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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2349 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2349 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.862
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2349 journals]
  • Carbon monoxide elimination for health and safety: new powerful
           silica-based adsorbents applied in continuous breakthrough experiments at
           elevated laboratory scale
    • Authors: Karl Blender; Helena Horn; Bernd Niemeyer; Stephan Lassen
      Pages: 1049 - 1057
      Abstract: The adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) is difficult and the degree of elimination requested is very high, due to the high toxicological risk of CO. Nevertheless, only a few studies deal with this topic. The presented investigations are based on powerful functionalized silica adsorbents which deliver very fast separation kinetics in combination with high binding capacities. Even at very low CO concentrations of 0.9 and 85 ppmv, respectively, high adsorption rates for all investigated adsorbents were detected. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and selectivity of the new adsorbents, breakthrough experiments at elevated laboratory scale (gas flow rate of 300 mL min−1) were executed with a high CO feed gas concentration of 10,000 ppmv. The experimental results prove that 20 g of the new functionalized silica adsorbent HSU 001-075.2 made sure that the “Eight Hours EC Occupational Exposure Limit Value” of 100 ppmv CO in the air was not exceeded for at least 200 s. In that context, a realistic fire scenario with respect to the CO burden of first responders was focused. The protective efficiency of the new adsorbents was exemplary calculated for the new functionalized adsorbent HSU 031-295.1. According to that, an amount of approximately 0.35 kg is able to decrease a CO concentration of 1000 ppmv in the breathing air of one person under high physical strain (assumed air demand 95 L min−1) to a maximum concentration of 83 ppmv for a protection time of 10 min. In case of a collective fire protection shelter occupied by 10 persons under low physical strain (air demand 30 L min−1), an amount of 3.1 kg is sufficient for their protection against CO intoxication over an assumed time interval of 60 min. These results verify the suitability of the upscaled arrangement of the new developed process for worker’s safety installations as well as for protective equipment of emergency services.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0605-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2018)
  • Aqueous chemistry of airborne hexavalent chromium during sampling
    • Authors: M. Amouei Torkmahalleh; M. Karibayev; D. Konakbayeva; M. M. Fyrillas; A. M. Rule
      Pages: 1059 - 1068
      Abstract: Cr(III) is an essential micronutrient for the proper function of human being, while Cr(VI) is a carcinogenic chemical, which has been one of the hazardous air pollutants defined by US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 2004. Accurate measurements of atmospheric hexavalent chromium concentration are required to evaluate its toxicity. In the present study, a simulation tool using MATLAB program was developed to evaluate soluble and insoluble chromium species formed during the Cr(VI) field sampling (500 ml, 0.12 M HCO3− buffer, pH = 9, 24 h, cellulose filter) which will assist us to better quantify the hexavalent chromium concentration. In this study, Cr(VI) was found to be dominant in soluble form as CrO42− and in precipitated form as (NH4)2CrO4, CaCrO3, BaCrO4, and PbCrO4 at pH = 9 cellulose filter. Secondly, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was higher than the oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI). Basic pH solutions retard the conversion of Cr(VI) in the presence of Fe(II) and As(III) and facilitate the precipitation of Cr(III). The presence of the NaHCO3 as buffer on the cellulose filters and also in the filter extraction solution may add to the precipitation of Cr(VI) as NaCrO4. This study provides new insights to improve cellulose sampling filters, and the filter extraction solutions to either prevent Cr(VI) precipitation during the wet analysis of Cr(VI) or improve the Cr(VI) analysis methods to quantify total Cr(VI) (soluble and insoluble Cr(VI)).
