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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
  [SJR: 0.706]   [H-I: 19]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1873-9326 - ISSN (Online) 1873-9318
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Combustion-related organic species in temporally resolved urban airborne
           particulate matter
    • Authors: Mary M. Lynam; J. Timothy Dvonch; John M. Turlington; David Olson; Matthew S. Landis
      Pages: 917 - 927
      Abstract: Accurate characterization of the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) is essential for improved understanding of source attribution and resultant health impacts. To explore this, we conducted ambient monitoring of a suite of 15 combustion-related organic species in temporally resolved PM2.5 samples during an ongoing animal exposure study in a near source environment in Detroit, MI. All of the 15 species detected were above the method detection limit in 8 h samples. This study focused on two molecular classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes measured in samples. Of the 12 PAHs studied, benzo[b]fluoranthene (169 pg m−3), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (124 pg m−3), and benzo[e]pyrene (118 pg m−3) exhibited the three highest mean concentrations while 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (189 pg m−3) and 17α(H),21β(H)-30-norhopane (145 pg m−3) had the highest mean concentrations of the three hopanes analyzed in samples. Ratios of individual compound concentrations to total compound concentrations (∑15 compounds) showed the greatest daily variation for 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (11–28%) and 17α(H),21β(H)-30-norhopane (8–20%). Diagnostic PAH concentration ratios ([IP]/[IP + BP] (range 0.30–0.45), [BaP]/[BaP + BeP] (range 0.26–0.44), [BaP]/[BP] (range 0.41–0.82), [Bb]/[Bk] (range 2.07–2.66)) in samples reflected impacts from a mixture of combustion sources consistent with greater prevalence of petroleum combustion source emissions (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and crude oil) compared to coal or wood combustion emissions impacts at this urban site. Results from this study demonstrate that short-duration sampling for organic speciation provides temporally relevant exposure information.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0482-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • How does a 10-fold pulse increase of aircraft-related NO x impact the
           global burdens of O 3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA)'
    • Authors: Nima Afshar-Mohajer; Barron Henderson
      Pages: 929 - 938
      Abstract: Aircraft emissions are an important and growing global source of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). At cruising altitude, the atmosphere is particularly NO x -sensitive and aircraft emissions contribute to ozone (O3) production and oxidation of volatile organic pollutants that ultimately produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Rapid growth of the global fleet of aircraft and the number of flights require a careful investigation on the atmospheric impact of potential increases in total aircraft-emitted NO x . In this study, we simulated atmospheric composition before, during and after two 10× pulses of total aircraft NO x emissions, one in winter and one in summer of 2007. Results showed that the initial NO x enhancement (up to 3.25% averaged over the globe) was removed after the first 2 months and the change in O3 burden increases for 5 months (up to 3.1 and 2.7% averaged over the globe, respectively, for winter and summer perturbations). The NO x and O3 enhancements follow previously observed temporal patterns, but SOA showed strong season-specific results. During the summer, the NO x pulse decreased total secondary organic gases (SOGs) and SOA burdens, suggesting an inverse relationship with enhanced oxidation. During the winter, the NO x pulse increased the SOG and SOA burdens with SOA lagging SOG. The SOG enhancement has a spatio-temporal pattern similar to NO x . The highest changes in SOA and SOG burdens of different regions during the summer and winter pulse increases were below 1.6%. However, O3 pollution with burden increases as high as 8% in the winter months and 6% in the summer months of the northern hemisphere may even represent an air quality concern.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0483-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Trends and patterns of air quality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary
           Islands) in the period 2011–2015
    • Authors: Jose M. Baldasano; Jordi Massagué
      Pages: 939 - 954
