of CO, whereas Zigzag has a higher CO2 emission. A comparatively higher value of CO2 and lower value of CO indicates effective combustion of coal, and this is found to be more efficient for Zigzag and Hoffmann compared to traditional FCK. SO2 and VOC emissions were depending not only on the kiln types but also on the fuel qualities. From EF calculation, approximately 4526 t of PM2.5, 340 t of BC, 209,776 t of CO2, 8700 t of CO, 19,441 t of SO2, and 835,450 t of VOC per year found to emit from 1000 brick kilns. The conversion of traditional FCK to improved one, i.e., Zigzag and/or Hoffman is not a straight forward solution, as CO2 emission was higher in Zigzag whereas BC and PM2.5 emissions were higher in FCK. Therefore, considering EF of various pollutants from these three types of kilns, conversion of FCK to Zigzag or Hoffmann could be a better choice.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0596-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2018)
  • Exposure assessment of particulate and gaseous pollutants emitted during
           surgery in operating rooms of different specialties
    • Authors: Tzu-Ting Yang; Kai-Jen Chuang; Nai-Yun Chang; Chih-Hong Pan; Wei-Hang Liao; Chien-Chieh Liao; Yang-Hwei Tsuang; Hsiao-Yun Wen; Ta-Chih Hsiao; Hsiao-Chi Chuang
      Pages: 937 - 947
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to identify hazards that occur due to surgical practices and assess exposure to surgical smoke. We investigated nine surgical specialties in their corresponding operating rooms (ORs) for on-line measurements of pollutants and off-line determination of PAHs. Surgery for the face and dentistry generated the smallest particle size with a GMD of 23.3 nm. Also, the highest levels of the lung deposition surface area (5.8 ± 6.8 μm2/cm3), particulate matter of < 10 μm (PM10; 6.46 ± 5.34 μg/m3), PM2.5 (1.82 ± 1.01 μg/m3), and black carbon (0.10 ± 0.05 μg/m3) were seen with surgery of the face and dentistry. For gaseous pollutants, we observed that gastroenterology had the highest levels of CO2 (869 ± 112 ppm) and total volatile organic compounds (3.70 ± 1.00 ppm) compared to the other operating rooms. Levels of CO (3.40 ± 1.20 ppm) and formaldehyde (0.90 ± 0.51 ppm) were highest in the urology OR. Average total PAHs were mainly present in the gaseous phase with the highest concentrations of 746.6~1045.8 ng/m3 for gynecology. Our results showed that most pollutant levels were relatively low. However, gaseous PAHs emitted from surgical practices can reach levels that may pose important cancer risks in terms of occupational health.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0597-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2018)
  • Indoor exposure to bioaerosol particles: levels and implications for
           inhalation dose rates in schoolchildren
    • Authors: Joana Madureira; Lívia Aguiar; Cristiana Pereira; Ana Mendes; Micaela Machado Querido; Paula Neves; João Paulo Teixeira
      Pages: 955 - 964
      Abstract: Abstract Children spend most of their time inside schools and bioaerosol particles are part of their everyday environment. Although bioaerosol particles are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns, information concerning the indoor exposures and inhalation doses is still limited. This study aimed (i) to quantify bacterial and fungal particles levels in indoor and outdoor air of public primary schools, (ii) to assess the influence of ambient air on bacteria and fungi presence indoors, and (iii) to estimate the inhalation dose rates for respective children (8–10 years old) in comparison with adult staff. Air samples were collected in 20 primary schools in a total of 71 classrooms during heating season with a microbiological air sampler. The results showed that indoor bacterial and fungal concentrations were higher than outdoor levels (p < 0.05), which could be explained by differences in density of occupation, occupant’s activities, and inadequate ventilation. CO2 levels were significantly correlated with indoor bacteria concentrations. Moreover, mean indoor bacteria concentrations were above national limit values in all the evaluated Porto primary schools, from two to nine times higher. Regarding fungi concentrations, indoor levels were above the reference value in 75% of the schools and overall indoor levels registered a 3-fold increase compared with outdoor values. Children had two times higher inhalation dose rates to bioaerosol particles when compared to adult individuals. Thus, due to their susceptibility, special attention should be given to educational settings in order to guarantee the children healthy development.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0599-8
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2018)
