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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Therapy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.075
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1865-8652 - ISSN (Online) 0741-238X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Safety and Effectiveness of Ipragliflozin for Type 2 Diabetes in Japan:
           12-Month Interim Results of the STELLA-LONG TERM Post-Marketing
           Surveillance Study
    • Abstract: Introduction The present interim report of the STELLA-LONG TERM study aimed to examine the safety and effectiveness of ipragliflozin in real-word clinical practice in Japan using data up to 12 months. We also evaluated the effect of ipragliflozin on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in patients with normal vs. abnormal liver function. Methods This is an ongoing 3-year post-marketing surveillance study. We analyzed data from Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who were first prescribed ipragliflozin between 17 July 2014 and 16 October 2015 at participating centers in Japan, and whose data were locked by 16 January 2018. The incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was evaluated for safety. Changes in glycemic control and body weight were evaluated for effectiveness. The effect on liver function was evaluated by changes in the fatty liver index, and changes in AST and ALT were evaluated in patients with normal and abnormal liver function. Results The safety analysis set comprised 11,051 patients and the efficacy analysis set comprised 8788 patients. The incidence rates of ADRs and serious ADRs were 14.6% (1616/11,051) and 0.97% (107/11,051), respectively. Significant reductions (all P < 0.001 vs. baseline, paired t test) in glycated hemoglobin (− 0.8%), fasting plasma glucose (− 31.9 mg/dL), body weight (− 2.9 kg), and fatty liver index (− 8.7) were observed. In patients with normal liver function at baseline, no clinically significant changes in AST and ALT were observed. In patients with abnormal liver function at baseline, clinically and statistically significant decreases (P < 0.05 vs. baseline, two-sample t test) in AST (− 9.0 U/L) and ALT (− 14.7 U/L) levels were observed. Conclusion Ipragliflozin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with T2DM over 12 months in the real-world clinical setting. Improvements in liver function parameters (AST and ALT) were observed in T2DM patients with abnormal liver function. Trial Registration identifier, NCT02479399. Funding Astellas Pharma Inc., Japan.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
  • Burden and Suffering in Chronic Venous Disease
    • Abstract: Chronic venous disease (CVD) is widespread, underdiagnosed, and can progress to chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers, which can require extensive treatment and hospitalization. These conditions negatively impact patient quality of life and place substantial burdens on healthcare resources. The two main risk factors for CVD are age and obesity. Thus, with the growing prevalence of obesity and the increasing longevity of the population, the burden of CVD is expected to increase dramatically in the coming decades. Appropriate lifestyle changes and care, which may include treatment with venoactive drugs, can slow disease progression, improve quality of life, and are likely to reduce healthcare costs. Physicians should be aware of this growing problem and of the effective treatments available for CVD. We recommend the accompanying short summaries from a symposium held at the recent European Venous Forum as a means for our colleagues to learn more about the burden and suffering associated with CVD. Funding: Servier.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • How Does Chronic Venous Disease Progress from the First Symptoms to the
           Advanced Stages' A Review
    • Abstract: Risk factors for the development of progression chronic venous disease (CVD) and varicose veins are widespread and include advanced age, excess body weight, sedentary lifestyles and occupations, family history, and pregnancy. Varicose veins and CVD are associated with venous hypertension, venous reflux, dysfunctional venous valves, and vein wall inflammation, though the precise etiologies are unclear. Once venous pathology develops, it can progress through a vicious cycle of inflammation and leukocyte recruitment that leads to further deterioration of vein walls and valves, increased hypertension, and release of additional proinflammatory mediators. Early treatment of symptomatic varicose veins and CVD as well as lifestyle changes can help break the inflammatory cycle and alleviate symptoms. Physicians and patients should be aware of the risk factors for CVD, the treatments and measures available to slow disease progression, and the serious consequences of allowing the disease to progress unchecked. Funding: Servier (France).
