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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Multi-zone measurement of particle concentrations in a HVAC building with
           massive printer emissions: influence of human occupation and particle
           transport indoors
    • Authors: Sofia Eirini Chatoutsidou; Norbert Serfozo; Thodoros Glytsos; Mihalis Lazaridis
      Pages: 679 - 693
      Abstract: Abstract Particle number (PN) and mass (PM) concentrations were measured in four offices in a HVAC building, one of them corresponding to a printer room. On-line monitoring of the indoor PM concentrations was accompanied with monitoring of the outdoor concentration. In addition, black carbon was measured in two of the selected offices. PN concentrations were measured with a variety of instruments (SMPS,NanoScan, P-Trak) covering a range between 10 nm and 9 μm, whereas PM10 mass concentrations were measured with several DustTraks. Cleaning activities and printing were identified as the most significant indoor sources for ultrafine particles with the latter resulting in a substantial increase of indoor PN<1 concentrations in the printer room during workdays. Moreover, indoor transport of fine particles from the printer room was found to have an important contribution to both indoor PN<1 and PM10 concentrations in two of the rest three offices. The physical presence of the occupants had an impact on particles >2.5 μm during workdays due to particle resuspension. However, when the offices were not occupied (night, weekend) the outdoor environment was a strong contribution to indoor concentrations. Lastly, black carbon preserved low concentrations in both under study offices and was not associated with printer emissions suggesting that black carbon is not an appropriate measure for assessing printer emissions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0461-4
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Accountability assessment of regulatory impacts on ozone and PM 2.5
           concentrations using statistical and deterministic pollutant sensitivities
    • Authors: Lucas RF Henneman; Howard H Chang; Kuo-Jen Liao; David Lavoué; James A Mulholland; Armistead G Russell
      Pages: 695 - 711
      Abstract: Abstract Since the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the USA has seen dramatic decreases in air pollutant emissions from a wide variety of source sectors, which have led to changes in pollutant concentrations: both up and down. Multiple stakeholders, including policy-makers, industry, and public health professionals, seek to quantify the benefits of regulations on air pollution and public health, a major focus of air pollution accountability research. Two methods, one empirical, the other based on a chemical transport model (CTM), are used to calculate the sensitivities of ozone (O3) and particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 μ m (PM2.5) to electricity-generating unit (EGU) and mobile source emissions. Both methods are applied to determine impacts of controls on daily concentrations (which are important in assessing acute health responses to air pollution), accounting for nonlinear, meteorologically, and emission-dependent responses of pollutant concentrations. The statistical method separates contributions of nearby EGU, regional EGU, and mobile source emissions on ambient city-center concentrations. Counterfactual emissions, an estimate of emissions under a scenario where no new controls were implemented on local EGU sources after 1995, regional EGUs after 1997, and mobile sources after 1993, are combined with these sensitivities to estimate counterfactual concentrations that represent what daily air quality in Atlanta, GA would have been had controls not been implemented and other emissions-reducing actions not been taken. Regulatory programs are linked with reduced peak summertime O3, but have had little effect on annual median concentrations at the city-center monitoring site, and led to increases in pollutant levels under less photochemically-active conditions. The empirical method and the CTM method found similar relationships between ozone concentrations and ozone sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. Compared to the counterfactual between 2010 and 2013, the number of days on which O3 (PM2.5) concentrations exceeded 60 p p b (12.0 μ g m −3) was reduced from 396 to 200 (1391 to 222). In 2013, average daily ambient O3 and PM2.5 concentrations were reduced by 1.0 p p b (2 %) and 9.9 μ g m −3 (48 %), respectively, and fourth highest maximum daily average 8-h O3 was reduced by 14 p p b. Comparison of model-derived sensitivities to those derived using empirical methods show coherence, but some important differences, such as the O3 concentration where the sensitivity to NOx emissions changes sign.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0463-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Characterization of five-year observation data of fine particulate matter
           in the metropolitan area of Lahore