  • Intra-urban variability of ozone in a tropical city—characterization of
           local and regional sources and major influencing factors
    • Authors: Arideep Mukherjee; Shashi Bhushan Agrawal; Madhoolika Agrawal
      Pages: 965 - 977
      Abstract: Abstract Tropospheric ozone (O3), a secondary air pollutant, was assessed to evaluate the intra-urban variability of O3, its local and distant sources, and the influence of O3 precursor gases and meteorological variables on seasonal and temporal trends of O3 from 2013 to 2017 in a tropical urban city located in the middle Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Passive samplers and data from real-time air quality monitoring station were considered. Trajectory statistical models, multivariate statistical methods, and geographic information system were further used to identify spatial-temporal variability and source apportionment. O3 concentrations showed significant intra-urban variability with higher concentrations in suburban or background regions of the city, which were mostly attributed to the transport of O3 at high wind speed from distant and rural areas away from the city, while lower concentrations in traffic and commercial areas were due to titration of O3 by nitric oxide (NO). Variations in meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) and planetary boundary layer height were responsible for seasonal variations in O3 concentrations. Long-range and regional transport of O3 and its precursors such as volatile organic compounds and NOx from the northwestern and eastern directions of the city significantly influenced O3 variability with distinct seasonal patterns. A negative trend in O3 levels was recorded during the study period which may be due to increase in NOx emission in the city. The observed outcomes suggest significant intra-urban variability of O3 in the city which is influenced by traffic as well as by distant and local sources.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0600-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2018)
  • Electricity supply trend and operating statuses of coal-fired power plants
           in North Korea using the facility-specific data produced by North Korea:
           characterization and recommendations
    • Authors: M. J. Yeo; Y. P. Kim
      Pages: 979 - 992
      Abstract: Abstract Reliable energy-related data from NK are needed in order to understand the status and management of air quality in NK. However, data from the North Korean government are limited. Nevertheless, in order to understand the electricity supply and operating statuses of coal-fired power plants in NK, we used the facility-specific data presented in the Project Design Documents of the registered Clean Development Mechanism projects hosted by NK to calculate several indicators that reflect the operating status of coal-fired power plants. The average daily operating time was short, between 4 and 20 h; the power generation efficiency was low, at about 23%; and the emission performance value of carbon dioxide was poor, at about 1500 gCO2/kWh. We also found that the electricity outputs presented in other studies were substantially lower than those reported for the coal-fired power plants in the second National Communication on Climate Change. The best way to provide financial and technical support to NK might be through international programs, such as a new technology transfer mechanism controlled by the Climate Technology Centre and Network in post-2020 climate regime.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0601-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2018)
  • Ozone and volatile organic compounds in the metropolitan area of
           Lima-Callao, Peru
    • Authors: José S. Silva; Jhojan P. Rojas; Magdalena Norabuena; Rodrigo J. Seguel
      Pages: 993 - 1008
      Abstract: Abstract This study analyzes ozone formation in the metropolitan area of Lima-Callao as a function of meteorological patterns and the concentrations of nitrogen oxides and reactive organic gases. The study area is located on the west coast of South America (12°S) in an upwelling region that is markedly affected by the Southeast Pacific anticyclone. The vertical stability and diurnal evolution of the mixing layer were analyzed from radiosondes launched daily during 1992–2014 and from two intensive campaigns in 2009. Vertical profiles show that during June–November, the subsidence inversion base ranges from 0.6 to 0.9 km above sea level (asl). In contrast, during December–May, subsidence inversion dissipates, leading to weak surface inversions from 0.1 to 0.6 km asl. At the surface level, compliance with the ozone standard of 51 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) is