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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.862
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Factors controlling the lung dose of road traffic-generated sub-micrometre
           aerosols from outdoor to indoor environments
    • Authors: Tuan V. Vu; Stefano Zauli-Sajani; Vanes Poluzzi; Roy M. Harrison
      Pages: 615 - 625
      Abstract: Estimates of lung dose of submicron particles in the human respiratory system play an essential role in assessing health outcomes of aerosol exposure. The objectives of this study are to calculate the regional lung dose of traffic-generated particles by different metrics from exposure in outdoor and indoor environments and to identify main factors determining the lung dose. Particle number size distributions were collected in both indoor and outdoor environments in two unoccupied apartments from 22nd February to 30th April 2012 in Bologna, Italy. The whole lung doses of outdoor aerosols by number, surface area and mass at a traffic site were 1.0 × 1010 particles/h, 130 mm2/h and 1.9 μg/h, respectively. A majority of particles by number and surface area were found to deposit in the alveolar region (65%). The physical properties of particles such as shape, hygroscopicity and density play an important role in the calculation of surface area and mass dose due to shifting of the lung deposition curve. Particle number can predict well the regional dose by number, while PM2.5 and PM10 are good metrics for the prediction of surface area and mass dose. Good correlations between NOx and the surface areas and mass dose (r2 ~ 0.8) and number dose (r2 ~ 0.7) of submicron aerosols suggest that NOx may be a good indicator for predicting the health outcomes of traffic-generated aerosols. The doses of indoor sub-micrometre aerosols are less than those of outdoor aerosols by factors of 4.1 (for number), 2.7 (for surface area) and 2.1 (for mass). Due to traffic emissions, the lung dose of outdoor aerosols in the traffic area was much higher than that in the residential area by 5 times for number and surface area and 2 times for mass. A different exercise level (standing, walking, running and cycling) has only a slight influence on the whole lung deposition fraction of submicron aerosols but has a large effect on the dose due to differences in ventilation rate.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0568-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Short-term effects of particulate matter exposure on daily mortality in
           Thailand: a case-crossover study
    • Authors: Nutta Taneepanichskul; Bizu Gelaye; Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint; Vitool Lohsoonthorn; Masamine Jimba; Michelle A. Williams
      Pages: 639 - 647
      Abstract: Several studies have shown seasonal variations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and daily mortality. However, few studies have focused on age differences on the risk of mortality from PM10, in addition to seasonal effects. Therefore, we attempted to estimate the association between PM10 and daily mortality in Thailand, while accounting for seasonal variations and age differences. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used in this study. Environmental, meteorological, and mortality data of 12 provinces in Thailand between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed to estimate the association between PM10 and daily mortality attributed to non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory causes and age differences. The conditional logistic regression was employed to determine whether the risk of mortality differed by seasons and age groups. We found an association between cumulative exposure to PM10 and increased risk of mortality attributed to non-accidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases. During the study period, cold months (November to February) [1.75% (95% CI 1.20, 2.31)] had a stronger effect of increased 10 μg/m3 in PM10 with 1 ppb in O3 on non-accidental mortality than hot (March to June) [0.67% (95% CI 0.15, 1.20)] and wet (July to October) [− 1.00% (95% CI − 1.99, − 0.01)] months. However, increasing of age did not modify any associations between PM10 and mortality. An association between PM10 exposure and daily mortality was observed. Age difference was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0571-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Incense powder and particle emission characteristics during and after
           burning incense in an unventilated room setting
    • Authors: Bojana Višić; Eva Kranjc; Luka Pirker; Urška Bačnik; Gašper Tavčar; Srečo Škapin; Maja Remškar
      Pages: 649 - 663
