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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Advances in Therapy
  [SJR: 0.79]   [H-I: 44]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1865-8652 - ISSN (Online) 0741-238X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Comparing the Administration of Letrozole and Megestrol Acetate in the
           Treatment of Women with Simple Endometrial Hyperplasia without Atypia: A
           Randomized Clinical Trial
    • Authors: Sanam Moradan; Niaz Nikkhah; Majid Mirmohammadkhanai
      Pages: 1211 - 1220
      Abstract: Introduction The present study was conducted as a pilot to compare the therapeutic effects and the potential side effects of oral Megestrol acetate and Letrozole in the treatment of simple hyperplasia in perimenopausal women. Methods The participants of this randomized clinical trial consisted of two groups of 25 women aged 44–50 presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding diagnosed with simple endometrial hyperplasia without cytologic atypia confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and biopsy. The first group received 40-mg doses of Megestrol acetate for 2 weeks per month for a total period of 2 months. The second group received 2.5-mg daily doses of Letrozole for a total period of 2 months. The differences in terms of quantitative measurements were analyzed using the independent two-sample t test and the paired t test. To compare the two groups in terms of the distribution of the categorical variables, Pearson’s Chi square and Fisher’s Exact tests were used at the significance level of 0.05 by Stata-9.2. Results Although the intervention led to significant improvements in both groups (P < .001), there was no difference between the groups in terms of accomplishing resolution (P = .74) [seven (28%) patients in the Letrozole group and five (20%) in the Megestrol group], while two patients in the Letrozole group and nine in the Megestrol group suffered from side effects, suggesting significantly lower side effects in the Letrozole group (P = .02). Conclusion Letrozole and Megestrol acetate seem to have similar effects on the treatment of simple endometrial hyperplasia, the only difference being that Letrozole presents fewer side effects than Megestrol acetate in patients with this condition. Funding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Trial Registration: IRCT2015031011504N5
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0509-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 5 (2017)
  • A Case Series of Dacryoendoscopy in Childhood: A Diagnostic and
           Therapeutic Alternative for Complex Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct
           Obstruction Even in the First Year of Life
    • Authors: Jens Heichel; Hans-Gert Struck; Miltiadis Fiorentzis; Thomas Hammer; Timm Bredehorn-Mayr
      Pages: 1221 - 1232
      Abstract: Introduction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is the most common cause of epiphora in infancy. Spontaneous resolution occurs in the majority of the cases by 1 year of age. Nevertheless, obstruction has a negative impact on the outcome of conservative or surgical therapy, especially in cases of complex CNLDO. When the condition persists beyond several months, early intervention with dacryoendoscopy (DE) around the age of 1 year could yield good results. The objective of the study is to analyze the success rate and effectiveness of early DE for complex CNLDO in the first year of life. Methods A retrospective, non-comparative case series is presented. DE was performed under general anesthesia in patients between the age of 1 and 12 months with severe recurrent acute or chronic dacryocystitis. The medical histories, intraoperative and postoperative results after 3 months as well as via parents’ interviews were analyzed to investigate the success rate. Results A total of 18 consecutive DE in 16 patients between the age of 1 and 12 months (mean 7.3 ± 3.4 months) were studied. Nine lacrimal ducts were diagnosed with persistent chronic dacryocystitis refractory to probing/syringing. The remaining 9 presented recurrent acute dacryocystitis. Diagnostic DE was performed in 18 cases. A therapeutic DE was conducted in 15 lacrimal ducts (83.3%) with simultaneous correction of the associated stenosiswith the tip of the endoscope. A visual controlled opening of the stenosis was impossible in 3 cases due to a too narrow presaccal anatomy (n = 1), an osseous duct stenosis (n = 1), and a bulging membrane of Hasner into the inferior nasal meatus (n = 1). Postoperative findings were classified into four categories: poor, fair, good and excellent. Good results were documented in 16.7% (n = 3) and excellent results in 77.7% (n = 14). The bony obstruction was treated with dacryocystorhinostomy. A minimum follow-up of 3 months was considered for final clinical analysis. Ten patients’ parents (12 surgeries) were interviewed by telephone (mean follow-up 24.8 months). No recurrence of stenosis and no further postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion DE is a diagnostic and therapeutic option for complex CNLDO in patients before the age of 1 year. The outcome of DE in the 3 months follow-up is highly indicative of positive final results in terms of patency of the lacrimal duct.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0517-8