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • The Association Between Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: The
           “For Your SweetHeart™” Survey
    • Abstract: Introduction It is unclear whether patients and their loved ones appreciate that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the degree of awareness regarding the link between T2DM and CVD. Methods An online survey was conducted among US adults (general population) and adults with self-reported T2DM. Results Of 13,027 participants recruited, 1505 completed the survey (12% response rate): 501 with T2DM and 1004 from the general population, of whom 364 knew someone with T2DM (e.g., partner, friend, relative, colleague: “SweetHearts”). Of those with T2DM, 52% were unaware that patients with T2DM are at increased risk of CVD and related macrovascular events. People with T2DM were more likely to be aware of the increased risk of microvascular disease (blindness [57%], nephropathy [57%], neuropathy [64%]) than macrovascular disease (myocardial infarction [41%], stroke [43%]). Despite CVD being the leading cause of death in T2DM, 67% of those with T2DM and 69% of SweetHearts were unaware of this, similar figures to those of the general population (74%). People with T2DM indicated they would take preventive measures if they were aware of their increased CVD risk: 88% would modify their diet and 81% would talk to their healthcare provider. Respondents with T2DM (73%) indicated that a desire to live longer/spend more time with family would motivate them to decrease their CVD risk. Conclusions Findings indicate that education regarding the association between T2DM and CVD in patients and their loved ones is warranted. Plain Language Summary Plain language summary available for this article. Please see Fig. 1 and the following link: Funding The “For Your SweetHeart™” survey was supported by the Boehringer Ingelheim & Eli Lilly and Company Diabetes Alliance, and was developed in partnership with KRC Research.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • The Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Consortium as a Model for
           Advancing Research and Dialogue on Rare Severe Adverse Drug Reactions
    • Abstract: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but serious disease. Caused by the JC virus (JCV), it occurs in individuals with weakened immune systems and is a potential adverse reaction for certain immunomodulatory drugs. The PML Consortium was created to find better methods to predict, prevent, and treat PML. The Consortium brought together the pharmaceutical industry with academic, regulatory, and patient communities to advance research and dialogue on PML through a not-for-profit, collaborative approach involving a grant program, scientific workshops and conferences, and disease awareness efforts. Over nearly a decade, the Consortium contributed to the PML and JCV fields by advancing research, scientific exchange, and awareness of PML. In addition to advancing knowledge and helping to build cross-sector consensus on research priorities, the Consortium’s grant program filled a funding gap and brought new investigators into PML and JCV research. Additionally, the Consortium’s workshops and conferences created platforms for exchange that drove dialogue on knowledge gaps and future research directions. The Consortium also contributed to the scientific knowledge base with two literature reviews, one on PML treatment studies and a second on T cell deficiencies as a risk factor for PML and the brain as a site for conversion of harmless JCV into a pathogenic virus. Finally, the Consortium addressed a significant information gap with its disease awareness website for healthcare professionals, patients, and caregivers. Beyond its impact on the PML and JCV fields, the PML Consortium is important because it provides a precedent for how the pharmaceutical industry, academic researchers, patient organizations, and government can work together to address rare diseases, in particular rare adverse events. This kind of collaboration could be replicated to speed progress in addressing other rare diseases and adverse events, with significant potential benefits for the scientific, medical, and patient communities. Funding PML Consortium (PML Consortium, Washington, DC).