      Abstract: Despite being a recognized health hazard, burning incense remains in widespread use. A number of studies have investigated the emissions of air pollulants from incense burning, but less attention has been given to particle decay following incense burning. We have studied the elemental composition and indoor emission characteristics of incense sticks in terms of the size distribution and concentrations of fine particles. The results of chemical analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the primary constituents of the emissions were CaCO3 and SiO2, together with lesser amounts of Mg, K, Al, Fe, and Cl. Analysis using a scanning mobility particle sizer revealed that the maximum total particle concentration at the end of the burning period was up to 30-fold higher than that of the initial background levels and that it remained elevated even 100 min after the incense sticks had been completely burned up. Emitted incense particles decayed in a biexponential manner, with particles of up to 100 nm in size decaying with lifetimes of several tens of minutes, while nanoparticles with diameters of 100–700 nm having lifetimes of > 100 min, as their removal mechanisms are slower. The peak particle size immediately following the end of incense burning was 85 nm, and this increased to 110 nm at 100 min after completion of burning. This result indicates that a high proportion of emitted particles can be inhaled into the alveolar region of the lung, where the potential for adverse health effects is the greatest. These findings provide a more detailed insight into particle decay mechanisms under conditions of low ventilation, with implications for human health.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0572-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Urban tree leaves’ chlorophyll- a content as a proxy of urbanization
    • Authors: Vanda Éva Molnár; Béla Tóthmérész; Szilárd Szabó; Edina Simon
      Pages: 665 - 671
      Abstract: We tested the effect of urbanization on air pollution based on the chlorophyll-a content of Celtis occidentalis leaves along an urbanization gradient (urban, suburban and rural areas) in Debrecen, Hungary. Chlorophyll-a content of Celtis occidentalis, Acer campestre, and Corylus avellana were compared to test which species is the most useful to study the effects of urbanization. Furthermore, the effects of washing solutions (distilled water, tap water, and rainwater) on chlorophyll-a content of tree leaves were also tested during sample preparation. Chlorophyll-a was extracted from leaf samples with acetone, and it was measured using a spectrophotometer. Along the urbanization gradient, chlorophyll-a content of C. occidentalis leaves was the lowest in the urban area; thus, this species proved to be an effective indicator of anthropogenic emission load. Differences were not significant among species in the suburban and rural areas, where the level of air pollution was moderate. We found that effects of the washing solutions on chlorophyll-a content did not differ significantly from each other. Thus, tap water can be used safely to clean the leaf surface, without significant influence on chlorophyll-a. Our study demonstrated that the chlorophyll-a content of leaves was a useful indicator to assess the level of air pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0573-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • DNA hypomethylation in association with internal and external markers of
           traffic exposure in a panel of healthy adults
    • Authors: Tijs Louwies; Luc Int Panis; Eline Provost; Griet Jacobs; Tim S. Nawrot; Patrick De Boever
      Pages: 673 - 681
      Abstract: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure is associated with negative health outcomes. Changes in DNA methylation level may be an important mechanism through which air pollution can induce its effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between DNA methylation in blood and personally measured TRAP exposure. Global DNA methylation in whole blood was analyzed with HPLC in a population of 55 healthy adults (average age 41 years). TRAP was assessed for each participant with a portable aethalometer measuring black carbon (BC). Exposure measurements were collected during one typical working week. These data were used in combination with ambient levels measured at a reference site to derive subchronic BC exposure. Urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), a metabolite of benzene, was used as an internal proxy of traffic exposure. DNA methylation levels were associated with short- and subchronic BC exposure. An IQR increase in BC exposure on lag 24 h (477 ng/m3), lag 48 h (491 ng/m3), lag 1 week (314 ng/m3) and subchronic exposure (618 ng/m3) were associated with a decrease in DNA methylation levels of respectively 0.0020% (− 0.0040 to − 0.0001, p = 0.047), 0.0028% (− 0.0054 to − 0.0001, p = 0.043), 0.0024% (− 0.0043 to − 0.0005, p = 0.019), and 0.025% (− 0.048 to − 0.0015, p = 0.044). In addition, an IQR increase in t,t-MA (0.135 mg/l) was associated with a 0.0021% (− 0.0033 to − 0.0008, p = 0.0019) decrease in global DNA methylation levels. Analysis of a panel of cytokines in blood samples failed to demonstrate an association between inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers and TRAP or DNA methylation. In a panel of healthy adults, we found negative associations between total DNA methylation and markers of TRAP exposure. Considering that change in DNA methylation concentration is a biological marker connecting environmental and lifestyle exposures and disease development trajectories, our results warrant further study.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0574-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Seasonal variation and health risk assessment of atmospheric PM 2.5 -bound
           polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a classic agglomeration industrial
           city, central China
    • Authors: Tianpeng Hu; Jiaquan Zhang; Xinli Xing; Changlin Zhan; Li Zhang; Hongxia Liu; Ting Liu; Jingru Zheng; Ruizhen Yao; Junji Cao
      Pages: 683 - 694
      Abstract: Sixty atmospheric sample concentrations of PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 were analyzed in distinct seasonal variations from a classic agglomeration industrial city. The concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 6.96 to 260.06 μg/m3 with an average of 177.05 μg/m3. Only 38% of the sampling days were superior to the 24-h limit value (75 μg/m3) of ambient air quality standards (AAQs), and the samples from autumn and winter exceeded the limit value. The total PAHs ranged from 1.51 to 44.51 ng/m3 with an average of 10.65 ng/m3. The highest and lowest concentrations of total PAHs appeared in winter and summer with averages of 22.56 and 4.03 ng/m3, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs) (4-, 5-, 6-ring PAHs) were significantly and negatively correlated with temperature and water-soluble total organic carbon (WTOC), and significantly correlated with water-soluble total nitrogen (WTN). The 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs were dominant, especially those of 4-ring PAHs, which were above 30% of the total PAHs in each season. Source apportionment indicated that PM2.5-bound PAHs in Huangshi were mainly derived from pyrogenic source, vehicle exhaust, coal combustion, and biomass burning. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) showed no potential carcinogenic risk from the PM2.5-bound BaP-eq. ILCRs in winter were the highest, and the risks for adults were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those for children.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0575-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Indoor air pollutant exposure and determinant factors controlling
           household air quality for elderly people in Hong Kong
    • Authors: Xinning Tong; Bei Wang; Wen-Ting Dai; Jun-Ji Cao; Steven Sai Hang Ho; Timothy C. Y. Kwok; Ka-Hei Lui; Chun-Ming Lo; K. F. Ho
      Pages: 695 - 704
      Abstract: This study investigated the levels and determinant factors of indoor air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) in 55 households exclusively for the elderly in Hong Kong during summer and winter (Jul.–Sep. 2016 and Nov. 2016–Mar. 2017). The average concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, and formaldehyde were 25.3 ± 15.0, 40.5 ± 16.0, and 26.1 ± 22.8 μg/m3 in summer and 34.2 ± 19.0, 43.5 ± 17.0, and 15.4 ± 4.5 μg/m3 in winter, respectively. There were ~ 50.3% of households exceeding the World Health Organization indoor air quality standard for PM2.5 throughout the study, with ~ 40.6 and ~61.0% of the households in summer and winter, respectively. The determinant factors for indoor PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were identified as from incense burning and cooking. Cooking with suitable ventilation is an important factor to ease indoor pollutant concentrations. Both of PM2.5 and NO2 indoor concentrations showed good correlations with outdoor concentrations. Winter was observed with higher pollutant concentrations than summer except for formaldehyde concentrations. Major factors controlling indoor formaldehyde concentrations are temperature and humidity. The outcome will be useful for the development of future indoor air quality guidelines for Hong Kong.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0576-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Impact of long-term exposure to local PM 10 on children’s blood
           pressure: a Chinese national cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Qin Li; Yuming Guo; Jie-Yun Song; Yi Song; Jun Ma; Hai-Jun Wang
      Pages: 705 - 713
