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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Variations in the structure of airborne bacterial communities in
           Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert area during dust events
    • Authors: Teruya Maki; Yasunori Kurosaki; Kazunari Onishi; Kevin C. Lee; Stephen B. Pointing; Dulam Jugder; Norikazu Yamanaka; Hiroshi Hasegawa; Masato Shinoda
      Pages: 249 - 260
      Abstract: Abstract Asian dust events transport the airborne bacteria in Chinese desert regions as well as mineral particles and influence downwind area varying biological ecosystems and climate changes. However, the airborne bacterial dynamics were rarely investigated in the Gobi desert area, where dust events are highly frequent. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at a 2-m high above the ground at the sampling site located in desert area (Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert; Mongolia 44.2304°N, 105.1700°E). During the dust event days, the bacterial cells and mineral particles increased to more than tenfold of concentrations. MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the airborne bacteria in desert area mainly belonged to the classes Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Bacilli, Alpha-proteobacteria, Beta-proteobacteria, and Gamma-proteobacteria. The bacterial community structures were different between dust events and non-dust events. The air samples collected at the dust events indicated high abundance rates of Alpha-proteobacteria, which were reported to dominate on the leaf surfaces of plants or in the saline lake environments. After the dust events, the members of Firmicutes (Bacilli) and Bacteroidetes, which are known to form endospore and attach with coarse particles, respectively, increased their relative abundances in the air samples. Presumably, the bacterial compositions and diversities in atmosphere significantly vary during dust events, which carry some particles from grassland (phyllo-sphere), dry lake, and sand surfaces, as well as some bacterial populations such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes maintain in the atmosphere for longer time.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0430-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Contamination of building roof dust in India
    • Authors: K. S. Patel; M. Rajak; N. K. Jaiswal; G. Agnihotri; B. Blazhev; L. Matini; E. Yubero; B. Chen; W. Corns
      Pages: 287 - 295
      Abstract: Abstract The ambient air quality in Raipur city, Chhattisgarh state, India is poor during the winter season due to the lowest wind speed and temperature inversion. The whole buildings in the city are covered by the black fugitive dust. In this work, characterization and sources of contaminants, i.e. carbons, Al, As, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, F−, Cl−, SO4 2−, NO3 −, NH4 +, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, in the building roof dust of Raipur area, central India are described. Significant concentration of black carbon (BC), SO4 2−, Ca2+, Al, Fe and Mn in the dusts was observed, ranging from 8.7 to 21.9, 0.5 to 2.1, 1.8 to 2.9, 2.1 to 4.8, 6.2 to 13.4 and 0.34 to 0.95 % with mean value (p = 0.05) of 14.1 ± 2.6, 1.2 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.2, 3.3 ± 0.4, 9.4 ± 1.2 and 0.64 ± 0.11 %, respectively. The concentration of toxic metals, i.e. As, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, ranged from 13.8 to 47.3, 57 to 187, 36 to 89, 31 to 177, 208 to 472, 0.11 to 0.53 and 93 to 366 mg kg−1 with mean value (p = 0.05) of 21.5 ± 6.0, 111 ± 22, 59 ± 9, 102 ± 23, 306 ± 48, 0.28 ± 0.08 and 176 ± 48 mg kg−1, respectively. The cluster and factor analysis models were used to apportion sources of elements linked to several anthropogenic activities in the study area. The concentration variations, pollution indices and toxicities of the contaminants are described.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0446-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Influence of dust storms on atmospheric particulate pollution and acid
           rain in northern China
    • Authors: Ruxing Wang; Jifeng Li; Jingpu Wang; Hong Cheng; Xueyong Zou; Chunlai Zhang; Xiaoxu Wu; Liqiang Kang; Bo Liu; Huiru Li
      Pages: 297 - 306
