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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Potential local and regional impacts of particulate matter emitted from
           one of the world’s largest open-pit coal mines
    • Authors: Roberto E. Rojano; Carlos A. Manzano; Richard Toro; Raul G. E. Morales; Gloria Restrepo; Manuel A. Leiva
      Abstract: Abstract This study was designed to evaluate the atmospheric total suspended particle (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and temporal variability in one of the world’s largest open-pit coal mines (El Cerrejon) located in northeast Colombia, during 2012–2016. The results showed overall average TSP and PM10 concentrations of 86 μg m−3 (CI95% 84–88 μg m−3) and 34 μg m−3 (CI95% 33–35 μg m−3), respectively, with the highest concentrations between March and August each year. A time trend analysis of the results revealed that PM10 concentrations in particular have significantly increased between 6.2 and 7.7% per year (CI95% 1.2–12.8% year−1) in several of the monitoring stations. Meteorological parameters were also evaluated. It was observed that NE winds with speeds above 2 m s−1 were significantly correlated with an increase in the concentration of PM10 for selected downwind sites, which suggested that coal mining operations are an important source of atmospheric PM in the area. Regional long-range atmospheric transport scenarios showed potential effects on neighboring municipalities and countries within 72-h transportation events. These highlighted the need to develop new strategies to control the emissions of PM from the local mining industry to comply with local and international guidelines and regulations, particularly when industrial expansion is planned for the near future and relatively large population centers are in the area, of which a high proportion belong to indigenous populations.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0542-4
  • Evaluation of glyphosate drift and anthropogenic atmospheric trace
           elements contamination by means of lichen transplants in a southern
           Italian agricultural district
    • Authors: Lucio Lucadamo; Anna Corapi; Luana Gallo
      Abstract: Abstract Ecophysiological biomarkers and atmospheric contamination due to glyphosate and trace elements were monitored in a southern Italian agricultural district by means of transplanted thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Glyphosate exhibited a significant geographical pattern (east side > west side) and a drift source area equal to 32% of the monitoring sites. Moreover, based on the surface area of the study area and a wind quantitative relationship (WQR) with glyphosate thalli concentrations, our data support the idea that pesticide drift extends over an area of several square kilometers. Of the eight elements preliminarily classified as enriched, four were considered prevalently of geogenic origin (Al, Ti, Ni, Co) and four of anthropogenic origin (Cu, Mn, Sn, Sb), although only Sb and Cu passed rigorous statistical testing supporting a real difference from pre-exposure levels. The contribution of local sources was evaluated based on the relative increase of Cu, Mn, Sb, and Sn versus Ti. Cu and Mn were associated mainly with a biomass power plant (BPP), with Cu showing extremely high levels of contamination involving 20% of the monitoring sites. Sb and Sn were associated with spatial variation of the traffic rate. The mycobiont and photobiont showed an evident zonation of the levels of their physiological parameters, with oxidative stress being significantly associated with both the biomass power plant and Cu/Ti. Our results suggest that croplands are potentially exposed to various hazards: over-exposure to pesticides due to drift processes, diffuse low traffic levels promoting Sb enrichment, and acute Cu pollution affected by BPP emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0547-7
  • Health effect of mixtures of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine
           particulates in 85 US counties
    • Authors: Jia Coco Liu; Roger D. Peng
      Abstract: Abstract Despite substantial improvements in ambient air quality in the past decades, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) remain as concerns. As these pollutants exist as mixtures in ambient environments, some combinations of these pollutants may be more harmful to human health than other combinations. Identifying harmful pollutant mixtures can help develop multi-pollutant control strategies to better protect health. Current methods exhibit limitations in identifying harmful mixtures. We aim to identify harmful compositions of three-pollutant mixtures in 85 US counties during 1999–2010. We developed a new method called PANCAKE to quantify O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixtures. O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixtures are categorized into 27 composition types based on combinations of different O3, NO2, and PM2.5 levels. We identified harmful compositions by estimating the effect of each composition of O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixture compared to the reference composition on cardiovascular admissions among Medicare patients. We found that a mixture with relatively low levels of some pollutants combined with relatively high levels of other pollutants can be equally or more harmful than a mixture with high levels of all pollutants. Eight out of the 27 composition types, often with NO2 levels > 17.3 ppb and PM2.5 levels > 8.8 μg/m3 combined with any levels of O3, were associated with significantly increased cardiovascular admission rates compared to the reference composition. These harmful compositions overall occurred in about 40–50% of days in winter, metropolitan areas, or the East North Central region. Mixture composition plays an important role in determining health risks and may be worth considering when developing air pollution control strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0544-2