    • Authors: Fatima Khanum; Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry; Prashant Kumar
      Pages: 725 - 736
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the long-term trend of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm) at two urban sites of Lahore during 2007–2011. These sites represent two distinct areas: commercial (Townhall) and residential cum industrial (Township). The highest daily mean concentrations of PM2.5 were noted as 389 and 354 μg m−3 at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. As expected, the annual seasonal mean of PM2.5 was about 53 and 101% higher during winter compared with the summer and monsoon/post-monsoon seasons, respectively. On contrary to many observations seen in developing cities, the annual mean PM2.5 during the weekends was higher than weekdays at both monitoring sites. For example, these were 100 (142) and 142 μg m−3 (148) during the weekdays (weekends) at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. The regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation of PM2.5 with SO2, NO2 and CO as opposed to a negative correlation with O3. The bivariate polar plots suggested a much higher influence of localized sources (e.g., road vehicles) at the Townhall site as opposed to industrial sources affecting the concentrations at the Township site. The imageries from the MODIS Aqua/Terra indicated long-range transport of PM2.5 from India to Pakistan during February to October whereas from Pakistan to India during November to January. This study provides important results in the form of multiscale relationship of PM2.5 with its sources and precursors, which are important to assess the effectiveness of pollution control mitigation strategies in Lahore and similar cities elsewhere. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0464-1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in the ambient air of a most
           populated Iranian city, Tehran
    • Authors: Mohammad Hadi Dehghani; Mehdi Salari; Kazem Naddafi; Shahrokh Nazmara; Ehsan Ahmadi; Prashant Kumar
      Pages: 763 - 772
      Abstract: Abstract Exposure to high levels of formaldehyde is known as both acute and chronic health problems, but the studies analyzing ambient concentrations of formaldehyde, especially in Middle East cities such as Tehran, are still rare. The aim of this study is to survey the variations in the concentration of formaldehyde in several areas with a high traffic volume of Tehran city during different seasons. The other objectives include understanding the influence of carbon monoxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure on the variation of formaldehyde concentration. Measurements were carried out during the period of 6 months between 2013 (December 22 to February 14) and 2014 (April 27 to June 20 at five different locations within the city, together with a background site. One hundred and eight samples, each averaged over 3 h from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., were taken from the sampling locations. The average concentration of formaldehyde in the spring (22.7 ± 5.3 ppb) was found about 1.31 times higher than winter (17.3 ± 4.2 ppb). Formaldehyde concentrations demonstrated a significant correlation with the changes in air temperature (in the range of 0.46 to 0.66 for different locations) but not having any strong correlation with humidity and pressure. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide showed a significant coefficient of determination with formaldehyde concentrations with R 2 as 0.80 and 0.67 during the winter, respectively, whereas the corresponding R 2 values during spring were 0.39 and 0.41. Ozone showed a significant correlation with formaldehyde (R 2 = 0.64) during the spring and has not such the significant correlation during the season winter (R 2 = 0.23). Overall, it concluded that road vehicles were recognized as main contributor of formaldehyde production during both the seasons, especially in the winter, also, photochemical oxidation was another important and considerable contributor producing formaldehyde during the spring.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0468-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Analysis of CO 2 monitoring data demonstrates poor ventilation rates in
           Albanian schools during the cold season
    • Authors: Otto Hänninen; Nuno Canha; Alexandra V. Kulinkina; Ilir Dume; Agron Deliu; Elida Mataj; Arben Lusati; Michal Krzyzanowski; Andrey I. Egorov
      Pages: 773 - 782
