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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Acta Geotechnica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.588
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-1133 - ISSN (Online) 1861-1125
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Grain-scale characterization of water retention behaviour of sand using
           X-ray CT
    • Authors: Ghonwa Khaddour; Ismael Riedel; Edward Andò; Pascal Charrier; Pierre Bésuelle; Jacques Desrues; Gioacchino Viggiani; Simon Salager
      Pages: 497 - 512
      Abstract: This paper introduces X-ray tomography as an experimental method that allows grain-scale measurements for both porosity and degree of saturation. A whole configuration and set-up were developed specifically for the study of unsaturated Hostun sand and its water retention behaviour, using X-ray CT. A “step-by-step” protocol to obtain reconstructed volumes of sufficient quality where the three phases of the specimen can be clearly distinguished (i.e., grain, water and air) was also presented. A post-processing of the images helped the visualization and the characterization of the three phases within the specimen. A region growing separation tool was used to obtain trinarized volumes, allowing a qualitative/quantitative analysis to be performed. A qualitative interpretation of the resulting images has been done focusing on the water retention domains, where images of each different domain were retrieved for different suction values. Later, local measurements of relevant soil variables were conducted for a chosen subvolume of ≈ 3 × D50. This helped to build a map of measurement that covers the entire specimen field. Finally, water retention curve of Hostun sand was plotted and compared to a reference one. An investigation about the relation between the state variables: porosity and degree of saturation, for a constant suction, was performed. A noteworthy trend between porosity and degree of saturation was identified and discussed. The analysis presented in this study could be adapted for other granular materials, combined with pore size distribution and pore shape description, in order to understand the local relation between water retention behaviour characteristics and build a model that covers the whole retention behaviour of unsaturated granular materials.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0628-7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • A micro–macro investigation of the capillary strengthening effect in
           wet granular materials
    • Authors: Ji-Peng Wang; Xia Li; Hai-Sui Yu
      Pages: 513 - 533
      Abstract: Wet granular materials are three-dimensionally simulated by the discrete element method with water bridges incorporated between particles. The water bridges are simplified as toroidal shapes, and the matric suction is constantly maintained in the material. A comparison with experimental tests in the literature indicates that the toroidal shape approximation may be one of the best choices with high practicability and decent accuracy. Mechanical behaviours of wet granular materials are studied by triaxial tests. Effects of particle size distributions and void ratios are investigated systematically in this study. The hydraulic limit of the pendular state is also discussed. It gives the capillary cohesion function which is not only determined by the degree of saturation but also positively correlated to relative density and particle size polydispersity and inversely proportional to mean particle size. Furthermore, the capillary strengthening effect is also analysed microscopically in aid of the Stress–Force–Fabric relationship, mainly in fabric anisotropy, coordination number and stress transmission pattern, which revealed the micro-mechanisms of the additional effective stress induced by capillary effect.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0619-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • The critical state friction angle of granular materials: does it depend on
    • Authors: J. Yang; X. D. Luo
      Pages: 535 - 547
      Abstract: Whether the critical state friction angle of granular materials depends on grading is a fundamental question of both academic and practical interest. The present study attempts to address this question through a specifically designed experimental program where the influence of particle grading was carefully isolated from other influencing factors. The laboratory experiments show that under otherwise similar conditions, the angle of friction at critical state is a constant independent of grading, but, for a given grading, the angle of friction at critical state is highly dependent on particle shape. This finding suggests that the commonly adopted practice of separately allowing for the effect of particle shape and the effect of grading on critical state friction angle is conceptually inappropriate and, hence, should be taken with caution in geotechnical design to avoid the risk of underestimating safety requirements. The study also reveals that varying particle gradation can impose a marked impact on liquefaction susceptibility of granular soils: Under the same post-consolidation state in terms of void ratio and confining pressure, a well-graded soil tends to be more susceptible to liquefaction than a uniformly graded soil. This variation of liquefaction susceptibility is shown to be consistent with the variation of location of the critical state locus in the compression space and is explainable by the critical state theory.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0581-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • A model for decoding the life cycle of granular avalanches in a rotating