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 5 (2017)
  • Study Design of VESUTO ® : Efficacy of Tiotropium/Olodaterol on Lung
           Hyperinflation, Exercise Capacity, and Physical Activity in Japanese
           Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • Authors: Masakazu Ichinose; Yoshiaki Minakata; Takashi Motegi; Jun Ueki; Tetsuo Seki; Tatsuhiko Anzai; Ayako Takizawa; Lars Grönke; Kazuto Hirata
      Abstract: Introduction The superiority of tiotropium/olodaterol is demonstrated in improvement of lung function, dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and quality of life compared with either monotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Japanese Respiratory Society Guidelines for COPD management include improvement of exercise tolerance and daily physical activity as the treatment goals; however, there is limited evidence in Japanese patients with COPD. Methods A protocol is developed for the VESUTO® study that investigates the efficacy of tiotropium/olodaterol fixed-dose combination (FDC) compared with tiotropium alone on inspiratory capacity (IC, volume from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity), exercise capacity, and daily physical activity in Japanese patients with COPD. Results A total of 180 Japanese patients with COPD, aged ≥40 years will be enrolled into the double-blind, multicenter, active-controlled, crossover study (NCT02629965) and will be randomized to receive either tiotropium/olodaterol FDC or tiotropium for 6 weeks each [two puffs via RESPIMAT® (Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) inhaler in the morning]. The primary endpoint is IC at rest measured at 60 min post-dose after 6 weeks treatment. The secondary endpoints include the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) at 90 min post-dose and physical activity measured by the activity monitor in the last 2 weeks of the 6-week treatment periods. Lung function tests will also be assessed after 6 weeks treatment. A mixed-effects model repeated measures approach will be used for the primary and secondary endpoints. Conclusion The VESUTO® study is the first randomized interventional study to investigate exercise capacity (6MWD) and physical activity measured by a 3-axis accelerometer in Japanese patients with COPD. The study could provide additional evidence of long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) + long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) combination therapy on patients’ physical activities as well as lung function. Trial registration NCT02629965 (registered on December 1, 2015). Funding The VESUTO study was funded by Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0554-3
  • Life Impact and Treatment Preferences of Individuals with Asthma and
           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Results from Qualitative Interviews
           and Focus Groups
    • Authors: Henrik Svedsater; June Roberts; Chloe Patel; Jake Macey; Emma Hilton; Lisa Bradshaw
      Abstract: Introduction The impact of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on individuals’ lives may be substantial, yet clinical practice often focuses only on symptoms. We aimed to better understand the perspective of asthma or COPD patients and to identify condition-related burden, life impact, priorities, unmet needs, and treatment goals. Methods Individuals aged at least 18 years with asthma or COPD were identified by a recruitment panel via clinical referrals, support groups, consumer networks, and a patient database. Interviews were carried out individually (by telephone) or in focus groups (with no more than five participants per group). A semi-structured interview guide was used with prespecified topics, informed by a literature review, that were considered impactful in asthma or COPD (symptoms and daily-life impact, satisfaction with current treatment, important aspects of treatment, adherence, and ideal treatment). Results Overall, 72 people participated in focus groups/individual interviews (asthma n = 18/n = 21; COPD n = 15/n = 18). “Shortness of breath” was the most frequently reported symptom; however, participants discussed the life impact of their condition more than symptoms alone. Reported physical impacts included the inability to sleep and socialize, while emotional impacts included “embarrassment, stigma, and/or self-consciousness”, “fear and/or panic”, and “sadness, anxiety, and/or depression”. Coping mechanisms for normal activities included continuing at reduced pace and avoidance. Treatment preferences centered on resolving impacts; improved sleep, “speed of action”, and “length of relief” were the most frequently reported ideal treatment factors. Conclusion Patients with asthma or COPD experience substantial quality of life limitations and tend to focus on these in their expressions of concern, rather than symptoms per se. Life impacts of these conditions may have implications beyond those commonly appreciated in routine practice; these considerations will be applied to a future discrete choice experiment survey. Funding GSK funded study (H0-15-15502/204821).