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0607-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2018)
  • Arsenic contamination assessment 40 years after an industrial disaster:
           measurements and deposition modeling
    • Authors: Cristina Mangia; Marco Cervino; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo
      Pages: 1081 - 1089
      Abstract: On 26 September 1976 in Manfredonia (Italy), a mixture containing arsenic (As) compounds was released into the atmosphere due to an accident in a petrochemical plant. The aim of this work is reconstructing the extent of As contamination within the framework of an epidemiological study including both workers of the plant and residents in Manfredonia. Emission consisted of two fractions. One was a liquid solution mixed together with a solid material that hits the area of the plant and mainly affected the workers. The second fraction consisted of a cloud that was dispersed and transported by the wind beyond the plant area. Contamination within the plant has been accounted for using deposition data collected after the accident. Contamination outside the plant has been determined using a dispersion model. A comparison between predictions and measurements confirms that maximum contamination occurred 1.7 km away from the plant, but the area affected by the fallout was larger than it was supposed to be in the days following the accident. Providing a gradient in the contamination, predicted deposition maps are a relevant tool in the population exposure assessment, even if some uncertainty remains regarding establishing possible exposure routes via the food chain.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0610-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2018)
  • Public support for wood smoke mitigation policies in south-central Chile
    • Authors: Àlex Boso; Alvaro Q. Hofflinger; Christian Oltra; Boris Alvarez; Jaime Garrido
      Pages: 1109 - 1119
      Abstract: This study analyzes the role of the affect heuristic, risk perceptions, and air quality and sociodemographic factors in the support for policies to control urban air pollution. The sample includes 489 participants residing in Temuco and Padre Las Casas, suburban areas located in southern Chile, affected by the smoke that wood-burning stoves and cookers produce. In line with previous studies, the results show that the rejection of pollution mitigation policies is associated with a positive affect to heat homes with wood. Awareness and risk perception also seem to be relevant factors, but the effect of the latter on the support for policies ceases to be significant when it is controlled by key sociodemographic variables such as household income. The study findings contribute to the theories of processing information about risk, when suggesting that emotions and awareness play an important role in the support for policies to control air pollution and that, also, structural factors like household income cannot be avoided. Finally, the implications for urban energy transition processes are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0612-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2018)
  • Fragranced consumer products: effects on autistic adults in the United
           States, Australia, and United Kingdom
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Pages: 1137 - 1142
      Abstract: Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can have adverse effects on both air quality and health. This study investigates the effects of fragranced products on autistic individuals ages 18–65 in the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100) found that, across the three countries, 4.3% of adults (n = 142) report medically diagnosed autism (2.3%), an autism spectrum disorder (2.4%), or both. Of these autistic adults, 83.7% report adverse health effects from fragranced products, including migraine headaches (42.9%), neurological problems (34.3%), respiratory problems (44.7%), and asthma attacks (35.9%). In particular, 62.9% of autistic adults report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 57.5% from the scent of laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 65.9% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 60.5% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Health problems can be severe, with 74.1% of these effects considered potentially disabling under legislation in each country. Further, 59.4% of autistic adults have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. More than twice as many autistic as well as non-autistic individuals would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities, and health care professionals were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results show that vulnerable individuals, such as those with autism or autism spectrum disorders, can be profoundly, adversely, and disproportionately affected by exposure to fragranced consumer products.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0625-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Analysis of fungal contamination in vehicle air filters and their impact
           as a bioaccumulator on indoor air quality
    • Authors: Simone Aquino; José Eduardo Alves de Lima; Ana Paula Branco do Nascimento; Fabrício Caldeira Reis
      Pages: 1143 - 1153
