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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Analysis of respired amphibole fibers (asbestos and non-asbestos
           classified): discrimination between natural and anthropogenic sources
           using sentinel animals
    • Authors: Silvana Capella; Elisa Fornero; Donata Bellis; Elena Belluso
      Pages: 533 - 542
      Abstract: To evaluate the degree of exposure and to distinguish the contributions of respirable amphibole fibers (both asbestos and non-asbestos) from natural and anthropogenic sources, we investigated their burden in the lungs of sentinel animals. Lung samples of sentinel animals are more easily and continuously available in comparison to humans and are not affected by human variables such as occupational exposure and smoking habit. Fiber identification and quantification have been performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Results for detected amphibole fibers (both asbestos and non-asbestos) were obtained from six studied areas in Northwest Italy (Piedmont) and correlated to lithological and urbanization data. Detected amphibole fiber species have been classified as asbestos minerals occur naturally (NOA) or to anthropogenically sourced asbestos (ASA). This pilot study is a potentially useful tool for the evaluation of the distribution and sources of respirable inorganic fibers. The model should be applicable in any areas where lithological and anthropogenic characteristics are known.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0448-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • An assessment of emission event trends within the Greater Houston area
           during 2003–2013
    • Authors: Cynthia Luong; Kai Zhang
      Pages: 543 - 554
      Abstract: Emission events are upsets (unavoidable breakdowns in process or operation) or unscheduled maintenance, startup, or shutdown activities within industrial facilities that can release large amounts of pollutants for several hours or days, potentially causing air quality to exceed standards established to protect the environment and human health. The Greater Houston area is home to the largest petrochemical complexes in the United States, so the likelihood of emission events is higher in this area than in other areas in the nation. Notable emission events in the Greater Houston area have caused unexpected explosions, fires, and releases of toxic chemicals, which have killed workers and triggered various health issues among nearby communities. Understanding how to minimize these emission events can help protect the health of Houstonians. In this study, we analyzed emission event data for the Greater Houston area extracted from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) emission event database during 2003–2013 for criteria and other selected pollutants to identify annual and seasonal trends and industrial classification patterns. We evaluated 7273 emission events and found that total event incidents and releases from nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have generally decreased from 2003 to 2013, whereas particulate matter (PM) event emissions have generally increased during this period. Our seasonal analyses demonstrated that emission events were more likely to occur during winter for several pollutants. We also found that emission events were mainly generated from the chemical manufacturing and petroleum and coal products manufacturing industries. In addition, we found strong interrelationships between different pairs of pollutants during these emission events. We compared these results against regulatory policy and found potential gaps within the state regulations and TCEQ emission event database explaining our findings, and we provided recommendations on closing these gaps. Our study could drive policy change to lower emission events in the Greater Houston area, potentially improving air quality and reducing the health impacts from these events.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0449-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Exposure to hazardous air pollutants in underground car parks in
           Guangzhou, China
    • Authors: Yulong Yan; Qing He; Qi Song; Lili Guo; Qiusheng He; Xinming Wang
      Pages: 555 - 563
      Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), and PM10 were studied by field sampling in six underground car parks beneath multi-level buildings in Guangzhou, China. CO and PM10 in the car parks range from 3.0 to 69.0 ppm and 0.087 to 0.698 mg m−3, with mean concentrations of 10.8 ppm and 0.228 mg m−3, respectively. Overall mean concentrations of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) are 90.5, 54.8, 239.9, 47.7, and 189.3 μg m−3, respectively. Indoor air pollutants in the car parks show an obvious seasonal variation and are higher in winter than in summer. The total estimated cancer risks of occupational exposure for car park staff and casual exposure for parking users are 3.73 × 10−4 and 5.60 × 10−6, indicating definite and possible risks, respectively. The hazard quotient of target VOCs is 4.33, implying a definite risk for people using underground car parks. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for MTBE and BTEX are significantly higher than one, reflecting strong emission sources in underground car parks. The BTEX to MTBE ratios in the car parks are almost the same as those in tunnel air, indicating that indoor aromatic hydrocarbons were mainly from engine emissions and gasoline evaporation. With increasing urbanization in China, more attention should be paid to the exposure of staff and users to hazardous air pollutants in underground car parks.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0450-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Variability of tropospheric columnar NO 2 and SO 2 over eastern