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0557-0
  • Randomized Phase 3 Trial of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir and
           Ribavirin for Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2-Infected Japanese Patients
    • Authors: Ken Sato; Kazuaki Chayama; Katia Alves; Hidenori Toyoda; Fumitaka Suzuki; Koji Kato; Lino Rodrigues; Xinyan Zhang; Carolyn Setze; Tami Pilot-Matias; Margaret Burroughs; Rebecca Redman; Hiromitsu Kumada
      Abstract: Introduction In Japan, hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 2 accounts for approximately 32% of HCV infections. Limited treatment options exist in Japan for HCV GT2-infected patients. GIFT-II was a phase 3, randomized, open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of 16- and 12-week regimens of co-formulated ombitasvir (OBV)/paritaprevir (PTV)/ritonavir (r) plus ribavirin (RBV) in Japanese adults with HCV GT2 infection. Methods Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to once-daily, co-formulated OBV/PTV/r (25/150/100 mg) with weight-based RBV for 16 or 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) rate in the primary efficacy population of non-cirrhotic treatment-naive patients. Results A total of 171 patients were randomized to OBV/PTV/r + RBV. In the primary efficacy population, SVR12 rates were 91.5% (43/47; 95% confidence interval 83.5–99.5%) and 75.0% (36/48; 95% confidence interval 62.8–87.2%) in the 16-week arm and 12-week arm, respectively. No patient in the 16-week arm relapsed by post-treatment week 12. Among non-cirrhotic treatment-experienced patients, the overall SVR rate in the 16-week arm was 75.8% (25/33) and was highest [93.8% (15/16)] among those who had relapsed after previous interferon-based therapy. SVR12 rates were consistently higher in patients with HCV GT2a infection versus HCV GT2b infection [16-week treatment arm: 93.9% (31/33) versus 85.7% (12/14) and 93.8% (15/16) versus 56.3% (9/16) among non-cirrhotic treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, respectively]. No patient discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. The most common adverse events were anemia, increased blood bilirubin, and nasopharyngitis. Conclusions OBV/PTV/r + RBV for 16 weeks resulted in high SVR12 rates in non-cirrhotic Japanese patients infected with HCV GT2 who were treatment-naive or who had relapsed after an interferon-based therapy. Higher SVR12 rates were observed among patients with HCV GT2a infection versus those with GT2b infection. This regimen demonstrated a favorable safety profile. Trial Registration: identifier, NCT02023112. Funding: AbbVie.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0506-y
  • Advances in Clinical Cardiology 2016: A Summary of the Key Clinical Trials
    • Authors: Alastair Gray; Conor McQuillan; Ian B. A. Menown
      Abstract: Introduction The findings of many new cardiology clinical trials over the last year have been published or presented at major international meetings. This paper aims to describe and place in context a summary of the key clinical trials in cardiology presented between January and December 2016. Methods The authors reviewed clinical trials presented at major cardiology conferences during 2016 including the American College of Cardiology (ACC), European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EuroPCR), European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT), and the American Heart Association (AHA). Selection criteria were trials with a broad relevance to the cardiology community and those with potential to change current practice. Results A total of 57 key cardiology clinical trials were identified for inclusion. Here we describe and place in clinical context the key findings of new data relating to interventional and structural cardiology including delayed stenting following primary angioplasty, contrast-induced nephropathy, management of jailed wires, optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), stenting vs bypass for left main disease, new generation stents (BioFreedom, Orsiro, Absorb), transcatheter aortic valve implantation (Edwards Sapien XT, transcatheter embolic protection), and closure devices (Watchman, Amplatzer). New preventative cardiology data include trials of bariatric surgery, empagliflozin, liraglutide, semaglutide, PCSK9 inhibitors (evolocumab and alirocumab), and inclisiran. Antiplatelet therapy trials include platelet function monitoring and ticagrelor vs clopidogrel for peripheral vascular disease. New data are also presented in fields of heart failure (sacubitril/valsartan, aliskiren, spironolactone), atrial fibrillation (rivaroxaban in patients undergoing coronary intervention, edoxaban in DC cardioversion), cardiac devices (implantable cardioverter defibrillator in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy), and electrophysiology (cryoballoon vs radiofrequency ablation). Conclusion This paper presents a summary of key clinical cardiology trials during the past year and should be of practical value to both clinicians and cardiology researchers.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0560-5