      Abstract: The evidence of the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on children’s blood pressure is insufficient. We collected the data of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) for 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 from 30 cities from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students’ Construction and Health, and the data of local annual average concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, annual average of relative humidity, and ambient temperature from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. We used the generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the associations between PM10 exposure and children’s blood pressure. We found that there was a distinct geographic variation in the annual average concentrations of PM10, ranging from 40 μg/m3 in Haikou to 155 μg/m3 in Lanzhou. After adjusting for individual characteristics, social economic conditions, ambient temperature, relative humidity, NO2, and SO2, we found that the increase of PM10 was associated with increase of SBP and DBP in Chinese children. A 100-μg/m3 increase of PM10 was associated with 0.88 mmHg (95% CI 0.71, 1.05) higher SBP and 0.91 mmHg (95% CI 0.77, 1.06) higher DBP (p < 0.001). Consistent associations of SBP or DBP with PM10 were found in both girls and boys. We also found a larger estimated effect of PM10 on SBP and DBP in overweight children than that in normal ones. Public health policy for improving the air quality could be helpful to protect children’s cardiovascular health.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0577-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Transformational characteristics of ground-level ozone during high
           particulate events in urban area of Malaysia
    • Authors: Norrimi Rosaida Awang; Nor Azam Ramli; Syabiha Shith; Nazatul Syadia Zainordin; Hemamalini Manogaran
      Pages: 715 - 727
      Abstract: Observations of ground-level ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10) and meteorological parameter (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) fluctuations during high particulate event (HPE) and non-HPE in Malaysia have been conducted for 2 years (2013 and 2014). The study focuses on urban areas, namely, Shah Alam, Petaling Jaya and Bandaraya Melaka. The diurnal variations of ground-level O3 concentration were higher during HPE than those during non-HPE in all urban areas. The concentration of O3 fluctuated more in 2014 than 2013 due to the higher incidences of HPE. Temperature and wind speed fluctuated with higher PM10, NO2 and NO concentrations during HPE than those during non-HPE in all urban sites. Relative humidity was lower during HPE than that during non-HPE. Positive correlations were found between PM10 and ozone during HPE for Shah Alam and Petaling Jaya with 0.81 and 0.79, respectively. Meanwhile, negative correlation (− 0.76) was recorded for Bandaraya Melaka. The non-HPE correlation of PM10 and O3 showed negative values for all locations except Petaling Jaya (0.02). Temperature and wind speed shows a strong positive correlation with ozone for all locations during HPE and non-HPE with the highest at Shah Alam (0.97). Inverse relationships were found between relative humidity and O3, in which the highest was for Shah Alam (− 0.96) in 2013 and Shah Alam (− 0.97) and Bandaraya Melaka (− 0.97) in 2014. The result of the ozone best-fit equation obtained an R2 of 0.6730. The study parameters had a significant positive relationship with the ozone predictions during HPE.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0578-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Microbiological indoor air quality in an office building in Gliwice,
           Poland: analysis of the case study
    • Authors: Ewa Brągoszewska; Izabela Biedroń; Barbara Kozielska; Józef S. Pastuszka
      Pages: 729 - 740
      Abstract: Bioaerosols play a significant role in indoor air quality (IAQ) as they can be the cause of several health problems, including acute allergies and infectious diseases. This study aimed to characterize and compare the microbial air quality of air-conditioned (AC) and naturally ventilated (NV) office rooms in the Upper Silesia region of Poland. The bacterial samples were collected during the late spring season. Culturable bacteria were deposited on the nutrient media on Petri dishes to investigate the viable-culturable count (VCC) of bacteria and bacterial community structure using a Biolog GEN III system. In total, 12 species of bacteria were identified, with the most isolated Macrococcus equipercicus, Micrococcus luteus D, Staphylococcus xylosus (indoor), and Bacillus species (outdoor). The indoor mean concentrations of bacterial aerosol ranged from 102 to 103 CFU m−3, below Polish proposals for threshold limit standards in office buildings. The indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) ratios indicated that studied air pollutants in the office rooms originated from the indoor air. These results, together with community composition of bacteria, indicate that most of the bacteria present in the studied office building were relatively fresh and of human origin. Multi-antibiotic resistance (MAR) tests showed that the most antibiotic-resistant features were present in Macrococcus species. The office building exposure dose (OBED) and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of bacteria aerosol were estimated. The highest value of OBED over the study period was obtained for staff working in offices with natural ventilation (141 CFU kg−1), in contrast to the value for staff working in offices equipped with air conditioning (about 100 CFU kg−1). The MMAD of viable airborne bacteria was higher in AC offices (2.4 μm) than in NV offices (2.2 μm).