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • The Seriousness of Chronic Venous Disease: A Review of Real-World Evidence
    • Abstract: Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition that tends to worsen with age. Patients initially seek treatment to relieve symptoms of leg pain, discomfort, heaviness and swelling, all of which impact their quality of life. As the disease increases in severity to include varicose veins, skin changes, and venous ulcer, the demand for treatment increases while the quality of life further diminishes. The prevalence of CVD is highest in Western countries where it already consumes up to 2% of healthcare budgets. With the aging of the global population, the prevalences of CVD and severe CVD are projected to increase substantially, foretelling unsustainably large increases in the healthcare resources and costs needed to treat CVD patients in the coming decades. Effective venoactive drug treatments and ablation procedures are available that provide symptom relief, improve quality of life, slow disease progression, and promote ulcer healing. In addition, venoactive drug treatments may be highly cost-effective. However, there is evidence that physician awareness of CVD is suboptimal and that many patients with CVD are not being treated or referred to specialists according to established guidelines. To decrease this treatment gap and prevent unnecessary disease progression, international guidelines are available to help physicians consider CVD treatment options and refer patients when warranted. Improved disease awareness and appropriate early treatment may help reduce the coming burden of CVD. Funding: Servier.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction (MPFF) for Patients Suffering from
           Chronic Venous Disease: A Review of New Evidence
    • Abstract: Chronic venous disease (CVD) is both prevalent and unavoidable in many people as a result of persistent or unalterable risk factors, the most important of which are advanced age, excess body weight, and family history. Given this inevitability, medical treatment is required to alleviate symptoms and slow disease progression. Venoactive drug therapy is emerging as a valuable treatment option for many CVD patients and micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) is the most widely prescribed and well-studied venoactive drug available. Recent evidence from animal models of venous hypertension and from clinical trials, as well as from systematic reviews, shows that MPFF is effective at alleviating many of the most common symptoms of CVD including leg pain, leg heaviness, sensations of swelling, cramps, and functional discomfort. In addition, MPFF improves the clinical signs of redness, skin changes, and edema, and improves quality of life. Collectively, these findings support the strong recommendation for MPFF treatment found in the 2018 international guidelines for the management of CVD. Funding: Servier.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Effect of Caffeine on the Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of an
           Acetylsalicylic Acid-Paracetamol Combination: Results of a Phase I Study
    • Abstract: Introduction Caffeine is used as an adjuvant in analgesic combinations to enhance their efficacy. The present study aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on the pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and paracetamol when used as a fixed-dose ASA/paracetamol/caffeine combination. Methods In this single-centre, two-way, cross-over phase I study, volunteers fasted overnight (≥ 12 h) and randomly received single oral doses of 250 mg ASA/200 mg paracetamol (reference) or 250 mg ASA/200 mg paracetamol/50 mg caffeine (test). Blood samples were collected before and up to 24 h after dosing. The primary end points were the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0–∞) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) for ASA, salicylic acid (SA) and paracetamol from the two combinations. The main secondary end points were AUC0–∞ and Cmax of caffeine and time to reach Cmax (tmax) of all drugs. Results Eighteen healthy male volunteers (32.5 ± 10.5 years) participated in the study. The geometric means of Cmax for ASA, SA and paracetamol were similar in the test (3.71, 15.8 and 2.42 µg/ml, respectively) and reference groups (3.89, 15.8, 2.42 µg/ml, respectively). The geometric mean of AUC0–∞ for ASA, SA and paracetamol from the test combination was 2.86, 60.5 and 7.68 µg h/ml, respectively, and that for the reference was 2.96, 59.1 and 7.77 µg h/ml, respectively. The medians of tmax for ASA, SA and paracetamol were similar between the two groups. The point estimates for the ratios of AUC0–∞ and Cmax for test versus reference regarding ASA, SA and paracetamol were within the predefined equivalence limits. The two treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion Caffeine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of ASA and paracetamol when used as an adjuvant in ASA/paracetamol fixed-dose combination under fasting conditions, suggesting that caffeine enhances the analgesic efficacy of these drugs by pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic interactions. Funding Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison of Blinatumomab vs. Inotuzumab
           Ozogamicin for Adults with Relapsed/Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic
    • Abstract: Introduction In the absence of head-to-head trials, this analysis aimed to provide a fair indirect comparison of the efficacy between blinatumomab and inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), two treatments for adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ALL) who received no more than one prior salvage therapy, by adjusting for cross-trial differences. Methods Patient-level data from the Phase 3 blinatumomab trial TOWER and published aggregated data from the Phase 3 InO trial INO-VATE-ALL were used to conduct matching-adjusted indirect comparisons. Patients with 2+ prior salvage therapies from TOWER were excluded because such patients were not included in INO-VATE-ALL. To ensure balance in the remaining patients, baseline characteristics for the TOWER patients were weighted to match the average baseline characteristics in INO-VATE-ALL, including sex, age, race, performance status, bone marrow blast, previous salvage therapy, previous allogeneic transplantation, complete remission with complete hematologic recovery (CR) to most recent induction therapy, and duration of first remission. Overall survival (OS), including median and restricted mean survival time (RMST) at 12 and 20.7 months, and CR were estimated and compared. Results A total of 310 patients in TOWER were included (blinatumomab, n = 203; standard of care chemotherapy, n = 107). After matching the listed baseline characteristics, the median OS was 9.3 months for blinatumomab and 7.7 months for InO (weighted log-rank test p = 0.4). The relative RMST at 12 months was 1.6 months longer for blinatumomab than for InO [95% CI (0.1, 3.2); p = 0.04]; at 20.7 months the RMST was not significantly different. The CR rates were similar [anchor-based difference = − 2.8%, 95% CI (− 17.5%, 11.9%); p = 0.71]. Conclusions After adjusting for cross-trial differences, blinatumomab demonstrated a similar CR rate and potential OS benefit versus InO among adult patients with R/R ALL who received no more than one prior salvage therapy. Further studies are suggested to confirm this finding. Funding Amgen.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Clinical Management of High and Very High Risk Patients with
           Hyperlipidaemia in Central and Eastern Europe: An Observational Study
    • Abstract: Introduction A retrospective/prospective observational study was conducted to explore the current management of hyperlipidaemia in high-risk (HR) and very high risk (VHR) patients in central/eastern Europe and Israel. Methods The study enrolled adult patients who were receiving lipid-lowering therapy and attending a specialist (cardiologist/diabetologist/lipidologist) or internist for a routine visit at 57 sites (including academic/specialist/internal medicine centres) across Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Israel, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Data were collected from medical records, for the 12 months before enrolment, with/without ≤ 6 months’ additional prospective follow-up. Results A total of 1244 patients, mean (SD) age 63.3 (11.3) years were included (307 with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), 943 secondary prevention patients). Almost all patients (98.1%) were receiving statins (76.7% monotherapy/21.4% combined therapy), with 53.1% receiving high-intensity statin therapy: 127 patients (10.2%) had adverse events attributed to statin intolerance. Mean (SD) low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were 3.3 (1.7) mmol/L at the first, and 2.7 (1.3) mmol/L at the last, visit of the retrospective phase of observation, with little change during the prospective phase. Less than one-quarter (23.8%; 95% CI 17.29–31.45%) of HR patients and less than half (42.0%; 39.05–44.98%) of VHR patients achieved their risk-based LDL-C targets of < 2.5 and < 1.8 mmol/L, respectively. Less than 15% of FH patients reached these targets (10.9% (5.6–18.7%) of HR and 12.1% (8.0–17.4%) of VHR patients). The revised 2016 ESC/EAS target for HR patients (2.6 mmol/L) was met by 28.5% (21.44–36.38%) of HR patients overall. Almost one-half of patients (42.1%) experienced one or more cardiovascular events during observation. Conclusion Our findings confirm that, despite widespread statin use, a substantial proportion of patients treated for hyperlipidaemia in central/eastern Europe and Israel, particularly those with FH, do not reach recommended LDL-C targets, thus remaining at risk of cardiovascular events. Funding Amgen (Europe) GmbH.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Fixed-Dose Combinations of Long-Acting Bronchodilators for the Management
           of COPD: Global and Asian Perspectives
    • Authors: Chin Kook Rhee; Hajime Yoshisue; Rahul Lad
      Abstract: Maintenance bronchodilator therapy with long-acting β-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) is the cornerstone treatment for patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of LABA/LAMA are recommended for the majority of symptomatic COPD patients by global guidelines; regional guidelines such as the Japanese and Korean guidelines also provide similar recommendations for the use of LABA/LAMA FDCs. This review comprehensively describes the latest clinical evidence from key studies on the efficacy and safety of four approved LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations: indacaterol/glycopyrronium, vilanterol/umeclidinium, formoterol/aclidinium, and olodaterol/tiotropium. Additionally, in this review we describe the rationale behind the use of LABA/LAMA FDC therapy, key findings from the preclinical and clinical trial evaluation of respective LABA and LAMA monocomponents, and the efficacy and safety of LABA/LAMA FDCs. Special emphasis is placed on the clinical evidence for the monocomponents and LABA/LAMA FDCs from the Asian population. This detailed overview of the efficacy and safety of LABA/LAMA FDCs in global and Asian COPD patients is envisaged to provide a better understanding of the benefits of these therapies and to inform healthcare providers and patients on their appropriate use. Funding: Novartis Pharma K.K.