      Abstract: Air quality trends and patterns in the coastal city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) for the period 2011–2015 were analyzed. The orographic and meteorological characteristics, the proximity to the African continent, and the influence of the Azores anticyclone in combination with the anthropogenic (oil refinery, road/maritime traffic) and natural emissions create specific dispersion conditions. SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 pollutants were assessed. The refinery was the primary source of SO2; EU hourly and daily average limit values were exceeded during 2011 and alert thresholds were reached in 2011 and 2012. WHO daily mean guideline was occasionally exceeded. Annual averages in the three stations that registered the highest concentrations in 2011 and 2012 were between 9.3 and 20.4 μg/m3. The spatial analysis of SO2 concentrations with respect to prevailing winds corroborates a clear influence of the refinery to the SO2 levels. In 2014 and 2015, the refinery did not operate and the concentrations fell abruptly to background levels of 2.5–7.1 μg/m3 far below from WHO AQG. NO2 EU limit values, as well as WHO AQG for the period 2011–2015, were not exceeded. The progressive dieselization of the vehicle fleet caused an increment on NO2 annual mean concentrations (from 2011 to 2015) measured at two stations close to busy roads 25 to 31 μg/m3 (+21%) and 27 to 35 μg/m3 (+29%). NO x daily and weekly cycles (working days and weekends) were characterized. An anti-correlation was found between NO x and O3, showing that O3 is titrated by locally emitted NO. Higher O3 concentrations were reported because less NO x emitted during the weekends showing a clear weekend effect. Saharan dust intrusions have a significant impact on PM levels. After subtracting natural sources contribution, none of the stations reached the EU maximum 35 yearly exceedances of daily means despite seldom exceedances at some stations. None of the stations exceeded the annual mean EU limit values; however, many stations exceeded the annual mean WHO AQG. Observed PM10 annual average concentrations in all the stations fluctuated between 10.1 and 35.3 μg/m3, where background concentrations were 6.5–24.4 μg/m3 and natural contributions: 4.2–9.1 μg/m3. No PM10 temporal trends were identified during the period except for an effect of washout due to the rain: concentrations were lower in 2013 and 2014 (the most rainy years of the period). None of the stations reached the PM2.5 annual mean EU 2015 limit value. However, almost all the stations registered daily mean WHO AQG exceedances. During 2015, PM2.5 concentrations were higher than the previous years (2015, 8.8–12.3 μg/m3; 2011–2014, 3.7–9.6 μg/m3). O3 complied with EU target values; stricter WHO AQG were sometimes exceeded in all the stations for the whole time period.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0484-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Surface data assimilation of chemical compounds over North America and its
           impact on air quality and Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts
    • Authors: Alain Robichaud
      Pages: 955 - 970
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of initializing GEM-MACH, Environment and Climate Change Canada’s air quality (AQ) forecast model, with multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOA). A series of 48-h air quality forecasts were launched for July 2012 (summer case) and January 2014 (winter case) for ozone, NO2, and PM2.5. In this setup, the GEM-MACH model (version 1.3.8.2) was initialized with surface analysis increments (from MPSOA) which were projected in the vertical by applying an appropriate fractional weighting in order to obtain 3D analyses in the lower troposphere. Here, we have used a methodology based on sensitivity tests to obtain the optimum vertical correlation length (VCL). Overall, results showed that for PM2.5, more specifically for sulfate and crustal materials, AQ forecasts initialized with MPSOA showed a very significant improvement compared to forecasts without data assimilation, which extended beyond 48 h in all seasons. Initializing the model with ozone analyses also had a significant impact but on a shorter time scale than that of PM2.5. Finally, assimilation of NO2 was found to have much less impact than longer-lived species. The impact of simultaneous assimilation of the three pollutants (PM2.5, ozone, and NO2) was also examined and found very significant in reducing the total error of the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) over 48 h and beyond. We suggest that the period over which there is a significant improvement due to assimilation could be an adequate measure of the pollutant atmospheric lifetime.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0485-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Chemical characteristics and possible causes of acid rain at a regional
           atmospheric background site in eastern China
    • Authors: Yuwen Niu; Xinling Li; Zhen Huang; Chize Zhu
      Pages: 971 - 980