  • Effects of transport patterns on chemical composition of sequential rain
           samples: trajectory clustering and principal component analysis approach
    • Authors: Ismail Anil; Omar Alagha; Ferhat Karaca
      Pages: 1193 - 1206
      Abstract: Abstract The chemical composition and long-range transportation (LRT) of rain events were assessed in this study. For this purpose, a fully automated wet-only sequential sampler was used to differentiate between washout and rainout processes. The chemical composition of elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and ions (F−, Cl−, NO3 −, SO4 −2, and NH4 +) were quantified in 172 rainwater samples. Cluster analysis (CA) statistical approach was used to classify the back trajectories of the rain events. The CA revealed a seven-cluster solution which provided better explanations for the effects of possible source regions on the receptor site. Consequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on the normalized cluster-based mean concentrations of the chemical species in order to statistically identify the similarities among the clusters. In conclusion, there were four main sources which strongly affected the chemical composition of precipitation in the study area namely: (i) anthropogenic pollutants from Southwestern and Eastern Europe, (ii) Saharan dust intrusion from Northern Africa, (iii) resuspension of crustal material from nearby regions, and (iv) marine aerosols from Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The proposed methodology combining trajectory cluster analysis, chemical analysis, and principal component analysis was satisfactory to identify the source regions of the trajectories carrying the observed pollutants to the study area.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0504-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2017)
  • Indoor air quality in urban and rural kindergartens: short-term studies in
           Silesia, Poland
    • Authors: Ewa Błaszczyk; Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska; Krzysztof Klejnowski; Piotr Kubiesa; Izabela Fulara; Danuta Mielżyńska-Švach
      Pages: 1207 - 1220
      Abstract: Abstract More than 80% of people living in urban areas who monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed limits defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although all regions of the world are affected, populations in low-income cities are the most impacted. According to average annual levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) presented in the urban air quality database issued by WHO in 2016, as many as 33 Polish cities are among the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union (EU), with Silesian cities topping the list. The aim of this study was to characterize the indoor air quality in Silesian kindergartens based on the concentrations of gaseous compounds (SO2, NO2), PM2.5, and the sum of 15 PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including PM2.5-bound benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity of PM2.5 organic extracts in Salmonella assay (strains: TA98, YG1024). The assessment of the indoor air quality was performed taking into consideration the pollution of the atmospheric air (outdoor). I/O ratios (indoor/outdoor concentration) for each investigated parameter were also calculated. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 were collected during spring in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia), representing urban and rural areas. Indoor samples were taken in naturally ventilated kindergartens. At the same time, in the vicinity of the kindergarten buildings, the collection of outdoor samples of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 was carried out. The content of BaP and the sum of 15 studied PAHs was determined in each 24-h sample of PM2.5 (indoor and outdoor). In the urban site, statistically lower concentrations of SO2 and NO2 were detected indoors compared to outdoors, whereas in the rural site, such a relationship was observed only for NO2. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-bound BaP, and Σ15 PAHs in kindergartens (indoor) versus atmospheric (outdoor) air in the two studied areas were identified. Mutagenic effect of indoor PM2.5 samples was twice as low as in outdoor samples. The I/O ratios indicated that all studied air pollutants in the urban kindergarten originated from the ambient air. In the rural site concentrations of SO2, PM2.5 and BaP in the kindergarten were influenced by internal sources (gas and coal stoves).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0505-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2017)