explained by the marine boundary layer effect and by strong inhibition of ozone formation due to titration with nitric oxide. Day-of-the-week variations in ozone and nitrogen oxides suggest a VOC-limited ozone-formation regime in the atmosphere of Lima. Furthermore, the pattern of C6–C12 species indicates that gasoline-powered vehicles are the main source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whereas the species with the greatest ozone-forming potential corresponded to the sum of the isomers m- and p-xylene. Mean benzene concentrations exceeded the standard of 0.63 ppbv, reaching 1.2 ppbv east of Lima. Nevertheless, the cancer risk associated with the inhalation of benzene was deemed acceptable, according to USEPA and WHO criteria.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0604-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2018)
  • Seasonal variation of airborne allergenic fungal spores in ambient PM 10
           —a study in Guwahati, the largest city of north-east India
    • Authors: Rajyalakshmi Garaga; C. K. R. Avinash; Sri Harsha Kota
      Abstract: Abstract Fungal spores in ambient particulate matter (PM) is one of the major constituents which can adversely affect human health. For the first time, an investigation was conducted for 1 year at a residential region in north-east India to study the seasonal variation of PM10-associated fungal spore concentration and their diversity. Using fine particulate sampler, samples were collected at 12 h intervals for 1 week of every month during July 2016–June 2017. Twelve-hour averaged PM10 concentration was 79.74 μg/m3 and 103.47 μg/m3 during day and night time, respectively. Fungal spore concentration was 126 (54–294) CFU/m3 during day time and 107 (55 to 161) CFU/m3 during night time. Seven individual genera of fungal spores, namely Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Curvularia, Rhizopus, and Non-sporing isolates, were identified. Strong correlations between the Cladosporium and Penicillium (R = 0.83) and Cladosporium and Aspergillus (R = 0.82) were observed, which are well-known asthma allergens. Penicillium (30%), Fusarium (41%), and Aspergillus (25%) were the dominant fungi species in winter, monsoon, and summer seasons, respectively. Fungal spore concentrations peaked during summer and were least during monsoon. Fungal concentrations were negatively correlated with precipitation (R = − 0.25). Fungal counts had more significant positive correlation with temperature in non-rainy samples (R = 0.80), compared to negligible correlation (R = − 0.16) in all samples.
      PubDate: 2018-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0624-y
  • Spatio-seasonal variation in ambient air pollutants and influence of
           meteorological factors in Coimbatore, Southern India
    • Authors: A. Manju; K. Kalaiselvi; V. Dhananjayan; M. Palanivel; G. S. Banupriya; M. H. Vidhya; K. Panjakumar; B. Ravichandran
      Abstract: Abstract Air quality is used worldwide to confirm the current status of air pollution level and associated health risks to the public. Several air pollutants reach very high concentrations in many regions across India. In this study, air pollutants were measured in an urban city of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, Southern India, during 2013 to 2014 based on season and location, and the influence of meteorological factors. Air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) across eight locations including industrial, residential, traffic, and commercial areas were assessed. The results showed that PM10, PM2.5, and CO were the most serious pollutants and their average concentrations ranged from 65.5 to 98.6 μg/m3, 27.6 to 56.9 μg/m3, and 1.58 to 8.21 mg/m3, respectively, among various locations. Significantly higher concentration of air pollutants was recorded in industrial areas followed by traffic and commercial areas. Comparatively higher mean concentration of O3 (2.22 ± 0.75 μg/m3) and CO (7.73 ± 1.86 mg/m3) was recorded during the summer season, whereas the concentration of PM10 (80.3 ± 24.4 μg/m3), PM2.5 (45.1 ± 17.7 μg/m3), SO2 (7.86 ± 1.55 μg/m3), and NO2 (13 ± 1.81 μg/m3) was higher in southwest monsoon. Ozone (O3) and CO positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with relative humidity. The level of PM10, PM2.5, and CO concentrations exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) guidelines. The present study’s results emphasize the need of effective air pollution control in Coimbatore. Precautionary measures to be taken to avoid exposure of air pollutants to the public and minimize pollutants. This study further suggests an investigation on the adverse impact on human health and environment using appropriate risk analysis techniques.