      Abstract: Abstract Northern China is the area with the highest incidence of dust storms in the world, which are the main sources of its soil dust emissions. In addition, the region consumes huge amounts of fossil fuels and has serious atmospheric particulate pollution. Existing observation results show that a single dust storm has significant influence on atmospheric particulate pollutant concentrations and precipitation acidity. Proving the influence of dust storms on atmospheric particulate pollution, acid rain, and the acid rain ratio and determining whether there is a causal relationship among them on a longer time scale will help us recognize the impact of dust storms on the atmospheric environment. This paper proves that dust storms are the direct cause of the variations in the number of acid rain days and acid rain ratio, as well as the changes in atmospheric particulate pollution, in spring by using the Granger Causality Test and correlation analysis methods based on 1993 to 2007 data, including the number of days of dust storms, atmospheric particulate pollution, and acid rain. Atmospheric particulate pollution is the direct cause of variations in the number of acid rain days and the acid rain ratio in spring; for the other seasons, additional data combined with atmospheric particulate pollution are needed to explain the causes of the acid rain day and ratio changes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0421-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Synoptic characteristics of dusty spring days over central and eastern
           Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Abdul-Wahab S. Mashat; Ahmad O. Alamoudi; Adel M. Awad; Mazen E. Assiri
      Pages: 307 - 323
      Abstract: Abstract The synoptic characteristics of dusty spring days in central and eastern Saudi Arabia were analyzed using the aerosol index (AI) from the TOMS satellite and meteorological parameters from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset. The AI distributions were used to detect and classify dusty spring days into three classes (narrow, moderate, and wide spread). The synoptic features of the cases and classes demonstrated the common synoptic characteristics that represented the dusty spring cases. The strength of these common synoptic characteristics was found to increase with increasing dust severity. Specifically, as the following factors occurred, the cyclone located over the southern Arabian Peninsula deepened, the maximum wind at 250 hPa weakened and shifted northward, the instability over the northern Arabian Peninsula increased, the northerly wind generated, and the gradient of the 850-hPa potential temperature west of the cyclone increased; the severity of the dust class increased. The results were confirmed by examining three specific cases representing weak, moderate, and severe dust events.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0420-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Impact of long-range desert dust transport on coastal East Asia: analysis
           of urban dust concentration and wet deposition with model simulation
    • Authors: Zhenxi Zhang; Wen Zhou; Mark Wenig; Liangui Yang
      Pages: 325 - 337
      Abstract: Abstract Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model simulations for dust in 2007 are applied in this study to investigate the impact of long-range desert dust transport on the dust concentration and wet deposition in coastal cities of East Asia: Shanghai and Hong Kong. The temporal variation of dust concentrations in both Shanghai and Hong Kong exhibits a maximum in spring (May), with a majority of Gobi dust, which accounts for 88 % in Shanghai and 58 % in Hong Kong in the lower troposphere. Correspondingly, the peaks of convective and large-scale wet deposition in May in Shanghai are controlled by Gobi dust, with a contribution of 74–83 %. The wet deposition of dust in summer is affected mainly by strong convective precipitation and dominated by Taklamakan dust, with a contribution of 31–47 % in Shanghai and 19–37 % in Hong Kong, followed by Arabian and Karakum–Kavir dusts. The wet deposition in spring (April) is caused mainly by large-scale precipitation, with a majority of Gobi dust, which accounts for 57 % in Shanghai and 71 % in Hong Kong, followed by Sahara and Taklamakan dusts. The temporal variation of wet deposition of dust in Shanghai is affected mainly by the dust concentration, while the variation in Hong Kong is controlled by both dust concentration and convective precipitation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0440-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Inorganic chemical composition of dust deposited on oleander ( Nerium
           oleander L. ) leaves
    • Authors: Zita Margitai; Edina Simon; István Fábián; Mihály Braun
      Pages: 339 - 347
      Abstract: Abstract Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces was analysed in this study. Leaves of oleander (Nerium oleander L.) were collected for testing the environmental quality from Tripoli (Libya), Tajura (suburban of Tripoli) and Ghadames (remote area). Elemental analysis was carried out by ICP-OES. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factors were used for characterizing and estimating the level of the pollution. Samples from Tripoli were found to have higher contents of Pb, Zn, Cu in comparison with suburban (Tajura) and remote (Ghadames) areas. Our results demonstrated that the leaves of Nerium oleander were useful indicator to assessment of atmospheric deposition. Only limited information is available on environmental issues in Libya and the results reported here may contribute significantly to the assessment of the quality of the environment in this country.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0416-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Concentrations of individual fine particulate matter components in the USA