           Indo-Gangetic Plain and impact of meteorology
    • Authors: Debreka Ghosh; Shyam Lal; Ujjaini Sarkar
      Pages: 565 - 574
      Abstract: Long-term analyses of monthly mean tropospheric NO2 and SO2 were performed over a period of January 2005 to December 2014, around few industrial areas (power plant clusters) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Alongside, similar studies have been conducted over some background mountain and rural sites, forest areas and small urban locations without large industries—all located in and around the Indo-Gangetic Plains. In these locations, the trend analyses of columnar NO2 and SO2 using satellite-based measurements from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were performed to study their spatial, seasonal and long-term behaviour. Distribution of NO2 shows a large variation with major hot spots and average monthly values ranging between 0.03 and 0.35 Dobson Unit (DU), whereas the same for SO2 illustrates the range of average monthly values in between 0.13 to 1.00 DU. All the columnar values have been further correlated to meteorological parameters like cloud fraction, rainfall, outgoing longwave radiation flux and planetary boundary layer height. Analysis of the results indicates the influence of meteorology on the columnar concentration of these gases. Anomalous behaviour of SO2 during 2008 and 2011 were observed due to the long-range transport of volcanic SO2 over India from Dalaffilla and Nabro volcanoes, respectively. SO2/NO2 ratio was also observed to elicit the contribution of stationary (power plants and industries) source origins over mobile (automobile) sources towards the columnar burdens of these gases.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0451-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Green wall technology for the phytoremediation of indoor air: a system for
           the reduction of high CO 2 concentrations
    • Authors: FR Torpy; M Zavattaro; PJ Irga
      Pages: 575 - 585
      Abstract: Along with the growing requirement to reduce building carbon emissions, a need has arisen to find energy efficient means of improving the quality of indoor air. Indoor plants have been shown to be capable of reducing most air pollutants; however, practical numbers of potted plants will not have the capacity to control many forms of air pollution, especially CO2. Green walls are space-efficient means of increasing the density of indoor plants. We assessed an active green wall for its potential to reduce CO2 in chambers and a test room. Chlorophytum comosum and Epipremnum aureum were both effective cultivars for CO2 removal at light densities greater than 50 μmol m−2 s−1. Substrate ventilation increased the rate of CO2 draw down from chambers, possibly due to increased leaf gas exchange rates. Green walls were then tested in a 15.65-m3 sealed simulation room, allowing the calculation of clean air delivery rate (CADR) and air changes per hour (ACH) equivalents based on CO2 draw down. Rates of CO2 draw down were modest under typical brightly lit indoor conditions (50 μmol m−2 s−1); however, when light intensity was increased to relatively bright levels, similar to indoor conditions next to a window or with the addition of supplementary lighting (250 μmol m−2 s−1), a 1-m2 green wall was capable of significant quantifiable reductions of high CO2 concentrations within a sealed room environment. Extrapolating these findings indicates that a 5-m2 green wall containing C. comosum could balance the respiratory emissions of a full-time occupant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0452-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Contamination scale of atmospheric deposition for assessing air quality in
           Albania evaluated from most toxic heavy metal and moss biomonitoring
    • Authors: Shaniko Allajbeu; Flora Qarri; Elda Marku; Lirim Bekteshi; Vjollca Ibro; Marina V. Frontasyeva; Trajce Stafilov; Pranvera Lazo
      Pages: 587 - 599
      Abstract: Pollution characterization on atmospheric deposition is assessed through the concentration level of most toxic trace metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and metalloids (As) in moss samples to evaluate air quality of Albania. Moss biomonitoring method (Hypnum cupressiforme and Pseudoschleropodium purum collected from 44 sampling sites), followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES) and epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), is used in this study for trace metal analysis. Screening ecological risk of trace metals is performed to atmospheric deposition referred to the methodology given by different authors and by using moss species as bioindicator. Model used for risk assessment was based on contamination factors (CF), pollution