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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Mortality risk and PM 2.5 air pollution in the USA: an analysis of a
           national prospective cohort
    • Authors: C. Arden Pope; Majid Ezzati; John B. Cannon; Ryan T. Allen; Michael Jerrett; Richard T. Burnett
      Pages: 245 - 252
      Abstract: Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) contributes to global burden of disease, primarily because of increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates associations between long-term PM2.5 exposure and mortality risk in national, representative cohorts of the US adult population, constructed from public-use National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Two cohorts consisting of 392,807 and 162,373 individuals (without and with individual smoking data) were compiled from public-use NHIS survey data (1986–2001) with mortality linkage through 2011. Cohorts included persons who lived in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) were 18–84 years of age and had individual risk factor information. Modeled PM2.5 exposures were assigned as MSA-level mean ambient concentration for 1999 through 2008. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models, controlling for age, race, sex, income, marital status, education, body mass index, and smoking status. Estimated HRs for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, associated with a 10-μg/m3 exposure increment of PM2.5 were 1.06 (1.01–1.11) and 1.34 (1.21–1.48), respectively, in models that controlled for various individual risk factors, including smoking. This study provides evidence that elevated risks of mortality, especially cardiovascular disease mortality, are associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution in US nationwide adult cohorts constructed from public-use NHIS data.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0535-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • Emissions from residential combustion sector: how to build a high
           spatially resolved inventory
    • Authors: Carlos Silveira; Joana Ferreira; Alexandra Monteiro; Ana Isabel Miranda; Carlos Borrego
      Pages: 259 - 270
      Abstract: Usually, annual emission data from residential combustion sector are spatially disaggregated by population density to the sub-municipality spatial level. The aim of the present work is to define a methodological approach to develop/build a high-resolution emission inventory from residential combustion following a bottom–up approach. The conceptual model considers different approaches by fuel category (solid fuel–wood, gas and liquid fuels) according to distinct spatial coverage and type of activity data available for each category. For solid fuels, detailed activity data (per district), disaggregated according to the number and type of equipment, burned wood species and consumption rate, as well as specific emission factors (per wood species) were used. With regard to the gas and liquid fuels, the total national emission by fuel type using national consumption data and broader emission factors was disaggregated to the sub-municipality scale based only on the number of heating equipment. The choice of these disaggregation factors was influenced by both data availability and relevance. The results of the new disaggregated emission data have been compared with emission values resulting from the classical top–down approach using census/population data. The selected case study is Portugal. The results pointed out that major differences exist when comparing both approaches, namely regarding the spatial distribution/allocation of emissions. In the new approach, emissions are more redistributed over the territory, while in the old distribution, emissions are concentrated in the coastal urban areas (with hotspots in the main urban areas of Porto and Lisbon).
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0526-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • Organic compounds in particulate and gaseous phase collected in the
           neighbourhood of an industrial complex in São Paulo (Brazil)
    • Authors: Sofia Caumo; Ana Vicente; Danilo Custódio; Célia Alves; Pérola Vasconcellos
      Pages: 271 - 283
      Abstract: São Paulo, a megacity in South America, is the largest consumer of fossil fuels in Brazil. The petrochemical products play an important role in the Brazilian economy and in the energy matrix. The compounds emitted when oil is used or processed can affect air quality and endanger human health. Particulate matter and gaseous samples were collected simultaneously in 2015 at an urban site highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, in the city of Santo André, São Paulo Metropolitan Area. Samples were analysed for elemental and organic carbon, hopanes, n-alkanes, alkenes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated and nitrated derivatives. Among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene presented the highest concentration in PUF and benzo(b)fluoranthene was dominant in PM. The carcinogenic equivalents for benzo(a)pyrene were 2.1 for PAH and 1.2 for nitro-PAH. The results showed that local activities as vehicular and industrial activities affected the air quality.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0531-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • Concentration profile of elemental and organic carbon and personal