  • Global population exposed to fine particulate pollution by population
           increase and pollution expansion
    • Authors: Lijian Han; Weiqi Zhou; Weifeng Li; Yuguo Qian
      Pages: 1221 - 1226
      Abstract: Abstract Ambient fine particulate (PM2.5) pollution threatens public health. Previous studies have primarily focused on PM2.5 estimation, with the quantitative analysis of public exposure and the reason for increased risk receiving limited attention. Quantitative information is essential for environmental risk estimation. Thus, we collected PM2.5 data and population records to illustrate the spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 pollution and to quantify public vulnerability and the cause of increased exposure at global, regional, and country scales from 2000 to 2010, following the air quality standards of the World Health Organization. We found that 11.0 × 106 km2 (8%) of the global terrestrial area was exposed to PM2.5 pollution (> 35 μg/m3) in 2010, an addition of 4.3 × 106 km2 since 2000. Furthermore, by 2010, 1.94 billion (30%) people worldwide were exposed to PM2.5 pollution, including 966 and 778 million in Eastern and Southern Asia, respectively, comprising 962 million in China and 543 million in India. After 2000, the vulnerability of 698 million people to PM2.5 pollution increased, including 356 and 280 million in Southern and Eastern Asia, respectively, accounting for 279 million in China and 253 million in India. Moreover, 25% of the global vulnerability increase was from local population growth, and 75% was due to pollution expansion. Specifically, 26 and 16% of the increase in public vulnerability in Southern and Eastern Asia (22 and 16% in India and China), respectively, were from local population growth. We suggest that countries in which migration has contributed to an increase in public vulnerability should balance pollutant emission reduction and migration control to reduce vulnerability. In addition, cooperation between the government and public could help mitigate global pollution as well as environmental and human health risks.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0506-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2017)
  • Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in atmospheric
           particles during district heating period (DHP) and non-district heating
           period (N-DHP) in Shandong province, China
    • Authors: Guiqin Zhang; Ning Wang; Xiang Cheng; Youmin Sun; Huaizhong Yan; Chunzhu Chen
      Pages: 1247 - 1257
      Abstract: Abstract Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were systemically investigated in total solid particles (TSPs) sampled at seven sites in Shandong province, China. The congener profile and space distribution were compared during district heating period (DHP) in winter and non-district heating period (N-DHP) in spring. The air pollution at in-land sites was worse than that at seashore sites due to the different ventilation conditions and pollutant sources. The concentrations of PAHs associated to the distribution of TSP, severer in DHP, since coal burning was the major source for both pollutants, according to the analysis of these results and diagnostic ratios. FLT, PYR, and BBF were top PAH congeners by specific mass concentrations. On the profile, OCPs, PCBs, and PAEs were more related to the ambient temperature due to the evaporation and revealed higher abundancy in N-DHP than in DHP. Based on the diagnostic ratio analysis, the source of pollution was more likely local than remote.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0509-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2017)
  • Respiratory deposition and health risk of inhalation of particle-bound
           heavy metals in the carbon black feeding area of a tire manufacturer
    • Authors: Chia-Hsiang Lai; Chia-Hua Lin; Chang-Chun Liao
      Pages: 1281 - 1289
      Abstract: Abstract The health effects of metal-containing carbon black (CB) particles obtained from the CB feeding area of a tire manufacturing plant were investigated. Atmospheric samples were collected over 24 h for 20 working days in 2016 using the 12 impaction stages of micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, and metal-containing particles were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentration of total particulate matter in the CB feeding area was 944.8 ± 456.4 μg/m3, and the most abundant elements in the samples include Zn (8622.0 ± 5679.0 ng/m3), Al (3113.3 ± 2017.1 ng/m3), and Fe (1519.1 ± 875.0 ng/m3). Carcinogenic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni) with the mass median diameter were incorporated in submicron particles. The mean total deposition flux in the head airway (HA) region was approximately 16–30 times higher than that in the tracheobronchial (TB) region and alveolar region (AR). The most abundant deposition flux of heavy metals in the AR and TB region was distributed in particles of less than 3.2 μm. The cancer risk presented by carcinogenic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni) in total particles to CB feeding workers ranged from 5.52 × 10−4 to 5.65 × 10−2, which is substantially higher than the acceptable cancer risk range 10−6–10−4. In particular, the cancer risk presented by these four metals in ultrafine particles (UFPs) exceeded the 10−6 benchmark level. These results demonstrate the high health risk presented by particle-bound heavy metals to workers in a CB feeding area via inhalation exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0515-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2017)