loads index (PLI), and the potential ecological index (RI). The CF and PLI values were both indicated a moderate to high pollution scale to the whole territory under investigation. RI values indicate the presence of a high ecological risk and the risk of human exposure to trace metals, particularly in the areas with the highest element concentrations. Box-Cox transformation was applied to the concentration matrix data before Pearson’s linear correlation and factor analysis (FA). The most significant factors affecting the association of the elements and their probable sources of origin were extracted from FA. Three dominant factors were extracted that represent the association of Cr, Ni, and Co with mineral particle dust, industrial local emission sources, and the use of pesticides and herbicides in agriculture particularly in the south part of the country.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0453-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Spatiotemporal pattern of air quality index and its associated factors in
           31 Chinese provincial capital cities
    • Authors: L.J. Xu; J. X. Zhou; Y. Guo; T.M. Wu; T.T. Chen; Q.J. Zhong; D. Yuan; P.Y. Chen; C.Q. Ou
      Pages: 601 - 609
      Abstract: Understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of ambient air quality and identifying the associated factors are helpful to develop integrated interventions to prevent and control air pollution. Based on daily data of air quality index (AQI) in 31 Chinese provincial capital cities in 2014, this study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of ambient air pollution and the influencing factors. The spatial and temporal patterns of AQI were presented using GIS map and heat map, respectively. We constructed a hierarchical linear model to quantify the effects of meteorological and socioeconomic factors on AQI. In 2014, the air quality nonattainment (AQI >100) rate was 34.6% on average (1.9 to 74.4%). Air pollution levels were highest in winters and lowest in summers. We found substantial spatial variations of AQI, with the highest values in the middle-east area of the North China Plain. The city-level AQI was positively associated with vehicle population, industrial dust emission, and GDP per capital, which cumulatively explained 67.5% of spatial variations of AQI. The city-level AQI also increased with city’s annual atmospheric pressure but decreased with annual mean temperature. Daily AQI within a city decreased with daily temperature, sunshine duration, wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity. The national analyses indicate that the ambient air quality in China exhibits significant geographical and seasonal variations which were mainly driven by socioeconomic and meteorological factors. The findings would help to understand the underlying reasons for spatial health disparities and would provide important information to guide targeted policy response to ambient air pollution.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0454-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Estimation of on-road NO 2 concentrations, NO 2 /NO X ratios, and related
           roadway gradients from near-road monitoring data
    • Authors: Jennifer Richmond-Bryant; R. Chris Owen; Stephen Graham; Michelle Snyder; Stephen McDow; Michelle Oakes; Sue Kimbrough
      Pages: 611 - 625
      Abstract: This paper describes a new regression modeling approach to estimate on-road nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) concentrations and near-road spatial gradients using data from a near-road monitoring network. Field data were collected in Las Vegas, NV, at three monitors sited 20, 100, and 300 m from Interstate-15 between December 2008 and January 2010. Measurements of NO2 and NOX were integrated over 1-h intervals and matched with meteorological data. Several mathematical transformations were tested for regressing pollutant concentrations against distance from the roadway. A logit-ln model was found to have the best fit (R 2 = 94.7 %) and also provided a physically realistic profile. The mathematical model used data from the near-road monitors to estimate on-road concentrations and the near-road gradient over which mobile source pollutants have concentrations elevated above background levels. Average and maximum on-road NO2 concentration estimates were 33 and 105 ppb, respectively. Concentration gradients were steeper in the morning and late afternoon compared with overnight when stable conditions preclude mixing. Estimated on-road concentrations were also highest in the late afternoon. Median estimated on-road and gradient NO2 concentrations were lower during summer compared with winter, with a steeper gradient during the summer, when convective mixing occurs during a longer portion of the day. On-road concentration estimates were higher for winds perpendicular to the road compared with parallel winds and for atmospheric stability with neutral-to-unstable atmospheric conditions. The concentration gradient with increasing distance from the road was estimated to be sharper for neutral-to-unstable conditions when compared with stable conditions and for parallel wind conditions compared with perpendicular winds. A regression of the NO2/NOX ratios yielded on-road ratios ranging from 0.25 to 0.35, substantially higher than the anticipated tailpipe emissions ratios. The results from the ratios also showed that the diurnal cycle of the background NO2/NOX ratios were a driving factor in the on-road and downwind NO2/NOX ratios.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0455-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • A benchmarking tool to screen and compare bottom-up and top-down