           exposure to other pollutants from brick kilns in Durango, Mexico
    • Authors: Abraham Ortínez-Alvarez; Oscar Peralta; Harry Alvarez-Ospina; Amparo Martínez-Arroyo; Telma Castro; Víctor H. Páramo; Luis Gerardo Ruiz-Suárez; Jorge Garza; Isabel Saavedra; María de la Luz Espinosa; Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz; Arturo Gavilan; Roberto Basaldud; José Luis Munguía-Guillén
      Pages: 285 - 300
      Abstract: Emission factors and personal exposure measurements were obtained in the working environment of a brick kiln yard in the municipality of Victoria de Durango, Mexico. Two kinds of kiln were evaluated; one was a fixed traditional kiln (FTK); the other was a local variation of an improved kiln called the ecological Marquez brick kiln (MK2). To distinguish it from the original design, we call it the Marquez kiln Durango (MKD). Ambient emission gases of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) were continuously followed using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR). Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) ambient emissions were sampled on quartz filters and analyzed by chemical coulombimetry. Personal exposure to CO was continuously followed using portable monitors, and personal exposure to inhalable particles with diameters of generally 2.5 μm and smaller (PM2.5) was obtained using Teflon filters in portable particle samplers followed by gravimetric analysis. Results show that the FTK emits more PM2.5, EC, and OC per cooking stage than the MKD. In terms of PM2.5 emission factors, relative to the FTK, the MK2 is 61% smaller and the MKD emission factor is 39% smaller. Against our expectations, the MKD showed higher work environment exposure levels. This is due to the untested changes to the original MK2 design and a mismanagement of the operation processes. Personal exposure to CO and PM2.5 of local brick kiln workers was about three times higher than indoor exposure from the use of three-stone wood cookstoves in Mexico. The analysis of emission plumes from FTK and MKD using a coupled emission model dispersion model allowed us to evaluate the impacts, transport, and deposition area of the particle matter in the area surrounding Durango Brickyard (DB).
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0539-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • The January 2013 Beijing “Airpocalypse” and its acute effects on
           emergency and outpatient visits at a Beijing hospital
    • Authors: Joshua M. Ferreri; Roger D. Peng; Michelle L. Bell; Liu Ya; Tiantian Li; G. Brooke Anderson
      Pages: 301 - 309
      Abstract: Severe air pollution episodes in Europe and the USA in the early- to mid-twentieth century caused large health impacts, spurring national legislation. Similarly severe episodes currently affect developing regions, as exemplified by a particularly extreme episode in January 2013 in Beijing, China. We investigated associations between this episode and medical visits at a Beijing hospital. We obtained fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from the US State Department’s Embassy monitor and daily counts of all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory emergency visits, and outpatient visits from a nearby hospital in the Liufang Nanli community. We analyzed whether risks increased during this episode (with daily PM2.5 ≥ 350 μg/m3) using generalized linear modeling, controlling for potential confounders. The episode brought exceptionally high PM2.5 (peak daily average, 569 μg/m3). Risk increased during the episode for all-cause (relative risk 1.29 [95% CI 1.13, 1.46]), cardiovascular (1.55 [0.90, 2.68]) and respiratory (1.33 [1.10, 1.62]) emergency medical visits, and respiratory outpatient visits (1.16 [1.00, 1.33]). Relative risks of all-cause (0.95 [0.82, 1.10]) and cardiovascular (0.83 [0.67, 1.02]) outpatient visits were not statistically significant. Results were robust to modeling choices and episode definitions. This episode was extraordinarily severe, with maximum daily PM2.5 concentration nearly 22-fold above the World Health Organization guideline. During the episode, risk increased for all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory emergency medical visits, and respiratory outpatient visits, consistent with previous US-based research. However, no association was found for all-cause or cardiovascular outpatient visits. China-based studies like this one provide critical evidence in developing efforts regarding air pollution remediation in China.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0538-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • Health effect of mixtures of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine
           particulates in 85 US counties
    • Authors: Jia Coco Liu; Roger D. Peng
      Pages: 311 - 324
      Abstract: Despite substantial improvements in ambient air quality in the past decades, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) remain as concerns. As these pollutants exist as mixtures in ambient environments, some combinations of these pollutants may be more harmful to human health than other combinations. Identifying harmful pollutant mixtures can help develop multi-pollutant control strategies to better protect health. Current methods exhibit limitations in identifying harmful mixtures. We aim to identify harmful compositions of three-pollutant mixtures in 85 US counties during 1999–2010. We developed a new method called PANCAKE to quantify O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixtures. O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixtures are categorized into 27 composition types based on combinations of different O3, NO2, and PM2.5 levels. We identified harmful compositions by estimating the effect of each composition of O3-NO2-PM2.5 mixture compared to the reference composition on cardiovascular admissions among Medicare patients. We found that a mixture with relatively low levels of some pollutants combined with relatively high levels of other pollutants can be equally or more harmful than a mixture with high levels of all pollutants. Eight out of the 27 composition types, often with NO2 levels > 17.3 ppb and PM2.5 levels > 8.8 μg/m3 combined with any levels of O3, were associated with significantly increased cardiovascular admission rates compared to the reference composition. These harmful compositions overall occurred in about 40–50% of days in winter, metropolitan areas, or the East North Central region. Mixture composition plays an important role in determining health risks and may be worth considering when developing air pollution control strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0544-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • Evaluation of glyphosate drift and anthropogenic atmospheric trace
           elements contamination by means of lichen transplants in a southern
           Italian agricultural district
    • Authors: Lucio Lucadamo; Anna Corapi; Luana Gallo
      Pages: 325 - 339
      Abstract: Ecophysiological biomarkers and atmospheric contamination due to glyphosate and trace elements were monitored in a southern Italian agricultural district by means of transplanted thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Glyphosate exhibited a significant geographical pattern (east side > west side) and a drift source area equal to 32% of the monitoring sites. Moreover, based on the surface area of the study area and a wind quantitative relationship (WQR) with glyphosate thalli concentrations, our data support the idea that pesticide drift extends over an area of several square kilometers. Of the eight elements preliminarily classified as enriched, four were considered prevalently of geogenic origin (Al, Ti, Ni, Co) and four of anthropogenic origin (Cu, Mn, Sn, Sb), although only Sb and Cu passed rigorous statistical testing supporting a real difference from pre-exposure levels. The contribution of local sources was evaluated based on the relative increase of Cu, Mn, Sb, and Sn versus Ti. Cu and Mn were associated mainly with a biomass power plant (BPP), with Cu showing extremely high levels of contamination involving 20% of the monitoring sites. Sb and Sn were associated with spatial variation of the traffic rate. The mycobiont and photobiont showed an evident zonation of the levels of their physiological parameters, with oxidative stress being significantly associated with both the biomass power plant and Cu/Ti. Our results suggest that croplands are potentially exposed to various hazards: over-exposure to pesticides due to drift processes, diffuse low traffic levels promoting Sb enrichment, and acute Cu pollution affected by BPP emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0547-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • How healthy will be the air quality in 2050'
    • Authors: A. Monteiro; E. Sá; A. Fernandes; C. Gama; S. Sorte; C. Borrego; M. Lopes; M. A. Russo
      Pages: 353 - 362