      PubDate: 2018-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0617-x
  • Performance of silver, zinc, and iron nanoparticles-doped cotton filters
           against airborne E. coli to minimize bioaerosol exposure
    • Authors: Attarad Ali; Maohua Pan; Trevor B. Tilly; Muhammad Zia; Chang Yu Wu
      Abstract: To overcome limitations of existing air-cleaning filters in capturing and deactivating aerosolized microorganisms, this study was embarked to evaluate novel Ag, Zn, and Fe nanoparticle-doped cotton filters (AgCt, ZnCt, FeCt), as biocidal filters for bioaerosol attenuation. To evaluate the biocidal activity of the nanocomposite filters, the survival of lab-generated E. coli after collection on each filter material was compared to collection on an undoped cotton control filter and in a BioSampler. Relative humidity (RH) affected the survival of bacteria on the filters, and the optimal RH was found to be 50 ± 5%. The physical removal efficiency (PRE) determined by an optical particle counter was 99.9 ± 0.7% for ZnCt, 97.4 ± 1.2% for AgCt, and 97.3 ± 0.6% for FeCt, where the control showed only 77.4 ± 6.3% for particles > 500 nm. The doped filters showed 100% viable removal efficiency (VRE). Importantly, the VRE of the nanocomposite filters after four cycles remained nearly 99% and was greater than the cotton control filter at 76.6 ± 3.2%. Adding to its benefits, the AgCt filters had a lower pressure drop than the FeCt and ZnCt filters and the cotton control. The permeability for the cotton control filter was 3.38 × 10−11 m2 while that for the AgCt filter was slightly higher (3.64 × 10−11 m2) than the other filters as well. Overall, these results suggest that nanocomposite-doped filter media, particularly AgCt, can provide effective protection against airborne pathogens with a lower pressure drop, elevated collection efficiency, and better disinfection capability as compared to untreated cotton filters, which are all important features for practical biocidal applications. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0622-0
  • Asian dust storms and diabetes hospitalization: a nationwide
           population-based study
    • Authors: Yun-Shan Chan; Joshua Chen-Yuan Teng; Tsai-Ching Liu; Yu-I Peng
      Abstract: Abstract This study analyzed the association between Asian dust storms events and diabetes hospital admissions during 2000–2009 in Taiwan using time-series autoregressive model with explanatory variables. Data came from National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency, and Central Weather Bureau. There were 1,283,509 diabetes hospital admissions and 55 ADS events. Our study showed that Asian dust storms were positively associated with diabetes hospital admissions for women, but the connection was delayed rather than immediate. The females who were aged above 74 and who were active in the labor market were more vulnerable to Asian dust storms.
      PubDate: 2018-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0623-z
  • Influence of different complexity levels of road traffic models on air
           quality modelling at street scale
    • Authors: Bruno Vicente; Sandra Rafael; Vera Rodrigues; Hélder Relvas; Mariana Vilaça; João Teixeira; Jorge Bandeira; Margarida Coelho; Carlos Borrego
      Abstract: Abstract Urban mobility accounts for 38 and 19% of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions at European urban areas, respectively. Despite of all the technological development around automobile industry, urban areas are still facing problems related to exposure to high levels of air pollutants. Increasing the accuracy of both emissions and air quality modelling from road traffic is a key-issue for the management of air pollution in road transport sector. This study assessed the influence of using different road traffic emission models on the accuracy of air quality modelling with street-level resolution, having as a case study an urban area located on the centre region of Portugal. Two emission models, with different complexity levels regarding the ability to characterise the traffic dynamics were analysed, namely, transport emission model for line sources (TREM) and vehicle-specific power (VSP), based on data obtained in an experimental campaign. To perform the air quality simulations, the pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere under variable wind conditions (VADIS) model was used and two pollutants were analysed: NOx and PM10. The results showed that the magnitude of PM10 and NOx concentrations were result of a conjoint influence of traffic dynamics and meteorological conditions. Comparison between measured and modelled data showed that the VADIS model could track the evolution of NOx levels, for both emission models considered, displaying a high correlation (> 0.8) between traffic-related NOx emissions and NOx concentrations. For PM10, VADIS model is more sensitive to the differences in the emissions calculation; however, it was observed that the traffic-related PM10 emissions accounts 1.3–8.4% to the PM10 concentration levels at the study area.