           atmospheric emission inventories
    • Authors: M. Guevara; S. Lopez-Aparicio; C. Cuvelier; L. Tarrason; A. Clappier; P. Thunis
      Pages: 627 - 642
      Abstract: This paper describes the Δ-Emis tool for emission inventories, recently developed in the framework of Forum for Air Quality Modelling in Europe (FAIRMODE). The Δ-Emis tool consists of a set of indicators and diagrams that support the comparison of bottom-up and top-down emission inventories. Four different comparison methods are proposed: (1) pollutant emission comparisons across sectors (bar plot), (2) quantification of the differences between inventories allocated in terms of activity data and emission factors (diamond diagram), (3) emission per capita comparisons (per-capita diagram) and (4) comparison of pollutant ratios (pollutant ratio diagram). The methodology has been tested for an urban emission inventory in Barcelona, and results show the capability of the system to flag inconsistencies in the existing inventories. The strengths and limitations of the tool are presented. The proposed methodology may be useful for regional and urban inventory developers as an initial evaluation of the consistency of their inventories.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0456-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Modelling indoor air quality: validation and sensitivity
    • Authors: S. Silva; A. Monteiro; M. A. Russo; J. Valente; C. Alves; T. Nunes; C. Pio; A. I. Miranda
      Pages: 643 - 652
      Abstract: The main objective of this work is to extend the knowledge of indoor air quality by using a numerical tool to calculate the concentrations of pollutants in the indoor air of a classroom. The application of a numerical model allowed to quantitatively assess the impact of several proposed improvement measures, through the simulation of scenarios. The numerical model CONTAM was used to characterise the indoor air quality in a classroom of an elementary school, in terms of concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. The results of the CONTAM simulations were compared to measurements performed during monitoring campaigns (SINPHONIE project). The simulated and measured carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations inside the classroom are in good agreement. Furthermore, for particulate matter, simulated values show a significant difference from measured values, which are higher overall. With the goal of maximising the indoor air quality of the classroom, several alternative scenarios were simulated. The door and windows of the classroom were opened or closed at different times for each scenario. The scenario promoting the best indoor air quality (i.e. with the lowest concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide) is the one in which the door is only open to allow students to get in and out of the room, and the window is kept half-open during the entire day.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-016-0458-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Particulate matter in urban areas of south-central Chile exceeds air
           quality standards
    • Authors: Carolina Molina; Richard Toro A; Raúl G.E Morales S; Carlos Manzano; Manuel A. Leiva-Guzmán
      Pages: 653 - 667
      Abstract: This study analyzed air quality in terms of the concentrations of sub-10 μm (PM10) and sub-2.5 μm particulate matter (PM2.5) recorded at 23 automated public monitoring stations located in 16 cities in south-central Chile (Rancagua, Rengo, San Fernando, Curicó, Talca, Maule, Chillán and Chillán Viejo, Gran Concepción, Coronel, Los Ángeles, Temuco and Padre Las Casas, Valdivia, Osorno, Puerto Montt, Coyhaique, and Punta Arenas). In each city, the spatial and temporal distributions of the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were recorded at daily, monthly, and yearly intervals. Air quality was evaluated by comparing the annual average concentrations and the maximum daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 with the World Health Organization (WHO) and national standards. The results showed that the limits established in the WHO guidelines and the national standards were systematically exceeded at all the study sites. The highest concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 were observed during the fall and winter months (April to September), i.e., the cold period of the year, whereas the lowest concentrations were recorded in the spring and summer months (October to March), i.e., the warm period of the year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the data collected in the warm and cold periods showed that all stations in this study exhibited statistically significant differences between these two periods. During cold periods, burning firewood for heating produces emissions that are a main source of PM. Furthermore, firewood is primarily burned at night when the lowest temperatures occur and when the