           around July 4th
    • Authors: Aisha S. Dickerson; Adam F. Benson; Barbara Buckley; Elizabeth A. W. Chan
      Pages: 349 - 358
      Abstract: Abstract Fireworks emit particulate matter (PM) air pollution. Laboratory and epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to PM with cardiovascular and respiratory effects. Although it was reported that the mass of total PM with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is elevated on July 4th and 5th, no studies to date have used national, multi-year air quality monitoring data to determine which individual PM2.5 components increase due to July 4th fireworks. To evaluate this, we compiled and analyzed 24-h average PM2.5 air quality measurements collected by the Environmental Protection Agency’s Chemical Speciation Network monitors positioned at 379 urban sites across the USA over the years 2000 to 2014. By combining all individual daily mean PM2.5 concentrations recorded and viewing the arithmetic mean concentrations over time, we observed sharp and statistically significant increases in the concentrations of the firework-related chemicals barium, chlorine, copper, magnesium, potassium, and strontium on July 4th, which persisted through July 5th. There were also modest, but still statistically significant, increases of the concentrations of the firework-related components aluminum, arsenic, antimony, chromium, phosphorous, sulfur, titanium, and zinc on July 4th. Concentrations of elemental and organic carbon, calcium, cesium, iron, nickel, and sodium did not significantly increase on July 4th. These findings provide important information about changes in ambient air quality around Independence Day in the USA.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0433-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Spatial and seasonal variations of gaseous and particulate matter
           pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities, China
    • Authors: Daiying Yin; Suping Zhao; Jianjun Qu
      Pages: 359 - 370
      Abstract: Abstract In order to know air pollution situation and their health, environmental, and climate effects, the air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are essential. The spatial and seasonal variations of six criteria pollutants were investigated in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 using hourly mean air quality monitoring data, and the cities were classified by cluster analysis based on annual variations of air pollutants. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) were high for all cities, which exceeded Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) Grade I standards. Only Fuzhou, Haikou, Kunming, and Lasa met Grade II standards for PM2.5 and PM10. Additionally, elevated SO2 concentration was observed in northern cities, especially in winter. However, the seasonal variation of O3 was opposite to other pollutants with the lowest concentrations in the winter and the highest in the summer. Winter domestic heating has significant impact on urban air quality, especially SO2 and PM10.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0432-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Underestimation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) compliance status
           among the granite crusher operators in Malaysian quarries
    • Authors: Suhaily Amran; Mohd Talib Latif; Md Firoz Khan; Eric Goh; Abdul Mutalib Leman; Shoffian Amin Jaafar
      Pages: 371 - 379
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to determine exposure levels as well as compliance status on respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica (RCS)-quartz exposure among crusher operators at Malaysian quarries. The exposure level at each crushing process was compared. Monitoring was performed among 70 crusher operators at nine quarries. Eight hours long-term personal samples were collected according to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual Analytical Method (NMAM) 0600 for respirable dust and NMAM 7500 for respirable crystalline silica (RCS-quartz). A questionnaire on silica dust monitoring and control was also sent to all granite quarries in Malaysia. The results indicated that the mean percentage of RCS-quartz in silica dust was 23.7 %. The mean value for crusher operators’ exposure was 0.426 mg m−3 for respirable dust and 0.091 mg m−3 for RCS-quartz. Around 