  • NAFLD as a Sexual Dimorphic Disease: Role of Gender and Reproductive
           Status in the Development and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver
           Disease and Inherent Cardiovascular Risk
    • Authors: Stefano Ballestri; Fabio Nascimbeni; Enrica Baldelli; Alessandra Marrazzo; Dante Romagnoli; Amedeo Lonardo
      Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals’ ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue. Ovarian senescence facilitates both the development of massive hepatic steatosis and the fibrotic progression of liver disease in an experimental overfed zebrafish model. Consistently, estrogen deficiency, by potentiating hepatic inflammatory changes, hastens the progression of disease in a dietary model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) developing in ovariectomized mice fed a high-fat diet. In humans, NAFLD more often affects men; and premenopausal women are equally protected from developing NAFLD as they are from cardiovascular disease. It would be expected that early menarche, definitely associated with estrogen activation, would produce protection against the risk of NAFLD. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that early menarche may confer an increased risk of NAFLD in adulthood, excess adiposity being the primary culprit of this association. Fertile age may be associated with more severe hepatocyte injury and inflammation, but also with a decreased risk of liver fibrosis compared to men and postmenopausal status. Later in life, ovarian senescence is strongly associated with severe steatosis and fibrosing NASH, which may occur in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deficiency is deemed to be responsible for these findings via the development of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. Estrogen supplementation may at least theoretically protect from NAFLD development and progression, as suggested by some studies exploring the effect of hormonal replacement therapy on postmenopausal women, but the variable impact of different sex hormones in NAFLD (i.e., the pro-inflammatory effect of progesterone) should be carefully considered.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0556-1
  • Erratum to: Evaluation of the Short-Term Cost-Effectiveness of IDegLira
           Versus Continued Up-Titration of Insulin Glargine U100 in Patients with
           Type 2 Diabetes in the USA
    • Authors: Barnaby Hunt; Michelle Mocarski; William J. Valentine; Jakob Langer
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0543-6
  • Genetic Variants Within Key Nodes of the Cascade of Antipsychotic
           Mechanisms: Effects on Antipsychotic Response and Schizophrenia
           Psychopathology in a Naturalistic Treatment Setting in Two Independent
           Korean and Italian Samples
    • Authors: Marco Calabrò; Stefano Porcelli; Concetta Crisafulli; Sheng-Min Wang; Soo-Jung Lee; Changsu Han; Ashwin A. Patkar; Prakash S. Masand; Diego Albani; Ilaria Raimondi; Gianluigi Forloni; Sofia Bin; Alessandro Mattiaccio; Vilma Mantovani; Tae-Youn Jun; Chi-Un Pae; Alessandro Serretti
      Abstract: Introduction Schizophrenia (SCZ) is one of the most disabling psychiatric disorders. Genetic factors play an important role in both SCZ liability and its treatment outcome. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ten strong candidate genes involved with antipsychotics (APs) mechanisms of action. Methods Two independent samples were investigated in the present study. Totals of 176 SCZ subjects and 326 controls of Korean ancestry, and 83 SCZ subjects and 194 controls of Italian ancestry were recruited and genotyped. SCZ risk and other parameters were also investigated. Results Concerning APs response, only a nominal association with HOMER1 rs3822568 in the Korean sample was found. In the haplotype analysis, rs9801117 C–rs12668837 C–rs4621754 A haplotype within ESYT2 and NCAPG2 genes was associated with APs response in the same sample. As for secondary outcomes, rs7439 within PKDCC and rs12668837 within NCAPG2 were associated with SCZ risk in the Italian sample. In the haplotype analysis, rs2788478 G–rs2657375 T–rs1039621 A within the region between WDR60 and ESYT genes and rs2013 C (ESYT2)–rs6459896 A (NCAPG2) haplotypes were associated with SCZ in the same sample. No association was found in the Korean sample. Finally, our exploratory data suggest a possible modulation of HOMER1, ARC, BDNF, TXNRD2, WDR60, and ESYT2 genes in the APs response to specific symptom clusters. Conclusion Our results did not support a primary role for the genes investigated in the APs response. On the other hand, our secondary results suggest a possible involvement of NACPG2 and PKDCC in SCZ liability. Finally, our exploratory findings may deserve further investigations in specific studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0555-2