      Abstract: A total of 43 rainwater samples were collected from March 2014 to February 2015 at a regional atmospheric background station, in Lin’an, Zhejiang province, eastern China. We analyzed all rainwater samples for pH, electrical conductivity, and concentration of SO4 2−, NO3 −, Cl−, F, NH4 +, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, and K+. The pH of the 43 analyzed rainfall events ranged from 3.39–6.37, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) of 4.74; 72% of the precipitation events qualified as acid rainfall (those where the rain pH was <5.6), indicating that acid rain pollution was severe in Lin’an area. Although the ionic concentrations in the Lin’an rainwater were lower than those found in most urban areas in China and in rural areas in India, they were still higher than those in Waliguan (a global atmospheric background station in northwestern China) and in Newark, NJ, USA. We found that SO4 2− and NO3 − were the major anions in the precipitation, accounting for an average of 88% of the total inorganic anions. The SO4 2− concentration was between 3.8–303.9 μeq L−1 with a VWM value of 49.8 μeq L−1, while the NO3 − concentration was between 3.0–206.5 μeq L−1 with a VWM value of 32.6 μeq L−1. The ratios of SO4 2− to NO3 − ranged from 0.71 to 2.56 with an average of 1.53, indicating that SO4 2− was the most significant anion causing rainfall acidification in Lin’an area. This is similar to observations made in 2008. Compared to observations in Lin’an area in 2008, the contribution of SO4 2− to rainwater acidity had decreased due to sharp reduction in SO2 emissions, while the contribution of NO3 − had increased due to a rapid growth in the use of motor vehicles in eastern China. We observed that the alkaline component NH4 + made the largest contribution toward neutralizing rainwater acidity. The neutralization factor (NF) for NH4 + was between 0.26 and 1.03 with an average of 0.63, and the NF for Ca2+ was between 0.09 and 1.21 with an average of 0.30. The ratio of Ca2+ to NH4 + was between 0.15 and 4.70 with an average of 0.48, lower than that observed in Chinese urban areas and close to that observed in non-urban Chinese sites. These results indicated that Ca2+ was still a major factor in buffering rainwater acidity in most urban areas in China, while NH4 + seemed to be the most important basic ion for neutralizing rainwater acidity in non-urban areas. In the Lin’an area, the Cl− and K+ in rainwater were mostly of marine origin; however, SO4 2−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were generated mainly from the earth’s crust and anthropogenic emissions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0486-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Dew water chemical composition and source characterization in the IGP
           outflow location (coastal Bhola, Bangladesh)
    • Authors: Mohammad Shohel; Hasina Akhter Simol; Elizabeth Reid; Jeffrey S. Reid; Abdus Salam
      Pages: 981 - 990
      Abstract: Dew water samples were collected during the winter season (December, 2014 to January, 2015) at an outflow location from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the Bay of Bengal (Coastal Bhola, Bangladesh). Physical properties of the dew water, including pH and electrical conductivity (EC), were measured. The concentrations of water soluble ions (Cl−, SO4 2−, NO3 −, HCO3 −, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and trace metals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pd, and Ni) were also measured. Source characterization of the chemical species was done by correlation analysis, enrichment factor analysis, percent source contribution calculation, and air mass trajectory analysis. The average pH and EC of the collected dew water were 6.81 and 154.80 μS cm−1, respectively. The average concentration of SO4 2− and NO3 − was 264.10 and 222.20 μeq L−1, respectively. The concentrations of water soluble ions followed the sequence: Ca2+ > Cl−> SO4 2 > Na+ > NO3 −> Mg2+ > K+ > HCO3 −. The concentrations of trace metals ranged in order with Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu, while the concentrations of Cr, Pb, and Ni were below detection limit in dew water. Regression analysis showed significant correlations among sea, soil, and anthropogenic species. High enrichment factors of SO4 2−, NO3 −, Zn, Mn, and Cu indicates anthropogenic sources. Percent source contribution of different species showed significant anthropogenic contribution for Cl−(1.80%), SO4 2−(83.5%), and NO3 −(99.3%). Air mass trajectory analysis supported that the regional urban pollutions have significant influence on the dew water chemistry at the coastal Bhola, Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0487-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Two notable features in PM 10 data and analysis of their causes
    • Authors: Junghwa Heo; Jin-Soo Park; Bong Mann Kim; Sang-Woo Kim; Rokjin J. Park; Haeun Jeon; Soon-Chang Yoon
      Pages: 991 - 998
      Abstract: Hourly PM10 mass concentrations were collected from 25 air quality monitoring stations in Seoul, Korea. Sixteen years of data, from 2000 to 2015, were analyzed. During that time, the annual average PM10 concentrations declined almost linearly at a rate of −1.98 μg m−3 year−1. The number of high PM10 days declined faster than did the number of low PM10 days. This indicates that the bulk of the annual average PM10 mass concentration reduction was high-level PM10 concentrations. Further analysis of this data revealed two interesting points. First, though the annual average PM10 concentrations clearly lowered for period 1 (from 2000 to 2012; −2.28 μg m−3 year−1), they remained almost unchanged at a virtually constant value for period 2 (from 2012 to 2015; −0.02 μg m−3 year−1). Second, annual average PM10 concentrations showed a large spatial concentration