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0579-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2018)
  • Intra-urban variability of ozone in a tropical city—characterization of
           local and regional sources and major influencing factors
    • Authors: Arideep Mukherjee; Shashi Bhushan Agrawal; Madhoolika Agrawal
      Abstract: Tropospheric ozone (O3), a secondary air pollutant, was assessed to evaluate the intra-urban variability of O3, its local and distant sources, and the influence of O3 precursor gases and meteorological variables on seasonal and temporal trends of O3 from 2013 to 2017 in a tropical urban city located in the middle Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Passive samplers and data from real-time air quality monitoring station were considered. Trajectory statistical models, multivariate statistical methods, and geographic information system were further used to identify spatial-temporal variability and source apportionment. O3 concentrations showed significant intra-urban variability with higher concentrations in suburban or background regions of the city, which were mostly attributed to the transport of O3 at high wind speed from distant and rural areas away from the city, while lower concentrations in traffic and commercial areas were due to titration of O3 by nitric oxide (NO). Variations in meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) and planetary boundary layer height were responsible for seasonal variations in O3 concentrations. Long-range and regional transport of O3 and its precursors such as volatile organic compounds and NOx from the northwestern and eastern directions of the city significantly influenced O3 variability with distinct seasonal patterns. A negative trend in O3 levels was recorded during the study period which may be due to increase in NOx emission in the city. The observed outcomes suggest significant intra-urban variability of O3 in the city which is influenced by traffic as well as by distant and local sources.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0600-6
  • Exposure assessment of particulate and gaseous pollutants emitted during
           surgery in operating rooms of different specialties
    • Authors: Tzu-Ting Yang; Kai-Jen Chuang; Nai-Yun Chang; Chih-Hong Pan; Wei-Hang Liao; Chien-Chieh Liao; Yang-Hwei Tsuang; Hsiao-Yun Wen; Ta-Chih Hsiao; Hsiao-Chi Chuang
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify hazards that occur due to surgical practices and assess exposure to surgical smoke. We investigated nine surgical specialties in their corresponding operating rooms (ORs) for on-line measurements of pollutants and off-line determination of PAHs. Surgery for the face and dentistry generated the smallest particle size with a GMD of 23.3 nm. Also, the highest levels of the lung deposition surface area (5.8 ± 6.8 μm2/cm3), particulate matter of < 10 μm (PM10; 6.46 ± 5.34 μg/m3), PM2.5 (1.82 ± 1.01 μg/m3), and black carbon (0.10 ± 0.05 μg/m3) were seen with surgery of the face and dentistry. For gaseous pollutants, we observed that gastroenterology had the highest levels of CO2 (869 ± 112 ppm) and total volatile organic compounds (3.70 ± 1.00 ppm) compared to the other operating rooms. Levels of CO (3.40 ± 1.20 ppm) and formaldehyde (0.90 ± 0.51 ppm) were highest in the urology OR. Average total PAHs were mainly present in the gaseous phase with the highest concentrations of 746.6~1045.8 ng/m3 for gynecology. Our results showed that most pollutant levels were relatively low. However, gaseous PAHs emitted from surgical practices can reach levels that may pose important cancer risks in terms of occupational health.
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0597-x
  • Electricity supply trend and operating statuses of coal-fired power plants
           in North Korea using the facility-specific data produced by North Korea:
           characterization and recommendations
    • Authors: M. J. Yeo; Y. P. Kim
      Abstract: Reliable energy-related data from NK are needed in order to understand the status and management of air quality in NK. However, data from the North Korean government are limited. Nevertheless, in order to understand the electricity supply and operating statuses of coal-fired power plants in NK, we used the facility-specific data presented in the Project Design Documents of the registered Clean Development Mechanism projects hosted by NK to calculate several indicators that reflect the operating status of coal-fired power plants. The average daily operating time was short, between 4 and 20 h; the power generation efficiency was low, at about 23%; and the emission performance value of carbon dioxide was poor, at about 1500 gCO2/kWh. We also found that the electricity outputs presented in other studies were substantially lower than those reported for the coal-fired power plants in the second National Communication on Climate Change. The best way to provide financial and technical support to NK might be through international programs, such as a new technology transfer mechanism controlled by the Climate Technology Centre and Network in post-2020 climate regime.