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-019-0893-3
  • Subgroup Analysis for Chinese Patients Included in the INPULSIS ® Trials
           on Nintedanib in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
    • Authors: Zuojun Xu; Huiping Li; Fuqiang Wen; Chunxue Bai; Ping Chen; Feng Fan; Na Hu; Susanne Stowasser; Jian Kang
      Abstract: Purpose To investigate the efficacy and safety of nintedanib versus placebo in Chinese patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods The INPULSIS® trials consisted of two replicate, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials comparing nintedanib 150 mg bid with placebo over a 52-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC); key secondary endpoints were change from baseline in Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire’s total score and time to first investigator-reported acute exacerbation. Data from both trials were pooled for the Chinese subgroup analyses. Results A total of 101 Chinese patients (nintedanib/placebo: 61/40) were treated. The demographic characteristics were generally balanced between treatment arms. Over 52 weeks, the rate of decline in FVC was lower in nintedanib-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients in the Chinese subgroup [− 126.43 vs. − 229.82 mL/year; ∆ = 103.39 mL/year (95% confidence interval, CI: − 19.40 to 226.18)]. The proportion of patients with adverse events (AEs) over 52 weeks was similar between treatment arms. The most commonly reported AEs with nintedanib treatment were gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting). Conclusions Nintedanib is clinically efficacious in Chinese patients with IPF with approximately 50% reductions in the rate of decline in FVC, demonstrating slowed disease progression. Similar to the overall INPULSIS® population, nintedanib has a favourable benefit/risk profile in Chinese patients with IPF. identifiers NCT01335464, NCT01335477. Funding Boehringer Ingelheim. Plain Language Summary Plain language summary available for this article.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-019-0887-1
  • Insights on Medical Nutrition Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An
           Indian Perspective
    • Authors: Vijay Viswanathan; Dharini Krishnan; Sanjay Kalra; Rajeev Chawla; Mangesh Tiwaskar; Banshi Saboo; Manash Baruah; Subhankar Chowdhury; B. M. Makkar; Shalini Jaggi
      Abstract: It is critical to integrate medical nutrition therapy (MNT) provided by a registered dietician (RD) into primary care of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is necessary to achieve the goals of improving overall metabolic measures beyond calorie restriction and weight loss. Misconceptions about nutrition in T2DM add to the challenges of executing MNT in a culturally sensitive population. The current review provides insights into MNT for the prevention and management of T2DM in India, based on both evidence and experience. It revisits historical Indian studies and provides information on appropriate dietary intake of carbohydrates (60–70%), proteins (~ 20%) and fats (10%) that will be acceptable and beneficial in an Indian T2DM population. It discusses nuances of types of carbohydrates and fats and explains associations of increased dietary fiber intake, balanced intake of low and high glycemic index foods and substitution of saturated fats with plant-based polyunsaturated fats in improving outcomes of T2DM and attenuating risk factors. The article also deliberates upon special patient populations with comorbid conditions and diseases and the necessary adjustments needed in their nutritional care. It outlines a step-wise approach to MNT involving a careful interplay of nutrition assessment, diagnosis, individualization and patient counseling. Overall, the success of MNT relies on providing accurate, acceptable and appropriate dietary choices for continued patient adherence. Collaborative efforts from diabetologists, endocrinologists, internists and RDs are required to prioritize and implement MNT in diabetes practice in India. Funding: Signutra Inc.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-019-0872-8
  • Intravitreal Ranibizumab for the Treatment of Visual Impairment Due to
           Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Rare Diseases:
           Cost-Effectiveness in the UK
    • Authors: Grant McCarthy; Elisabetta Fenu; Natalie Bennett; Chrissy Almond