      Abstract: Studies on air quality within automotive vehicles are an emerging research area in Brazil, especially in the city of São Paulo, one of the most polluted cities in the world and with the largest fleet of vehicles in the country. Indoor air quality is an indicator of environmental health that takes into account, in addition to thermal comfort, factors that interfere in precarious air conditions, such as the presence of fungi, bacteria and carbon dioxide in indoor air-conditioned environments. The objective of the present study was to analyse the fungal contamination in air-conditioning filters collected from 21 automotive vehicles and the study found 17 fungal genera in all samples collected (100%), including toxigenic fungi such as Penicillium, Fusarim and Aspergillus, indicating that indoor air quality can compromise the health of a portion of the population, such as professional drivers. Among the Aspergillus genus, the results showed the presence of the A. flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus and A. clavatus species, which cause severe allergic and pulmonary respiratory diseases. Air in artificially heated environments should provide comfort to its occupants but it may pose a risk to human health if the car filtration system is contaminated by pathogenic fungi.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0614-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Comparing different methods for statistical modeling of particulate matter
           in Tehran, Iran
    • Authors: Vahid Mehdipour; David S. Stevenson; Mahsa Memarianfard; Parveen Sihag
      Pages: 1155 - 1165
      Abstract: Particulate matter has major impacts on human health in urban regions, and Tehran is one of the most polluted metropolitan cities in the world, struggling to control this pollutant more than any other contaminant. PM2.5 concentrations were predicted by three statistical modeling methods: (i) decision tree (DT), (ii) Bayesian network (BN), and (iii) support vector machine (SVM). Collected data for three consecutive years (January 2013 to January 2016) were used to develop the models. Data from the initial 2 years were employed as the training data, and measurements from the last year were used for testing the models. Twelve parameters, covering meteorological variables and concentrations of several chemical species, were explored as potential predictors of PM2.5. According to the sensitivity analysis of PM2.5 by SVM and derived explicit equations from BN and DT, PM10, NO2, SO2, and O3 are the most important predictors. Furthermore, the impacts of the predictors on the PM2.5 were assessed which the chemical precursors’ influences indicated more in comparison with meteorological parameters. Capabilities of the models were compared to each other and the support vector machine was found to be the best performing, based on evaluation criteria. Nonetheless, the decision tree and Bayesian network methods also provided acceptable results. We suggest more studies using the SVM and other methods as hybrids would lead to improved models.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0615-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Characteristics of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents in Beijing, Seoul,
           and Nagasaki
    • Authors: Eun Ha Park; Jongbae Heo; Setsuko Hirakura; Masahiro Hashizume; Furong Deng; Ho Kim; Seung-Muk Yi
      Pages: 1167 - 1178
      Abstract: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from September 2013 to May 2015 in three cities in East Asian countries (Beijing, China; Seoul, South Korea; and Nagasaki, Japan) in order to analyze the spatiotemporal trends of PM2.5 chemical constituents including organic matter (OM), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble inorganic ions (NO3−, SO42−, and NH4+), and trace elements. The average PM2.5 mass concentration were 125 ± 6.80 μg m−3, 44.6 ± 0.84 μg m−3, and 17.4 ± 0.37 μg m−3 in Beijing, Seoul, and Nagasaki, respectively. Higher carbonaceous concentrations were observed during winter in Beijing and Seoul, while higher concentrations were found during spring in Nagasaki. The highest seasonal averages of organic carbon (OC) to EC ratios were found during spring in Beijing, winter in Seoul, and fall in Nagasaki. The concentrations of secondary OC and its ratio to OC were high during fall and winter. For ion species, NO3− was dominant in Beijing and Seoul, while SO42− was dominant in Nagasaki. Increased contributions of mobile sources in Beijing and Seoul were observed, with higher NO3−/SO42− ratios than those in Nagasaki. Three groups of air masses were found for the three cities using cluster analyses based on 72-h backward trajectories. The cluster from the Bohai economic zone had the highest concentration of PM2.5 for Beijing. For Seoul, a cluster that originated from the Yellow Sea near an industrial area in Liaoning Province and passed through a highly polluted industrial area in southwestern Seoul had high PM2.5 concentrations. A long-range transported cluster that originated in and crossed through heavily industrialized areas in China and South Korea for Nagasaki had higher ion species concentrations. The results of this study are useful to identify the current levels of PM2.5 and its chemical properties to establish a control plan for PM2.5 for Northeast Asia, including China, South Korea, and Japan.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0616-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Spatio-seasonal variation in ambient air pollutants and influence of
           meteorological factors in Coimbatore, Southern India
    • Authors: A. Manju; K. Kalaiselvi; V. Dhananjayan; M. Palanivel; G. S. Banupriya; M. H. Vidhya; K. Panjakumar; B. Ravichandran
      Pages: 1179 - 1189