      Abstract: Abstract Poor ventilation in schools is associated with accumulation of indoor-generated pollutants, which is associated with “stuffy” air, elevated risk of infectious diseases and impaired learning outcomes. This survey in Albania was conducted as part of WHO’s efforts to facilitate assessments of indoor air quality and other environmental factors in schools in the European Region. The survey was conducted in 36 classrooms in 12 middle schools (eight urban and four rural) from December 2011 through March 2012. In each school, carbon dioxide (CO2) was continuously measured in three classrooms during one school week. Ventilation rates during classes were estimated using the build-up and steady-state mass balance equations utilizing CO2 concentration data, classroom occupancy and classroom volume. All 12 schools had gravimetric ventilation systems. Heating systems were absent or not operational in most schools. Average classroom temperatures during lessons varied from 9.1 to 14.4 °C (median 11.7 °C) with lower temperature associated with poorer ventilation. Weekly average CO2 levels during classes ranged from 1286 to 5546 ppm (median 2776 ppm) while average ventilation rates ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 (median 1.8) litres per second per person. Classrooms with indoor combustion heaters had higher indoor temperature, lower CO2 levels and higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO). WHO guidelines on 1- and 8-h CO exposure levels were exceeded in one classroom. Classroom CO2 levels were substantially above and ventilation rates below existing national and international guidelines. Detrimental impacts of poor ventilation on health and learning outcomes are likely to be substantial in Albanian schools during the cold season. Indoor temperature in most classrooms was below the commonly recommended levels.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0469-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Chemical fractionation by sequential extraction of Cd, Pb, and Cu in
           Antarctic atmospheric particulate for the characterization of aerosol
           composition, sources, and summer evolution at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria
    • Authors: C. Truzzi; A. Annibaldi; S. Illuminati; C. Mantini; G. Scarponi
      Pages: 783 - 798
      Abstract: Abstract Insights in the knowledge of the Antarctic atmospheric composition of Cd, Pb, and Cu are obtained by chemical fractionation of metals in the aerosol to obtain water-soluble (soluble), dilute HCl-extractable (extractable), and inert fractions. The aim is to correlate chemical fractions to metal sources. A three-step sequential extraction and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry were applied to analyze aerosol samples (PM10) collected during summer near the “M. Zucchelli” Italian Station (Victoria Land). Metal mass fractions varied as follows (min–max, average, in μg g−1): Cd 1.4–38 (11), Pb 26–83 (47), and Cu 150–840 (490). In terms of atmospheric concentrations, the values were as follows (pg m−3): Cd 0.93–39 (9.5), Pb 17–60 (33), and Cu 88–480 (340). The soluble fraction relates to the marine contribution. The extractable fraction refers mainly to local human activity. The inert fraction is associated with the crustal dust. Soluble, extractable, and inert metal fractions changed very much during the Austral summer according to changes of source types and strengths. The observations on the temporal trends, the relationships with wind direction and speed, and the correlations between the same fractions of different metals, together with results of principal component analysis, agreed with the stated associations between chemical fractions and major sources. Fractionated data are among the first even published in Antarctic research.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0470-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2017)
  • Large-scale weather patterns favorable for volcanic smog occurrences on
           O’ahu, Hawai’i
    • Authors: Kristine Tofte; Pao-Shin Chu; Gary M. Barnes
      Abstract: Abstract Kīlauea Volcano, located on the Island of Hawai’i, released approximately 3700 t of sulfur dioxide (SO2) per day from April 2009 through 2014. Within the atmosphere, SO2 is oxidized and converted to sulfuric-acid aerosols, and this volcanic smog is commonly referred to as vog. This study focuses on large-scale weather patterns that bring vog to O’ahu. The Hawai’i State Department of Health PM2.5 measurements were used to identify elevated vog conditions, and a total of 101 vog days were found. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data were used to determine weather patterns. These 101 vog days were the result of 57 distinct vog events lasting from 3 h up to 4 days. The 57 events were further categorized into three large-scale weather patterns: pre-cold fronts (37 cases), upper-level disturbances (17 cases), and Kona lows (3 cases). The pre-cold front events had variable duration lasting up to 4 days, and the largest vog concentrations occurred during long-duration pre-cold front events. Trade winds did not transport vog to O’ahu. As part of this effort, ERA-Interim data were downscaled to a resolution of 10 km and then 3.3 km using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The downscaled reanalysis data were used as input by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. The HYSPLIT model allowed for a visual representation of how vog is advected by large-scale wind patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0502-z
  • Using spatio-temporal land use regression models to address spatial
