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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

 Acta GeophysicaJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.312 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 11      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1895-7455 - ISSN (Online) 1895-6572 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2352 journals]
• Correction to: Analysis of deterministic and geostatistical interpolation

Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes: the word “parameter” must be replaced with the word “variable” in the whole article.
PubDate: 2019-01-02
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0235-x

• 3D-RVSP experimental study above a carbonate outcrop for coal resource
exploration
• Authors: Mingshun Hu; Dongming Pan; Juanjuan Li; Hui Zhang; Shouhua Dong; Shenen Chen; Yongzhong Xu
Abstract: In the areas where carbonate rocks expose to the near surface, there are several intractable issues in conventional surface seismic, including (1) weak reflection energy, (2) complex wave field and (3) serious static correction. Therefore, the seismic imaging result suffers significantly. However, RVSP is able to achieve reflected data with high quality since it generates seismic waves in borehole and receives seismic waves at the surface. In order to verify the applicability of RVSP technique in complex areas, this study carried out a 3D-RVSP seismic experiment in Wulunshan coal field, southwest China. Compared with the surface seismic data, RVSP data show higher signal-to-noise ratio, wider frequency band and weaker surface wave interference. In addition, two imaging methods (conventional CDP transform stack and novel equivalent-surface conversion) were implemented for RVSP data imaging. The imaging results show that the smaller and deeper structures can be revealed better by equivalent-surface conversion method than by CDP transform stack method. Hence, this study demonstrates that RVSP is an efficient method applied in the area with complex surface condition.
PubDate: 2019-01-02
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0239-6

• Investigation of infiltration rate for soil-biochar composites of water
hyacinth
• Authors: Phani Gopal; Sanandam Bordoloi; Raval Ratnam; Peng Lin; Weiling Cai; Poly Buragohain; Ankit Garg; S. Sreedeep
Abstract: The objective of this short communication is to investigate the interactive effects of CIF, suction and volumetric water content (VWC) on infiltration rate for compacted soil–biochar (BC) composites (0%, 5% and 10%). The biochar was produced from an invasive weed Eichhornia crassipes. Soil parameters such as suction (ψ), VWC, CIF and infiltration rate were monitored simultaneously for 63 days (9 drying–wetting cycles) in those composites. This was followed by statistical modeling using artificial neural networks. Results showed that increase in WH BC content reduced the infiltration rates. The role of CIF in determining the infiltration rate reduced (50–38%) with the addition of BC to soil. Suction played an equal role (36–35%), both for bare soil and for WH BC composites, in determining the infiltration rate. Significance of VWC in determining rate of infiltration increases (14–27%) as the BC content increases. This is more likely, as the addition of BC enhanced the water retention capacity.
PubDate: 2019-01-02
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0237-8

• Stress studies in the Central Alborz by inversion of earthquake focal
mechanism data
• Authors: Shahrokh Pourbeyranvand
Pages: 1273 - 1290
Abstract: The Alborz is one of the most important seismotectonic provinces in Iran. Furthermore, emplacement of Tehran as a mega city in southern part of the Alborz intensifies the seismic vulnerability in this area. In this study, the focal mechanism data from teleseismic and local seismic networks are used for stress tensor inversion. The earthquake focal mechanisms in the Central Alborz are divided into several groups with respect to their location. Two different stress tensor inversions, linear and nonlinear, are used for obtaining the principal stress orientations. The results show spatial variations in tectonic stress field, consistent with fault orientations and faulting mechanisms. The maximum compressional stress directions obtained in this study are confirmed by fast S-wave polarization axes reported by a previous shear wave splitting study. The maximum horizontal stress directions are also compared with GPS strain rates. The results indicate a partitioning of deformation in the area due to regional stresses along preexisting faults.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0207-1
Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2018)

• Declustering of Iran earthquake catalog (1983–2017) using the
epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model
• Authors: Nader Davoudi; Hamid Reza Tavakoli; Mehdi Zare; Abdollah Jalilian
Pages: 1359 - 1373
Abstract: The main goal of this article is to decluster Iranian plateau seismic catalog by the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model and compare the results with some older methods. For this purpose, Iranian plateau bounded in 24°–42°N and 43°–66°E is subdivided into three major tectonic zones: (1) North of Iran (2) Zagros (3) East of Iran. The extracted earthquake catalog had a total of 6034 earthquakes (Mw > 4) in the time span 1983–2017. The ETAS model is an accepted stochastic approach for seismic evaluation and declustering earthquake catalogs. However, this model has not yet been used to decluster the seismic catalog of Iran. Until now, traditional methods like the Gardner and Knopoff space–time window method and the Reasenberg link-based method have been used in most studies for declustering Iran earthquake catalog. Finally, the results of declustering by the ETAS model are compared with result of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64(5):1363–1367, 1974), Uhrhammer (Earthq Notes 57(1):21, 1986), Gruenthal (pers. comm.) and Reasenberg (Geophys Res 90:5479–5495, 1985) declustering methods. The overall conclusion is difficult, but the results confirm the high ability of the ETAS model for declustering Iranian earthquake catalog. Use of the ETAS model is still in its early steps in Iranian seismological researches, and more parametric studies are needed.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0211-5
Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2018)