      Abstract: Air quality is used worldwide to confirm the current status of air pollution level and associated health risks to the public. Several air pollutants reach very high concentrations in many regions across India. In this study, air pollutants were measured in an urban city of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, Southern India, during 2013 to 2014 based on season and location, and the influence of meteorological factors. Air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) across eight locations including industrial, residential, traffic, and commercial areas were assessed. The results showed that PM10, PM2.5, and CO were the most serious pollutants and their average concentrations ranged from 65.5 to 98.6 μg/m3, 27.6 to 56.9 μg/m3, and 1.58 to 8.21 mg/m3, respectively, among various locations. Significantly higher concentration of air pollutants was recorded in industrial areas followed by traffic and commercial areas. Comparatively higher mean concentration of O3 (2.22 ± 0.75 μg/m3) and CO (7.73 ± 1.86 mg/m3) was recorded during the summer season, whereas the concentration of PM10 (80.3 ± 24.4 μg/m3), PM2.5 (45.1 ± 17.7 μg/m3), SO2 (7.86 ± 1.55 μg/m3), and NO2 (13 ± 1.81 μg/m3) was higher in southwest monsoon. Ozone (O3) and CO positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with relative humidity. The level of PM10, PM2.5, and CO concentrations exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) guidelines. The present study’s results emphasize the need of effective air pollution control in Coimbatore. Precautionary measures to be taken to avoid exposure of air pollutants to the public and minimize pollutants. This study further suggests an investigation on the adverse impact on human health and environment using appropriate risk analysis techniques.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0617-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Can houseplants improve indoor air quality by removing CO 2 and increasing
           relative humidity'
    • Authors: C. Gubb; T. Blanusa; A. Griffiths; C. Pfrang
      Pages: 1191 - 1201
      Abstract: High indoor CO2 concentrations and low relative humidity (RH) create an array of well-documented human health issues. Therefore, assessing houseplants’ potential as a low-cost approach to CO2 removal and increasing RH is important. We investigated how environmental factors such as ‘dry’ (< 0.20 m3 of water per m3 of substrate, m3 m−3) or ‘wet’ (> 0.30 m3 m−3) growing substrates, and indoor light levels (‘low’ 10 μmol m−2 s−1, ‘high’ 50 μmol m−2 s−1, and ‘very high’ 300 μmol m−2 s−1) influence the plants’ net CO2 assimilation (‘A’) and water vapour loss. Seven common houseplant taxa—representing a variety of leaf types and sizes—were studied for their ability to assimilate CO2 across a range of indoor light levels. Additionally, to assess the plants’ potential contribution to RH increase, the plants’ evapo-transpiration (ET) was measured. At typical ‘low’ indoor light levels, ‘A’ rates were generally low (< 3.9 mg h−1). Differences between ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ plants at typical indoor light levels were negligible in terms of room-level impact. Light compensation points (i.e. the light level where the CO2 assimilation equals zero) were in the typical indoor light range (1–50 μmol m−2 s−1) only for two studied Spathiphyllum wallisii cultivars and Hedera helix; these plants would thus provide the best CO2 removal indoors. Additionally, increasing indoor light levels to 300 μmol m−2 s−1 would, in most species, significantly increase their potential to assimilate CO2. Species which assimilated the most CO2 also contributed most to increasing RH.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0618-9
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Roadside atmospheric pollution: still a serious environmental problem in
           Beijing, China
    • Authors: Wei Chen; Aijia Li; Fan Zhang
      Pages: 1203 - 1216
      Abstract: China has made great efforts to reduce ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the past few decades. The air quality in northern China has improved greatly. However, most research has focused on atmospheric pollution in non-roadside environments that have little influence from traffic flow and are impacted by less vehicle exhaust. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data were collected at four traffic stations and four nontraffic stations in Beijing from June 2014 to September 2017 to analyze the spatial-temporal variations of atmospheric pollutants related to traffic. The traffic stations had higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO but lower concentrations of O3. Although the overall air quality in Beijing is improving, the pollution rates of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the traffic stations were still high at 47.91%, 50.71%, and 61.22% concentrations, respectively. The air pollution levels in traffic environments are systematically higher than those in nontraffic environments, during both daytime and nighttime, except O3. Furthermore, the traffic stations near ring roads with large numbers of diesel trucks were even more polluted, suggesting the influence of traffic emissions. Under adverse meteorological dispersion conditions, both the traffic and nontraffic stations had high pollution levels, but the pollution at the traffic stations was much higher. To reduce the air pollution level, a series of vehicle restriction rules have been imposed, including license plate restriction. Our analysis revealed obvious cycles associated with license plate restriction rules, suggesting the possibility for further improvement in vehicle restriction rules. The results from our study suggest that roadside environments with heavy traffic in Beijing, China, are still highly polluted and need further efforts to improve.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0620-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Influence of different complexity levels of road traffic models on air
