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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2345 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2345 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)

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Journal Cover acta ethologica
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 23]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Computer-manipulated stimuli as a research tool in Mozambique tilapia
           Oreochromis mossambicus
    • Authors: Marie A. Wackermannova; Pavel Horky; M. Clara P. Amorim; Paulo J. Fonseca
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Multimodal communication is essential in social interactions in cichlid fish, including conspecifics’ recognition, agonistic interactions and courtship behaviour. Computer-manipulated image stimuli and sound playback offer powerful tools to assess the relative relevance of visual and acoustic stimuli in fish behavioural studies, but these techniques require validation for each taxon. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus responds to computer-manipulated visual stimuli and acoustic playback. Six experiments were conducted: computer animation playback, video playback, interaction with a mirror, presentation of a live male in a jar alone and combined with courting sound playback or with white noise playback. Individual agonistic interactions (lateral displays, up and down swimming, butting) and courting behaviours (tilting leading, digging) were tallied for each experiment. Our results suggest that non-interactive computer-manipulated visual stimuli is not a suitable tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia. In contrast, interaction with a live male in a jar seems to remain the best visual research instrument inducing significant strong behavioural responses. Although none or only a few agonistic interactions were observed towards video playbacks or computer animations, such interactions significantly increased towards a male in jar and were modulated by courtship sound playback, suggesting the additional relevance of sound playback as a tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia, including the study of multimodal signalling.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0252-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Thorough investigation of epileptic behavioral characterization of
           caffeine in adult zebrafishes in correlation with drug brain concentration
           
    • Authors: Surendra Vada; Divakar Goli; Uday Raj Sharma; Anirbandeep Bose; Sabayasachi Mandal
      Pages: 95 - 105
      Abstract: Our present research aimed to perform a detailed behavioral characterization of caffeine-induced seizure activity in zebrafish. Epileptic activity was observed by immersing individuals in different concentrations of caffeine solution at 250, 350, and 500 mg/l, respectively. Higher concentrations of caffeine rapidly induced intense behavioral activity resembling tonic seizures. Lower concentrations resulted in behavior that was less intense but sustained for longer periods. Significant attenuation of seizure severity was observed in zebrafish pretreated with the barbiturate phenobarbitone. Finally, brain caffeine levels were measured using HPLC-UV methodology in fish immersed in different concentrations of caffeine. Brain caffeine levels increased with higher concentrations of caffeine treatment; however, they were not significantly altered by pretreatment with phenobarbitone.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0250-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Immune challenge of female great tits at nests affects provisioning and
           body conditions of their offspring
    • Authors: Emilia Grzędzicka
      Abstract: The trade-off between animal’s parental reproductive effort and survival is still poorly understood. Parental allocation between the workload during breeding attempts and the parents’ own body conditions can be assessed through the offspring quality. Here, I questioned whether the immune responsiveness of female great tits may be considered as a mediator of this trade-off. Specifically, I tested whether (1) the parental reproductive effort decreases, (2) the food composition provided to chicks changes, and (3) whether the nestling immunocompetence and body mass decrease after experimental immunisation. Two populations of great tit Parus major occupying nest boxes were studied in Niepołomice Forest and Krzyszkowice Forest (Southern Poland) in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three days after hatching, half of the females were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while other females were injected with phosphate-buffered saline PBS (control). Six days later, food provided by the parents was collected from nestlings. After another 2 days, the offspring’s body mass was measured and wing web swelling in response to an additional phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection. In both years, immunocompetence and in 2012 also body mass in the offspring of SRBC-immunised mothers were lower than in control nestlings, indicating a cost of mounting the immune response in the female. Six days after the start of the female treatment, the number of caterpillars and the volume of food items provided by parents to chicks were higher, whereas the number of spiders was lower in nests with SRBC treatment than in control ones. This might be explained by compensational parental feeding after recovery from the inflammation of a female. Thus, the trade-off between parental effort and survival of parents is mediated by the costs incurred for their immunity and can be assessed by the amount and quality of food provided to the nestlings and the offspring condition.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0265-4
       