gradient among all monitoring stations in the early 2000s. However, the spatial concentration gradient got gradually smaller until reaching a nearly no-gradient, uniform concentration among all monitoring stations from 2010 onward. Clear PM10 concentration reduction in period 1 was driven by local emission reduction. However, its reduction was not enough in period 2. The reduction of local emissions was negated by the increase of local activities and transported particulates, as well as the formation of secondary aerosol in Seoul from emissions transported from upwind regional sources. This resulted in PM10 concentrations becoming stagnant in period 2. PM10 reduction rate in the downwind area was faster than that in the upwind area. For the first 5 years, the reduction rate in the downwind area was great. Between all the stations observed, nearly all of the concentration difference was a result of more reduction in secondary aerosol. After 2005, coarse particles and primary elemental carbon (EC) played a key role in reducing the PM10 concentration. Our findings on these two data features, and their causes, will help people to understand the most recent characteristics of particulate matters, in turn helping to update the control strategy for the continued improvement of particulate air quality in Seoul.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0488-6
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Influences of inorganic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the
           sources of PM2.5 in the Southeast Asian urban sites
    • Authors: Md Firoz Khan; Saw Wuan Hwa; Lim Chee Hou; Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa; Norhaniza Amil; Noorlin Mohamad; Mazrura Sahani; Shoffian Amin Jaafar; Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir; Mohd Talib Latif
      Pages: 999 - 1013
      Abstract: PM2.5 released from urban sources and regional biomass fire is of great concern due to the deleterious effect on human health. This study was conducted to determine the chemical compositions andsource apportionment of PM2.5. Twenty-four-hour PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban monitoring sites in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 12 November 2013 to 15 January 2014 using a high volume air sampler (HVS). The source apportionment of PM2.5 was determined using positive matrix factorization (PMF) version 5.0. Overall, the PM2.5 mean concentrations ranged from 16 to 55 μg m−3 with a mean of 23 ± 9 μg m−3. The results of enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, and Cs mainly originated from non-crustal sources. The dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (I[cd]P), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F). PMF 5.0 results showed that the secondary aerosol coupled with biomass burning was the largest contributor followed by combustion of fuel oil and road dust, soil dust source and sea salt and nitrate aerosol, accounting for 34, 25, 24 and 17% of PM2.5 mass, respectively. On the other hand, biomass and wood burning (42%) was the predominant source of PAHs followed by combustion of fossil fuel (36%) and natural gas and coal burning (22%). The broad overview of the PM2.5 sources will help to adopt adequate mitigation measures in the management of future urban air quality in this region.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0489-5
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Exposure and dose to particulate matter inside the subway system of
           Athens, Greece
    • Authors: Eleni Mammi-Galani; Konstantinos Eleftheriadis; Luis Mendes; Mihalis Lazaridis
      Pages: 1015 - 1028
      Abstract: Real-time PM10 mass concentrations were monitored inside the trains and in several platforms of red and blue lines in Athens metro system during two measurement campaigns. Furthermore, measurements of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were conducted on a fixed site on a subway platform of blue line (Nomismatokopio) and the majority of particles were in the fine mode. PM10 concentrations were measured inside the metro trains along the entire route of the two metro lines during commuting hours, and the average PM10 concentration was 132.2 ± 34.0 μg/m3 in the red line and 138.0 ± 35.6 μg/m3 in the blue line. Measurements were also conducted in eight platforms and higher concentrations were observed in stations located in the center of Athens, under heavily trafficked streets. An exposure and dose assessment model, ExDoM2, was implemented in order to calculate the deposition, dose, and retention of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract (RT), the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and their absorption to blood. The model was applied to study the human dose of three different subjects, a person with sedentary employment commuting by metro 1 h per day, a metro worker with sedentary activity, and a metro worker with light exercise activity. The dose varies in the different regions of the RT with the highest dose in the extrathoracic region. The dose in the RT after commuting by metro for 1 h was 125.4 μg that corresponds to 36.3% of the total personal daily dose (worst-case scenario, no indoor sources).