           quality modelling at street scale
    • Authors: Bruno Vicente; Sandra Rafael; Vera Rodrigues; Hélder Relvas; Mariana Vilaça; João Teixeira; Jorge Bandeira; Margarida Coelho; Carlos Borrego
      Pages: 1217 - 1232
      Abstract: Urban mobility accounts for 38 and 19% of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions at European urban areas, respectively. Despite of all the technological development around automobile industry, urban areas are still facing problems related to exposure to high levels of air pollutants. Increasing the accuracy of both emissions and air quality modelling from road traffic is a key-issue for the management of air pollution in road transport sector. This study assessed the influence of using different road traffic emission models on the accuracy of air quality modelling with street-level resolution, having as a case study an urban area located on the centre region of Portugal. Two emission models, with different complexity levels regarding the ability to characterise the traffic dynamics were analysed, namely, transport emission model for line sources (TREM) and vehicle-specific power (VSP), based on data obtained in an experimental campaign. To perform the air quality simulations, the pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere under variable wind conditions (VADIS) model was used and two pollutants were analysed: NOx and PM10. The results showed that the magnitude of PM10 and NOx concentrations were result of a conjoint influence of traffic dynamics and meteorological conditions. Comparison between measured and modelled data showed that the VADIS model could track the evolution of NOx levels, for both emission models considered, displaying a high correlation (> 0.8) between traffic-related NOx emissions and NOx concentrations. For PM10, VADIS model is more sensitive to the differences in the emissions calculation; however, it was observed that the traffic-related PM10 emissions accounts 1.3–8.4% to the PM10 concentration levels at the study area.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0621-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Performance of silver, zinc, and iron nanoparticles-doped cotton filters
           against airborne E. coli to minimize bioaerosol exposure
    • Authors: Attarad Ali; Maohua Pan; Trevor B. Tilly; Muhammad Zia; Chang Yu Wu
      Pages: 1233 - 1242
      Abstract: To overcome limitations of existing air-cleaning filters in capturing and deactivating aerosolized microorganisms, this study was embarked to evaluate novel Ag, Zn, and Fe nanoparticle-doped cotton filters (AgCt, ZnCt, FeCt), as biocidal filters for bioaerosol attenuation. To evaluate the biocidal activity of the nanocomposite filters, the survival of lab-generated E. coli after collection on each filter material was compared to collection on an undoped cotton control filter and in a BioSampler. Relative humidity (RH) affected the survival of bacteria on the filters, and the optimal RH was found to be 50 ± 5%. The physical removal efficiency (PRE) determined by an optical particle counter was 99.9 ± 0.7% for ZnCt, 97.4 ± 1.2% for AgCt, and 97.3 ± 0.6% for FeCt, where the control showed only 77.4 ± 6.3% for particles > 500 nm. The doped filters showed 100% viable removal efficiency (VRE). Importantly, the VRE of the nanocomposite filters after four cycles remained nearly 99% and was greater than the cotton control filter at 76.6 ± 3.2%. Adding to its benefits, the AgCt filters had a lower pressure drop than the FeCt and ZnCt filters and the cotton control. The permeability for the cotton control filter was 3.38 × 10−11 m2 while that for the AgCt filter was slightly higher (3.64 × 10−11 m2) than the other filters as well. Overall, these results suggest that nanocomposite-doped filter media, particularly AgCt, can provide effective protection against airborne pathogens with a lower pressure drop, elevated collection efficiency, and better disinfection capability as compared to untreated cotton filters, which are all important features for practical biocidal applications. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0622-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Asian dust storms and diabetes hospitalization: a nationwide
           population-based study
    • Authors: Yun-Shan Chan; Joshua Chen-Yuan Teng; Tsai-Ching Liu; Yu-I Peng
      Pages: 1243 - 1250
      Abstract: This study analyzed the association between Asian dust storms events and diabetes hospital admissions during 2000–2009 in Taiwan using time-series autoregressive model with explanatory variables. Data came from National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency, and Central Weather Bureau. There were 1,283,509 diabetes hospital admissions and 55 ADS events. Our study showed that Asian dust storms were positively associated with diabetes hospital admissions for women, but the connection was delayed rather than immediate. The females who were aged above 74 and who were active in the labor market were more vulnerable to Asian dust storms.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0623-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2018)
  • Environmental study focused on the suitability of vehicle certifications
           using the new European driving cycle (NEDC) with regard to the affair