      Abstract: The air quality standards defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and updated in 2005, continue to be much more exigent than current EU legislation, namely regarding the most critical pollutants over Europe: ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). This work intends to evaluate the fulfilment of these WHO standards in the present and in the future, including climate change effects. This study will be focused on Portugal, where each year, the O3 and PM10 concentrations exceed the legislated limit values. For this, regional air quality simulations for present and future periods were conducted, with CAMx version 6.0, to investigate the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over Portugal in 2050. The climate and emission projections for 2050 were derived from the Representative Concentrations Pathway 8.5 scenario. Modelling results show that, over Portugal, the WHO standards are already not being fulfilled and will continue to be surpassed in the future. When considering climate change and projected anthropogenic emissions and comparing them to the actual scenario, a reduction in the maximum 8-h daily O3 concentration is expected. For PM, the results indicate serious problems regarding the health impact expected for both long-term and short-term exposure. The annual averages for both PM10 and PM2.5 exceed the AQG over the country. The PM short-term exposure is already very high for current conditions and higher impacts are expected for future scenario, in particular regarding the PM10 values. This air quality degradation is caused by the warmer and dryer conditions and the increase of background concentrations of pollutants expected for the 2050 climate. The results evidence that human health protection will be even more critical in the future, particularly for particulate matter. Furthermore, urgent air quality management strategies need to be designed, with transboundary cooperation and implementation.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0466-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • Correction to: How healthy will be the air quality in 2050'
    • Authors: A. Monteiro; E. Sá; A. Fernandes; C. Gama; S. Sorte; C. Borrego; M. Lopes; M. A. Russo
      Pages: 363 - 363
      Abstract: The acknowledgment of the original article should read as follows:
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0569-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2018)
  • Short-term effects of particulate matter exposure on daily mortality in
           Thailand: a case-crossover study
    • Authors: Nutta Taneepanichskul; Bizu Gelaye; Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint; Vitool Lohsoonthorn; Masamine Jimba; Michelle A. Williams
      Abstract: Several studies have shown seasonal variations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and daily mortality. However, few studies have focused on age differences on the risk of mortality from PM10, in addition to seasonal effects. Therefore, we attempted to estimate the association between PM10 and daily mortality in Thailand, while accounting for seasonal variations and age differences. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used in this study. Environmental, meteorological, and mortality data of 12 provinces in Thailand between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed to estimate the association between PM10 and daily mortality attributed to non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory causes and age differences. The conditional logistic regression was employed to determine whether the risk of mortality differed by seasons and age groups. We found an association between cumulative exposure to PM10 and increased risk of mortality attributed to non-accidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases. During the study period, cold months (November to February) [1.75% (95% CI 1.20, 2.31)] had a stronger effect of increased 10 μg/m3 in PM10 with 1 ppb in O3 on non-accidental mortality than hot (March to June) [0.67% (95% CI 0.15, 1.20)] and wet (July to October) [− 1.00% (95% CI − 1.99, − 0.01)] months. However, increasing of age did not modify any associations between PM10 and mortality. An association between PM10 exposure and daily mortality was observed. Age difference was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality.
      PubDate: 2018-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0571-7
  • Urban tree leaves’ chlorophyll- a content as a proxy of urbanization
    • Authors: Vanda Éva Molnár; Béla Tóthmérész; Szilárd Szabó; Edina Simon
      Abstract: We tested the effect of urbanization on air pollution based on the chlorophyll-a content of Celtis occidentalis leaves along an urbanization gradient (urban, suburban and rural areas) in Debrecen, Hungary. Chlorophyll-a content of Celtis occidentalis, Acer campestre, and Corylus avellana were compared to test which species is the most useful to study the effects of urbanization. Furthermore, the effects of washing solutions (distilled water, tap water, and rainwater) on chlorophyll-a content of tree leaves were also tested during sample preparation. Chlorophyll-a was extracted from leaf samples with acetone, and it was measured using a spectrophotometer. Along the urbanization gradient, chlorophyll-a content of C. occidentalis leaves was the lowest in the urban area; thus, this species proved to be an effective indicator of anthropogenic emission load. Differences were not significant among species in the suburban and rural areas, where the level of air pollution was moderate. We found that effects of the washing solutions on chlorophyll-a content did not differ significantly from each other. Thus, tap water can be used safely to clean the leaf surface, without significant influence on chlorophyll-a. Our study demonstrated that the chlorophyll-a content of leaves was a useful indicator to assess the level of air pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0573-5