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0490-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • The effect of meteorological conditions on aerosol size distribution in
           Istanbul
    • Authors: S. Levent Kuzu; Arslan Saral
      Pages: 1029 - 1038
      Abstract: Ambient aerosols were sampled by a high-volume cascade impactor in Istanbul, through May 2012 and November 2014. Seventy-eight size-segregated samples were gathered within the period at six different stages. The particles exhibited tri-modal distribution. The peak at <0.49 μm was the most dominant among the others. The average mass median diameter was 1.3 μm. The average total suspended particulate concentration was 75 μg m−3, and PM10, PM4, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations, derived from log-probability plots, were 62.5, 52.9, 46.9, and 34.2 μg m−3, respectively. Particle concentrations related to meteorological conditions through Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was poor in describing the association between coarse particles and meteorological conditions due to the increased urban effect, short-range transportation of marine aerosols, and long-range transportation. Particles >7.2 and 7.2–3 μm had a strong relation, indicating same sources. Increased relative humidity enriched 0.95–1.5-μm particle fraction in winter. Particles between 0.49 and 3 μm were inversely related to ambient temperature. Dilution effect of the wind was significant for PM1.5. Wind acted as a source for larger particles by carrying them from other source regions. Multiple linear regression was applied to particulate matter fractions in order to model the concentrations of each fraction related to meteorological data. In the model, the particle fractions of 1.5–0.95 and 0.95–0.49 μm exhibited the highest prediction performance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0491-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Modeling the Air Pollution Index based on its structure and descriptive
           status
    • Authors: Nasr Ahmed AL-Dhurafi; Nurulkamal Masseran; Zamira Hasanah Zamzuri; Muhammad Aslam Mohd Safari
      Abstract: Accurate air pollution modeling is essential for estimating the Air Pollution Index (API) effectively. The air quality assessment relies on the ability of the selected probability density function (PDF) to describe the observed air pollution data. This study characterizes the API data in Klang, Malaysia, for the period of January 2005 to December 2014. The study proposed three different approaches in modeling API characteristics, including conventional models, API structure models, and descriptive status models. The first approach is the conventional models, which are the most common distributions used for modeling the API and its pollutants. The fitted distributions of the observed and generated API data are used for comparisons to other proposed models. In addition, the selected distributions of pollutants were used as a basis in the construction of API structure models. The second approach is the API structure models, which involve a mixture of distributions for the critical pollutants. Finally, the third approach was based on the descriptive status of the API. The results show that the healthy status is able to be described using the conventional fitted models, while the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) is found to be a good fitted model for the unhealthy status. In fact, based on the selection criteria, it was found that the API structure models are superior for modeling the API data. In addition, the API descriptive status models are useful for evaluating the unhealthy API return level. In summary, we conclude that the mixture distribution of the API components should be considered as a better method for simulating the API data.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0528-2
       
  • Testing the single-pass VOC removal efficiency of an active green wall
           using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)
    • Authors: Fraser Torpy; Nicholas Clements; Max Pollinger; Andy Dengel; Isaac Mulvihill; Chuan He; Peter Irga