  • Multicenter, Randomized, Investigator-Masked Study Comparing Brimonidine
           Tartrate 0.1% and Timolol Maleate 0.5% as Adjunctive Therapies to
           Prostaglandin Analogues in Normal-Tension Glaucoma
    • Authors: Shiro Mizoue; Koji Nitta; Motohiro Shirakashi; Akiyoshi Nitta; Shigeki Yamabayashi; Tairo Kimura; Toshihiko Ueda; Ryuji Takeda; Shun Matsumoto; Keiji Yoshikawa
      Abstract: Introduction This study compared the efficacy and safety of adjunctive brimonidine tartrate 0.1% ophthalmic solution (brimonidine) and timolol maleate 0.5% ophthalmic solution (timolol) in prostaglandin analogue (PGA)-treated normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), assessing the non-inferiority of brimonidine in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Methods In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group, clinical study, adjunctive brimonidine or timolol was administered twice daily for 12 weeks in eyes with NTG that had been treated with PGA for at least 90 days and required additional treatment despite an IOP of 16 mmHg or less. IOP was measured on at least three visits before add-on therapy (mean baseline IOP), and at weeks 4, 8, and 12 after adjunctive administration. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and adverse events (AEs) were recorded at each visit. Results A total of 152 individuals were enrolled and 128 (84.2%) were eligible for efficacy analyses. IOP in both groups at each visit decreased significantly from baseline (P < 0.001). However, the difference in the change from baseline IOP at week 12 between the brimonidine (−1.05 ± 1.81 mmHg) and timolol (−1.41 ± 1.40 mmHg) groups was 0.36 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.21, 0.92]), which exceeded the value of the non-inferiority margin (0.75 mmHg). Baseline systolic/diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups at certain visits (P < 0.05), while baseline pulse rates decreased significantly in the timolol group (P < 0.001), with no significant differences in the brimonidine group. AE-related treatment discontinuation occurred in 2/71 (2.8%) and 2/75 (2.7%) patients in the brimonidine and timolol groups, respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated an add-on effect of brimonidine to PGAs, although non-inferiority of brimonidine to timolol as adjunctive therapy in PGA-treated NTG in terms of IOP reduction was not observed. Brimonidine was associated with no adverse effects on pulse rate. Funding Senju Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry identifier, UMIN000014810.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0552-5
  • Duration of Antiviral Prophylaxis and Risk of Herpes Zoster among Patients
           Receiving Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants: A Retrospective,
           Observational Study
    • Authors: Dongmu Zhang; Thomas Weiss; Yu Feng; Lynn Finelli
      Abstract: Introduction There are no real-world data on antiviral prophylaxis (AP) duration and risk of herpes zoster (HZ) given AP duration in patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants (auto-HSCT). The objectives of this study are to describe the duration of AP and to compare incidence of HZ by AP duration in auto-HSCT patients. Methods This is a retrospective, observational database (Marketscan®) study. This study included patients ≥18 years old who had auto-HSCT during 2009–2013, had chemotherapy within 60 days prior to auto-HSCT (latest chemotherapy date within the 60 days was the study enrollment date), and had continuous health plan enrollment for at least 365 days before and after the study enrollment date. AP duration was the sum of days supply of all AP prescriptions from 30 days before to 365 days after the study enrollment date. Patients were followed from the study enrollment date to the end of continuous health plan enrollment, death, or December 31, 2014 to assess HZ incidence. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between the risk of HZ and AP duration. Results This study identified 1959 eligible auto-HSCT patients, of whom 93.0% were prescribed AP. Average AP duration was 220 days (SD = 122), while 200 (11%) patients had AP for ≥1 year. HZ incidence was 42.4/1000 person-years (PY) (95% CI 36.5, 49.0) for the overall auto-HSCT cohort. Among patients who received AP, duration of AP prescriptions and HZ incidence were inversely related. Compared with patients who were on AP for 1–89 days, patients with AP duration of 180–269 days [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.576, p = 0.019], 270–359 days (HR = 0.594, p = 0.023), and ≥360 days (HR = 0.309, p < 0.001) had significantly lower risk of HZ. Conclusion Auto-HSCT patients are at increased risk for HZ, even when prescribed AP. A safe and effective vaccine against HZ for auto-HSCT patients could be a useful adjunctive prevention strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0553-4