30.5 % of crusher operators were exposed to RCS-quartz levels above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) based on Malaysian’s Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 2000. Operators in charge of combined secondary and tertiary crusher plants were exposed to 0.116 mg m−3 of RCS-quartz, which was higher compared to those operating individual plants. Results on posted questionnaire indicate that Malaysian quarries are more preferred to perform respirable dust monitoring (37 %) instead of specific RCS-quartz monitoring (22.6 %). Low exposure to respirable dust may conceal the need to justify comprehensive crystalline silica dust monitoring and lead to underestimation of RCS-quartz exposure. A high percentage of non-compliance exposure on personal RCS-quartz exposure should establish the need for quarry management to focus on better implementation of dust control systems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0439-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Inhalation exposure of children to indoor PM 10 and associated metals
           during river-dust episodes
    • Authors: Yi-Chen Chiang; Hao-Jan Yang; Szu-Chieh Chen; Chiung-Wen Hu; Ching-Tsan Tsai; Dian-Jheng Lai; Chung-Yih Kuo
      Pages: 381 - 388
      Abstract: Abstract Three exposure groups (high exposure, low exposure, and control), using six elementary schools in Yulin County, were selected to study the impacts of aeolian river-dust on school children’s exposure to PM10 and associated metals. One classroom and about five school-aged children’s houses for each school were chosen to collect indoor PM10 during the river-dust episodes (RDEs) and non-river-dust episodes (NRDEs). The results indicated that the river-dust episodes had significant impacts on the school-aged children’s exposure to concentrations of PM10 and metals, especially in the high exposure group. For the Ni and Mn metals, the 8-h school exposure concentrations during RDEs were both higher than the standards suggested by the California Environmental Protection Agency. Three interventions for protecting school children from being affected by the river dust during RDEs are suggested in this study. Among the three interventions, children who have a day off of school during RDEs can result in the greatest decrease in the exposure levels of PM10 and associated metals.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0426-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bound to outdoor and indoor airborne
           particles (PM2.5) and their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in Silesian
           kindergartens, Poland
    • Authors: Ewa Błaszczyk; Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska; Krzysztof Klejnowski; Izabela Fulara; Danuta Mielżyńska-Švach
      Pages: 389 - 400
      Abstract: Abstract Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important due to the widespread presence of PAHs in the environment and their toxicological relevance, especially to susceptible populations such as children and their health. The aim of this study is to compare indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and 15 individual PAHs, as well as contribution of the analyzed PAHs to mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Samples were collected during spring season in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia) representing urban and rural areas. Indoor samples of PM2.5 were sampled in kindergartens. At the same time, in the vicinity of the kindergarten buildings, the collection of the outdoor PM2.5 samples was carried out. Mutagenic (MEQ) and carcinogenic (TEQ) equivalents related to BaP and the percentage share expressed as mutagenic (MP) and carcinogenic (CP) potential of each individual compound to the total mutagenic/carcinogenic potential of the PAH mixture were calculated. The obtained results show that high concentrations of PM2.5 (above 25 μg/m3) and 15 PM2.5-bound PAHs in outdoor and indoor air were similar in the two studied areas. In overall PAHs mutagenic and carcinogenic potential, the percentage share of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was dominant and varied from 49.0–54.5% to 62.5–70.0%, respectively. The carried out study indicates the necessity of reducing PAH emission from solid fuel combustion, which is reflected in PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations and their diagnostic ratios. In the recent years, health effects on children resulting from their activity pattern and air quality in the public places have been a serious problem.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0457-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Concentrations of PM 10 and airborne bacteria in daycare centers in Seoul
           relative to indoor environmental factors and daycare center
           characteristics