      Abstract: In recent years, research into the efficacy of indoor air biofiltration mechanisms, notably living green walls, has become more prevalent. Whilst green walls are often utilised within the built environment for their biophilic effects, there is little evidence demonstrating the efficacy of active green wall biofiltration for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at concentrations found within an interior environment. The current work describes a novel approach to quantifying the VOC removal effectiveness by an active living green wall, which uses a mechanical system to force air through the substrate and plant foliage. After developing a single-pass efficiency protocol to understand the immediate effects of the system, the active green wall was installed into a 30-m3 chamber representative of a single room and presented with the contaminant 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone; MEK), a VOC commonly found in interior environments through its use in textile and plastic manufacture. Chamber inlet levels of MEK remained steady at 33.91 ± 0.541 ppbv. Utilising a forced-air system to draw the contaminated air through a green wall based on a soil-less growing medium containing activated carbon, the combined effects of substrate media and botanical component within the biofiltration system showed statistically significant VOC reduction, averaging 57% single-pass removal efficiency over multiple test procedures. These results indicate a high level of VOC removal efficiency for the active green wall biofilter tested and provide evidence that active biofiltration may aid in reducing exposure to VOCs in the indoor environment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0518-4
       
  • Landfill fire and airborne aerosols in a large city: lessons learned and
           future needs
    • Authors: Raúl G. E. Morales S.; Richard Toro A.; Luis Morales; Manuel A. Leiva G.
      Abstract: Landfill fires are relatively frequent incidents that can result in severe environmental impacts. On the morning of January 15, 2016, a fire occurred at the Santa Marta landfill (Lf) in the metropolitan area of Santiago (SMA), Chile. The fire triggered public alarm. In the present work, the impact of the landfill fire on the air quality of the SMA and the possible impacts on human health are analyzed. According to the information collected, the fire began after a collapse in the landfill on January 15, 2016. The fire could not be controlled by the Lf operating company, and authorities acted late in responding. The results revealed that at the focal point of the fire, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) reached concentration levels on the order of 1000 μg m−3. Three days after the start of the fire, hourly PM2.5 concentration levels above 200 μg m−3 were recorded, at a distance approximately 20 km northeast of where the fire occurred. The PM2.5 concentration levels recommended for the protection of the health of vulnerable persons were subsequently exceeded. These results suggest that a preventive measure should have been the evacuation of the most pollution-sensitive population. An inappropriate management of the emergency was demonstrated. Legislation should be improved by stipulating which sanitary Lfs should be equipped with firefighting equipment. Territorial planning should be improved by considering geographic and meteorological aspects.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0522-8
       
  • Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region,
           Alberta, Canada
    • Authors: Mary Lynam; J. Timothy Dvonch; James Barres; Kevin Percy
      Abstract: Event-based wet deposition of mercury, Hg, was collected in a study from 2010 to 2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest oil sands industrial facilities in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. For the entire study period (21 months), volume weighted mean, VWM, concentration was 11.2 ng L−1 while total Hg wet deposition was 2.3 μg m−2. Mercury enrichment factors ranged from 10 to 5419 in rainfall, 45–599 in mixed precipitation and 73–266 in snowfall samples. This suggests that emissions from local anthropogenic sources of mercury were available for scavenging especially in rainfall. During a 3-day period in June 2011, there was a 5 to 24-fold increase in mercury enrichment in rainfall samples compared to previous samples. Meteorological analysis during this period provides evidence that mercury containing emissions in smoke from forest fires were transported by winds and subsequently deposited in rainfall received at the sampling site thereby causing enrichment. The magnitude of mercury wet deposition at the AMS 6 site was one of the lowest observed fluxes compared to measurements made elsewhere in the United States and Canada, most likely limited by the low precipitation depths that occurred at this semi-arid location. The reduced wet deposition suggests that mercury dry deposition may be significant in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, AOSR, and should be addressed in future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0524-6
       
  • Spatial and temporal variations in criteria air pollutants in three
           typical terrain regions in Shaanxi, China, during 2015
    • Authors: Yong Xu; Qi Ying; Jianlin Hu; Yuan Gao; Yang Yang; Dexiang Wang; Hongliang Zhang