  • The January 2013 Beijing “Airpocalypse” and its acute effects on
           emergency and outpatient visits at a Beijing hospital
    • Authors: Joshua M. Ferreri; Roger D. Peng; Michelle L. Bell; Liu Ya; Tiantian Li; G. Brooke Anderson
      Abstract: Abstract Severe air pollution episodes in Europe and the USA in the early- to mid-twentieth century caused large health impacts, spurring national legislation. Similarly severe episodes currently affect developing regions, as exemplified by a particularly extreme episode in January 2013 in Beijing, China. We investigated associations between this episode and medical visits at a Beijing hospital. We obtained fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from the US State Department’s Embassy monitor and daily counts of all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory emergency visits, and outpatient visits from a nearby hospital in the Liufang Nanli community. We analyzed whether risks increased during this episode (with daily PM2.5 ≥ 350 μg/m3) using generalized linear modeling, controlling for potential confounders. The episode brought exceptionally high PM2.5 (peak daily average, 569 μg/m3). Risk increased during the episode for all-cause (relative risk 1.29 [95% CI 1.13, 1.46]), cardiovascular (1.55 [0.90, 2.68]) and respiratory (1.33 [1.10, 1.62]) emergency medical visits, and respiratory outpatient visits (1.16 [1.00, 1.33]). Relative risks of all-cause (0.95 [0.82, 1.10]) and cardiovascular (0.83 [0.67, 1.02]) outpatient visits were not statistically significant. Results were robust to modeling choices and episode definitions. This episode was extraordinarily severe, with maximum daily PM2.5 concentration nearly 22-fold above the World Health Organization guideline. During the episode, risk increased for all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory emergency medical visits, and respiratory outpatient visits, consistent with previous US-based research. However, no association was found for all-cause or cardiovascular outpatient visits. China-based studies like this one provide critical evidence in developing efforts regarding air pollution remediation in China.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0538-0
  • Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health : the 10-year anniversary
    • Authors: J. M. Samet; Y. S. Chung
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0541-5
  • Concentration profile of elemental and organic carbon and personal
           exposure to other pollutants from brick kilns in Durango, Mexico
    • Authors: Abraham Ortínez-Alvarez; Oscar Peralta; Harry Alvarez-Ospina; Amparo Martínez-Arroyo; Telma Castro; Víctor H. Páramo; Luis Gerardo Ruiz-Suárez; Jorge Garza; Isabel Saavedra; María de la Luz Espinosa; Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz; Arturo Gavilan; Roberto Basaldud; José Luis Munguía-Guillén
      Abstract: Abstract Emission factors and personal exposure measurements were obtained in the working environment of a brick kiln yard in the municipality of Victoria de Durango, Mexico. Two kinds of kiln were evaluated; one was a fixed traditional kiln (FTK); the other was a local variation of an improved kiln called the ecological Marquez brick kiln (MK2). To distinguish it from the original design, we call it the Marquez kiln Durango (MKD). Ambient emission gases of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) were continuously followed using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR). Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) ambient emissions were sampled on quartz filters and analyzed by chemical coulombimetry. Personal exposure to CO was continuously followed using portable monitors, and personal exposure to inhalable particles with diameters of generally 2.5 μm and smaller (PM2.5) was obtained using Teflon filters in portable particle samplers followed by gravimetric analysis. Results show that the FTK emits more PM2.5, EC, and OC per cooking stage than the MKD. In terms of PM2.5 emission factors, relative to the FTK, the MK2 is 61% smaller and the MKD emission factor is 39% smaller. Against our expectations, the MKD showed higher work environment exposure levels. This is due to the untested changes to the original MK2 design and a mismanagement of the operation processes. Personal exposure to CO and PM2.5 of local brick kiln workers was about three times higher than indoor exposure from the use of three-stone wood cookstoves in Mexico. The analysis of emission plumes from FTK and MKD using a coupled emission model dispersion model allowed us to evaluate the impacts, transport, and deposition area of the particle matter in the area surrounding Durango Brickyard (DB).