    • Authors: Eloïse Marteau; José E. Andrade
      Pages: 549 - 555
      Abstract: Granular materials can behave as harmless sand dunes or as devastating landslides. A granular avalanche marks the transition between these distinct solid-like and fluid-like states. The solid-like state is typically described using plasticity models from critical state theory. In the fluid regime, granular flow is commonly captured using a visco-plastic model. However, due to our limited understanding of the mechanism governing the solid–fluid-like transition, characterizing the material behavior throughout the life cycle of an avalanche remains an open challenge. Here, we employ laboratory experiments of transient avalanches spontaneously generated by a rotating drum. We report measurements of dilatancy and grain kinematics before, during, and after each avalanche. Those measurements are directly incorporated into a rate-dependent plasticity model that quantitatively predicts the granular flow measured in experiments. Furthermore, we find that dilatancy in the solid-like state controls the triggering of granular avalanches and therefore plays a key role in the solid–fluid-like transition. With the proposed approach, we demonstrate that the life cycle of a laboratory avalanche, from triggering to run out, can be fully explained. Our results represent an important step toward a unified understanding of the physical phenomena associated with transitional behavior in granular media.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0609-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Deformation mechanism of strain localization in 2D numerical interface
    • Authors: Huaxiang Zhu; Wan-Huan Zhou; Zhen-Yu Yin
      Pages: 557 - 573
      Abstract: Heterogeneity arises in soil subjected to interface shearing, with the strain gradually localizing into a band area. How the strain localization accumulates and develops to form the structure is crucial in explaining some significant constitutive behaviors of the soil–structural interface during shearing, for example, stress hardening, softening, and shear-dilatancy. Using DEM simulation, interface shear tests with a periodic boundary condition are performed to investigate the strain localization process in densely and loosely packed granular soils. Based on the velocity field given by grains’ translational and rotational velocities, several kinematic quantities are analyzed during the loading history to demonstrate the evolution of strain localization. Results suggest that tiny concentrations in the shear deformation have already been observed in the very early stage of the shear test. The degree of the strain localization, quantified by a proposed new indicator, α, steadily ascends during the stress-hardening regime, dramatically jumps prior to the stress peak, and stabilizes at the stress steady state. Loose specimen does not develop a steady pattern at the large strain, as the deformation pattern transforms between localized and diffused failure modes. During the stress steady state of both specimens, remarkable correlations are observed between α and the shear stress, as well as between α and the volumetric strain rate.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0561-1
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Multiscale modeling and analysis of compaction bands in high-porosity
    • Authors: Huanran Wu; Ning Guo; Jidong Zhao
      Pages: 575 - 599
      Abstract: We present a multiscale investigation on the initiation and development of compaction bands in high-porosity sandstones based on an innovative hierarchical multiscale approach. This approach couples the finite element method and the discrete element method (DEM) to offer direct, rigorous linking of the microscopic origins and mechanisms with complex macroscopic phenomena observed in granular rocks such as strain localization and failure. To simulate compaction band in granular cementitious sandstone, we adopt a bonded contact model with normal and tangential interparticle cohesions in the DEM and propose a dual-porosity structure consisting of macro-pores and interstitial voids for the representative volume element to mimic the typical meso-structure of high-porosity sandstones. In the absence of particle crushing, our multiscale analyses identify debonding and pore collapses as two major contributors to the formation of compaction bands. The critical pressures predicted by our simulations, corresponding to surges of debonding and pore collapse events, agree well with the estimations from field data. The occurrence patterns of compaction band are found closely related to specimen heterogeneity, porosity and confining pressure. Other deformation band patterns, including shear-enhanced compaction bands and compactive shear bands, were also observed under relatively low confining pressure conditions with a rough threshold at \(0.55P^{*}\) ( \(P^{*}\) is the critical pressure) on the failure envelop. Key microscopic characteristics attributable to the occurrence of these various deformation patterns, including fabric anisotropy, particle rotation, debonding and pore collapse, are examined. Shear-enhanced compaction bands and pure compaction bands bear many similarities in terms of these microscopic characteristics, whereas both differ substantially from compactive shear bands.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0560-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Role of particle crushing on particle kinematics and shear banding in