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0601-5
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 particle
           fractions in an urban area
    • Authors: Ivana Jakovljević; Gordana Pehnec; Vladimira Vađić; Mirjana Čačković; Vesna Tomašić; Jagoda Doko Jelinić
      Abstract: Inhalation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to particulate matter can have adverse effects on human health. Particle size plays an important role in assessing health risks. The aim of this study was to compare concentrations of PAHs in different particle fractions. Measurements of PAHs were carried out in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia (~ 790,000 inhabitants). The measuring station was located in the northern, residential part of Zagreb, close to a street with modest traffic density. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 particle fraction were collected on quartz filters using a low-volume sampler from about 50 m3 of air. Three fractions were collected from January to December 2013. The analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector and time-programmed changes in excitation and emission. Comparison of PAH content in PM10 and PM2.5 particle fractions revealed that more than 80% of PAHs measured in winter were bound to the smaller particle fraction (PM2.5), except for Chry, IP and DahA. In summer, more than 60% of measured PAHs were bound to PM2.5 particles, except for DahA, while in spring, more than 50% of measured PAHs were bound to PM2.5 particles, except for Flu, BaP and BbF. Furthermore, comparing PAH content in PM1 and PM2.5 fractions, we found that most PAHs were bound to particle fraction PM1, and the percentage of PAHs in PM1 was the highest in winter (more than 90%). Factor analysis showed that most of the PAHs bound to PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 probably had identical sources in winter, spring and summer (house heating and traffic), and the only significant difference in origin was found in autumn for PAHs bound to PM2.5 and PM1 fractions.
      PubDate: 2018-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0603-3
  • Impact of biogenic emissions on early summer ozone and fine particulate
           matter exposure in the Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea
    • Authors: Hyeon-Kook Kim; Chang-Keun Song; Kyung Man Han; Yang Dam Eo; Chul Han Song; Rokjin Park; Sung-Chul Hong; Sang-Kyun Kim; Jung-Hun Woo
      Abstract: Understanding how ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM) formation respond to the precursor concentrations in the presence of biogenic emissions (BEs) and thereby changes in health effects can be a key step to design effective air quality management plans. This is particularly true in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where future significant controls of anthropogenic sources of O3 and PM2.5 precursors are expected. In this paper, we investigate the effects of BEs on O3 and fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations during a strong photochemical air pollution season in the SMA in Korea. O3 and PM2.5 levels are modeled with and without BEs in June 2008. Further, we perform the health impact assessments (HIA) of O3 and PM2.5 concentration changes due to BEs to seek useful implications for air quality management by utilizing the adjusted exposure concentration fields for O3 and PM2.5 with an observation fusing (OBF) method. With BEs, daily maximum 8-h average O3 (maximum 8-h O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in the SMA increase by 17 and 474%, respectively. These increments are associated with significant consumption of photochemical oxidants (Ox), such as a ~ 60% reduction in OH∙ radicals. The reduction in Ox, conversely, lowers the production of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs) by 2.7%. Adjusted O3 and PM2.5 exposure metrics and the subsequent HIA reveal that large mean increments of O3, about 8.43 ppb, due to BEs are responsible for approximately 62 all-cause premature mortalities in the SMA in June. However, mean increment of PM2.5 due to BEs is approximately 0.3 μg m−3 and results in negligible impacts on the all-cause mortality. Significant correlations of O3 and mortality rates (MR) with the VOC/NOx ratios across the SMA suggest that controlling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from anthropogenic sources can be a priority to reduce O3 levels and population health risks in the SMA. Specifically, linear relationships of log [O3] and log [MR] to log [VOC/NOx] ensure that a 10% decrease in the VOC/NOx ratios through the VOC abatements would lead to a 1.5% decrease in the O3 levels and a 4.3% decrease in the MR on average across the SMA.