           “dieselgate” and the risks of NO x emissions in urban destinations
    • Authors: Michal Puškár; Andrej Jahnátek; Jaroslava Kádárová; Marieta Šoltésová; Ľudovít Kovanič; Jana Krivosudská
      Abstract: At present, the standard Euro is emission standard valid within the framework of the European Union. This emission standard relates to road transport specifically, and the actual issue of the standard is Euro 6, which is established to eliminate most undesirable air pollutants. A total of 10 passenger cars equipped with diesel engines and gasoline engines were tested within the present study, whereby these engines officially fulfilled the emission standards Euro 4 ÷ 6. Considering all data obtained using the PEMS measurement system, the diesel engine emissions are several times higher than the NEDC emissions. However, the real NOX emissions of the gasoline engines exceed the NEDC emission values only in a reduced form and are well below valid emission standards. Additionally, the results obtained by the NEDC cycle are in contradiction with the findings achieved in the case of two alternative driving cycles, namely, in the case of the Common Artemis Driving Cycles (CADC) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). These results demonstrate the importance of implementing new kinds of driving cycles for performing generally binding motorcar emission tests. In this way, it is also possible to solve emission problems within urban destinations to improve air quality and public health.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0646-5
  • Correlation between inorganic pollutants in the suspended particulate
           matter (SPM) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) collected from
           industrial and residential areas in Greater Cairo, Egypt
    • Authors: Abdallah A. Shaltout; Salwa K. Hassan; Sultan E. Alomairy; M. Manousakas; Andreas G. Karydas; K. Eleftheriadis
      Abstract: Simultaneous sampling collection of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and fine aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter equal or less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) from industrial and residential areas of Greater Cairo, Egypt, has been carried out during two different seasons namely autumn 2014 and winter 2014/2015. The average mass concentrations of both SPM and PM2.5 samples are higher than the annual mean levels, especially for the samples collected from the industrial area. In addition, the mass concentrations of SPM are much higher than the PM2.5 mass concentrations during the whole sampling period. The ratios of the mass concentration between the SPM and PM2.5 were determined to be equal to 20 ± 6 and 17 ± 4 for the residential and industrial areas, respectively, and these ratios seem to be constant during the two mentioned seasons. Based on our previous elemental analysis results using multiple secondary target energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), 18 elements in both SPM and PM2.5 samples have been quantified. Remarkable variations in the elemental concentrations between the SPM and PM2.5 samples were obtained. Comparison and statistical analysis of the elemental composition of both SPM and PM2.5 have been investigated. The PMF model EPA 5.0 was utilized for source identification on both PM fractions. Seven sources were identified and their relative contributions in the two areas of the study were investigated.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0645-6
  • Use of TEOM monitors for continuous long-term sampling of ambient
           particles for analysis of constituents and biological effects
    • Authors: Ali Reza Nosratabadi; Pål Graff; Helen Karlsson; Anders G. Ljungman; Per Leanderson
      Abstract: Many countries have implemented exposure limits for the concentration of ambient particular matter and do therefore have to monitor their concentration. This could be performed with TEOM monitors (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance-monitors) that contain a filter on which particles are collected. These filters are regularly exchanged for new ones. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of collecting used filters from monitors at different locations and establishing a method to extract particles and then study them with respect to their ability to generate oxidants, their endotoxin content, and ability to activate inflammatory cells. Filters from nine geographically spread locations in Sweden were collected during a 21-month period by local technicians who then sent them to the laboratory where they were extracted and analyzed. The procedure to let local technicians perform the filter exchange and send used TEOM filters to the laboratory worked well. A method was established in which pyrogen-free water was used to extract particles that then were aliquoted and stored for later analysis. Particulate matter (PM10) from different locations showed both a considerable seasonal and spatial-dependent difference with respect to oxidative potential (oxidize glutathione), endotoxin content, and ability to activate blood monocytes to release interleukin-1β. This study shows that, instead of discarding TEOM filters, they can be collected and extracted so that particles that have been sampled in a standardized way could be analyzed with respect to variables that reflect their toxicity. This could be done at a low cost. In combination with information about the ambient particle concentration, such information could be helpful in the evaluation of differences in the risk of breathing air at various locations.