      Abstract: Introduction This study sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab compared with best supportive care (BSC; considered to be no active treatment) for the treatment of visual impairment due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with causes other than neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and pathologic myopia (PM) in a UK setting. Methods An individual patient-level simulation model was developed to estimate the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of ranibizumab vs. BSC. Regression analyses, performed on patient-level data collected within the pivotal phase III MINERVA trial, modelled visual acuity (VA) progression while patients remained on treatment. Patient utilities were modelled as a function of VA in both eyes and resource use estimates were based on trial data or the literature. Costs were evaluated from the perspective of the UK National Health Service and personal social services, with future costs and health outcomes discounted at 3.5% per annum. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were conducted. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for intravitreal ranibizumab was £1363 per QALY compared to BSC and was associated with an incremental benefit of 1.06 QALYs and an incremental cost of £1444 per patient. Drug and administration costs of intravitreal ranibizumab were offset by the prevention of the development of blindness and its associated costs, while the increase in benefits was driven by a reduction in mortality risk and an improved health-related quality of life attributed to an improvement in VA. The findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses and ranibizumab consistently remained cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000–30,000 per QALY gained for all sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Intravitreal ranibizumab is a highly cost-effective intervention for the treatment of CNV due to causes other than nAMD and PM as it delivers substantial QALY gains to patients while making cost savings vs. BSC. Funding Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-019-0894-2
  • SOFA Score Can Effectively Predict the Incidence of Sepsis and 30-Day
           Mortality in Liver Transplant Patients: A Retrospective Study
    • Authors: Xiao-Wen Wang; Xing-Guo Niu; Jin-Xiu Li; Si-Sen Zhang; Xian-Fa Jiao
      Abstract: Introduction This study aims to evaluate the early predictive value for postoperative sepsis and 30-day mortality in liver transplant patients using sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA). Methods A total of 96 liver transplant patients were enrolled into this study from February 2015 to June 2018. The general information, biochemical findings, and postoperative 30-day mortality of these patients were statistically analyzed. Results The SOFA scores, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) at postoperative day (POD) 3, 5, and 7 were significantly higher in the sepsis group than in the non-sepsis group, and the differences were statistically significant. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that SOFA scores at POD 1, 3, 5, and 7 had higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting the incidence of sepsis within 30 days. The difference in 30-day survival rate between patients with SOFA scores of > 5 and patients with SOFA scores of ≤ 5 at POD 1–7 was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion SOFA scores at POD 1–7 can effectively predict the incidence of sepsis and 30-day mortality in liver transplant patients on the basis of CRP and PCT.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-019-0889-z
  • Characterizing the Health-Related Quality of Life Burden of Overactive
           Bladder Using Disease-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: A
           Systematic Literature Review
    • Authors: Karissa M. Johnston; David R. Walker; Pardis Lakzadeh
      Abstract: Introduction The objective was to identify the most commonly used patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for overactive bladder (OAB), determine which are the most useful for measuring burden in OAB and characterize the findings of recent studies that have employed PRO instruments to assess OAB symptoms and the effects of treatment. Methods A systematic search of OAB literature published between January 2006 and November 2017 using Medline/PubMed and EMBASE databases. Results Of 3425 abstracts and 500 full-text articles reviewed, 58 studies (both clinical trials and observational studies) were included in the review. The most commonly used PRO instruments were the OAB Questionnaire (OAB-q; 64%), followed by the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ; 31%) and the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PCBC; 21%). Synthesis of data from studies using the OAB-q showed that OAB treatment with antimuscarinics, mirabegron and onabotulinumtoxinA all improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms beyond the benefits observed with placebo. The OAB-q could detect dose–response relationships in some studies and demonstrated there were no significant differences across therapies from different drug classes. Conclusion The HRQoL burden of OAB and response to treatment can be reliably measured by PRO instruments, and the OAB-q is the most commonly used instrument in OAB, particularly in clinical trials of OAB interventions. These data will be useful to provide benchmarks of burden levels for PRO scores obtained among those on contemporary therapies for comparison with outcomes from patients managed with emerging treatments. Funding Astellas Pharma Global Development, Inc.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-019-0880-8