      PubDate: 2018-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0621-1
  • Multi-level policies for air quality: implications of national and
           sub-national emission reductions on population exposure
    • Authors: Emanuela Peduzzi; Enrico Pisoni; Alain Clappier; Philippe Thunis
      Abstract: Abstract Poor air quality and related health impacts are still an issue in many cities and regions worldwide. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) can support the design of measures to reduce the emissions of precursors affecting air pollution. In this study, we apply the SHERPA (screening for high emission reduction potentials for air quality) model to compare spatial and sectoral emission reductions, given country-scale emission targets. Different approaches are tested: (a) country ”uniform” emission reductions, (b) emission reductions targeting urban areas, (c) emission reductions targeting preferential sectors. As a case study, we apply the approaches to the implementation of the National Emission Ceiling Directive. Results are evaluated in terms of the reduction in average population exposure to PM2.5 overall in a country and in its main cities. Results indicate that the reduction of population exposure to PM2.5 highly depends on the way emission reductions are implemented. This work also shows the usefulness of the SHERPA model to support national authorities implementing national emission reduction targets while, at the same time, addressing their local air quality issues.
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0613-1
  • Can houseplants improve indoor air quality by removing CO 2 and increasing
           relative humidity'
    • Authors: C. Gubb; T. Blanusa; A. Griffiths; C. Pfrang
      Abstract: Abstract High indoor CO2 concentrations and low relative humidity (RH) create an array of well-documented human health issues. Therefore, assessing houseplants’ potential as a low-cost approach to CO2 removal and increasing RH is important. We investigated how environmental factors such as ‘dry’ (< 0.20 m3 of water per m3 of substrate, m3 m−3) or ‘wet’ (> 0.30 m3 m−3) growing substrates, and indoor light levels (‘low’ 10 μmol m−2 s−1, ‘high’ 50 μmol m−2 s−1, and ‘very high’ 300 μmol m−2 s−1) influence the plants’ net CO2 assimilation (‘A’) and water vapour loss. Seven common houseplant taxa—representing a variety of leaf types and sizes—were studied for their ability to assimilate CO2 across a range of indoor light levels. Additionally, to assess the plants’ potential contribution to RH increase, the plants’ evapo-transpiration (ET) was measured. At typical ‘low’ indoor light levels, ‘A’ rates were generally low (< 3.9 mg h−1). Differences between ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ plants at typical indoor light levels were negligible in terms of room-level impact. Light compensation points (i.e. the light level where the CO2 assimilation equals zero) were in the typical indoor light range (1–50 μmol m−2 s−1) only for two studied Spathiphyllum wallisii cultivars and Hedera helix; these plants would thus provide the best CO2 removal indoors. Additionally, increasing indoor light levels to 300 μmol m−2 s−1 would, in most species, significantly increase their potential to assimilate CO2. Species which assimilated the most CO2 also contributed most to increasing RH.
      PubDate: 2018-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0618-9
  • Roadside atmospheric pollution: still a serious environmental problem in
           Beijing, China
    • Authors: Wei Chen; Aijia Li; Fan Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract China has made great efforts to reduce ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the past few decades. The air quality in northern China has improved greatly. However, most research has focused on atmospheric pollution in non-roadside environments that have little influence from traffic flow and are impacted by less vehicle exhaust. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data were collected at four traffic stations and four nontraffic stations in Beijing from June 2014 to September 2017 to analyze the spatial-temporal variations of atmospheric pollutants related to traffic. The traffic stations had higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO but lower concentrations of O3. Although the overall air quality in Beijing is improving, the pollution rates of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the traffic stations were still high at 47.91%, 50.71%, and 61.22% concentrations, respectively. The air pollution levels in traffic environments are systematically higher than those in nontraffic environments, during both daytime and nighttime, except O3. Furthermore, the traffic stations near ring roads with large numbers of diesel trucks were even more polluted, suggesting the influence of traffic emissions. Under adverse meteorological dispersion conditions, both the traffic and nontraffic stations had high pollution levels, but the pollution at the traffic stations was much higher. To reduce the air pollution level, a series of vehicle restriction rules have been imposed, including license plate restriction. Our analysis revealed obvious cycles associated with license plate restriction rules, suggesting the possibility for further improvement in vehicle restriction rules. The results from our study suggest that roadside environments with heavy traffic in Beijing, China, are still highly polluted and need further efforts to improve.