           variation in air pollution concentrations in time series studies
    • Authors: Konstantina Dimakopoulou; Alexandros Gryparis; Klea Katsouyanni
      Abstract: Abstract Time series studies are used to assess the effects of short-term exposures to PM10 and NO2 on mortality using an integrated pollutant series taken to characterize exposure over a large area. We propose using spatio-temporal land use regression (LUR) models by smaller geographical sectors within an area of interest to account for spatial variability in these studies. Based on model-estimated time series, we conducted a case-crossover analysis for each sub-sector within two larger areas of interest (Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece) separately to investigate heterogeneity and provide combined results if appropriate. As sensitivity analysis, we compared the case-crossover method to classical time series analysis and also to using fixed site measurements only. For PM10 exposures in Athens, we found consistent adverse effects which were larger when using spatio-temporal LUR modeled concentrations (total mortality RR 2.55 and 95% CI − 0.30 to 5.39) compared to measurements (RR 0.36 and 95% CI − 0.21 to 0.93). For NO2, we found a similar magnitude in the effects, when using measurements from fixed sites (RR 0.81 and 95% CI 0.39 to 1.22) and modeled levels (RR 0.71 and 95% CI 0.14 to 1.28). Analysis by geographical sector did not add information over a unified analysis for the whole area. The effect estimates using classical Poisson regression time series yielded consistently smaller size effects compared to the case-crossover method. Our analysis demonstrates the potential of using spatio-temporal models in time series analysis for short-term air pollution effects to account for spatial variability in addition to the temporal.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0500-1
  • Reproducibly emitting reference materials for volatile and semi-volatile
           organic compounds—using finite element modeling for emission predictions
    • Authors: Birte Mull; Tilman Sauerwald; Caroline Schultealbert; Wolfgang Horn; Doris Brödner; Matthias Richter
      Abstract: Abstract Recent research into emissions of (semi-)volatile organic compounds [(S)VOC] from solid materials has focused on the development of suitable reference materials for quality assurance/quality control of emission test chamber measurements, which fulfill requirements such as homogenous and reproducible (S)VOC release. The approach of this study was to find a method for preparation of a material with predictable (S)VOC emission rates. A VOC (styrene) and an SVOC (2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene, DIPN), loaded into either vacuum grease or a 1:1 mixture of paraffin/squalane, have been tested. For the prediction of the emission rates, a model using the finite element method (FEM) was created to simulate the (S)VOC emission profiles. Theoretical and experimental results obtained in a Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (μ-CTE™) and in 24 L emission test chamber measurements were in good agreement. Further properties were investigated concerning the material applicability, such as shelf life and inter-laboratory comparability. The maximum relative standard deviation in the inter-laboratory study was found to be 20%.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0508-6
  • Particulate matter intake fractions for vehicular emissions at elementary
    • Authors: Weeberb J. Requia; Matthew D. Adams; Altaf Arain; Mark Ferguson
      Abstract: Air pollution around schools has been considered a crucial concern worldwide, as children are at school for a large part of the day. A growing body of evidence finds that schools are located in areas with high levels of air pollutants with significant contributions from motor vehicles. Determining children exposure to air pollutants at schools is crucial for disease prevention and control. In this paper, we evaluated PM2.5 intake fractions for vehicular emissions at elementary schools in Hamilton, Canada. Specifically, we estimated the mass inhalation of PM2.5 (that comes from traffic) by children considering two environments: outdoor (during drop-off period) and indoor (during class period). We evaluated PM2.5 intake fractions (iF) for vehicular emissions in 32,298 students from 86 elementary schools in Hamilton. Indoor exposure presented the highest iF. On average, each student inhales 0.53 × 10−6 ppm daily during the drop-off time (outdoor exposure) and 13.06 ppm daily during class hours (indoor exposure). Considering time spent in classes, this estimate indicates that approximately 13 g of PM2.5 emitted from motor vehicles is inhaled for every million grams of PM2.5 emitted. Our sensitivity analysis showed that traffic emissions were the variable that affects the iF most during outdoor and indoor exposure. Our findings can help in future investigations to advance environmental health effects research, especially on children’s health and human health risk assessment. Our results are important for future public policies related to transportation, environmental health, and urban planning, including air pollution and location of schools. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0510-z
  • Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in atmospheric
           particles during district heating period (DHP) and non-district heating
           period (N-DHP) in Shandong province, China
    • Authors: Guiqin Zhang; Ning Wang; Xiang Cheng; Youmin Sun; Huaizhong Yan; Chunzhu Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were systemically investigated in total solid particles (TSPs) sampled at seven sites in Shandong province, China. The congener profile and space distribution were compared during district heating period (DHP) in winter and non-district heating period (N-DHP) in spring. The air pollution at in-land sites was worse than that at seashore sites due to the different ventilation conditions and pollutant sources. The concentrations of PAHs associated to the distribution of TSP, severer in DHP, since coal burning was the major source for both pollutants, according to the analysis of these results and diagnostic ratios. FLT, PYR, and BBF were top PAH congeners by specific mass concentrations. On the profile, OCPs, PCBs, and PAEs were more related to the ambient temperature due to the evaporation and revealed higher abundancy in N-DHP than in DHP. Based on the diagnostic ratio analysis, the source of pollution was more likely local than remote.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0509-5
  • Multivariate statistical analyses of air pollutants and meteorology in
           Chicago during summers 2010-2012
    • Authors: Katrina Binaku; Martina Schmeling
      Abstract: Abstract Aerosol, trace gas, and meteorological data were collected in Chicago, Illinois during 2010–2012 summer air studies. Ozone, nitrogen oxides, acetate, formate, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate concentrations as well as temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity data were explored by both principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Multivariate statistical techniques were applied to uncover existing relationships between meteorology and air pollutant concentrations and also reduce data dimensions. In PCA, principal components (PCs) revealed a relationship of ozone and nitrate concentrations with respect to temperature and humidity, coupled with transport of species from the south in relation to the sampling site (PC1). PC2 was a measure of secondary aerosols but also suggested acetate and formate presence was a result of primary emissions or transport. Both PC3 and PC4 contained residual information with the former representing days of lower pollution and the latter representing northerly wind transport of chloride, nitrate, and ozone to the sampling site. In CCA, three canonical functions were statistically significant. The first indicated high temperature and low wind speed had a strong linear relationship ozone, oxalate, and nitrogen oxide concentrations whereas the second function showed a strong influence of wind direction on acetate, formate, and chloride concentrations. Residuals of temperature, wind speed, trace gases, and oxalate also were in the second function. The only new information in the third function was humidity. Overall, PCA and CCA bring forth multivariable relationships, not represented in descriptive statistics, useful in understanding pollution variability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0507-7
  • Effects of transport patterns on chemical composition of sequential rain
           samples: trajectory clustering and principal component analysis approach
    • Authors: Ismail Anil; Omar Alagha; Ferhat Karaca
      Abstract: Abstract The chemical composition and long-range transportation (LRT) of rain events were assessed in this study. For this purpose, a fully automated wet-only sequential sampler was used to differentiate between washout and rainout processes. The chemical composition of elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and ions (F−, Cl−, NO3 −, SO4 −2, and NH4 +) were quantified in 172 rainwater samples. Cluster analysis (CA) statistical approach was used to classify the back trajectories of the rain events. The CA revealed a seven-cluster solution which provided better explanations for the effects of possible source regions on the receptor site. Consequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on the normalized cluster-based mean concentrations of the chemical species in order to statistically identify the similarities among the clusters. In conclusion, there were four main sources which strongly affected the chemical composition of precipitation in the study area namely: (i) anthropogenic pollutants from Southwestern and Eastern Europe, (ii) Saharan dust intrusion from Northern Africa, (iii) resuspension of crustal material from nearby regions, and (iv) marine aerosols from Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The proposed methodology combining trajectory cluster analysis, chemical analysis, and principal component analysis was satisfactory to identify the source regions of the trajectories carrying the observed pollutants to the study area.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0504-x