  • Chemical sex recognition in the harvestman Discocyrtus prospicuus
           (Arachnida: Opiliones)
    • Authors: Nathália S. Fernandes; Estefanía Stanley; Fernando G. Costa; Carlos A. Toscano-Gadea; Rodrigo H. Willemart
      Abstract: Several arachnid species use chemicals to detect sexual partners. In harvestmen, there are evidences that chemicals may play a role in intraspecific communication. Using the behavior of Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg 1876), whose males expose the penis to females before they engage in mating posture, we tested if males detect females by contact chemoreception (chemicals left on the substrate) and if males detect females by olfaction. First, we exposed males to three experimental groups, where males had to choose between two substrates: female chemicals/blank control; male chemicals/blank control; female/male chemicals. Then, we gave males access to volatiles of males, females, and control simultaneously. We predicted that males would expose the penis when approaching volatiles and chemicals deposited on the substrate by females. We also tested if males spent more time close to the source of female volatiles and on the substrate with female chemicals and if males tapped the substrate with female chemicals for more time than the others. Finally, we put males and females together to observe if males would expose the penis upon touching the female’s cuticle. Most of our predictions were not supported, though males did tap for more time when exposed to female cues instead of male cues and exposed the penis in 70% of the observations when interacting with the female but only after touching her. Our data does not support olfaction as a way to detect females and corroborate the idea that contact chemicals, either on the substrate or on female’s cuticle, play an important role in the detection and recognition of the opposite sex. This is the first evidence in harvestmen that males may react differently to female/male chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0264-5
       
  • Nightly calling patterns in a Neotropical gladiator frog
    • Authors: Tailise Marques Dias; Cynthia P. A. Prado; Rogério Pereira Bastos
      Abstract: In anurans, vocalization is the primary communication form and acoustic parameters are influenced by climatic conditions, but also by social contexts. We investigated calling site use and within-individual variation of acoustic parameters throughout the night in the gladiator-frog Hypsiboas goianus. We expected that large males would call closer to the water and at higher perches to avoid dehydration and maximize sound propagation. Furthermore, we tested the prediction that males would emit more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls late at night. Male size was not correlated with either distance from the water or perch height. However, as expected, males of H. goianus adopted a calling strategy that consisted of emitting more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls later in the night. Furthermore, repetition rate and interval between notes of the aggressive calls and repetition rate of the advertisement calls showed within-individual variation throughout the night that agreed with our expectations. The calling strategy of H. goianus is probably related to the establishment of calling sites early in the night and an investment in female attraction in the middle of the night when males’ aggressive interactions have faded away, or due to habituation increasing the males’ aggressive thresholds. This is the first study investigating within-individual patterns of acoustic parameters of calls throughout the night for anurans.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0263-6
       
  • Advertisement call variation and individual acoustic distinctiveness in
           the explosive breeding toad Peltophryne cataulaciceps (Anura: Bufonidae)
    • Authors: Roberto Alonso Bosch; Ariel Rodríguez; Maike Hernández Quinta
      Abstract: In this contribution, we offer new information about the advertisement call of Peltophryne cataulaciceps, an endemic toad species from Cuba and the smallest bufonid from the West Indies. We measured seven acoustic properties from 17 males and analyzed the variability at the within-individual and between-individual levels, using coefficients of variation, type II ANOVAs, and multivariate analysis. Dominant frequency was distinctly less variable within individuals than the rest of the acoustic properties; call rise time showed the highest variability. Variability between individuals was higher for pulse rate, call duration, and dominant frequency, and the CVb/CVw ratios showed that these acoustic properties are more reliable for individual distinctiveness. Discriminant function analyses assigned 54.1% of the calls to the correct individual, and this classification success increased when smaller groups of individuals were considered in the analysis. Results are compared with studies addressing individual acoustic distinctiveness in anurans. We support that the patterns of advertisement call variation within and among co-occurring males differ among explosive and prolonged breeding species/populations, but additional case studies including other explosive breeding species are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0261-8
       