      Abstract: Numerous studies have investigated air pollution in severely polluted plains, but the characteristics of pollutants are not well understood in other terrain regions. In this study, air pollution characteristics were analyzed in three typical terrain regions (plateau, plain, and mountain regions) in Shaanxi, based on hourly ambient monitoring of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and less than 10 μm (PM10), CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 in 2015. PM2.5 and PM10 were the dominant pollutants in three regions, and their annual concentrations exceeded the Grade II standards by 9.4–68.6 and 6.0–73.9%, respectively. PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, and NO2 concentrations had similar seasonal trends with highest values in winter and lowest values in summer, whereas O3 concentrations exhibited the opposite trend. Guanzhong Plain had higher PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations but lower CO, 1-h peak O3, and 8-h peak O3 (8 h-O3) compared to other regions. PM2.5, PM10, and 8 h-O3 were the three main dominant pollutants. The nonattainment rate was highest in winter and lowest in summer or autumn. Pollution also exhibited synergy, especially in the plateau region and Guanzhong Plain. PM2.5 was significantly correlated with PM10. NO2 and SO2 were positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10, while 8 h-O3 generally had significant negative correlations with other pollutants, especially in the winter. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of pollution status in the three typical terrain regions in Shaanxi and are helpful for improving air quality.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0523-7
       
  • Estimation and dispersion modeling of landing and take-off (LTO) cycle
           emissions from Atatürk International Airport
    • Authors: S. Levent Kuzu
      Abstract: Atatürk International Airport (AIA) hosts the most crowded air traffic in Turkey. It is located to the south of the city in an urban area. A new airport is under construction in the north of Istanbul, which is a rural site. All commercial operations of AIA are going to be moved to the new airport after the completion of the construction. Aircraft emissions have adverse impact on ambient air quality, especially at urban sites. In this study, aircraft emissions from LTO cycles were estimated in AIA. NOx, CO, and HC emissions were 4249, 2153, and 181 t year−1, respectively. Taxi phase was responsible for the vast majority of CO and HC emissions. The majority of NOx emissions occurred from climb phase. Valuation of the emissions was estimated according to their unit damage price. The total damage value was 9,420,848 € year−1. NOx contributed more than 99% of the total amount. Dispersion of the pollutants was modeled with EPA’s AERMOD. The calculated NOx and CO concentrations at the closest air quality monitoring station to the airport were compared with the observed results. The contribution of aircraft emissions to NOx and CO concentrations at the station was 5.1 and 2.4%, respectively. The annual limit value of NOx was exceeded in most of the airport area and the residential area to the west of the airport. The highest concentration was 566 μg m−3, which was estimated at the parking/gate area. The maximum daily 8-h mean concentration of CO exceeded the limit value only at the gates and parking area.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0525-5
       
  • Mapping air pollutants at municipality level in Italy and Spain in support
           to health impact evaluations
    • Authors: Stefania Ghigo; on behalf of the MED HISS Study group; Stefano Bande; Luisella Ciancarella; Mihaela Mircea; Antonio Piersanti; Gaia Righini; José María Baldasano; Xavier Basagaña; Ennio Cadum
      Abstract: A growing health concern, due to poor air quality, recently led to an increased number of studies regarding air pollution effects on public health. Consequently, close attention is paid to estimation methods of exposure to atmospheric pollutants. This paper aims to meet a specific requirement of epidemiological researchers, that is providing annual air pollution maps at municipality scale for health impact assessment purposes on national basis. Firstly, data fusion through kriging with external drift is implemented, combining pollution data from two different sources, models and measurements, in order to improve the spatial distribution of surface concentrations at grid level. Then, the assimilated data of air pollution are upscaled, so as to obtain concentrations at municipality level. This methodology was applied to Italy and Spain (in Spain, only the second step was carried out since the modeled concentration already included an assimilation procedure). In both countries, for each municipality, an estimate of the concentration value for atmospheric pollutants of major concern for human health (PM10 and NO2) was provided, offering more relevant information from a surveillance point of view.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0520-x
       