  • Global population exposed to fine particulate pollution by population
           increase and pollution expansion
    • Authors: Lijian Han; Weiqi Zhou; Weifeng Li; Yuguo Qian
      Abstract: Abstract Ambient fine particulate (PM2.5) pollution threatens public health. Previous studies have primarily focused on PM2.5 estimation, with the quantitative analysis of public exposure and the reason for increased risk receiving limited attention. Quantitative information is essential for environmental risk estimation. Thus, we collected PM2.5 data and population records to illustrate the spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 pollution and to quantify public vulnerability and the cause of increased exposure at global, regional, and country scales from 2000 to 2010, following the air quality standards of the World Health Organization. We found that 11.0 × 106 km2 (8%) of the global terrestrial area was exposed to PM2.5 pollution (> 35 μg/m3) in 2010, an addition of 4.3 × 106 km2 since 2000. Furthermore, by 2010, 1.94 billion (30%) people worldwide were exposed to PM2.5 pollution, including 966 and 778 million in Eastern and Southern Asia, respectively, comprising 962 million in China and 543 million in India. After 2000, the vulnerability of 698 million people to PM2.5 pollution increased, including 356 and 280 million in Southern and Eastern Asia, respectively, accounting for 279 million in China and 253 million in India. Moreover, 25% of the global vulnerability increase was from local population growth, and 75% was due to pollution expansion. Specifically, 26 and 16% of the increase in public vulnerability in Southern and Eastern Asia (22 and 16% in India and China), respectively, were from local population growth. We suggest that countries in which migration has contributed to an increase in public vulnerability should balance pollutant emission reduction and migration control to reduce vulnerability. In addition, cooperation between the government and public could help mitigate global pollution as well as environmental and human health risks.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0506-8
  • Indoor air quality in urban and rural kindergartens: short-term studies in
           Silesia, Poland
    • Authors: Ewa Błaszczyk; Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska; Krzysztof Klejnowski; Piotr Kubiesa; Izabela Fulara; Danuta Mielżyńska-Švach
      Abstract: Abstract More than 80% of people living in urban areas who monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed limits defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although all regions of the world are affected, populations in low-income cities are the most impacted. According to average annual levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) presented in the urban air quality database issued by WHO in 2016, as many as 33 Polish cities are among the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union (EU), with Silesian cities topping the list. The aim of this study was to characterize the indoor air quality in Silesian kindergartens based on the concentrations of gaseous compounds (SO2, NO2), PM2.5, and the sum of 15 PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including PM2.5-bound benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity of PM2.5 organic extracts in Salmonella assay (strains: TA98, YG1024). The assessment of the indoor air quality was performed taking into consideration the pollution of the atmospheric air (outdoor). I/O ratios (indoor/outdoor concentration) for each investigated parameter were also calculated. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 were collected during spring in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia), representing urban and rural areas. Indoor samples were taken in naturally ventilated kindergartens. At the same time, in the vicinity of the kindergarten buildings, the collection of outdoor samples of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 was carried out. The content of BaP and the sum of 15 studied PAHs was determined in each 24-h sample of PM2.5 (indoor and outdoor). In the urban site, statistically lower concentrations of SO2 and NO2 were detected indoors compared to outdoors, whereas in the rural site, such a relationship was observed only for NO2. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-bound BaP, and Σ15 PAHs in kindergartens (indoor) versus atmospheric (outdoor) air in the two studied areas were identified. Mutagenic effect of indoor PM2.5 samples was twice as low as in outdoor samples. The I/O ratios indicated that all studied air pollutants in the urban kindergarten originated from the ambient air. In the rural site concentrations of SO2, PM2.5 and BaP in the kindergarten were influenced by internal sources (gas and coal stoves).