  • Incense powder and particle emission characteristics during and after
           burning incense in an unventilated room setting
    • Authors: Bojana Višić; Eva Kranjc; Luka Pirker; Urška Bačnik; Gašper Tavčar; Srečo Škapin; Maja Remškar
      Abstract: Despite being a recognized health hazard, burning incense remains in widespread use. A number of studies have investigated the emissions of air pollulants from incense burning, but less attention has been given to particle decay following incense burning. We have studied the elemental composition and indoor emission characteristics of incense sticks in terms of the size distribution and concentrations of fine particles. The results of chemical analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the primary constituents of the emissions were CaCO3 and SiO2, together with lesser amounts of Mg, K, Al, Fe, and Cl. Analysis using a scanning mobility particle sizer revealed that the maximum total particle concentration at the end of the burning period was up to 30-fold higher than that of the initial background levels and that it remained elevated even 100 min after the incense sticks had been completely burned up. Emitted incense particles decayed in a biexponential manner, with particles of up to 100 nm in size decaying with lifetimes of several tens of minutes, while nanoparticles with diameters of 100–700 nm having lifetimes of > 100 min, as their removal mechanisms are slower. The peak particle size immediately following the end of incense burning was 85 nm, and this increased to 110 nm at 100 min after completion of burning. This result indicates that a high proportion of emitted particles can be inhaled into the alveolar region of the lung, where the potential for adverse health effects is the greatest. These findings provide a more detailed insight into particle decay mechanisms under conditions of low ventilation, with implications for human health.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0572-6
  • Correction to: Chemical fractionation by sequential extraction of Cd, Pb,
           and Cu in Antarctic atmospheric particulate for the characterization of
           aerosol composition, sources, and summer evolution at Terra Nova Bay,
           Victoria Land
    • Authors: C. Truzzi; A. Annibaldi; S. Illuminati; C. Mantini; G. Scarponi
      Abstract: The original publication contained the following errors.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0540-6
  • Exposures and effects from fragranced consumer products in Sweden
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Fragranced consumer products—such as cleaning supplies, perfume, and air fresheners—have been associated with indoor air pollutants and adverse human health effects. Through a nationally representative population-based survey, this study investigates sources and risks associated with exposure to fragranced consumer products in Sweden. It examines the frequency and types of fragranced product use, associated health effects, exposure situations, knowledge of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and indoor environments. Data were collected in July 2017 using an online survey of adults (n = 1100), representative of age, gender, and region in Sweden. Across the Swedish population, 33.1% report health problems, such as respiratory difficulties (20.0%), migraine headaches (16.1%), and asthma attacks (5.5%), when exposed to fragranced products. Of these reports, 24.2% could be considered potentially disabling. While 98.5% use fragranced products at least once a week, 70.9% were unaware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, can emit potentially hazardous air pollutants. Importantly, 6.7% of the population lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to exposure to fragranced products in the workplace. Also, 18.1% enter and then leave a business as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or a fragranced product. A strong majority of the population would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, airplanes, and hotels were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study provide new and important evidence that exposure to fragranced consumer products is pervasive in Sweden, that these exposures are associated with adverse health and societal effects, and that reducing exposures such as through fragrance-free policies can provide benefits to air quality and public health.