    • Authors: Sung Ho Hwang; Im Soon Kim; Wha Me Park
      Pages: 139 - 145
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of PM10 and airborne bacteria (AB) to determine how each one of them correlated with particular indoor environmental factors and characteristics of daycare centers in Seoul, South Korea.PM10 and AB were sampled in 330 daycare centers in the middle of a classroom, along with measurements of temperature and relative humidity. Spearman’s correlation and Mann-Whitney analyses were used to examine the relationship among and differences between PM10 concentration, AB concentration, indoor environmental factors, and daycare center characteristics.There were significant correlations between PM10 concentration and AB concentration (r = 0.128, p < 0.05), temperature (r = 0.153, p < 0.01), and relative humidity (r = 0.185, p < 0.01). PM10 concentrations with two or more windows; a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; and the use of air purifier were lower than concentrations with one window, window ventilation only, and no air purifier. AB concentrations were significantly higher when daycare centers had only one window and used only window ventilation (p < 0.05).Though there are many uncontrollable outdoor environmental factors that influence air quality, we demonstrated that using an HVAC system and an air purifier significantly reduces PM10 concentrations and is a practical change that could be implemented to improve the indoor air quality of daycare centers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0423-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The relationship of high PM 2.5 days and subsequent asthma-related
           hospital encounters during the fireplace season in Phoenix, AZ,
           2008–2012
    • Authors: Ronald Pope; Kara M. Stanley; Ira Domsky; Fuyuen Yip; Liva Nohre; Maria C. Mirabelli
      Pages: 161 - 169
      Abstract: Abstract Exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) exacerbates asthma and increases mortality. In Phoenix, AZ, the highest PM2.5 values frequently occur during the winter fireplace season and air quality health standards are often exceeded during the Christmas and New Year’s holidays. It was clear that enhanced messaging was needed by air quality and public health authorities to discourage biomass fires (BMF) on days when unhealthful levels of pollution were likely to be caused by that activity. Demonstrating adverse health outcomes would bolster this effort. We conducted this study to evaluate associations between elevated PM2.5 exposures during the fireplace season and asthma-related hospital admissions in Phoenix; days with average PM2.5 > 35 μg/m3 were categorized as elevated PM2.5 exposure. We used hospital discharge data to identify patients with an asthma-related hospital encounter and who lived within an 8-km radius of a PM2.5 monitor. To estimate the risk of a hospital encounter following an elevated PM2.5 event, we used generalized estimating equations, specified with a Poisson distribution, and exposure lags of 0–3 days. Controlling for influenza, temperature, humidity, rain, and year, these analyses generated elevated estimates of emergency department visit risk among adults on lag days 2 (relative risk [RR] 1.19; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.34) and 3 (RR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.37). Elevated PM2.5 was not associated with hospital encounters among children. Our findings suggest that adults may be at elevated risk of asthma-related hospital encounters during the fireplace season.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0431-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Major heat waves of 2003 and 2006 and health outcomes in Prague
    • Authors: Iva Hůnová; Marek Brabec; Marek Malý; Veronika Knobová; Martin Braniš
      Pages: 183 - 194
      Abstract: Abstract We have investigated the association between heat waves and mortality and hospital admissions for Prague inhabitants for the summer heat waves of August 2003 and July 2006. The effect of heat waves was investigated using negative binomial regression in a generalized additive model. We used a linear model on a logarithmic scale, having 1-day lagged temperature differences from the long-term average, 1-day lagged ambient O3 and PM10 concentration, relative humidity, simple “heat wave” indicator, and smooth seasonal effect as explanatory variables. We found a small increase in daily mortality for the examined period. This increase can be attributed to PM10 concentrations in most cases, and in fewer instances, to air temperature and O3 concentrations. The “heat wave” indicator did not significantly increase the relative risk; the same held for the relative humidity. For the general unstratified population, the highest increase in relative risk of 1.072 (95% CI 1.001–1.147) was observed for cardiovascular mortality and was associated with an increase in temperature of 10 °C, followed by an increase in relative risk of 1.056 (95% CI 1.025–1.087) for respiratory mortality associated with an increase in O3 concentrations by 10 μg.m−3. A higher risk in most cases was found for women. A significant increase of relative risk of 1.013 (95 % CI 1.002–1.024) due to PM10 was found for hospital admissions for cardiovascular causes. This issue should be studied further in view of the anticipated increase in meteorological extremes, including heat waves, in the future, to prepare prevention plans for eliminating their negative effects as far as possible.