atmospheric conditions are generally unfavorable for dispersion; thus, pollution accumulates the above cities. The levels of PM2.5, the most important type of pollution, exceeded the limit established by the WHO on at least one third of the days of the year (>120 days) in the cities of Rancagua, Rengo, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Angeles, Temuco, Valdivia, Osorno, Puerto Montt, and Coyhaique. Therefore in the cities in southern Chile, the population is exposed to particulate matter concentrations that can have negative health impacts. To improve the air quality conditions in the studied cities, research on heaters and combustion techniques should be promoted, home energy efficiency should be increased to reduce firewood consumption, the firewood certification process should be improved at the national level with a better auditing processes, and the introduction of alternative fuels should be considered for greater energy efficiency at competitive costs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0459-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2017)
  • Dust storms modeling and their impacts on air quality and radiation budget
           over Iran using WRF-Chem
    • Authors: Khosro Ashrafi; Majid Shafiepour Motlagh; Soroush Esmaeili Neyestani
      Abstract: The main objective of this research work is to simulate dust storms and evaluate their impacts on air quality and radiation budget over Iran using WRF-Chem coupled model. Two appropriately strong dust storms: May 22–25, 2012 and April 22–25, 2015. According to the results, in the Middle East, countries where sources with highest emission rates are placed include Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkmenistan, and major hot spots inside Iran in the southwestern regions. During both of above storms, very high dust concentrations have been simulated. Domain and simulation period average dust concentration have been estimated to be 402 and 515 μg/m3 over Iran during May-2012 and April-2015 dust storms, respectively. Also, 24 h average dust concentration exceeds 7000 μg/m3 in some regions in the Middle East. Comparison of simulated and observed extinction coefficients and aerosol optical depths (AOD) shows an underestimation for domain averaged AOD. However, spatial and temporal distribution patterns of dust have been well simulated by the developed model. Using two parallel simulations with and without dusts, impacts of dust aerosols on radiation and some meteorological parameters have been evaluated. According to the results, dust aerosols led to negative short-wave (SW) radiative perturbation at the earth’s surface and top of atmosphere (TOA). These radiative perturbations were positive for long-wave (LW) radiation. Stronger negative diurnal perturbations for sensible heat flux, rather than positive nocturnal perturbation which caused 24 h average perturbation to be negative. Nevertheless, the weaker diurnal (negative) rather than nocturnal (positive) surface temperature perturbations made the 24-h average temperature perturbation positive.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0494-8
  • Influences of inorganic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the
           sources of PM2.5 in the Southeast Asian urban sites
    • Authors: Md Firoz Khan; Saw Wuan Hwa; Lim Chee Hou; Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa; Norhaniza Amil; Noorlin Mohamad; Mazrura Sahani; Shoffian Amin Jaafar; Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir; Mohd Talib Latif
      Abstract: PM2.5 released from urban sources and regional biomass fire is of great concern due to the deleterious effect on human health. This study was conducted to determine the chemical compositions andsource apportionment of PM2.5. Twenty-four-hour PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban monitoring sites in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 12 November 2013 to 15 January 2014 using a high volume air sampler (HVS). The source apportionment of PM2.5 was determined using positive matrix factorization (PMF) version 5.0. Overall, the PM2.5 mean concentrations ranged from 16 to 55 μg m−3 with a mean of 23 ± 9 μg m−3. The results of enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, and Cs mainly originated from non-crustal sources. The dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (I[cd]P), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F). PMF 5.0 results showed that the secondary aerosol coupled with biomass burning was the largest contributor followed by combustion of fuel oil and road dust, soil dust source and sea salt and nitrate aerosol, accounting for 34, 25, 24 and 17% of PM2.5 mass, respectively. On the other hand, biomass and wood burning (42%) was the predominant source of PAHs followed by combustion of fossil fuel (36%) and natural gas and coal burning (22%). The broad overview of the PM2.5 sources will help to adopt adequate mitigation measures in the management of future urban air quality in this region.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0489-5
  • Composition and possible sources of anionic surfactants from urban and
           semi-urban street dust
    • Authors: Nurul Bahiyah Abd Wahid; Mohd Talib Latif; Suhaimi Suratman
      Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the distribution of anionic surfactants in street dust samples from urban and semi-urban areas of Malaysia. The dust was collected from streets experiencing heavy traffic in both Kuala Lumpur, an urban location, and Bangi, a semi-urban location. The samples were separated into three particle size fractions (μm) using a laboratory test sieve, namely: fraction A (125 > X ≥ 63), fraction B (63 > X ≥ 45) and fraction C (X < 45). Anionic surfactants as Methylene Blue Active Substance (MBAS) were determined by the Colorimetric Method using a UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Results indicated that anionic surfactants (MBAS) from fraction C showed the highest concentration (Kuala Lumpur 0.53 ± 0.04 μmolg−1 and Bangi 0.49 ± 0.03 μmolg−1), followed by larger particles (fractions B and A). The cations detected followed the trend of Ca2+ > K+ > Na+ > NH4 − > Mg2+, whereas for anions, the trend was SO4 2− > Cl− > NO3 − > F−, respectively. Results from principal component analysis and the multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) of ionic compositions, clearly revealed that surfactants from the street dust at both sampling stations were primarily derived from anthropogenic sources. Examples of these sources include construction/industrial activity and vehicular emissions/biomass burning.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0493-9
  • Surface data assimilation of chemical compounds over North America and its
           impact on air quality and Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts
    • Authors: Alain Robichaud
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of initializing GEM-MACH, Environment and Climate Change Canada’s air quality (AQ) forecast model, with multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOA). A series of 48-h air quality forecasts were launched for July 2012 (summer case) and January 2014 (winter case) for ozone, NO2, and PM2.5. In this setup, the GEM-MACH model (version was initialized with surface analysis increments (from MPSOA) which were projected in the vertical by applying an appropriate fractional weighting in order to obtain 3D analyses in the lower troposphere. Here, we have used a methodology based on sensitivity tests to obtain the optimum vertical correlation length (VCL). Overall, results showed that for PM2.5, more specifically for sulfate and crustal materials, AQ forecasts initialized with MPSOA showed a very significant improvement compared to forecasts without data assimilation, which extended beyond 48 h in all seasons. Initializing the model with ozone analyses also had a significant impact but on a shorter time scale than that of PM2.5. Finally, assimilation of NO2 was found to have much less impact than longer-lived species. The impact of simultaneous assimilation of the three pollutants (PM2.5, ozone, and NO2) was also examined and found very significant in reducing the total error of the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) over 48 h and beyond. We suggest that the period over which there is a significant improvement due to assimilation could be an adequate measure of the pollutant atmospheric lifetime.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0485-9
  • Dew water chemical composition and source characterization in the IGP
           outflow location (coastal Bhola, Bangladesh)
    • Authors: Mohammad Shohel; Hasina Akhter Simol; Elizabeth Reid; Jeffrey S. Reid; Abdus Salam
      Abstract: Dew water samples were collected during the winter season (December, 2014 to January, 2015) at an outflow location from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the Bay of Bengal (Coastal Bhola, Bangladesh). Physical properties of the dew water, including pH and electrical conductivity (EC), were measured. The concentrations of water soluble ions (Cl−, SO4 2−, NO3 −, HCO3 −, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and trace metals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pd, and Ni) were also measured. Source characterization of the chemical species was done by correlation analysis, enrichment factor analysis, percent source contribution calculation, and air mass trajectory analysis. The average pH and EC of the collected dew water were 6.81 and 154.80 μS cm−1, respectively. The average concentration of SO4 2− and NO3 − was 264.10 and 222.20 μeq L−1, respectively. The concentrations of water soluble ions followed the sequence: Ca2+ > Cl−> SO4 2 > Na+ > NO3 −> Mg2+ > K+ > HCO3 −. The concentrations of trace metals ranged in order with Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu, while the concentrations of Cr, Pb, and Ni were below detection limit in dew water. Regression analysis showed significant correlations among sea, soil, and anthropogenic species. High enrichment factors of SO4 2−, NO3 −, Zn, Mn, and Cu indicates anthropogenic sources. Percent source contribution of different species showed significant anthropogenic contribution for Cl−(1.80%), SO4 2−(83.5%), and NO3 −(99.3%). Air mass trajectory analysis supported that the regional urban pollutions have significant influence on the dew water chemistry at the coastal Bhola, Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0487-7
  • Chemical characteristics and possible causes of acid rain at a regional
           atmospheric background site in eastern China