      PubDate: 2018-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0602-4
  • Particulate black carbon and gaseous emission from brick kilns in Greater
           Dhaka region, Bangladesh
    • Authors: Md Imdadul Haque; Kamrun Nahar; Md Humayun Kabir; Abdus Salam
      Abstract: Eighteen brick kilns of three brick-making technologies (Fixed Chimney Kiln (FCK), Zigzag, and Hoffmann) were selected to measure the concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) with Aerocet 531S (USA) sampler, black carbon (BC) with Magee Scientific, OT-21 Soot scan Transmissometer (USA), and gaseous pollutants (CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, and volatile organic carbon (VOC)) with Aeroqual 500 gas sampler (New Zealand) to understand the emission scenario from brick sector in Greater Dhaka region, Bangladesh. Emission factor (EF) of each pollutant was computed from their respective concentration for three brick kiln technologies. Ambient PM2.5 and PM10 were measured in brick kiln premises and 1 km far from the respective kilns to see the effect on the surrounding areas. The PM2.5 concentration was found on an average of 141 ± 86, 128 ± 72, and 110 ± 53 mg/m3 in FCK, Zigzag, and Hoffmann kilns, respectively. The average BC concentration was found 16.6 ± 7.1 (FCK), 11.8 ± 4.2 (Zigzag), and 8.9 ± 4.4 (Hoffmann) mg/m3. FCK has a greater emission of CO, whereas Zigzag has a higher CO2 emission. A comparatively higher value of CO2 and lower value of CO indicates effective combustion of coal, and this is found to be more efficient for Zigzag and Hoffmann compared to traditional FCK. SO2 and VOC emissions were depending not only on the kiln types but also on the fuel qualities. From EF calculation, approximately 4526 t of PM2.5, 340 t of BC, 209,776 t of CO2, 8700 t of CO, 19,441 t of SO2, and 835,450 t of VOC per year found to emit from 1000 brick kilns. The conversion of traditional FCK to improved one, i.e., Zigzag and/or Hoffman is not a straight forward solution, as CO2 emission was higher in Zigzag whereas BC and PM2.5 emissions were higher in FCK. Therefore, considering EF of various pollutants from these three types of kilns, conversion of FCK to Zigzag or Hoffmann could be a better choice.
      PubDate: 2018-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0596-y
  • Assessment of heavy metal characteristics and health risks associated with
           PM 2.5 in Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China
    • Authors: Pingping Liu; Huarui Ren; Hongmei Xu; Yali Lei; Zhenxing Shen
      Abstract: Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) samples were collected in Xi’an, northwestern China, from May 2015 to April 2016. The concentrations, seasonal variations, potential sources, and health risks for personal exposure for ten metallic elements (i.e., Ba, Zn, Cu, As, Ni, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cd, and Hg) bounded to PM2.5 were determined and assessed in this study. The results showed that the average PM2.5 mass concentration in Xi’an was 62.1 ± 35.0 μg m−3 during the sampling period. The annual concentration of the total quantified elements was 2459.5 ± 1789.8 ng m−3, with relatively higher values in winter (3334.9 ± 1690.9 ng m−3) and spring (2809.4 ± 2465.4 ng m−3), in comparison of those in summer (1857.6 ± 1162.7 ng m−3) and autumn (1252.5 ± 842.4 ng m−3). Two elements of Ba (678.0 ± 684.9 ng m−3) and Zn (1264.8 ± 725.3 ng m−3) had greater fluctuations in concentrations and were accounted for more than 80% of the concentration of total quantified elements for each season. The concentrations of As in Xi’an exceeded the national standard in China. The enrichment factors (EFs) of most target heavy metals were high, exceeding 100 for Zn, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg, attributed to strong influences from human activities. Moreover, the largest enrichment of heavy metals in PM2.5 occurred in Xi’an in winter. Principle component analysis (PCA) was applied for source apportionment. Coal and other fuel combustion, vehicle exhaust, and industrial activities were the three major pollution sources which contributed 43.6, 29.9, and 15.3%, respectively, of the total variance of PM2.5. The health risk assessment showed that the non-cancer risks of As, Pb, and Cr for children were greater than 1, as well as of As for adults. The cancer risks of As and Cr were higher than 1 × 10−6, indicating that the two elements had high potentials for both non-cancer and cancer risks. Our finding suggests that the PM2.5 and related heavy metal pollutions in Xi’an were serious and posed high potential health risks. Effective controls and measures should be established in the studied area.