• New magnitude scaling relations for earthquake early warning in the Alborz
region, Iran
Pages: 1375 - 1382
Abstract: Rapid magnitude estimation relations for earthquake early warning systems in the Alborz region have been developed based on the initial first seconds of the P-wave arrival. For this purpose, a total of 717 accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center in the Alborz region with the magnitude (Mw) range of 4.8–6.5 in the period between 1995 and 2013 were employed. Average ground motion period ( $$\tau_{\text{c}}$$ ) and peak displacement ( $$P_{\text{d}}$$ ) in different time windows from the P-wave arrival were calculated, and their relation with magnitude was examined. Four earthquakes that were excluded from the analysis process were used to validate the results, and the estimated magnitudes were found to be in good agreement with the observed ones. The results show that using the proposed relations for the Alborz region, earthquake magnitude could be estimated with acceptable accuracy even after 1 s of the P-wave arrival.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0213-3
Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2018)

• Integrated geophysical survey on the ancient Deák Ferenc Sluice of
Hungary
• Authors: Ali Ismet Kanli; Zsolt Pronay; Peter Tildy; Endre Toros; Boriszlav Neducza; Peter Nagy
Pages: 1397 - 1411
Abstract: The west channel of the ancient Deák Ferenc which was constructed in 1875 in Hungary was used for controlling the water amount and the east channel was used for the shipping. In the study, four geophysical nondestructive methods were used to this old channel which needs the restoration and reinforcement works. The high-frequency seismic and acoustic measurements were carried out, the resistivity measurements were carried out to map the resistivity distribution of the slab, the seismic direct wave method was used to map the seismic velocities for understanding the stability conditions of the walls and the ground penetrating radar measurements were carried out on the slab and on the walls. The results of integrated study showed us that voids, faults and cracks were detected and the inhomogeneous construction materials were used in the slab. The obtained results emerged that the usage of nondestructive geophysical methods is essential in all stages of restoration and reinforcement works, especially for the ancient structures.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0204-4
Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 6 (2018)

• Verification of the seismic P-wave velocities under Moho boundary: Central
Poland case study, LUMP profile
• Authors: Monika Dec; Marcin Polkowski; Tomasz Janik; Krystyna Stec; Marek Grad
Abstract: The tectonic settings investigated by several seismic projects in previous research targeting the structure in Central Poland mainly focused on the Earth’s crust. In this paper, we present P-wave velocity verification in the uppermost mantle beneath LUMP profile towards SSE-NNW. Using recordings of 36 DATA-CUBE recorders from ca. 300–490 km far earthquake in coal mine “Janina” in southern Poland, we calculated travel times to verify P-wave velocity below the Moho boundary from previous studies. It shows that a significantly lower mean velocity value should be used for the upper mantle while counting these offsets of travel times in the SSE-NNW direction than that used on previous profiles. We present two possible models: first, the most simple one that fits the observed first arrivals, and the second with a low-velocity layer beneath the Moho boundary. In both cases, we used a priori crustal model focusing only on P-wave velocity in the uppermost mantle. Both of them significantly improved adjustment of travel times to the observed data. To evaluate the tendency of adopting too high velocities beneath the Moho, we used also 11 broadband stations, Reftek 151-121 “Observer”, from “13 BB Star” passive experiment and 6 STS-2 seismometers from permanent stations of the Polish Seismological Network (PLSN).
PubDate: 2018-12-13
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0236-9