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0505-9
  • A novel approach for characterizing neighborhood-level trends in
           particulate matter using concentration and size fraction distributions: a
           case study in Charleston, SC
    • Authors: John Pearce; Adwoa Commodore; Brian Neelon; Raymond Boaz; Matthew Bozigar; Sacoby Wilson; Erik Svendsen
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we aim to illustrate how novel technologies and methodologies can be used to enhance neighborhood level studies of ambient particulate matter (PM). This is achieved by characterizing temporal and spatial features of PM levels and by assessing patterns in particle size composition using simultaneous measures across multiple size fraction ranges in Charleston, SC, USA. The study is conducted in three stages: (1) we monitor real-time PM concentrations for the following: PM ≤ 15 μm, PM ≤ 10 μm, PM ≤ 4 μm, PM ≤ 2.5 μm, and PM ≤ 1 μm at five locations during February–July, 2016; (2) we apply a generalized additive model (GAM) to assess temporal and spatial trends in PM2.5 after controlling for meteorology, instrument, and temporal confounders; and (3) we employ a self-organizing map (SOM) to identify hourly profiles that characterize the types of size fraction distribution compositions measured at our sites. Monitoring results found that average PM2.5 levels during our ‘snapshot’ monitoring were 6–8 μg/m3 at our sites, with 95th percentiles ranging from 9 to 13 μg/m3. GAM results identified that temporal peaks for PM2.5 occurred during the early morning hours (6–8 am) across all sites and that the marginal means for four of our inland sites were significantly different (higher) than a waterfront site. SOM results identified six hourly profiles, ranging from hours when all size fractions were relatively low, to hours dominated by single size fractions (e.g., PM1), and to hours when multiple size fractions were relatively high (e.g., PM15–10 and PM10-PM2.5). Frequency and duration distributions show variability in the occurrence and persistence of each hourly type. Collectively, our findings reveal the complexity of PM behavior across a relatively small geographic region and illustrate the potential usefulness of using size fraction composition to better understand air quality. However, it is important to note that this study only presents a snapshot of air quality and that longer monitoring periods are recommended for more definitive characterizations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0503-y
  • Oxidative potential of PM10 and PM2.5 collected at high air pollution site
           related to chemical composition: Krakow case study
    • Authors: Katarzyna Styszko; Lucyna Samek; Katarzyna Szramowiat; Anna Korzeniewska; Klaudia Kubisty; Roksana Rakoczy-Lelek; Magdalena Kistler; Anne Kasper Giebl
      Abstract: Abstract Measurements of the oxidative potential (OP) of airborne particulate matter may be applied for the assessment of the health-based exposure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of particles. This study aimed at the determination of oxidative activity of two size fractions of particulate using the ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) assay. Samples of PM were collected in Krakow, one of the most polluted cities in Poland, in the city centre. Samples were collected during wintertime, when heating sources used in residential areas have significant influence on the concentrations of particulate matter in the air. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations varied from 8.9 to 92.5 μg m−3. Samples were chemically analysed for elemental carbon, organic carbon, ions and metals. PM2.5 was found as a more oxidative active fraction, where OPAA and OPGSH depletions were up to 81.7 and 132.0 μg m−3, respectively. The average values of OPAA of PM10 and PM2.5 were similar and equalled 40.8 and 37.2 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of OPGSH of PM2.5 equalled 56.7 μg m−3 and was 3.5 times higher than OPGSH of PM10. The loss of AA amount in PM10 and PM2.5 and the depletion of GSH in PM2.5 were best described by the pseudo second-order kinetics model. The kinetics of the GSH depletion reaction in PM10 was best described by the pseudo first-order kinetics model. The strong correlations between carbonaceous and metallic constituents of PM and oxidative potential suggest their relevance in participation in oxidative activity of particulate matter.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0499-3
  • Building-specific factors affecting indoor radon concentration variations
           in different regions in Bulgaria
    • Authors: Kremena Ivanova; Zdenka Stojanovska; Martina Tsenova; Bistra Kunovska
      Abstract: Abstract The study was conducted to assess the spatiality of the building factors’ effect on air quality through evaluation of indoor radon concentration in areas with different geology and geographical position. For that matter, a survey of indoor radon concentration was carried out in 174 kindergartens of three Bulgarian cities. The time-integrated measurements were performed in 777 ground floor rooms using alpha tract detectors, exposed for 3 months in cold period of 2014. The results of indoor radon concentrations vary from 20 to 1117 Bq/m3. The differences in the mean radon concentrations measured in the different cities were related to geology. The effect of building-specific factors: elevator, basement, mechanical ventilation, type of windows, number of floors, building renovation, building materials, type of room, type of heating, construction period, and availability of foundation on radon concentration variations was examined applying univariate and multivariate analysis. Univariate analysis showed that the effects of building-specific factors on radon variation are different in different cities. The influence of building factors on radon concentration variations was more dominant in inland cities in comparison to the city situated on the sea coast. The multivariate analysis, which was applied to evaluate the impact of building factors simultaneously, confirmed this influence too.