  • Short-Term Assessment of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant Using
           Enhanced-Depth Image Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence
           Tomography Angiography in Patients with Retinal Vascular Diseases
    • Authors: Angelo Maria Minnella; Matteo Federici; Valeria Pagliei; Angela Lanza; Gloria Gambini; Carmela Grazia Caputo; Benedetto Falsini; Aldo Caporossi
      Abstract: Introduction To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI) in patients with macular oedema associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) using enhanced-depth image optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and to estimate the effect of dexamethasone on the choroid and the retinal vascular network using OCT angiography (OCTA). Methods Fifteen eyes in 15 patients with macular oedema secondary to diabetes (DR, n = 8) or retinal vein occlusion (RVO, n = 7) were treated with intravitreal injection of sustained-release IDI. Primary efficacy end points were changes in best corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness (CMT). Secondary end points were changes in choroidal thickness and choroidal and retinal vascular networks as determined by OCTA. Results CMT was significantly reduced from baseline by 3 h after injection (p < 0.01) and improved further during the 3-month follow-up. Visual acuity improvement was consistent with CMT reduction. No alterations in IOP or systemic side effects were observed. OCTA showed improvement from baseline in terms of decreased number and size of cysts and restoration of the retinal vascular network; flow choroidal thickness did not change significantly. CMT and visual acuity variations were similar in the two groups. Conclusions CMT reduced as early as 3 h after the injection of IDI, with further reduction during follow-up. Choroidal thickness was unchanged, whereas the vascular retinal network improved from baseline to the end of study. Both EDI-OCT and OCTA were useful in demonstrating the early beneficial effects of IDI on the macula and the perifoveal vascular network. Funding The article processing charges, the open access fee and the medical writing and editorial assistance was funded by Allergan.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0848-0
  • Comparative Bioavailability of Metformin Hydrochloride Oral Solution
           Versus Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets in Fasting Mexican Healthy
    • Authors: Lourdes Garza-Ocañas; Jorge González-Canudas; Eduardo Tamez-de la O; Christian Badillo-Castañeda; Marco Vinicio Gómez-Meza; Yulia Romero-Antonio; Aarón Molina-Pérez; Ana Gabriela Amador-Hernández
      Abstract: Introduction Metformin tablets may be challenging to swallow not only for those patients with dysphagia but also for children and the elderly. A metformin solution was developed for easier administration and flexible dose adjustment mantained with the same bioavailability of tablets. The objective of this study was to assess the single-dose oral bioavailability of metformin hydrochloride administered as an oral solution (500 mg/5 mL) compared with metformin hydrochloride 500 mg tablets in fasting Mexican healthy volunteers. Methods A randomized, single dose, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study design with a 7-day washout interval was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 500 mg metformin hydrochloride, either as an oral solution (test drug) or as a tablet (reference drug), after 10 h of fasting. Plasma samples (16) were collected over a 16-h period after drug administration. Bioequivalence was declared when the ratio for the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the difference in the means of the log-transformed area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to the last observed concentration time (AUC0–t), the area under the concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinite time (AUC0–∞), and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of the two products were within 0.80 and 1.25 interval. Plasma