• Small-aperture array as a tool to monitor fluid injection- and
extraction-induced microseismicity: applications and recommendations
• Authors: Nasim Karamzadeh; Daniela Kühn; Marius Kriegerowski; José Ángel López-Comino; Simone Cesca; Torsten Dahm
Abstract: The monitoring of microseismicity during temporary human activities such as fluid injections for hydrofracturing, hydrothermal stimulations or wastewater disposal is a difficult task. The seismic stations often cannot be installed on hard rock, and at quiet places, noise is strongly increased during the operation itself and the installation of sensors in deep wells is costly and often not feasible. The combination of small-aperture seismic arrays with shallow borehole sensors offers a solution. We tested this monitoring approach at two different sites: (1) accompanying a fracking experiment in sedimentary shale at 4 km depth and (2) above a gas field under depletion. The small-aperture arrays were planned according to theoretical wavenumber studies combined with simulations considering the local noise conditions. We compared array recordings with recordings available from shallow borehole sensors and give examples of detection and location performance. Although the high-frequency noise on the 50-m-deep borehole sensors was smaller compared to the surface noise before the injection experiment, the signals were highly contaminated during injection by the pumping activities. Therefore, a set of three small-aperture arrays at different azimuths was more suited to detect small events, since noise recorded on these arrays is uncorrelated with each other. Further, we developed recommendations for the adaptation of the monitoring concept to other sites experiencing induced seismicity.
PubDate: 2018-12-13
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0231-1

• Noise reduction for desert seismic data using spectral kurtosis adaptive
bandpass filter
• Authors: Haitao Ma; Zebin Qian; Yue Li; Hongbo Lin; Dan Shao; Baojun Yang
Abstract: In view of the heterogeneity and week similarity of random noise in the desert seismic exploration, and lots of random noise focused on low frequency, the traditional bandpass filter and wavelet transform are used to separate the signal and noise. Although there are some denoising effects, the noise cannot be suppressed well, and effective signal is damaged to some extent. Because of the above shortcomings, we propose a bandpass filter denoising method based on spectral kurtosis in this paper. This method is based on the signal and the random noise’s energy distribution characteristics in the frequency domain. First, through short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the spectral kurtosis of noisy signals is obtained. Second, we design a new threshold by the obtained spectral kurtosis, the value of spectral kurtosis greater than the threshold is preserved, and the spectral kurtosis less than the threshold is set to 0. So, the method realises the adaptive choice of the filter passband, getting an adaptive bandpass filter. At the same time, the noise can be suppressed to a greater extent while the effective signal is retained very well. The noise removal results of synthetic data and actual data show that the proposed method has very good denoising performance and amplitude preserving capability.
PubDate: 2018-12-06
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0232-0

• Terrestrial water storage variations and their effect on polar motion
• Authors: Justyna Śliwińska; Małgorzata Wińska; Jolanta Nastula
Abstract: The role of continental water in polar motion excitation can be illustrated by determining Hydrological Angular Momentum calculated from terrestrial water storage (TWS). In this paper we compare global and regional changes in TWS computed using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate models, Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land hydrology models and observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. We also compare hydrological excitation functions derived from models with those obtained from the GRACE mission and the hydrological signal in observed polar motion excitation (the so-called geodetic residuals). The results confirm that GLDAS models of seasonal and non-seasonal TWS change are more consistent with GRACE data than climate models; on the other hand, none of the considered models are fully consistent with GRACE data or geodetic residuals. In turn, GRACE observations are most consistent with the non-seasonal hydrological signal in observed excitation. A detailed study of the contribution of different TWS components to the hydrological excitation function shows that soil moisture dominates.
PubDate: 2018-12-06
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0227-x

• Correction to: Assessment of climate change and associated impact on
selected sectors in Poland
• Authors: Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz; Mikołaj Piniewski; Abdelkader Mezghani; Tomasz Okruszko; Iwona Pińskwar; Ignacy Kardel; Øystein Hov; Mateusz Szcześniak; Małgorzata Szwed; Rasmus E. Benestad; Paweł Marcinkowski; Dariusz Graczyk; Andreas Dobler; Eirik J. Førland; Joanna O’Keeffe; Adam Choryński; Kajsa M. Parding; Jan Erik Haugen
Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake: The spelling of the Joanna O’Keeffe’ name was incorrect. The correct spelling is Joanna O’Keeffe.
PubDate: 2018-12-05
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0234-y