      PubDate: 2018-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0620-2
  • Analysis of fungal contamination in vehicle air filters and their impact
           as a bioaccumulator on indoor air quality
    • Authors: Simone Aquino; José Eduardo Alves de Lima; Ana Paula Branco do Nascimento; Fabrício Caldeira Reis
      Abstract: Abstract Studies on air quality within automotive vehicles are an emerging research area in Brazil, especially in the city of São Paulo, one of the most polluted cities in the world and with the largest fleet of vehicles in the country. Indoor air quality is an indicator of environmental health that takes into account, in addition to thermal comfort, factors that interfere in precarious air conditions, such as the presence of fungi, bacteria and carbon dioxide in indoor air-conditioned environments. The objective of the present study was to analyse the fungal contamination in air-conditioning filters collected from 21 automotive vehicles and the study found 17 fungal genera in all samples collected (100%), including toxigenic fungi such as Penicillium, Fusarim and Aspergillus, indicating that indoor air quality can compromise the health of a portion of the population, such as professional drivers. Among the Aspergillus genus, the results showed the presence of the A. flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus and A. clavatus species, which cause severe allergic and pulmonary respiratory diseases. Air in artificially heated environments should provide comfort to its occupants but it may pose a risk to human health if the car filtration system is contaminated by pathogenic fungi.
      PubDate: 2018-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0614-0
  • Comparing different methods for statistical modeling of particulate matter
           in Tehran, Iran
    • Authors: Vahid Mehdipour; David S. Stevenson; Mahsa Memarianfard; Parveen Sihag
      Abstract: Abstract Particulate matter has major impacts on human health in urban regions, and Tehran is one of the most polluted metropolitan cities in the world, struggling to control this pollutant more than any other contaminant. PM2.5 concentrations were predicted by three statistical modeling methods: (i) decision tree (DT), (ii) Bayesian network (BN), and (iii) support vector machine (SVM). Collected data for three consecutive years (January 2013 to January 2016) were used to develop the models. Data from the initial 2 years were employed as the training data, and measurements from the last year were used for testing the models. Twelve parameters, covering meteorological variables and concentrations of several chemical species, were explored as potential predictors of PM2.5. According to the sensitivity analysis of PM2.5 by SVM and derived explicit equations from BN and DT, PM10, NO2, SO2, and O3 are the most important predictors. Furthermore, the impacts of the predictors on the PM2.5 were assessed which the chemical precursors’ influences indicated more in comparison with meteorological parameters. Capabilities of the models were compared to each other and the support vector machine was found to be the best performing, based on evaluation criteria. Nonetheless, the decision tree and Bayesian network methods also provided acceptable results. We suggest more studies using the SVM and other methods as hybrids would lead to improved models.
      PubDate: 2018-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0615-z
  • A hybrid model based on convolutional neural networks and long short-term
           memory for ozone concentration prediction
    • Authors: Unjin Pak; Chungsong Kim; Unsok Ryu; Kyongjin Sok; Sungnam Pak
      Abstract: Abstract Ozone, which is one of the most crucial pollutants regarding air quality and climate change, negatively impacts on human health, climate, and vegetation; therefore, the prediction of surface ozone concentration is very important in the protection of human health and environment. In this study, a convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory (CNN-LSTM) hybrid model that combines convolutional neural network (CNN), which can efficiently extract the inherent features of huge air quality and meteorological data, and long short-term memory (LSTM), which can sufficiently reflect the long-term historic process of the input time series data, was proposed and used for the ozone predictor to predict the next day’s 8-h average ozone concentration in Beijing City. At first, the number of historic data was set as 34 days via optimization, so that the input data suitable for the CNN-LSTM model to ensure the quick and precise prediction of ozone were constructed. In addition, the CNN-LSTM model candidates with different structures were proposed and used to construct the optimal model structure for the proposed ozone predictor. Finally, the performance of the proposed ozone predictor was evaluated and compared with multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and LSTM models; as a result, the performance indexes (RMSE, MAE, and MAPE) were reduced to 83% compared to the MLP model and 35% compared to the LSTM model. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the proposed CNN-LSTM hybrid model has the satisfactory seasonal stability and the prediction performance superior to MLP and LSTM models.