  • Synchrony during aggression in adult male Atlantic spotted dolphins
           (Stenella frontalis)
    • Authors: Alyson J. Myers; Denise L. Herzing; David F. Bjorklund
      Abstract: Synchrony among Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) is crucial for successfully overcoming bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during interspecies aggression (Cusick and Herzing 2014). The present study examined synchrony in adult Atlantic spotted dolphins during aggressive encounters with bottlenose dolphins. Across group size, aggressive behaviors increased preceding synchrony, peaked during synchrony, and decreased dramatically after synchrony. Although smaller groups (< 10 dolphins) became synchronous more frequently than larger groups (> 10 dolphins), larger groups remained synchronous longer; however, smaller groups exhibited greater aggressive behaviors during synchrony, suggesting that additional aggressive behaviors may be necessary to compensate for the smaller group size, whereas larger groups may be able to rely on synchrony with less aggression. Disorganized squawk bouts synchronized as physical synchrony began, but only if coupled with escalating aggression.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0262-7
       
  • Studying hunting behaviour in the striped field mouse using data
           compression
    • Abstract: We compare predatory behaviour towards a mobile insect in three species of small mammals: the granivorous striped field mouse, the insectivorous common shrew and the Norway rat (a generalist). The striped field mouse displays a surprisingly efficient hunting stereotype. We apply the data compression method (Ryabko et al. Theory Comput Syst 52:133–147, 2013) to compare the complexity of hunting behavioural patterns and to evaluate the flexibility of stereotypes and their succinctness. Norway rats demonstrated the highest level of complexity of hunting behaviour, with the highest proportion of ‘auxiliary’ and ‘noise’ elements and relatively low proportion of ‘key’ elements in their behaviours. The predominance of ‘key’ elements resulted in similarly low levels of complexity of hunting stereotypes in striped field mice and shrews. The similarity between hunting stereotypes of the insectivorous shrew and the granivorous striped field mouse enables us to argue about evolutionary roots of hunting behaviour in small mammals. We show that this method is a useful tool for comparing ethograms as ‘biological texts’.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0260-9
       
  • Effects of size, caudal autotomy, and predator kairomones on the foraging
           behavior of Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders ( Desmognathus
           ochrophaeus )
    • Authors: Emilia A. R. Gildemeister; Wesley I. Payette; Aaron M. Sullivan
      Abstract: Prey must balance the conflicting demands of foraging and defensive behavior. Foraging under the threat of predation may be further complicated among species that engage in caudal autotomy, the loss of a portion of the tail at preformed breakage planes, because the tail may serve as an important energy storage organ and contribute to motility, culminating in a trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance. As a result of the advantages conferred by the presence of a tail, individuals that have recently undergone autotomy may be more motivated to forage despite elevated levels of threat indicated by predator kairomones. We used a full factorial design to evaluate the combined effects of body size, exposure to predator kairomones, and experience with autotomy on the latency to strike at Drosophila prey, number of strikes, and prey captured per strike by Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus). In our study, caudal autotomy was the only significant main effect and influenced both the latency to attack prey and the number of strikes attempted. In terms of latency to attack prey, there was a significant interaction between body size and autotomy such that “small” salamanders (≤3.2 cm SVL) without tails delayed their foraging behavior. In terms of the number of strikes toward prey, there was a significant interaction between autotomy and exposure to predator kairomones such that individuals with intact tails exhibited a greater number of strikes, with the exception of the “large” (>3.2 cm SVL) salamanders, which performed fewer strikes when exposed to the snake kairomones. There was no significant effect on foraging efficiency, although the trend in the data suggests that autotomized individuals forage more efficiently. This study was designed to evaluate the confluence of factors related to size, caudal autotomy, and exposure to stimuli from predators and hints at the magnitude of caudal autotomy on antipredator decision-making. Our data suggest that despite the importance of tail tissue for energy storage, locomotion, and mating, salamanders without tails are cautious when foraging under elevated risk.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0259-2
       