• Flood risk assessment and mapping using AHP in arid and semiarid regions
Abstract: Identifying flood risk-prone areas in the regions of extreme aridity conditions is essential for mitigating flood risk and rainwater harvesting. Accordingly, the present work is addressed to the assessment of the flood risk depending on spatial analytic hierarchy process of the integration between both Remote Sensing Techniques (RST) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This integration results in enhancing the analysis with the savings of time and efforts. There are several remote sensing-based data used in conducting this research, including a digital elevation model with an accuracy of 30 m, spatial soil and geologic maps, historical daily rainfall records, and data on rainwater drainage systems. Five return periods (REPs) (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 years) corresponding to flood hazards and vulnerability developments maps were applied via the weighted overlay technique. Although the results indicate lower rates of annual rainfall (53–71 mm from the southeast to the northwest), the city has been exposed to destructive flash floods. The flood risk categories for a 100-year REP were very high, high, medium, low, and very low with 17%, 41%, 33%, 8%, and 1% of total area, respectively. These classes correspond to residential zones and principal roads, which lead to catastrophic flash floods. These floods have caused socioeconomic losses, soil erosion, infrastructure damage, land degradation, vegetation loss, and submergence of cities, as well life loss. The results prove the GIS and RST effectiveness in mitigating flood risks and in helping decision makers in flood risk mitigation and rainwater harvesting.
PubDate: 2018-12-04
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0233-z

• Real-time monitoring rapid ground subsidence using GNSS and Vondrak filter
• Authors: Tingye Tao; Jingbin Liu; Xiaochuan Qu; Fei Gao
Abstract: Human activities such as coal mining may cause rapid ground subsidence, which will damage severely on human-built structures such as coal transport railway or buildings, and even kill lives. In coal-mining areas, ground subsidence happens continuously, and its amplitude may be up to 10 cm per day. In order to assure the safety of coal-mining areas, it’s necessary to monitor the ground subsidence timely and precisely. This paper presents a continuously operating real-time global navigation satellite system ground subsidence monitoring system, which consists of hardware, data processing algorithms and software, communication link and peripheral equipment. A particular architecture was designed for field operation. For the data processing, the Vondrak filter is proposed to process the monitoring data. We operated the proposed monitoring system on the coal-mining area and verified the performance during the mining period from early July to December 2017. The monitoring results show that the proposed system has an accuracy of 5 mm for ground subsidence monitoring on the basis of precise leveling data that were simultaneously observed. The proposed method can meet the accuracy requirement of ground subsidence monitoring, and it can provide continuous subsidence information in real time, which cannot be achieved by the traditional leveling surveying method. The monitoring system and data processing method can be applied to the monitoring of ground subsidence in subsidence area as well as geological disasters such as landslides.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0230-2

• Correction to: Application of Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves to
S-Phase Wave Anisotropy Estimation
• Authors: Iwona Stan-Kłeczek; Maciej J. Mendecki
Abstract: In the original version of this article, the authors did not add on page 1602 the acknowledgement section between Conclusion and References.
PubDate: 2018-11-29
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0229-8

• Mantle dynamics beneath Greece from SKS and PKS seismic anisotropy study
• Authors: George Kaviris; Ioannis Fountoulakis; Ioannis Spingos; Christos Millas; Panayotis Papadimitriou; George Drakatos
Abstract: SKS and PKS splitting parameters were determined in the broader Greek region using data from 45 stations of the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network and the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, utilizing teleseismic events that occurred between 2010 and 2017. Data were processed for shear-wave splitting with the Minimum Energy Method that was considered the optimal. The results generally confirm the existence of anisotropic zonation in the Hellenic subduction system, with alternating trench-normal and trench-parallel directions. The zonation is attributed to the upper and lower olivine fabric layers that can, potentially, be present in the subduction zone. At the edges of this zone, two possible toroidal flow cases have been identified, implying the existence of tears that allow the inflow of asthenospheric material in the mantle wedge. The high number of null measurements in the KZN and XOR stations indicates a possible anisotropic transition zone between the fore-arc and back-arc areas. SKS and PKS splitting results are jointly interpreted, given that they yield similar values in most cases.
PubDate: 2018-11-19
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0225-z