  • Investigating PM10 episodes using levoglucosan as tracer
    • Authors: Alexandra Monteiro; Sónia Gouveia; Manuel Scotto; Sandra Sorte; Carla Gama; Vorne L. Gianelle; Cristina Colombi; Célia Alves
      Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the role/contribution of residential combustion (using levoglucosan as a tracer of biomass combustion) during PM10 episode days registered over the Porto urban area (Portugal), in order to support air quality plans that need to be developed for this particular region. The levoglucosan and PM10 concentration values, together with the meteorological conditions (namely temperature), measured during an experimental field campaign performed in 2013, were used in this study. To this end, a wavelet-based approach is applied to (a) better quantify the coherence and dependency of these variables and (b) assess the strength of the connection between the two pollutants species (PM and levoglucosan) at different time scales. Results evidenced a high coherence/dependency between PM10 and levoglucosan values for the episodes selected (periods with exceedances of the PM10 limit values), suggesting the contribution of biomass combustion sources. The highest coherence (normalised covariance) is observed for the winter episodes and time periods of 5–10 days, which is related to the duration of the episodes selected. The summertime episode, which exhibits a negligible observed correlation between temperature and levoglucosan, is explained by the influence of forest fires that occurred within this period and region.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0521-9
       
  • Long-term variations of dust storms and associated dustfall and related
           climate factors in Korea during 1997~2016
    • Authors: H. S. Kim; Y. S. Chung; J. H. Cho
      Abstract: The large-scale transport of dust storms originating from Mongolia and northern China has been observed for dustfall days by meteorological observers in South Korea since 1960. Furthermore, the Korea Centre for Atmospheric Environment Research (KCAER) has been observing dustfall days by using standards of ground-based mass concentrations in central South Korea since 1997. In the spatial distribution, annual dustfall days gradually decreased southeastward in South Korea due to wind speed reduction for the long-range transport of dust storms. During the last 20 years, 19 dustfall days in 1997 were reduced to 3 days in 2016 with a decreasing rate of − 0.8 ± 0.1 day year−1. The warming in northern Mongolia reduced the meridional temperature gradient between Mongolia and northern China. Decreases in the air temperature gradient affect wind speed reduction in the origins of dust storms. A noticeable decrease in PM10 mass concentrations is related to decreases in higher mass concentration days from dustfall in central South Korea during winter and spring. During summer and fall, the decreasing trend of TSP is related to the high level of moisture of the Northwest Pacific air masses.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0513-9
       
  • Changes in column aerosol optical depth and ground-level particulate
           matter concentration over East Asia
    • Authors: Jihyun Nam; Sang-Woo Kim; Rokjin J. Park; Jin-Soo Park; Sang Seo Park
      Abstract: Different spatio-temporal variations and trends in column aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface particulate matter (PM10; diameter < 10 μm) mass concentration were found for selected regions of East Asia. Enhanced AOD over North China and its downwind regions (Yellow Sea, Korea) occurred in June, compared with March–April over South China. Increased PM10 concentration in both North and South China was observed from late fall to spring. In Northeast China, a peak in AOD appeared during March, but high PM10 concentrations occurred in December–January. A significantly increasing trend in AOD was found in North and Northeast China, whereas surface PM10 concentrations over most megacities in these two regions declined almost linearly. This contradictory trend between AOD and PM10 concentration can be attributed to large emissions reductions in near-surface coarse particles, mainly accredited to a series of strict control measures. In other words, there has been no meaningful reduction in fine-mode particles including secondary aerosols. On the other hand, space-based CALIOP measurements revealed that approximately 60~70% (40~50%) of AOD was contributed by the aerosols present above 1 km (above 2 km) altitude. Our findings suggest that stronger emission controls for precursor gaseous emissions as well as submicron particles are required to decrease particulate air pollution, so as to further reduce their radiative forcing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11869-017-0517-5
       
 
 
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