      PubDate: 2018-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0565-5
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon patterns in the city of Rio de Janeiro
    • Authors: Rafael Lopes Oliveira; Danilo Jorge Custódio; Claudia Ramos de Rainho; Erika Morais; Israel Felzenszwalb; Sérgio Machado Corrêa; Débora Almeida Azevedo; Graciela Arbilla
      Abstract: In this study, the concentrations of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), considered priority by US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), in fine particulate matter (PM2.5), were determined in a forest reserve and in an urban area in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the Tijuca Forest (TF) and on the Maracanã campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), using PM2.5 high-volume air samplers, from November 2015 to April 2016. The organic matter was extracted, separated by liquid chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean total PAH (excluding naphthalene, acenaphthene, and acenaphthylene) concentrations were 0.46 ± 0.61 ng m−3 and 1.12 ± 0.71 ng m−3 in PM2.5 collected at TF and UERJ, respectively. The diagnostic ratios suggested vehicular sources for both sites with no clear distinction between light and heavy vehicular sources. Cluster and principal component analyses were also used to clarify the possible PAH sources. Simulations of air mass trajectories confirmed the transport of pollutants from the city to the forest. Mutagenicity tests revealed that the PM collected in the UERJ presented mutagenic positive activity, likely for nitro-PAH and amino-PAH, which may be related to vehicular emissions. For the TF, although the forest was impacted by the pollutants, no positive activity was detected. Correlation and cluster analyses showed different PAH distributions for the TF and UERJ sites, which indicates that the TF receives the air masses from the city but is also impacted by local emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0566-4
  • Concern over health effects of air pollution is associated to NO 2 in
           seven European cities
    • Authors: Evi Dons; on behalf of the PASTA Consortium; Michelle Laeremans; Esther Anaya-Boig; Ione Avila-Palencia; Christian Brand; Audrey de Nazelle; Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen; Thomas Götschi; Mark Nieuwenhuijsen; Juan Pablo Orjuela; Elisabeth Raser; Arnout Standaert; Luc Int Panis
      Abstract: Subjective perception of air pollution is important and can have impacts on health in its own rights, can lead to protective behaviour, or it can be leveraged to engage citizens and stakeholders in support of cleaner air policies. The aim of the current analysis was to examine associations between level of concern over health effects of air pollution and personal and environmental factors. In seven European cities, 7622 adult participants were recruited to complete an online questionnaire on travel and physical activity behaviour, perceptions and attitudes on active mobility and the environment, and sociodemographics. Air pollution at the home address was determined using Europe-wide PM2.5 and NO2 land use regression models. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to model concern over air pollution (worried versus not worried; city as random effect). Fifty-eight percent of participants were worried over health effects of air pollution with large differences across cities (Antwerp 78%, Barcelona 81%, London 64%, Orebro 11%, Rome 72%, Vienna 43%, Zurich 33%). Linking mean modelled air pollution to mean level of concern per city gave a good correlation for NO2 (r2 = 0.75), and a lower correlation for PM2.5 (r2 = 0.49). In the regression model, sex, having children in the household, levels of physical activity, and NO2 at the home address were significantly linked to individual concern over health effects of air pollution. We found that NO2 but not PM2.5 at the home address was associated with concern over health effects of air pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0567-3
  • The efficacy of news releases, news reports, and public nuisance
           complaints for determining smoke impacts to air quality from wildland fire
    • Authors: Ricardo Cisneros; Donald W. Schweizer
      Abstract: Understanding air quality impacts caused by smoke from wildland fire is a major concern in the western USA. The objectives of this paper were to examine news releases, news reports, and public nuisance complaints about smoke impacts caused by forest fires to determine if these different media sources were accurate indicators of wildland fire impacts to daily air quality from 2008 to 2013. Our findings suggest that media and complaints are poorly correlated to smoke impacts to air quality and should not be used as a proxy to establish days where air quality is impacted by smoke from forest fires. With the exception of 2008, media sources failed in accurately capturing ground level smoke impacts. Media sources were found to predict a smoke impact to air quality 32% of the time, while nuisance complaints predicted 15%. Successful smoke management and wildland fire policy should include a more consistently accurate message of smoke impacts. The majority of the smoke observed in Fresno originated from northern California forest fires and on a few days from forests south of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Urban cities in the SJV should be concern with land management strategies outside their air basin jurisdiction.