concentrations were analyzed using reverse phase chromatography by tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Safety and tolerability of metformin were also assessed in all subjects. Results 24 subjects were enrolled and completed the study (15 female and 9 male). Test and reference metformin hydrochloride were bioequivalent during the extent of exposure since AUC0–t and Cmax 90% CIs corresponded to 89.77–101.08% and 89.63–102.48%, respectively, both being within the pre-specified acceptance range criteria (80–125%). There were two adverse events (AE) with the reference formulation that were not related to the study drug. Conclusions Bioequivalence in healthy volunteers in fasting conditions of the two metformin hydrochloride formulations (oral solution and tablets) was established, being the difference in means of AUC0–t, AUC0–∞ and Cmax within the acceptance range (80–125%). Oral solution formulation could offer the advantages of allowing adjusted doses and easier swallowing for every patient. Plain Language Summary Plain language summary is available for this article. Trial Registration National Clinical Trials Registry (RNEC by its Spanish acronym), BD METF-Sil No. 86-15. Mexican Medicine Agency (COFEPRIS) Registry: 153300410B0368. Funding Laboratorios Silanes, S.A. de C.V.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0853-3
  • Correction to: Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Study Comparing
           Tafluprost/Timolol Fixed Combination with Latanoprost/Timolol Fixed
           Combination in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension
    • Authors: Katsuyoshi Suzuki; On behalf of the Tafluprost/Timolol Versus Latanoprost/Timolol (TTVLT) Study Group; Naomi Otsuka; Hiroko Hizaki; Masayo Hashimoto; Yasuaki Kuwayama
      Abstract: In the original publication, the range to derive the P values is incorrectly represented in Table 2 and Table 3. The corrected tables are provided below.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0864-0
  • Efficacy, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetic Impact of Aprepitant in Sarcoma
           Patients Receiving Ifosfamide and Doxorubicin Chemotherapy: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Jie Xiong; Guifang Zhao; Shengli Yang; Jing Chen
      Abstract: Introduction Aprepitant, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme, which is involved in the clearance of several chemotherapeutic agents. Here we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a combination of aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone as antiemetic prophylaxis in sarcoma patients receiving ifosfamide and doxorubicin chemotherapy, and examined the potential of aprepitant to affect the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide, which is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Methods A total of 108 sarcoma patients were randomly assigned to either the aprepitant group (antiemetic regimen: aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone) or the control group (antiemetic regimen: palonosetron and dexamethasone). Data on nausea, vomiting, and use of rescue medication were collected, and the primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients with complete response (CR), defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy during 120 h after initiation of chemotherapy. Tolerability was evaluated on the basis of reported adverse events and laboratory assessments. Blood samples for ifosfamide pharmacokinetic analysis were collected in ten patients. Results The percentage of patients achieving CR was significantly higher in the aprepitant group compared with that in the control group in the acute, delay, and overall phase (78.4% vs. 59.3%, 74.5% vs. 48.1%, and 68.6% vs. 37.0%, p < 0.05, respectively). No significant differences of adverse events or hematological toxicity were detected between the two groups. Concomitant administration of aprepitant did not cause any statistically significant changes in ifosfamide pharmacokinetics. Values for aprepitant group vs. control group were as follows: geometric mean of Cmax was 119 vs. 120 ng/mL, AUC0–last was 648 vs. 635 ng h/mL, AUC0–inf was 681 vs. 668 ng h/mL, plasma clearance was 4.40 vs. 4.49 (L/h/m2), respectively; harmonic means of t1/2 was 2.11 vs. 2.25 h. Conclusions This study showed that aprepitant in combination with palonosetron and dexamethasone was safe and effectively controlled CINV in sarcoma patients receiving ifosfamide and doxorubicin chemotherapy. Aprepitant may have a low potential to affect the pharmacokinetics of chemotherapeutic agents metabolized by CYP3A4.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0862-2
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