  • Perceptions of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in South-East Asia:
           Results from Patient and Physician Surveys
    • Authors: Rayaz A. Malik; Emre Aldinc; Siew-Pheng Chan; Chaicharn Deerochanawong; Chii-Min Hwu; Raymond L. Rosales; Chun-Yip Yeung; Koichi Fujii; Bruce Parsons
      Abstract: There are no data on physician–patient communication in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) in the Asia–Pacific region. The objective of this study was to examine patient and physician perceptions of pDPN and clinical practice behaviors in five countries in South-East Asia. Primary care physicians and practitioners, endocrinologists, diabetologists, and patients with pDPN completed separate surveys on pDPN diagnosis, impact, management, and physician–patient interactions in Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. Data were obtained from 100 physicians and 100 patients in each country. The majority of physicians (range across countries, 30–85%) were primary care physicians and practitioners. Patients were mostly aged 18–55 years and had been diagnosed with diabetes for >5 years. Physicians believed pDPN had a greater impact on quality of life than did patients (ranges 83–92% and 39–72%, respectively), but patients believed pDPN had a greater impact on items such as sleep, anxiety, depression, and work than physicians. Physicians considered the diagnosis and treatment of pDPN a low priority, which may be reflected in the generally low incidence of screening (range 12–65%) and a lack of awareness of pDPN. Barriers to treatment included patients’ lack of awareness of pDPN. Both physicians and patients agreed that pain scales and local language descriptions were the most useful tools in helping to describe patients’ pain. Most patients were monitored upon diagnosis of pDPN (range 55–97%), but patients reported a shorter duration of monitoring compared with physicians. Both physicians and patients agreed that it was patients who initiated conversations on pDPN. Physicians most commonly referred to guidelines from the American Diabetes Association or local guidelines for the management of pDPN. This study highlights important differences between physician and patient perceptions of pDPN, which may impact on its diagnosis and treatment. For a chronic and debilitating complication like pDPN, the physician–patient dialogue is central to maximizing patient outcomes. Strategies, including education of both groups, need to be developed to improve communication. Funding Pfizer.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0536-5
  • Prospective Observational Post-Marketing Study of Tafluprost for Glaucoma
           and Ocular Hypertension: Effectiveness and Treatment Persistence
    • Authors: Yasuaki Kuwayama; Masako Hashimoto; Reiko Kakegawa; Akio Nomura; Fumiki Shimada
      Abstract: Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect and safety of tafluprost, a prostaglandin analogue, in actual clinical practice and to determine persistency of tafluprost as an indicator of its benefit–risk balance. Methods This was a large-scale, post-marketing, multicenter, non-interventional, open-label, long-term study. Patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who initiated tafluprost treatment were registered and prospectively observed over a 2-year period in the real-world setting in Japan. Long-term IOP and safety data were collected. Results Of the 4502 patients registered from 553 medical institutions, 4265 patients were analyzed. The majority of patients had normal-tension glaucoma (44.4%) and primary open-angle glaucoma (37.8%), and patients with ocular hypertension constituted 7.0%. Treatment patterns with tafluprost during the study period were as follows: naïve monotherapy (48.1%), switching monotherapy (18.4%), and concomitant therapy (33.5%). In all patients analyzed, mean IOP was significantly reduced from 18.6 ± 5.9 mmHg (month 0) to 15 mmHg or below throughout the 2-year observation period after initiation of tafluprost. Significant IOP-lowering effects were shown in various treatment patterns and disease types. Adverse reactions were observed in 795 patients (18.64%). Major adverse reactions included eyelid pigmentation, ocular hyperemia, eyelash changes, eyelid hypertrichosis, and iris hyperpigmentation. Kaplan–Meier curves showed that 84.6% and 76.1% of patients were persistent on tafluprost for 1 and 2 years, respectively, when discontinuation due to insufficient efficacy or adverse events was defined as a treatment failure event. Furthermore, among treatment-naïve patients (n = 2304), the persistency rates on tafluprost monotherapy were 77.0% for 1 year and 67.0% for 2 years. Conclusion Tafluprost showed significant long-term IOP-lowering effects regardless of treatment patterns or diagnosis, with minimum safety concerns in the actual clinical practice. The observed treatment persistence suggests that tafluprost can be used long term owing to its benefit–risk profile. Funding Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0549-0