           granular materials
    • Authors: Gang Ma; Richard A. Regueiro; Wei Zhou; Qiao Wang; Jiaying Liu
      Pages: 601 - 618
      Abstract: The paper provides an in-depth exploration of the role of particle crushing on particle kinematics and shear banding in sheared granular materials. As a two-dimensional approximation, a crushable granular material may be represented by an assembly of irregularly shaped polygons to include shape diversity of realistic granular materials. Particle assemblies are subjected to biaxial shearing under flexible boundary conditions. With increasing percentage of crushed particles, mesoscale deformation becomes increasingly unstable. Fragmented deformation patterns within the granular assemblies are unable to form stable and distinct shear bands. This is confirmed by the sparsity of large fluctuating velocities in highly crushable assemblies. Without generating distinct shear bands, deformation patterns and failure modes of a highly crushable assembly are similar to those of loose particle assemblies, which are regarded as diffuse deformation. High degrees of spatial association amongst the kinematical quantities confirm the key role that non-affine deformation and particle rotation play in the generation of shear bands. Therefore, particle kinematical quantities can be used to predict the onset and subsequent development of shear zones, which are generally marked by increased particle kinematic activity, such as intense particle rotation and high granular temperature. Our results indicate that shear band thickness increases, and its speed of development slows down, with increasing percentage of crushed particles. As particles crush, spatial force correlation becomes weaker, indicating a more diffuse nature of force transmission across particle contacts.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0621-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Influences of loading direction and intermediate principal stress ratio on
           the initiation of strain localization in cross-anisotropic sand
    • Authors: Xilin Lü; Maosong Huang; Jiangu Qian
      Pages: 619 - 633
      Abstract: Since cross-anisotropic sand behaves differently when the loading direction or the stress state changes, the influences of the loading direction and the intermediate principal stress ratio (b = (σ 2 − σ 3)/(σ 1 − σ 3)) on the initiation of strain localization need study. According to the loading angle (angle between the major principal stress direction and the normal of bedding plane), a 3D non-coaxial non-associated elasto-plasticity hardening model was proposed by modifying Lode angle formulation of the Mohr–Coulomb yield function and the stress–dilatancy function. By using bifurcation analysis, the model was used to predict the initiation of strain localization under plane strain and true triaxial conditions. The predictions of the plane strain tests show that the major principal strain at the bifurcation points increases with the loading angle, while the stress ratio decreases with the loading angle. According to the loading angle and the intermediate principal stress ratio, the true triaxial tests were analyzed in three sectors. The stress–strain behavior and the volumetric strain in each sector can be well captured by the proposed model. Strain localization occurs in most b value conditions in all three sectors except for those which are close to triaxial compression condition (b = 0). The difference between the peak shear strength corresponding to the strain localization and the ultimate shear strength corresponding to plastic limit becomes obvious when the b value is near 0.4. The influence of bifurcation on the shear strength becomes weak when the loading direction changes from perpendicular to the bedding plane to parallel. The bifurcation analysis based on the proposed model gives out major principal strain and peak shear strength at the initiation of strain localization; the given results are consistent with experiments.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0582-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • A numerical exercise for the definition under undrained conditions of the
           deep tunnel front characteristic curve
    • Authors: Claudio di Prisco; Luca Flessati; Gabriele Frigerio; Pietro Lunardi
      Pages: 635 - 649