• Seismic crust structure beneath the Aegean region in southwest Turkey from
radial anisotropic inversion of Rayleigh and Love surface waves
• Authors: Özcan Çakır
Abstract: The Turkish plate is covered by hundreds of accelerometer and broadband seismic stations with less than 50 km inter-station distance providing high-quality earthquake recordings within the last decade. We utilize part of these stations to extract the fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love surface wave phase and group velocity data in the period range 5–20 s to determine the crust structure beneath the Aegean region in southwest Turkey. The observed surface wave signals are interpreted using both single-station and two-station techniques. A tomographic inversion technique is employed to obtain the two-dimensional group velocity maps from the single-station group velocities. One-dimensional velocity–depth profiles under each two-dimensional mesh point, which are jointly interpreted to acquire the three-dimensional image of the shear-wave velocities underneath the study area, are attained by utilizing the least-squares inversion technique, which is repeated for both Rayleigh and Love surface waves. The isotropic crust structure cannot jointly invert the observed Rayleigh and Love surface waves where the radial anisotropic crust better describes the observed surface wave data. The intrusive magmatic activity related to the northward subducting African plate under the Turkish plate results the crust structure deformations, which we think, causing the observed radial anisotropy throughout complex pattern of dykes and sills. The magma flow resulting in the mineral alignment within dykes and sills contributes to the observed anisotropy. Due to the existence of dykes, the radial anisotropy in the upper crust is generally negative, i.e., vertically polarized S-waves (Vsv) are faster than horizontally polarized S-waves (Vsh). Due to the existence of sills, the radial anisotropy in the middle-to-lower crust is generally positive, i.e., horizontally polarized S-waves (Vsh) are faster than vertically polarized S-waves (Vsv). Similar radial anisotropic results to those of the single-station analyses are obtained by the two-station analyses utilizing the cross-correlograms. The widespread volcanic and plutonic rocks in the region are consistent with the current seismic interpretations of the crustal deformations.
PubDate: 2018-11-14
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0223-1

• Assessment of climate change and associated impact on selected sectors in
Poland
• Authors: Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz; Mikołaj Piniewski; Abdelkader Mezghani; Tomasz Okruszko; Iwona Pińskwar; Ignacy Kardel; Øystein Hov; Mateusz Szcześniak; Małgorzata Szwed; Rasmus E. Benestad; Paweł Marcinkowski; Dariusz Graczyk; Andreas Dobler; Eirik J. Førland; Joanna O’Keefe; Adam Choryński; Kajsa M. Parding; Jan Erik Haugen
Abstract: The present paper offers a brief assessment of climate change and associated impact in Poland, based on selected results of the Polish–Norwegian CHASE-PL project. Impacts are examined in selected sectors, such as water resources, natural hazard risk reduction, environment, agriculture and health. Results of change detection in long time series of observed climate and climate impact variables in Poland are presented. Also, projections of climate variability and change are provided for time horizons of 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 for two emission scenarios, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in comparison with control period, 1971–2000. Based on climate projections, examination of future impacts on sectors is also carried out. Selected uncertainty issues relevant to observations, understanding and projections are tackled as well.
PubDate: 2018-11-03
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0220-4

• A novel approach to the quantitative interpretation of petrophysical
parameters using nano-CT: example of Paleozoic carbonates
• Authors: Edyta Puskarczyk; Paulina Krakowska; Mariusz Jędrychowski; Magdalena Habrat; Paweł Madejski
Abstract: The main goal was the analysis of parameters describing the structure of the pore space of carbonate rocks, based on tomographic images. The results of CT images interpretation, made for 17 samples of Paleozoic carbonate rocks were shown. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of a pore system was performed. Objects were clustered according to the pore size. Within the clusters, the geometry parameters were analysed. The following dependences were obtained for carbonate rocks, also for individual clusters (due to the volume): (1) a linear relationship (on a bilogarithmic scale) between the specific surface and the Feret diameter and (2) a strong linear relationship between specific surface area and Feret diameter and average diameter of the objects calculated for the sphere. The results were then combined with available results from standard laboratory tests, including NMR and MICP.
PubDate: 2018-10-31
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0219-x

• On estimating time offsets in the ambient noise correlation function
caused by instrument response errors
• Authors: Fang Ye; Jun Lin; Xiaopu Zhang; Xiaoxue Jiang
Abstract: Broadband seismic networks are becoming more intensive, generating a large amount of data in the long-term collection process. When processing the data, the researchers rely almost on instrument response files to understand the information related to the instrument. Aiming at the process of instrument response recording and instrument response correction, we identify several sources of the instrument response phase error, including pole–zero change, the causality difference in instrument correction method, and the problem of filter coefficient recording. The data time offset range from the instrument response phase error is calculated from one sample point to several seconds using the ambient noise data recorded by multiple seismic stations. With different data delays, the time offset of the noise correlation function is estimated to be 74% to 99% of the data delay time. In addition, the influence of instrument response phase error on the measurement of seismic velocity change is analyzed by using ambient noise data with pole–zero change, and the results show that the abnormal wave velocity with exceeding the standard value is exactly in the time period of the instrument response error, which indicates that the instrument response error affects the study of seismology.
PubDate: 2018-10-31
DOI: 10.1007/s11600-018-0218-y

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