      PubDate: 2017-08-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0501-0
  • Regulation of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the Pacific Rim:
           perspectives from the APRU Global Health Program
    • Authors: Chang-Fu Wu; Alistair Woodward; Ya-Ru Li; Haidong Kan; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Mohd Talib Latif; Mazrura Sahani; Tsun-Jen Cheng; Chia-Pin Chio; Nutta Taneepanichskul; Ho Kim; Chang-Chuan Chan; Seung-Muk Yi; Mellissa Withers; Jonathan Samet
      Abstract: Abstract While the development of evidence-based air quality standards for airborne particulate matter (PM) for Europe and North America is well-documented, the standard-setting processes in other regions are less well characterized. Many Pacific Rim economies suffer from severe and worsening air pollution. Particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is associated with acute and chronic health effects and is a widely used air quality indicator. This paper reports on PM regulation in selected Pacific Rim economies, focusing on PM2.5, and provides recommendations on air quality regulation to economies without current standards Through workshops held by the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) Global Health Program, experts in air pollution from eight universities in eight Pacific Rim economies characterized current PM2.5 standards and monitoring in their economies, and then collaboratively created recommendations. A great diversity of air pollution exposures exists in the Pacific Rim. While some economies experience low levels of exposure, others have PM levels that are among the highest in the world. The health effects of air pollution are a concern everywhere, but few economies carry out in-depth, local impact assessments and comprehensive air quality monitoring to provide evidence for guidelines and standards. The development of regulations and policies addressing PM2.5 pollution is urgently needed in many Pacific Rim economies. The international literature provides a robust guide to local risks and should be used, in combination with country-specific population-directed air monitoring, to guide decisions on policies addressing this important global health problem.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0492-x
  • Microbial population structure in near-ground aerosols during fog-haze
           days in northern China
    • Authors: Yunping Han; Mengzhu Zhang; Lin Li; Junxin Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Studies on microbial populations in near-ground aerosols during fog–haze days could help enhance our knowledge concerning the relationship between fog–haze and human health. In this study, microbial populations in aerosols near-ground during a fog–haze event in Beijing were analyzed using clone library methods. Results showed that the bacterial diversity in aerosols during fog–haze days was lower than that after fog–haze days. Proteobacteria alone and Proteobacteria with Firmicutes were respectively detected in 1.5 and 20 m aerosols during fog–haze days. In addition to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes alone and Acidobacteria with Verrucomicrobia were respectively found in aerosols at 20 and 1.5 m after fog–haze days. The fungal species observed during fog–haze days were completely different from those detected after fog–haze days. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were respectively detected during and after fog–haze days. The distribution of microbial diversity in aerosols exhibited meteorological and site-associated variations. The same potential pathogenic microorganisms were detected at different heights during fog–haze days. This study on the characteristics of microbial population in aerosols could provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors causing the harmful effects of particles on humans during fog–haze days.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0498-4
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