  • Non-Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Special
           Populations with Atrial Fibrillation
    • Authors: Arnaud Bisson; Denis Angoulvant; Raphael Philippart; Nicolas Clementy; Dominique Babuty; Laurent Fauchier
      Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism compared with normal sinus rhythm. These strokes may efficiently be prevented in patients with risk factors using oral anticoagulant therapy, with either vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) (i.e., direct thrombin inhibitors or direct factor Xa inhibitors). Owing to their specific risk profiles, some AF populations may have increased risks of both thromboembolic and bleeding events. These AF patients may be denied oral anticoagulants, whilst evidence shows that the absolute benefits of oral anticoagulants are greatest in patients at highest risk. NOACs are an alternative to VKAs to prevent stroke in patients with “non-valvular AF”, and NOACs may offer a greater net clinical benefit compared with VKAs, particularly in these high-risk patients. Physicians have to learn how to use these drugs optimally in specific settings. We review concrete clinical scenarios for which practical answers are currently proposed for use of NOACs based on available evidence for patients with kidney disease, elderly patients, women, patients with diabetes, patients with low or high body weight, and those with valve disease.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0550-7
  • Repurposing Pentoxifylline for the Treatment of Fibrosis: An Overview
    • Authors: Wei Xiong Wen; Siang Yin Lee; Rafaella Siang; Rhun Yian Koh
      Abstract: Fibrosis is a potentially debilitating disease with high morbidity rates. It is estimated that half of all deaths that occur in the USA are attributed to fibrotic disorders. Fibrotic disorders are characterized primarily by disruption in the extracellular matrix deposition and breakdown equilibrium, leading to the accumulation of excessive amounts of extracellular matrix. Given the potentially high prevalence of fibrosis and the paucity of agents currently available for the treatment of this disease, there is an urgent need for the identification of drugs that can be utilized to treat the disease. Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative that is currently approved for the treatment of vascular diseases, in particular, claudication. Pentoxifylline has three main properties: improving the rheological properties of blood, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative. Recently, the effectiveness of pentoxifylline in the treatment of fibrosis via attenuating and reversing fibrotic lesions has been demonstrated in several clinical trials and animal studies. As a result of the limited availability of antifibrotic agents in the long-term treatment of fibrosis that can attenuate and even reverse fibrotic lesions effectively, it would be of particular importance to consider the potential clinical utility of pentoxifylline in the treatment of fibrosis. Thus, this paper discusses the evolving roles of pentoxifylline in the treatment of different types of fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0547-2
  • Predicting Pre-emptive Discussions of Biologic Treatment: Results from an
           Openness and Preference Survey of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients and
           Their Prescribers
    • Authors: M. Furaha Kariburyo; Lin Xie; Amanda Teeple; Haoran Tan; Michael Ingham
      Abstract: Introduction It is important to compare patient and provider discrepancies on stated openness to and preference for biologics as well as predictors associated with initial discussions on biologic use. Methods Patients (N = 263) and physicians (N = 100) completed a self-administered Web-based survey assessing demographics, health characteristics, and behaviors related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment. Bootstrap methods were used to check discrepancies between providers’ and patients’ stated openness to and preference for biologics. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis identified patient-specific predictors associated with initial biologics discussions. Results A total of 170 patients responded consistently to preference questions, and 169 patients responded consistently to openness questions. Physicians significantly overestimated patients’ openness to biologics in general (85.46% vs. 74.61%, p < 0.0001), but underestimated patients’ openness to the intravenous (IV) mode of administration (MOA; 55.97% vs. 63.96%, p < 0.0001). Overall, physicians significantly underestimated patient preference for IV MOA (22.07% vs. 42.35%, p < 0.0001) and, to a lesser extent, subcutaneous MOA (48.84% vs. 54.69%, p < 0.0001). Among Crohn’s disease (CD) patients (N = 123), CART threshold analysis identified an inpatient visit in the last 6 months, CD diagnosis for more than 3 years, and non-adherence to prior IBD treatment as most positively predictive of having an initial biologics discussion. Conclusion Physicians appear to underestimate patient preferences in favor of biologics, especially IV formulations. Since it is unclear if physicians were aware of the patients’ preferences beforehand, this study supports the need for validated, shared decision-making tools when initiating IBD treatment. Additional studies are necessary to measure physicians’ influences on patient preference/treatment-related decisions and the impact on patient outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0545-4