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0419-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Source apportionment of BTEX compounds in Tehran, Iran using UNMIX
           receptor model
    • Authors: Mohammad Hadi Dehghani; Daryoush Sanaei; Ramin Nabizadeh; Shahrokh Nazmara; Prashant Kumar
      Pages: 225 - 234
      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the distribution levels and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC), mainly benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX), in the ambient atmosphere is important for efficiently managing and implementing the associated control strategies. We measured BTEX compounds at an industrial location in the west Tehran city (Iran), which is highly influenced by industrial activities and traffic during the winter and spring seasons during 2014–2015. A multivariate receptor model, UNMIX, was applied on the measured data for the identification of the sources and their contributions to BTEX compounds in a highly industrialised and trafficked atmospheric environment of Tehran city. Three main groups of sources were identified. These included solvent and painting sources (e.g. vehicle manufacturing), motorised road vehicles and mixed origin sources. Whilst the solvent and painting sources and vehicle exhaust emissions contributed to about 5 and 29 % of total BTEX mass, respectively, the mixed origin source contributed to about two third (∼66 %) of the remaining mass. These mixed origin sources included rubber and plastic manufacturing (39 %), leather industries (28 %) and the unknown sources (33 %). The mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and average xylene (o, p.m.) compounds were measured as 28.96 ± 9.12 μg m−3, 29.55 ± 9.73 μg m−3, 28.61 ± 12.2 μg/m−3 and 25.68 ± 10.58 μg m−3, respectively. A high correlation coefficient (R 2 > 0.94) was also found between predicted (modelled) and measured concentrations for each sample. Further analyses from UNMIX receptor model showed that the average weekday contributions of BTEX compounds were significantly higher during winter compared with those during spring. This higher concentration during winter may be attributed to calm wind conditions and high stability of the atmosphere, along with the after effect of government policies on the use of cleaner fuel in refineries that became operational in winter 2014.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0425-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Chemical fractionation by sequential extraction of Cd, Pb, and Cu in
           Antarctic atmospheric particulate for the characterization of aerosol
           composition, sources, and summer evolution at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria
           Land
    • Abstract: Abstract Insights in the knowledge of the Antarctic atmospheric composition of Cd, Pb, and Cu are obtained by chemical fractionation of metals in the aerosol to obtain water-soluble (soluble), dilute HCl-extractable (extractable), and inert fractions. The aim is to correlate chemical fractions to metal sources. A three-step sequential extraction and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry were applied to analyze aerosol samples (PM10) collected during summer near the “M. Zucchelli” Italian Station (Victoria Land). Metal mass fractions varied as follows (min–max, average, in μg g−1): Cd 1.4–38 (11), Pb 26–83 (47), and Cu 150–840 (490). In terms of atmospheric concentrations, the values were as follows (pg m−3): Cd 0.93–39 (9.5), Pb 17–60 (33), and Cu 88–480 (340). The soluble fraction relates to the marine contribution. The extractable fraction refers mainly to local human activity. The inert fraction is associated with the crustal dust. Soluble, extractable, and inert metal fractions changed very much during the Austral summer according to changes of source types and strengths. The observations on the temporal trends, the relationships with wind direction and speed, and the correlations between the same fractions of different metals, together with results of principal component analysis, agreed with the stated associations between chemical fractions and major sources. Fractionated data are among the first even published in Antarctic research.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
       