      PubDate: 2018-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0598-9
  • Indoor exposure to bioaerosol particles: levels and implications for
           inhalation dose rates in schoolchildren
    • Authors: Joana Madureira; Lívia Aguiar; Cristiana Pereira; Ana Mendes; Micaela Machado Querido; Paula Neves; João Paulo Teixeira
      Abstract: Children spend most of their time inside schools and bioaerosol particles are part of their everyday environment. Although bioaerosol particles are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns, information concerning the indoor exposures and inhalation doses is still limited. This study aimed (i) to quantify bacterial and fungal particles levels in indoor and outdoor air of public primary schools, (ii) to assess the influence of ambient air on bacteria and fungi presence indoors, and (iii) to estimate the inhalation dose rates for respective children (8–10 years old) in comparison with adult staff. Air samples were collected in 20 primary schools in a total of 71 classrooms during heating season with a microbiological air sampler. The results showed that indoor bacterial and fungal concentrations were higher than outdoor levels (p < 0.05), which could be explained by differences in density of occupation, occupant’s activities, and inadequate ventilation. CO2 levels were significantly correlated with indoor bacteria concentrations. Moreover, mean indoor bacteria concentrations were above national limit values in all the evaluated Porto primary schools, from two to nine times higher. Regarding fungi concentrations, indoor levels were above the reference value in 75% of the schools and overall indoor levels registered a 3-fold increase compared with outdoor values. Children had two times higher inhalation dose rates to bioaerosol particles when compared to adult individuals. Thus, due to their susceptibility, special attention should be given to educational settings in order to guarantee the children healthy development.
      PubDate: 2018-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0599-8
  • Potential impacts of emissions associated with unconventional hydrocarbon
           extraction on UK air quality and human health
    • Authors: A. T. Archibald; C. Ordóñez; E. Brent; M. L. Williams
      Abstract: Here, we report the first results of model sensitivity simulations to assess the potential impacts of emissions related to future activities linked to unconventional hydrocarbon extraction (fracking) in the UK on air pollution and human health. These simulations were performed with the Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model, a new air quality-forecasting model, and included a wide range of extra emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to reflect emissions from the full life cycle of fracking-related activities and simulate the impacts of these compounds on levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). These model simulations highlight that increases in NOx and VOC emissions associated with unconventional hydrocarbon extraction could lead to large local increases in the monthly means of daily 1-h maximum NO2 of up to + 30 ppb and decreases in the maximum daily 8-h mean O3 up to − 6 ppb in the summertime. Broadly speaking, our simulations indicate increases in both of these compounds across the UK air shed throughout the year. Changes in the 1-h maximum of NO2 and 8-h mean of O3 are particularly important for their human health impacts. These respective changes in NO2 and O3 would contribute to approximately 110 (range 50–530) extra premature-deaths a year across the UK based on the use of recently reported concentration response functions for changes in annual average NO2 and O3 exposure. As such, we conclude that the release of emissions of VOCs and NOx be highly controlled to prevent deleterious health impacts.
      PubDate: 2018-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0570-8
  • Application and validation of a line-source dispersion model to estimate
           small scale traffic-related particulate matter concentrations across the
           conterminous US
    • Authors: Jeff D. Yanosky; Jared Fisher; Duanping Liao; Donghyun Rim; Randy Vander Wal; William Groves; Robin C. Puett
      Abstract: Numerous studies document increased health risks from exposure to traffic and traffic-related particulate matter (PM). However, many studies use simple exposure metrics to represent traffic-related PM, and/or are limited to small geographic areas over relatively short (e.g., 1 year) time periods. We developed a modeling approach for the conterminous US from 1999 to 2011 that applies a line-source Gaussian plume dispersion model using several spatially and/or temporally varying inputs (including daily meteorology) to produce high spatial resolution estimates of primary near-road traffic-related PM levels. We compared two methods of spatially averaging traffic counts: spatial smoothing generalized additive models and kernel density. Also, we evaluated and validated the output from the line-source dispersion modeling approach in a spatio-temporal model of 24-h average PM < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) elemental carbon (EC) levels. We found that spatial smoothing of traffic count point data performed better than a kernel density approach. Predictive accuracy of the spatio-temporal model of PM2.5 EC levels was moderate for 24-h averages (cross-validation (CV) R2 = 0.532) and higher for longer averaging times (CV R2 = 0.707 and 0.795 for monthly and annual averages, respectively). PM2.5 EC levels increased monotonically with line-source dispersion model output. Predictive accuracy was higher when the spatio-temporal model of PM2.5 EC included line-source dispersion model output compared to distance to road terms. Our approach provides estimates of primary traffic-related PM levels with high spatial resolution across the conterminous US from 1999 to 2011. Spatio-temporal model predictions describe 24-h average PM2.5 EC levels at unmeasured locations well, especially over longer averaging times.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0580-6
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