      Abstract: In spite of the increasing diffusion of tunnel boring machines, conventional tunnelling is still largely employed in the excavation of both deep and shallow tunnels characterized by a particularly irregular tracing. Under difficult ground conditions, in conventional tunnelling, the front is frequently reinforced by using fibreglass tubes partially removed during the excavation. This technique is expensive, time-consuming and its design is based on either empirical or very simplified theoretical formulas. Thus, the ultimate objective of the research developed by the authors is to introduce a more sophisticated design approach for this front reinforcement technique. A first step in this direction is this numerical study, in which the mechanical response of deep tunnel faces under undrained conditions is analysed by employing the front characteristic curve: a useful tool largely employed in the literature in analogy with what done for the cavity. The main result of this paper is the “Front Mother Characteristic” curve, obtained by introducing appropriate non-dimensional variables, allowing the designer, once both the system geometry and the soil mechanical properties are assigned, to assess the displacements of tunnel fronts without performing any numerical analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0564-y
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Experimental investigation of the time-dependent response of unreinforced
           and reinforced tunnel faces in cohesive soils
    • Authors: Claudio di Prisco; Luca Flessati; Gabriele Frigerio; Riccardo Castellanza; Marco Caruso; Andrea Galli; Pietro Lunardi
      Pages: 651 - 670
      Abstract: In spite of the increasing diffusion of tunnel boring machines, conventional tunnelling is still preferred for economic reasons in case of short tunnels, unconventional cross sections or irregular tunnel trajectories. In conventional tunnelling, the mechanical response of the tunnel front is a main concern and, when tunnels are excavated in cohesive soils, this is dominated by the time factor, related to geometry, to the mean excavation rate and to the hydro-mechanical properties of the materials involved. This is particularly evident during excavation standstill: front displacements progressively increase with time and, in many cases, the system response under long-term conditions becomes unstable. In conventional tunnelling, a common technique employed to improve the system response (under both short- and long-term conditions) is the installation of fibreglass tubes within the advance core. In this paper, the mechanical response of both unreinforced and reinforced deep tunnel fronts in cohesive soils is experimentally analysed. In particular, the results of a series of 1 g small-scale tests, taking into account both the influence of the excavation rate (the unloading time) on the system response and the evolution with time of the tunnel face displacements, induced by a rapid reduction in the horizontal stress applied on the tunnel face, are reported.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0573-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Numerical investigation of tunneling in saturated soil: the role of
           construction and operation periods
    • Authors: Arash Alimardani Lavasan; Chenyang Zhao; Thomas Barciaga; Alexander Schaufler; Holger Steeb; Tom Schanz
      Pages: 671 - 691
      Abstract: This paper numerically investigates the slurry shield tunneling in fully saturated soils with different hydraulic conductivities in short- and long-term scales. A fully coupled hydromechanical three-dimensional model that accounts for the main aspects of tunnel construction and the hydromechanical interactions due to tunneling process is developed. An elasto-plastic constitutive model obeying a double hardening rule, namely hardening soil model, is employed in the numerical simulations. The research mainly focuses on assessing the influence of soil hydraulic conductivity and the method to simulate backfill grouting in the tail void on the evolution of ground subsidence, excess pore water pressure and lining forces. Two different consolidation schemes have been taken into account to computationally address the tunnel construction in soil with low and high hydraulic conductivities. In addition, different methods are employed to simulate the tail void grouting as a hydromechanical boundary condition and to study its effects on the model responses. Finally, the influences of infiltration of the fluidized particles of grouting suspension into the surrounding soil and its corresponding time–space hydraulic conductivity evolution on the displacements and lining forces are studied.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0595-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Face stability analysis of shield-driven tunnels shallowly buried in dry
           sand using 1-g large-scale model tests
    • Authors: Wei Liu; Yu Zhao; Peixin Shi; Jiaoyang Li; Penglu Gan
      Pages: 693 - 705
      Abstract: This paper investigates the face stability of shield-driven tunnels shallowly buried in dry sand using 1-g large-scale model tests. A half-circular tunnel model with a rigid front face was designed and tested. The ground movement was mobilized by pulling the tunnel face backwards at different speeds. The support pressure at tunnel face, settlement at ground surface, and internal movement of soil body were measured by load cells, linear variable differential transducers, and a camera, respectively, and the progress of face failure was observed through a transparent lateral wall of model tank. The tests show that, as the tunnel face moves backwards, the support pressure at the tunnel face drops sharply initially, then rebounds slightly, and tends to be stabilized at the end. Similarly, the ground surface settlement shows a three-stage variation pattern. Using the particle image velocimetry technique, the particle movement, shear strain, and vortex location of soil are analyzed. The variation of support pressure and ground surface settlement related to the internal movement of soil particles is discussed. The impact of the tunnel face moving speed on the face stability is discussed. As the tunnel face moves relatively fast, soil failure originates from a height above tunnel invert and an analytical model is developed to analyze such failure.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0607-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • An improved numerical approach in surrounding rock incorporating rockbolt