  • Characterization of five-year observation data of fine particulate matter
           in the metropolitan area of Lahore
    • Authors: Fatima Khanum; Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry; Prashant Kumar
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the long-term trend of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm) at two urban sites of Lahore during 2007–2011. These sites represent two distinct areas: commercial (Townhall) and residential cum industrial (Township). The highest daily mean concentrations of PM2.5 were noted as 389 and 354 μg m−3 at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. As expected, the annual seasonal mean of PM2.5 was about 53 and 101% higher during winter compared with the summer and monsoon/post-monsoon seasons, respectively. On contrary to many observations seen in developing cities, the annual mean PM2.5 during the weekends was higher than weekdays at both monitoring sites. For example, these were 100 (142) and 142 μg m−3 (148) during the weekdays (weekends) at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. The regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation of PM2.5 with SO2, NO2 and CO as opposed to a negative correlation with O3. The bivariate polar plots suggested a much higher influence of localized sources (e.g., road vehicles) at the Townhall site as opposed to industrial sources affecting the concentrations at the Township site. The imageries from the MODIS Aqua/Terra indicated long-range transport of PM2.5 from India to Pakistan during February to October whereas from Pakistan to India during November to January. This study provides important results in the form of multiscale relationship of PM2.5 with its sources and precursors, which are important to assess the effectiveness of pollution control mitigation strategies in Lahore and similar cities elsewhere. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0464-1
       
  • Analysis of CO 2 monitoring data demonstrates poor ventilation rates in
           Albanian schools during the cold season
    • Authors: Otto Hänninen; Nuno Canha; Alexandra V. Kulinkina; Ilir Dume; Agron Deliu; Elida Mataj; Arben Lusati; Michal Krzyzanowski; Andrey I. Egorov
      Abstract: Abstract Poor ventilation in schools is associated with accumulation of indoor-generated pollutants, which is associated with “stuffy” air, elevated risk of infectious diseases and impaired learning outcomes. This survey in Albania was conducted as part of WHO’s efforts to facilitate assessments of indoor air quality and other environmental factors in schools in the European Region. The survey was conducted in 36 classrooms in 12 middle schools (eight urban and four rural) from December 2011 through March 2012. In each school, carbon dioxide (CO2) was continuously measured in three classrooms during one school week. Ventilation rates during classes were estimated using the build-up and steady-state mass balance equations utilizing CO2 concentration data, classroom occupancy and classroom volume. All 12 schools had gravimetric ventilation systems. Heating systems were absent or not operational in most schools. Average classroom temperatures during lessons varied from 9.1 to 14.4 °C (median 11.7 °C) with lower temperature associated with poorer ventilation. Weekly average CO2 levels during classes ranged from 1286 to 5546 ppm (median 2776 ppm) while average ventilation rates ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 (median 1.8) litres per second per person. Classrooms with indoor combustion heaters had higher indoor temperature, lower CO2 levels and higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO). WHO guidelines on 1- and 8-h CO exposure levels were exceeded in one classroom. Classroom CO2 levels were substantially above and ventilation rates below existing national and international guidelines. Detrimental impacts of poor ventilation on health and learning outcomes are likely to be substantial in Albanian schools during the cold season. Indoor temperature in most classrooms was below the commonly recommended levels.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0469-9
       
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro derivatives from indoor
           biomass-fueled cooking in two rural areas of Thailand: a case study
    • Authors: Walaiporn Orakij; Thaneeya Chetiyanukornkul; Chieko Kasahara; Yaowatat Boongla; Thanyarat Chuesaard; Masami Furuuchi; Mitsuhiko Hata; Ning Tang; Kazuichi Hayakawa; Akira Toriba