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0539-z
  • Organic compounds in particulate and gaseous phase collected in the
           neighbourhood of an industrial complex in São Paulo (Brazil)
    • Authors: Sofia Caumo; Ana Vicente; Danilo Custódio; Célia Alves; Pérola Vasconcellos
      Abstract: Abstract São Paulo, a megacity in South America, is the largest consumer of fossil fuels in Brazil. The petrochemical products play an important role in the Brazilian economy and in the energy matrix. The compounds emitted when oil is used or processed can affect air quality and endanger human health. Particulate matter and gaseous samples were collected simultaneously in 2015 at an urban site highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, in the city of Santo André, São Paulo Metropolitan Area. Samples were analysed for elemental and organic carbon, hopanes, n-alkanes, alkenes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated and nitrated derivatives. Among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene presented the highest concentration in PUF and benzo(b)fluoranthene was dominant in PM. The carcinogenic equivalents for benzo(a)pyrene were 2.1 for PAH and 1.2 for nitro-PAH. The results showed that local activities as vehicular and industrial activities affected the air quality.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0531-7
  • Emissions from residential combustion sector: how to build a high
           spatially resolved inventory
    • Authors: Carlos Silveira; Joana Ferreira; Alexandra Monteiro; Ana Isabel Miranda; Carlos Borrego
      Abstract: Abstract Usually, annual emission data from residential combustion sector are spatially disaggregated by population density to the sub-municipality spatial level. The aim of the present work is to define a methodological approach to develop/build a high-resolution emission inventory from residential combustion following a bottom–up approach. The conceptual model considers different approaches by fuel category (solid fuel–wood, gas and liquid fuels) according to distinct spatial coverage and type of activity data available for each category. For solid fuels, detailed activity data (per district), disaggregated according to the number and type of equipment, burned wood species and consumption rate, as well as specific emission factors (per wood species) were used. With regard to the gas and liquid fuels, the total national emission by fuel type using national consumption data and broader emission factors was disaggregated to the sub-municipality scale based only on the number of heating equipment. The choice of these disaggregation factors was influenced by both data availability and relevance. The results of the new disaggregated emission data have been compared with emission values resulting from the classical top–down approach using census/population data. The selected case study is Portugal. The results pointed out that major differences exist when comparing both approaches, namely regarding the spatial distribution/allocation of emissions. In the new approach, emissions are more redistributed over the territory, while in the old distribution, emissions are concentrated in the coastal urban areas (with hotspots in the main urban areas of Porto and Lisbon).
      PubDate: 2017-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0526-4
  • Daily land use regression estimated woodsmoke and traffic pollution
           concentrations and the triggering of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a
           case-crossover study
    • Authors: David Q. Rich; Mark J. Utell; Daniel P. Croft; Sally W. Thurston; Kelly Thevenet-Morrison; Kristin A. Evans; Frederick S. Ling; Yilin Tian; Philip K. Hopke
      Abstract: Abstract Prior work has reported acute associations between ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and short-term increases in airborne particulate matter. Subsequently, the association between STEMI and hourly measures of Delta-C (marker of woodsmoke) and black carbon (marker of traffic pollution) measured at a central site in Rochester, NY, were examined, but no association was found. Therefore, land use regression estimates of Delta-C and black carbon concentrations at each patient’s residence were developed for 246 STEMI patients treated at the University of Rochester Medical Center during the winters of 2008–2012. Using case-crossover methods, the rate of STEMI associated with increased Delta-C and BC concentration on the same and previous 3 days was estimated after adjusting for 3-day mean temperature and relative humidity. Non-statistically significant increased rates of STEMI associated with interquartile range increases in concentrations of BC in the previous 2 days (1.10 μg/m3; OR = 1.12; 95% CI 0.93, 1.35) and Delta-C in the previous 3 days (0.43 μg/m3; OR = 1.16; 95% CI 0.96, 1.40) were found. Significantly increased rates of STEMI associated with interquartile range increases in concentrations of BC (1.23 μg/m3; OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.87, 1.24) or Delta-C (0.40 μg/m3; OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.85, 1.09) on the same day were not observed likely due, in part, to temporal misalignment. Therefore, sophisticated spatial-temporal models will be needed to minimize exposure error and bias by better predicting concentrations at individual locations for individual hours, especially for outcomes with short-term responses to air pollution (< 24 h).