      PubDate: 2018-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0545-9
  • Quantifying daily contributions of source regions to PM concentrations in
           Marseille based on the trails of incoming air masses
    • Authors: Konstantinos Dimitriou; Pavlos Kassomenos
      Abstract: The hourly trails (trajectory points) of incoming air masses have been used in this study in order to compose independent variables for the quantification of regional PM10 and PM2.5 contributions in Marseille (Southern France), and also for the estimation of the atmospheric dispersion effect. These prediction variables were used as input for a Multiple Linear Regression Model (MLRM) in order to estimate daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Marseille. For a more exact localization of fine and coarse particle sources, during cold and warm period, our analysis was supplemented by the findings of Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) algorithm on a 0.5°·0.5° resolution grid. A strong coherence was revealed among measured and estimated daily levels of PM10 and PM2.5; thus, the proposed MLRM can be a useful tool for assessing air quality in terms of atmospheric circulation. Increased PM contributions in Marseille from local and all-around emission sources were indicated by MLRM primarily within cold seasons. In addition, Northeast (NE) atmospheric circulation was associated by MLRM and CWT with extreme intrusions of exogenous particulate air pollution from Central Europe, during winter and early spring. Throughout warm period, the scarceness of NE airflows prevented the transportation of aerosols from continental Europe. Episodes of desert dust transportation from Northwest Africa (Algeria and Tunisia) had a clear footprint in the PMCOARSE (=PM10-PM2.5) fraction.
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0564-6
  • Fragranced consumer products: sources of emissions, exposures, and health
           effects in the UK
    • Authors: Anne Steinemann
      Abstract: Common in society, fragranced consumer products such as cleaning supplies and air fresheners are a primary source of volatile emissions that contribute to pollutants indoors and to personal exposure. Further, fragranced products have been associated with adverse health effects. This study investigates the sources of emissions, human exposures, and health and societal impacts from fragranced consumer products in the United Kingdom (UK). It examines the prevalence and types of fragranced product use, associated health effects, exposure situations, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and indoor environments. Using a nationally representative population sample (n = 1100), data were collected in June 2016 using an online survey of adults in the UK, comprising England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Across the UK population, 27.8% report health problems, such as migraine headaches (8.4%) and asthma attacks (6.8%), when exposed to fragranced products. Yet 99.3% of the population are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. When given a choice, more people would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Although fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, can emit potentially hazardous yet undisclosed pollutants, 75.0% of the population were not aware of this, and more than half would stop using their product if they knew it emitted such pollutants. This study provides important evidence that the UK population is regularly exposed to fragranced products, that these exposures are associated with adverse and often serious health effects, and that the public is largely unaware of their potential exposures. While more research is needed, reducing exposure to fragranced products, such as through fragrance-free policies, can provide an immediate step to reduce health risks and improve air quality.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0550-z
  • Ambient PM 10 impacts brought by the extreme flooding event of March
           24–26, 2015, in Copiapó, Chile
    • Authors: Héctor Jorquera; Ana María Villalobos; Francisco Barraza
      Abstract: On March 24–26, 2015, the Chilean city of Copiapó (27° 22′ S, 70° 20′ W), located in the hyperarid Atacama Desert, suffered an intense flooding brought by an extreme, unique rainfall event with a 35-year record of daily precipitation. A receptor model (positive matrix factorization, version 5) analysis, applied to ambient PM10 chemical speciation from three short-term sampling campaigns, resolved four sources: crustal/road dust, sea salt, secondary sulfates, and emissions from Paipote copper smelter located 8 km east of Copiapó. Wind trajectories computed with US NOAA’s Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT) supported the above source identification and explained variability in source contributions. It was found that crustal/road dust increased 50 μg/m3, in April 8–10, 2015, as compared with values in November 2014 and October–November 2015, respectively. This was the dominant PM10 source after the flooding and before debris were cleaned up, being on order of magnitude higher that the other source contributions. The Paipote copper smelter contributed with primary PM10 emissions and secondary sulfates; this combined contribution averaged 11.8 μg/m3. Sea salt contributions contributed an average of 3.3 μg/m3. In normal conditions, crustal/road dust averaged 2.9 μg/m3, but the other resolved sources also contributed with crustal elements as their emissions are transported by winds to Copiapó. The positive matrix factorization solution included an unresolved concentration of 7.4 μg/m3. The small number of samples and the lack of measurements of nitrate, ammonia, and organic and elemental carbon may explain this result. Hence, sources such as secondary nitrates and combustion sources plus fugitive dust from sources surrounding Copiapó might be included in that unresolved concentration.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-018-0549-5
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