      Abstract: Abstract Household fuel combustion for cooking is a major source of hazardous pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro derivatives (NPAHs). These pollutants impact indoor air quality and human health. In this study of two rural households in Chiang Mai, Thailand, PM2.5 samples were collected both inside and outside the houses during cooking and noncooking periods. Real-time monitoring of indoor PM2.5 was also conducted. The concentrations of PAHs, NPAHs, levoglucosan (LG), and carbon fractions in the PM2.5 fractions were quantified. The most severe contamination was observed inside the house during cooking with mean concentrations of 9980 ng/m3 and 18,700 pg/m3 for PAHs and NPAHs, respectively. The composition profiles of PAHs and NPAHs showed that benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthrene, and benzo[a]pyrene made the greatest contribution to total PAHs, while 9-nitroanthracene made the greatest contribution to total NPAHs. The correlation coefficient (p < 0.01) of PAHs and NPAHs, using LG as a tracer, confirmed that the main source of PAHs and NPAHs was biomass burning. This was further confirmed by the indoor to outdoor ratios and diagnostic ratios using PAHs and NPAHs and carbonaceous fractions. During cooking periods, the carcinogenic risks exceeded the WHO guideline values and would be classified as “definite risks.” This suggest that biomass burning inside houses poses serious health risks through inhalation, which is the main route of exposure and may increase the incidence of cancer. Upgradation of residential environments is needed to improve indoor air quality, especially, in rural areas of Thailand.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0467-y
       
  • Spatio-temporal monitoring by ground-based and air- and space-borne lidars
           of a moderate Saharan dust event affecting southern Europe in June 2013 in
           the framework of the ADRIMED/ChArMEx campaign
    • Authors: R. Barragan; M. Sicard; J. Totems; J. F. Léon; F. Dulac; M. Mallet; J. Pelon; L. Alados-Arboledas; A. Amodeo; P. Augustin; A. Boselli; J. A. Bravo-Aranda; P. Burlizzi; P. Chazette; A. Comerón; G. D’Amico; P. Dubuisson; M. J. Granados-Muñoz; G. Leto; J. L. Guerrero-Rascado; F. Madonna; L. Mona; C. Muñoz-Porcar; G. Pappalardo; M. R. Perrone; V. Pont; F. Rocadenbosch; A. Rodriguez-Gomez; S. Scollo; N. Spinelli; G. Titos; X. Wang; R. Zanmar Sanchez
      Abstract: Abstract During the ADRIMED (Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the Mediterranean region) special observation period (SOP-1a), conducted in June 2013 in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project, a moderate Saharan dust event swept the Western and Central Mediterranean Basin (WCMB) from west to east during a 9-day period between 16 and 24 June. This event was monitored from the ground by six EARLINET/ACTRIS (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network/Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network) lidar stations (Granada, Barcelona, Naples, Potenza, Lecce and Serra la Nave) and two ADRIMED/ChArMEx lidar stations specially deployed for the field campaign in Cap d’en Font and Ersa, in Minorca and Corsica Islands, respectively. The first part of the study shows the spatio-temporal monitoring of the dust event during its transport over the WCMB with ground-based lidar and co-located AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) Sun-photometer measurements. Dust layer optical depths, Ångström exponents, coarse mode fractions, linear particle depolarization ratios (LPDRs), dust layer heights and the dust radiative forcing estimated in the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) spectral ranges at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA) and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with the Global Atmospheric Model (GAME), have been used to characterize the dust event. Peak values of the AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm ranged between 0.16 in Potenza and 0.37 in Cap d’en Font. The associated Ångström exponent and coarse mode fraction mean values ranged from 0.43 to 1.26 and from 0.25 to 0.51, respectively. The mineral dust produced a negative SW direct radiative forcing at the BOA ranging from −56.9 to −3.5 W m−2. The LW radiative forcing at the BOA was positive, ranging between +0.3 and +17.7 W m-2. The BOA radiative forcing estimates agree with the ones reported in the literature. At the TOA, the SW forcing varied between −34.5 and +7.5 W m−2. In seven cases, the forcing at the TOA resulted positive because of the aerosol strong absorbing properties (0.83 < single-scattering albedo (SSA) < 0.96). The multi-intrusion aspect of the event is examined by means of air- and space-borne lidar measurements, satellite images and back trajectories. The analysis reported in this paper underline the arrival of a second different intrusion of mineral dust observed over southern Italy at the end of the considered period which probably results in the observed heterogeneity in the dust properties.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0447-7
       
 
 
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