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0537-1
  • Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Abstract Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample (n = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Results indicate that 64.3% of asthmatics report one or more types of adverse health effects from fragranced products, including respiratory problems (43.3%), migraine headaches (28.2%), and asthma attacks (27.9%). Overall, asthmatics were more likely to experience adverse health effects from fragranced products than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34–7.64). In particular, 41.0% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 28.9% from scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 42.3% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 46.2% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Of these effects, 62.8% would be considered disabling under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Yet 99.3% of asthmatics are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. Also, 36.7% cannot use a public restroom if it has an air freshener or deodorizer, and 39.7% would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or some fragranced product. Further, 35.4% of asthmatics have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. More than twice as many asthmatics would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and health care professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study point to relatively simple and cost-effective ways to reduce exposure to air pollutants and health risks for asthmatics by reducing their exposure to fragranced products.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0536-2
  • Mortality risk and PM 2.5 air pollution in the USA: an analysis of a
           national prospective cohort
    • Authors: C. Arden Pope; Majid Ezzati; John B. Cannon; Ryan T. Allen; Michael Jerrett; Richard T. Burnett
      Abstract: Abstract Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) contributes to global burden of disease, primarily because of increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates associations between long-term PM2.5 exposure and mortality risk in national, representative cohorts of the US adult population, constructed from public-use National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Two cohorts consisting of 392,807 and 162,373 individuals (without and with individual smoking data) were compiled from public-use NHIS survey data (1986–2001) with mortality linkage through 2011. Cohorts included persons who lived in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) were 18–84 years of age and had individual risk factor information. Modeled PM2.5 exposures were assigned as MSA-level mean ambient concentration for 1999 through 2008. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models, controlling for age, race, sex, income, marital status, education, body mass index, and smoking status. Estimated HRs for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, associated with a 10-μg/m3 exposure increment of PM2.5 were 1.06 (1.01–1.11) and 1.34 (1.21–1.48), respectively, in models that controlled for various individual risk factors, including smoking. This study provides evidence that elevated risks of mortality, especially cardiovascular disease mortality, are associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution in US nationwide adult cohorts constructed from public-use NHIS data.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0535-3
  • Indoor and outdoor air quality analysis for the city of Nablus in
           Palestine: seasonal trends of PM 10 , PM 5.0 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1.0 of
           residential homes
    • Authors: S. Jodeh; A. R. Hasan; J. Amarah; Father Judeh; R. Salghi; H. Lgaz; W. Jodeh
      Abstract: Abstract Nablus city is an important urban and industrial center in the West Bank, Palestine. The topography of the city, combined with multiple sources of air pollution, creates a potential air quality problem that might affect human health. The indoor and outdoor particle concentration distributions of PM10, PM5.0, PM2.5, and PM1.0 were measured using a Grimm aerosol spectrometer from December 2014 to November 2015, at four roadsides and four urban homes in Nablus. The results of the annual averages of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were found to be at least three times higher than that of the European Air Quality Standards both in indoors and outdoors. The difference in the results between both the roadside and the urban areas was attributed to human and industrial activities in Nablus. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of the particulate matters are during summer, especially June and July, in the roadside areas due to heavy industrial activities during these months. The same behavior was noticed for urban areas during summer and due to other human activities. The results of indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were found to be less than, but very close to, 1 for both roadside and urban areas in summer and winter months. In winter times, areas with poor ventilation indicated the existence of additional sources of PM within the indoor environments, especially when smoking cigarettes and using fuel-based heaters such as fireplaces gas and kerosene heaters.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0533-5
  • Acute pulmonary and inflammatory response in young adults following a
           scripted car commute