           effectiveness and seepage force
    • Authors: Jinfeng Zou; Kaifu Chen; Qiujing Pan
      Pages: 707 - 727
      Abstract: The solutions of stress and displacement of a circular opening excavated in brittle and strain-softening rock mass incorporating rockbolts effectiveness and seepage force are presented in this study. The evolution equation is reconstructed for the strength parameters that incorporate these factors. Based on the evolution equation, an improved numerical method and stepwise procedure are presented which are compatible with the Mohr–Coulomb (M–C) and the generalized Hoek–Brown (H–B) failure criteria, respectively. Then given three interaction mechanisms between rockbolts and surrounding rock, solutions for stress and displacement are proposed in line with the improved numerical method and numerical stepwise procedure. The proposed approach can be reduced to Fahimifar and Soroush’s (Tunn Undergr Space Technol 20:333–343, 2005) solutions for special cases. The proposed method was validated by field monitoring data and FLAC results of Yanzidong tunnel. Examples under the M–C and generalized H–B failure criteria for rock mass are generated through MATLAB programming. Moreover, parametric studies are conducted to highlight the influence of rockbolts effectiveness in combination with seepage force on the stress and displacement of very good, average, and very poor surrounding rock. Results show that in this case, stress confinement is higher and tunnel convergences are lower than the corresponding stresses and displacements obtained in non-reinforced tunnels. Displacement and plastic radius are also higher than those without considering seepage force.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0635-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Undrained expansion of a cylindrical cavity in clays with fabric
           anisotropy: theoretical solution
    • Authors: Nallathamby Sivasithamparam; Jorge Castro
      Pages: 729 - 746
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel, exact, semi-analytical solution for the quasi-static undrained expansion of a cylindrical cavity in soft soils with fabric anisotropy. This is the first theoretical solution of the undrained expansion of a cylindrical cavity under plane strain conditions for soft soils with anisotropic behaviour of plastic nature. The solution is rigorously developed in detail, introducing a new stress invariant to deal with the soil fabric. The semi-analytical solution requires numerical evaluation of a system of six first-order ordinary differential equations. The results agree with finite element analyses and show the influence of anisotropic plastic behaviour. The effective stresses at critical state are constant, and they may be analytically related to the undrained shear strength. The initial vertical cross-anisotropy caused by soil deposition changes towards a radial cross-anisotropy after cavity expansion. The analysis of the stress paths shows that proper modelling of anisotropic plastic behaviour involves modelling not only the initial fabric anisotropy but also its evolution with plastic straining.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0587-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bearing capacity of strip footings on c – φ soils with square
    • Authors: Haizuo Zhou; Gang Zheng; Xiaopei He; Xiaomin Xu; Tianqi Zhang; Xinyu Yang
      Pages: 747 - 755
      Abstract: The presence of underground voids has an adverse influence on the performance of shallow foundations. In this study, the bearing capacity and failure mechanism of footings placed on cohesive-frictional soils with voids are evaluated using discontinuity layout optimization. By introducing a reduction coefficient, a set of design charts that can be directly applied to the classical bearing capacity formulation is presented. The results indicate that the undrained bearing capacity with voids is sensitive to soil weight and cohesion, as both the bearing capacity and stability issues exist in the problem. The failure mechanism is directly related to a variety of soil properties, the locations of single voids, and the horizontal distance between two voids. The presence of voids has a more dominant effect on c–φ soils compared to that on undrained soil. An interpretation of the critical and adverse locations for single-void and dual-void cases with various soil strengths is presented.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0630-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2018)
  • Correction to: Estimation of static earth pressures for a sloping cohesive
           backfill using extended Rankine theory with a composite log-spiral failure
    • Authors: Shi-Yu Xu; Abiodun Ismail Lawal; Anoosh Shamsabadi; Ertugrul Taciroglu
      Abstract: In the original publication of the article, the left-hand side of Eq. (8) had been mistakenly changed to σ c instead of σ x .