      PubDate: 2018-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0638-5
  • Year-round records of bulk aerosol composition over the Zhongshan Station,
           Coastal East Antarctica
    • Authors: Guojie Xu; Liqi Chen; Miming Zhang; Yuanhui Zhang; Jianjun Wang; Qi Lin
      Abstract: To characterize ionic composition and trace elements in the coastal Antarctic, more than 100 bulk aerosol samples were collected at the Chinese Zhongshan Station from February 2005 to November 2008. Major water-soluble species, including Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Trace metals, including Al, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb, were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that sea salt was the major component in aerosols at the Zhongshan Station in coastal East Antarctica. Sea salt ions Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cl− exhibited the maximum concentration in March, and the highest average concentration in September. NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, and MSA exhibited obvious seasonal variations, with higher concentrations in austral summer than in austral winter. During the 4-year observations, the highest aerosol composition loading was showed in 2008, and the high variation and average concentrations of trace metals appeared in January. Based on high NH4+/(Cl− + NO3− + 2 × SO42−) molar ratios, atmospheric aerosol was not that acidic in the austral summer. Sulfate depletion was found by the low SO42−/Na+ ratio in samples collected in the austral winter, especially from May to October. Enrichment factor (EF) and multivariate statistical analysis were utilized to explore potential emission sources of aerosols over the Zhongshan station. Na+, Cl−, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were mainly from sea salt sources, and Al, Fe, Cu, Cr, Pb, and V were mainly from crustal and anthropogenic pollution sources, while S-cycle compounds non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42−) and MSA originated from marine biogenic emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0642-9
  • Chemical sensitivity, asthma, and effects from fragranced consumer
           products: national population study in Sweden
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Common chemical products and pollutants—such as pesticides, solvents, new building materials, and fragranced consumer products—have been associated with adverse health and societal effects. For some, the effects can be severe and disabling. This national population study in Sweden examined the prevalence and effects of chemical sensitivity, a condition characterized by health problems from chemical pollutant exposures. In addition, it examined the prevalence of medically diagnosed multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), and the co-occurrence of chemical sensitivity with asthma and asthma-like conditions, and with fragrance sensitivity (health problems from fragranced consumer products). Using a nationally representative sample, an online survey was conducted in July 2017 of adults in Sweden (n = 1100). This study found that, across the population, 18.5% report chemical sensitivity; 3.6% report medically diagnosed MCS; 23.2% are asthmatic, with diagnosed asthma (14.9%), an asthma-like condition (9.1%), or both; and 33.1% have fragrance sensitivity. Among the chemically sensitive, 49.0% are asthmatic and 86.8% are fragrance sensitive. Among asthmatics, 39.2% are chemically sensitive and 57.3% are fragrance sensitive. Health problems from fragranced products can be potentially disabling for 40.1% of the chemically sensitive and 36.3% of asthmatics. In addition, among the chemically sensitive, 24.0% have lost workdays or lost a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Results indicate that chemical sensitivity is a widespread condition, affecting more than 1 million adults in Sweden, with fragrance sensitivity affecting nearly 2 million. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is critical to reduce adverse health and societal effects.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0640-y
  • Day-night variability of PM 10 components at a Mediterranean urban site
           during winter
    • Authors: Nuria Galindo; Eduardo Yubero; Jose F. Nicolás; Montse Varea; Álvaro Clemente
      Abstract: Daytime and nighttime PM10 samples were collected during winter at an urban site in Southeastern Spain. Samples were subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species, and metals. PM10 daytime and nighttime concentrations were 26.1 and 20.6 μg/m3, respectively. This difference may be mainly attributed to the reduction in the number of vehicles during nighttime. Traffic-related components such as EC, Ca and other crustal elements, Cu or Zn, showed statistically significantly higher concentrations during daytime, suggesting that traffic emissions were more relevant than day-to-night differences in meteorological conditions. In contrast, no significant differences between daytime and nighttime levels of secondary inorganic ions (SO42−, NO3− and NH4+) were found. Primary and secondary organic carbon concentrations were estimated using the EC tracer method. As expected, POC levels were greater during the day due to increased vehicle exhaust emissions; conversely, higher SOC concentrations were registered during the nighttime period. This was most likely the result of a significant contribution of nighttime chemistry to the formation of secondary organic aerosols.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0627-8
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