      PubDate: 2018-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0585-1
  • A quantitative assessment of the air pollution purification effect of a
           super strong cold-air outbreak in January 2016 in China
    • Authors: Yuling Hu; Shigong Wang; Guicai Ning; Ying Zhang; Jiaxin Wang; Ziwei Shang
      Abstract: Abstract Although numerous studies have been conducted around the world to investigate the meteorological causes of and disasters due to cold-air outbreaks, the effects of these events on air pollution have received little attention. This study quantitatively investigated the purification of air pollution by a super strong cold-air outbreak along with cold front movement from the north to the south of the Chinese mainland in January 2016 using routinely observed meteorological data, air pollution monitoring data, and NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Some of the main results are as follows: (1) There were strong decreases in the concentrations of the five studied air pollutants in most parts of the Chinese mainland during the cold frontal passage. Spatially, the regions with the largest decreases in air pollutant concentrations were consistent with those with negative anomalous centers of 24-h surface air temperature (SAT) changes and positive anomalous centers of 24-h sea level pressure (SLP) changes. These findings provide a new reference for air quality forecasts in the Chinese mainland. (2) During the cold frontal passage, near-ground wind speed increased extensively due to downward momentum transportation and isallobaric wind, the atmospheric stratification became unstable, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height was significantly uplifted, and the mean maximum mixing depth (MMD) greatly increased. These changes generated a wide-range improvement in air quality for a large area of the Chinese mainland. (3) Wind speed was identified as the most important meteorological parameter affecting the diffusion of pollutants in the absence of precipitation and snow. Variations of air pollutant concentrations (y) with wind speed (x) were fitted with a negative exponential function of y = a × e−bx. (4) The clearance ratios (CRs) of the five air pollutants by the cold front differed during the cold-air outbreak. Of these, the CR of PM2.5 was the highest, reaching 85%. Overall, the cold-air outbreak greatly contributed to improving air quality in most parts of the Chinese mainland. This shows that cold front activity is one of the most important meteorological factors to be considered to improve air quality forecasts.
      PubDate: 2018-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0592-2
  • Volatile chemical emissions from essential oils
    • Authors: Neda Nematollahi; Spas D. Kolev; Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Abstract Essential oils, widely used in society, emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some of these VOCs are considered as potentially hazardous under federal regulations. However, essential oils are exempt from disclosure of their ingredients on their label. Thus, the public may lack information on emissions and potential hazards from essential oils. This study examined VOCs emitted from a range of commercial essential oils, including tea tree oils, lavender oils, eucalyptus oils, and other individual oils and mixtures of oils. Using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the study analyzed 24 commercial essential oils, including 12 with claims of being “natural” or related terms, such as organic, 100% pure, or plant-based. Results identified 595 VOCs emitted from the 24 essential oils, representing 188 different VOCs. The most common VOCs emitted were alpha-pinene, limonene, acetone, linalool, alpha-phellandrene, beta-myrcene, and camphene. Among the 589 VOCs identified, 124 VOCs, representing 33 different VOCs, are classified as potentially hazardous. All natural and regular essential oils emitted one or more potentially hazardous VOCs, such as acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol. Toluene was also found in 50% of essential oils. Moreover, for the prevalent VOCs classified as potentially hazardous, no significant difference was found between regular and natural essential oils. This study provides insights and information about emissions of commercial essential oils that can be useful for public awareness and risk reduction.
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0606-0
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