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0681-2
  • Modeling of chemo-hydromechanical behavior of unsaturated porous media: a
           nonlocal approach based on integral equations
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Song; Shashank Menon
      Abstract: Unsaturated clay is a heterogeneous porous medium consisting of three phases, namely solid soil skeleton, pore water, and pore air. It has been well recognized that the variation of the chemical property of pore fluid in clay can affect the hydromechanical behavior of this material remarkably. In this study, we formulate a non-local chemo-hydromechanical model for unsaturated clay via the constitutive correspondence principle in the state-based peridynamics—a reformulation of classical continuum mechanics using integral equations instead of partial differential equations. We numerically implement this non-local constitutive model through the implicit return mapping algorithm at the material particle level and then integrate the material subroutine into a computational peridynamics code. We conduct a series of numerical simulations of unsaturated clay samples under different chemical loading rates. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed non-local model can capture the dramatic impact of organic chemicals on the mechanical behavior of unsaturated clay. The numerical results also show that the proposed non-local numerical model can simulate localized deformation in chemically active unsaturated clay because of the intrinsic length scale embedded in the integral equations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0679-9
  • Development of analytical models to estimate the increase in pile capacity
           with time (pile setup) from soil properties
    • Authors: Md. Nafiul Haque; Murad Y. Abu-Farsakh
      Abstract: This paper presents the analyses of twelve prestressed concrete (PSC) instrumented test piles that were driven in different bridge construction projects of Louisiana in order to develop analytical models to estimate the increase in pile capacity with time or pile setup. The twelve test piles were driven mainly in cohesive soils. Detailed soil characterizations including laboratory and in situ tests were conducted to determine the different soil properties. The test piles were instrumented with vibrating wire strain gauges, piezometers, pressure cells that were monitored during the whole testing period. Several static load tests (SLTs) and dynamic load tests were conducted on each test pile at different times after end of driving (EOD) to quantify the magnitude and rate of setup. Measurements of load tests confirmed that pile capacity increases almost linearly with the logarithm of time elapsed after EOD. Case pile wave analysis program was performed on the restrikes data and was used along with the load distribution plots from the SLTs to evaluate the increase in skin friction capacity of individual soil layers along the length of the piles. The logarithmic linear setup parameter “A” for unit skin friction was calculated of the 70 individual clayey soil layers and was correlated with different soil properties such as undrained shear strength (Su), plasticity index, vertical coefficient of consolidation (cv), over consolidation ratio and sensitivity (St). Nonlinear multivariable regression analyses were performed, and three different empirical models are proposed to predict the pile setup parameter “A” as a function of soil properties. For verification, the subsurface soil conditions and setup information for additional 18 PSC piles collected from local database were used to compare the measured versus predicted “A” parameters from the proposed models, which showed good agreement.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0654-5
  • PSO-based stability analysis of unreinforced and reinforced soil slopes
           using non-circular slip surface
    • Authors: Masahiro Shinoda; Yoshihisa Miyata
      Abstract: Slope stability analysis is one of the most intricate problems of geotechnical engineering because it is mathematically difficult to search the critical slip surface of earth slopes with complex strata owing to the involved multimodal function optimization problem. At present, a minimum factor of safety for a non-circular slip surface in a uniform and unreinforced earth slope can be calculated using several methods; however, for a reinforced soil slope, it cannot be easily calculated because of the additional effect of the reinforcement. One efficient method to search the critical slip surface is particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO can solve complex non-differentiable problems, and its increasing ease of use has facilitated its application to multimodal function optimization problems in a variety of fields. However, the recommended PSO parameters to calculate the safety factors of unreinforced and reinforced soil slopes, namely the inertia and local and global best solution weighting coefficients, have not been sufficiently investigated. Moreover, the computational efficiency of PSO for safety factor calculation, including computational accuracy and time, has not been clarified. To calculate the unreinforced and reinforced soil slope safety factors, this study considers force and moment equilibriums, including the tensile force of the reinforcement. Firstly, the computational efficiency of the calculation process by PSO was shown to increase the maximum number of slip surface nodes in the calculation of the safety factor. Then, an analysis was carried out to investigate the safety factor sensitivity to the PSO parameters. Based on this analysis, appropriate PSO parameters for the safety factor calculation of unreinforced and reinforced soil slopes were proposed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0678-x
  • Ultimate bearing capacity of energy piles in dry and saturated sand
    • Authors: Han-long Liu; Cheng-long Wang; Gang-qiang Kong; Abdelmalek Bouazza
      Abstract: The influence of thermal loads on the ultimate bearing capacity of energy piles is examined. Five laboratory model tests were carried out to investigate piles equipped with U-shaped and W-shaped heat exchangers in dry and saturated sand. The pile load–displacement relationships were investigated for one, three, and five heating–cooling cycles and under three different pile temperatures. The results show that the ultimate bearing capacity, in dry sand at high soil relative density, increased as pile temperature increased. After one heating–cooling cycle, the ultimate bearing capacity reduced slightly. Compared with dry sand, the thermo-mechanical response in saturated sand was less obvious and the reduction of pile ultimate capacity after one heating–cooling cycle was smaller. A reduction in the ultimate bearing capacity of 13.4% was observed after three heating–cooling cycles in dry sand, while a reduction in ultimate bearing capacity of 9.2% was observed after five heating–cooling cycles in saturated sand. The more noticeable reduction of ultimate bearing capacity in dry sand was related to the larger temperature variation which would induce more degradation at the pile–soil interface. In addition, the pore water viscosity in saturated sand may contribute to less degradation at pile–soil interface during heating and cooling.
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-018-0661-6
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