    • Authors: Yuwen Niu; Xinling Li; Zhen Huang; Chize Zhu
      Abstract: A total of 43 rainwater samples were collected from March 2014 to February 2015 at a regional atmospheric background station, in Lin’an, Zhejiang province, eastern China. We analyzed all rainwater samples for pH, electrical conductivity, and concentration of SO4 2−, NO3 −, Cl−, F, NH4 +, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, and K+. The pH of the 43 analyzed rainfall events ranged from 3.39–6.37, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) of 4.74; 72% of the precipitation events qualified as acid rainfall (those where the rain pH was <5.6), indicating that acid rain pollution was severe in Lin’an area. Although the ionic concentrations in the Lin’an rainwater were lower than those found in most urban areas in China and in rural areas in India, they were still higher than those in Waliguan (a global atmospheric background station in northwestern China) and in Newark, NJ, USA. We found that SO4 2− and NO3 − were the major anions in the precipitation, accounting for an average of 88% of the total inorganic anions. The SO4 2− concentration was between 3.8–303.9 μeq L−1 with a VWM value of 49.8 μeq L−1, while the NO3 − concentration was between 3.0–206.5 μeq L−1 with a VWM value of 32.6 μeq L−1. The ratios of SO4 2− to NO3 − ranged from 0.71 to 2.56 with an average of 1.53, indicating that SO4 2− was the most significant anion causing rainfall acidification in Lin’an area. This is similar to observations made in 2008. Compared to observations in Lin’an area in 2008, the contribution of SO4 2− to rainwater acidity had decreased due to sharp reduction in SO2 emissions, while the contribution of NO3 − had increased due to a rapid growth in the use of motor vehicles in eastern China. We observed that the alkaline component NH4 + made the largest contribution toward neutralizing rainwater acidity. The neutralization factor (NF) for NH4 + was between 0.26 and 1.03 with an average of 0.63, and the NF for Ca2+ was between 0.09 and 1.21 with an average of 0.30. The ratio of Ca2+ to NH4 + was between 0.15 and 4.70 with an average of 0.48, lower than that observed in Chinese urban areas and close to that observed in non-urban Chinese sites. These results indicated that Ca2+ was still a major factor in buffering rainwater acidity in most urban areas in China, while NH4 + seemed to be the most important basic ion for neutralizing rainwater acidity in non-urban areas. In the Lin’an area, the Cl− and K+ in rainwater were mostly of marine origin; however, SO4 2−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were generated mainly from the earth’s crust and anthropogenic emissions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0486-8
  • Two notable features in PM 10 data and analysis of their causes
    • Authors: Junghwa Heo; Jin-Soo Park; Bong Mann Kim; Sang-Woo Kim; Rokjin J. Park; Haeun Jeon; Soon-Chang Yoon
      Abstract: Hourly PM10 mass concentrations were collected from 25 air quality monitoring stations in Seoul, Korea. Sixteen years of data, from 2000 to 2015, were analyzed. During that time, the annual average PM10 concentrations declined almost linearly at a rate of −1.98 μg m−3 year−1. The number of high PM10 days declined faster than did the number of low PM10 days. This indicates that the bulk of the annual average PM10 mass concentration reduction was high-level PM10 concentrations. Further analysis of this data revealed two interesting points. First, though the annual average PM10 concentrations clearly lowered for period 1 (from 2000 to 2012; −2.28 μg m−3 year−1), they remained almost unchanged at a virtually constant value for period 2 (from 2012 to 2015; −0.02 μg m−3 year−1). Second, annual average PM10 concentrations showed a large spatial concentration gradient among all monitoring stations in the early 2000s. However, the spatial concentration gradient got gradually smaller until reaching a nearly no-gradient, uniform concentration among all monitoring stations from 2010 onward. Clear PM10 concentration reduction in period 1 was driven by local emission reduction. However, its reduction was not enough in period 2. The reduction of local emissions was negated by the increase of local activities and transported particulates, as well as the formation of secondary aerosol in Seoul from emissions transported from upwind regional sources. This resulted in PM10 concentrations becoming stagnant in period 2. PM10 reduction rate in the downwind area was faster than that in the upwind area. For the first 5 years, the reduction rate in the downwind area was great. Between all the stations observed, nearly all of the concentration difference was a result of more reduction in secondary aerosol. After 2005, coarse particles and primary elemental carbon (EC) played a key role in reducing the PM10 concentration. Our findings on these two data features, and their causes, will help people to understand the most recent characteristics of particulate matters, in turn helping to update the control strategy for the continued improvement of particulate air quality in Seoul.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0488-6
  • Evaluation of short-term health effects among rural women and reduction in
           household air pollution due to improved cooking stoves: quasi experimental