  • Ranibizumab in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review of the
           Current Status, Unmet Needs, and Emerging Challenges
    • Authors: Nikolaos Dervenis; Athanasia Maria Mikropoulou; Paris Tranos; Panagiotis Dervenis
      Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (more specifically diabetic macular edema, DME) is the most common cause of loss of vision in the working population in developed countries. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents considerably changed the treatment algorithms and improved prognosis of center-involving DME. Ranibizumab was the first approved anti-VEGF agent that revolutionized DME treatment. The vast increase in the number of patients undergoing intravitreal treatment and the role of anti-VEGF pharmacotherapy as the mainstay of DME treatment have triggered several challenges. Among them, of considerable interest is the quest for an optimal dosing scheme and the search for combination therapies. Although a significant body of research is directed towards other molecules that could potentially be new therapeutic targets, VEGF inhibition is expected to play an important long-term role in the treatment of DME considering the pathogenesis of the disease. Finally, recent studies revealed that ranibizumab may constitute a significant treatment modality in the management of other diabetic vision-threatening complications including proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0548-1
  • Erratum to: The Rituximab Biosimilar CT-P10 in Rheumatology and Cancer: A
           Budget Impact Analysis in 28 European Countries
    • Authors: László Gulácsi; Valentin Brodszky; Petra Baji; Fanni Rencz; Márta Péntek
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0538-3
  • Erratum to: The Clinical Effectiveness of Ranibizumab Treat and Extend
           Regimen in nAMD: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Andriy Danyliv; Julie Glanville; Rachael McCool; Alberto Ferreira; Adrian Skelly; Ruth Pulikottil Jacob
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0533-8
  • Outcome Measures of Adjustable Transobturator Male System with
           Pre-attached Scrotal Port for Male Stress Urinary Incontinence After
           Radical Prostatectomy: A Prospective Study
    • Abstract: Introduction The objective of this study was to report outcome measures with third-generation pre-attached scrotal port adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS) for male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after radical prostatectomy. Methods A prospective open study was conducted on consecutive patients. Evaluation included cough test, urethroscopy, filling and voiding cystometry, 24-h pad count and pad test, patient-reported outcomes (ICIQ-SF, IIQ-7, PGI, GRA, and VAS), complications according to the Clavien–Dindo system, operative results, number of adjustments, and filling of the system. Results Thirty-four patients with median pad test 510 (170–1225) ml were operated on. Preoperative SUI was mild (5.9%), moderate (17.6%), and severe (76.5%). At median 18.5 (12–26) months follow-up distribution of SUI was none (85.3%), mild (8.8%), and moderate (5.9%). Median intraoperative filling was 14 (8–17) ml, number of adjustments 1 (0–5), and total filling 17.5 (11–33.5) ml. At 3 months, median ICIQ-SF (p = 0.0001) and IIQ-7 (p < 0.0001) decreased. At 12 months, 24-h pad count and pad test decreased (both p < 0.0001), residual volume slightly increased (p = 0.018), PGI-I was 1 (1–3), GRA 6 (3–6), and 97% were satisfied with treatment. Continence (p = 0.016) and satisfaction (p = 0.09) were worse in irradiated patients. Median operative time was 67 (35–120) min, hospital stay 1 (1–3) days, and VAS for pain on postoperative day 1 was 0 (0–2). Complications presented in 14.7% (8.8% grade I and 5.9% grade III). Conclusion Treatment of severe male SUI after radical prostatectomy with pre-attached scrotal port ATOMS is safe and very effective in the short term. A positive cough test before implant and intraoperative overfilling of the system may optimize patient selection and results.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0528-5
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