    • Authors: Rachel Golan; Chandresh Ladva; Roby Greenwald; Jenna R. Krall; Amit U. Raysoni; Priya Kewada; Andrea Winquist; W. Dana Flanders; Donghai Liang; Jeremy A. Sarnat
      Abstract: Abstract In-vehicle pollution exposure has been linked to adverse health. We conducted a quasi-controlled panel study, the second Atlanta Commuters Exposures (ACE-2) study, to measure in-vehicle environmental exposures and corresponding changes in acute pulmonary and inflammatory response. ACE-2 was a randomized, crossover study of 60 adults (ages18–39 years) with or without asthma. Each participant conducted a scripted highway commute and either a surface street commute or a clinic exposure scenario, all followed by the same post-exposure health measurements. Exposures were conducted between 7 am–9 am. A range of mainly particulate matter measurements were sampled in-vehicle or indoors. Mixed effect models were used to examine time trends in health endpoints and associations between endpoints and pollutants. Participants were exposed to marginally higher pollutant concentrations during highway compared to surface street commutes. Cu was the only pollutant we measured that was significantly associated with increased eNO, lung function decrement, and increased levels of several cytokines. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, soluble intracellular adhesive molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels, and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) levels immediately following exposure were positively associated with elemental carbon, organic carbon, and copper. Forced vital capacity (FVC) decreased relative to pre-commute levels at four repeated measurement time points following highway exposure scenarios (range,− 1.9 to − 2.2%, p < 0.05). Similarly, decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were more pronounced following highway commutes than clinic sessions (− 2 vs. + 1.7%, p = 0.04). We observed transient increases in systemic inflammatory and acute respiratory response following on-road commutes, associated with several primary traffic pollutants, which we believe maybe indicative of exposures to a source or traffic pollutant mixture, namely road dust or brake wear.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0530-8
  • PM 10 concentration in relation to clinic visits for anxiety disorders: a
           population-based study of a high river-dust episode region in Taiwan
    • Authors: Chung-Yih Kuo; Chia-Yu Hsieh; Chiung-Wen Hu; Szu-Chieh Chen; Hao-Jan Yang
      Abstract: Abstract PM10 exposure has been found to have significant effects on a variety of physical conditions. However, whether it acts on psychopathology remains unclear. This study used 8-year data to examine the relationship between PM10 concentration and daily clinic visits of anxiety disorders. All residents of Yunlin County, Taiwan, which is a high river-dust exposure area, were selected as subjects. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), 2002–2009, were analyzed. Individuals with any ICD code of 300.0 and 300.2 were categorized as with anxiety disorders. PM10 data were based on the Lunbei station (located at Yunlin County) of EPA, Taiwan. Time-series analysis showed that, during the observed 8 years, the number of daily clinic visits for anxiety disorders increased with PM10 levels, and the relationship remained significant after unemployment rate, and the Weighted Price Index of Taiwan Stock Exchange in the same period were controlled for. In particular, we found that there is a linear dose-response effect between daily clinic visits and PM10 levels when PM10 < 300 μg/m3; whereas a dramatically elevated daily clinic visits of anxiety disorders was found when PM10 > 300 μg/m3. Findings from this study highlight that high level of PM10 exposure derived from severe weather or environment condition may affect the occurrence of anxiety disorders. In addition, there seems to have a threshold of PM10 in elevating the risk of anxiety disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0534-4
  • Long-term variations of dust storms and associated dustfall and related
           climate factors in Korea during 1997~2016
    • Authors: H. S. Kim; Y. S. Chung; J. H. Cho
      Abstract: Abstract The large-scale transport of dust storms originating from Mongolia and northern China has been observed for dustfall days by meteorological observers in South Korea since 1960. Furthermore, the Korea Centre for Atmospheric Environment Research (KCAER) has been observing dustfall days by using standards of ground-based mass concentrations in central South Korea since 1997. In the spatial distribution, annual dustfall days gradually decreased southeastward in South Korea due to wind speed reduction for the long-range transport of dust storms. During the last 20 years, 19 dustfall days in 1997 were reduced to 3 days in 2016 with a decreasing rate of − 0.8 ± 0.1 day year−1. The warming in northern Mongolia reduced the meridional temperature gradient between Mongolia and northern China. Decreases in the air temperature gradient affect wind speed reduction in the origins of dust storms. A noticeable decrease in PM10 mass concentrations is related to decreases in higher mass concentration days from dustfall in central South Korea during winter and spring. During summer and fall, the decreasing trend of TSP is related to the high level of moisture of the Northwest Pacific air masses.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0513-9
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