    • Authors: Tanzil Jamali; Zafar Fatmi; Afshan Shahid; Aneeta Khoso; Muhammad Masood Kadir; Nalini Sathiakumar
      Abstract: An improved efficient stove is the mainstay intervention to reduce household air pollution (HAP) associated with biomass fuel use. It potentially addresses the adverse health outcomes by reducing smoke exposure, fuel consumption, and cooking time. This study evaluated two stove intervention programs and compared them for health effects (respiratory and eye symptoms, lung function, blood pressure and burns) among women who were the main cook of the household. A total of 83 and 134 improved and 209 and 179 traditional stoves in Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan, respectively, were evaluated after 3 months of installation, during June to September, 2014. Twenty-four-hour particulate matter (<2.5 μm) (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured in the kitchens in a subsample (n = 40). Multivariate logistic regression and general linear model were used to determine the health impact of improved stoves among women. PM2.5 and CO levels were significantly less in improved stove kitchens. Among women in Sindh program, significantly less cough (aRR 0.27, CI 0.20, 0.38), phlegm (aRR 0.27, CI 0.18, 0.40), shortness of breath (aRR 0.16, CI 0.11, 0.22), chest tightness (aRR 0.23, CI 0.17, 0.31), attack of asthma (aRR 0.33, CI 0.22, 0.49) (p < 0.001), sandy eyes (aRR 0.63, CI 0.47, 0.97), and itching in eyes (aRR 0.62, CI 0.41, 0.95 (p < 0.050) were present. While in Punjab program, risk reduction for phlegm (aRR 0.60, CI 0.45, 0.81) and protection from burns (aRR 0.56, CI 0.34, 0.91) were observed among women. Mean peak expiratory flow was higher among women using improved stoves in Sindh program (31.58, CI 17.90, 45.25 L/min) only. Overall, the positive health impact was greater among those women using closed kitchens. Interventions with improved stoves can have favorable health impact among women. However, variations in health gains were noted among the two programs, as well as greater impact among women using closed kitchen.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0481-0
  • Trends and patterns of air quality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary
           Islands) in the period 2011–2015
    • Authors: Jose M. Baldasano; Jordi Massagué
      Abstract: Air quality trends and patterns in the coastal city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) for the period 2011–2015 were analyzed. The orographic and meteorological characteristics, the proximity to the African continent, and the influence of the Azores anticyclone in combination with the anthropogenic (oil refinery, road/maritime traffic) and natural emissions create specific dispersion conditions. SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 pollutants were assessed. The refinery was the primary source of SO2; EU hourly and daily average limit values were exceeded during 2011 and alert thresholds were reached in 2011 and 2012. WHO daily mean guideline was occasionally exceeded. Annual averages in the three stations that registered the highest concentrations in 2011 and 2012 were between 9.3 and 20.4 μg/m3. The spatial analysis of SO2 concentrations with respect to prevailing winds corroborates a clear influence of the refinery to the SO2 levels. In 2014 and 2015, the refinery did not operate and the concentrations fell abruptly to background levels of 2.5–7.1 μg/m3 far below from WHO AQG. NO2 EU limit values, as well as WHO AQG for the period 2011–2015, were not exceeded. The progressive dieselization of the vehicle fleet caused an increment on NO2 annual mean concentrations (from 2011 to 2015) measured at two stations close to busy roads 25 to 31 μg/m3 (+21%) and 27 to 35 μg/m3 (+29%). NO x daily and weekly cycles (working days and weekends) were characterized. An anti-correlation was found between NO x and O3, showing that O3 is titrated by locally emitted NO. Higher O3 concentrations were reported because less NO x emitted during the weekends showing a clear weekend effect. Saharan dust intrusions have a significant impact on PM levels. After subtracting natural sources contribution, none of the stations reached the EU maximum 35 yearly exceedances of daily means despite seldom exceedances at some stations. None of the stations exceeded the annual mean EU limit values; however, many stations exceeded the annual mean WHO AQG. Observed PM10 annual average concentrations in all the stations fluctuated between 10.1 and 35.3 μg/m3, where background concentrations were 6.5–24.4 μg/m3 and natural contributions: 4.2–9.1 μg/m3. No PM10 temporal trends were identified during the period except for an effect of washout due to the rain: concentrations were lower in 2013 and 2014 (the most rainy years of the period). None of the stations reached the PM2.5 annual mean EU 2015 limit value. However, almost all the stations registered daily mean WHO AQG exceedances. During 2015, PM2.5 concentrations were higher than the previous years (2015, 8.8–12.3 μg/m3; 2011–2014, 3.7–9.6 μg/m3). O3 complied with EU target values; stricter WHO AQG were sometimes exceeded in all the stations for the whole time period.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0484-x
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