  • Song frequency correlates with latitude and individual body size in the
           cicada Mogannia formosana Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
    • Authors: Bao-Sen Shieh; Shih-Hsiung Liang; Chen-Yu Liao; Yuh-Wen Chiu
      Abstract: Analyses of acoustic variation between and within populations can help to clarify the evolution and diversification of cicada calling songs. In this study, we analyzed the acoustic variation in the calling song of Mogannia formosana within Taiwan and between Taiwan and Green Island to assess the effects of geographic locations. Furthermore, chorusing males in the Green Island population were recorded and collected from the same habitat site during the same time period to investigate the relationship between individual body size and the acoustic features of calling songs. Among populations of M. formosana, we found that most of the acoustic variation in M. formosana calling songs was associated with frequency parameters, in which six frequency parameters changed significantly with latitude on the island of Taiwan. In contrast, temporal parameters, which were associated with principal components corresponding to less acoustic variation than that of the first principal component, were also found to be significant among populations but did not show consistent trends of difference with latitude. However, the geographically isolated Green Island population exhibited the lowest number of short echemes in segment B, which is the diagnostic structure employed to separate M. formosana from other M. species. This finding suggests that the temporal pattern of segment B in the calling songs of M. formosana might be important for both population differentiation and interspecific recognition. In a chorus of the Green Island population, the sound frequency of the last short echeme was found to be significantly correlated with individual body size. The possible role played by sexual selection in shaping sound frequency as a result of its reliable association with body size was discussed. We suggest that, in comparison with temporal elements, the frequency elements of segment B in calling songs of M. formosana in chorus can serve as a more reliable indicator of body size for female mate choice.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0258-3
       
  • Song duration mediates responses of territory owner in a songbird species
           with a small song repertoire
    • Authors: Tomasz S. Osiejuk; Aleksandra Jakubowska
      Abstract: Song is a sexually selected trait that is involved in mate attraction and territory defence in birds. Songs may convey information about different male quality components. They are flexible in terms of frequency, amplitude, and duration. Although changes in song duration are common, the function of this behaviour has been studied less strongly. It is known that song duration changes within a singing bout and may provide information about aggressive motivation. We tested whether the elongation and shortening of songs affects the responses of territorial ortolan bunting males to neighbour song playback. If changing song duration signals level of aggressiveness, then songs differing solely in duration may elicit behavioural responses of different strength. We performed two tests with different males assigned to two experimental groups and measured approaching and vocal response. In Experiment 1, we tested 18 males, which responded to the playbacks of elongated and normal (control) neighbour songs. In Experiment 2, we tested 17 males, which responded to the playbacks of shortened and normal (control) neighbour songs. Males responded significantly stronger to longer songs in both experiments as measured by the approach variable. Vocal response was not affected by treatment, but it was affected by the order of playback presentation. Our results indicate that song duration might be used for signalling current aggressive motivation during close interactions with rivals.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0257-4
       
  • Waste of leaf-cutting ants: disposal, nest structure, and abiotic soil
           factors around internal waste chambers
    • Authors: Sandra S. Verza; Eduardo A. Diniz; Mara F. Chiarelli; Rosilda M. Mussury; Odair C. Bueno
      Abstract: Leaf-cutting ants produce large quantities of waste that harbor bacteria and fungi that are harmful to the colony. To be protected from these pathogens, the workers of Atta species present a sophisticated organization to manage harmful material, which can be deposited outside the nest or in internal chambers. However, little is known about the behavior of Acromyrmex species in handling and disposal of waste. Due to some observations, we assume that the same species of Acromyrmex can deposit waste outside the nest and into internal chambers and raise the following question: what determines the occurrence of internal waste chambers in Acromyrmex? To address this question, we verified whether nest depth influences the waste-chamber occurrence. We also verified the nest structure and the abiotic factors of soil beside each waste-chamber: pH and water content of the soil. For this, eight nests were excavated for Acromyrmex balzani and Acromyrmex rugosus rugosus. We verified that not only can the same leaf-cutting ant species deposit debris both outside and inside the nest but also the same nest can present internal chambers and external waste deposit. The soil beside the waste chamber always presented an acidic pH, while the humidity varied widely. Our results showed that the nest depth was highly correlated with the depth of the waste chamber (p = 0.0003) and probably has some influence on waste disposal. The characteristics of the nest and the role of depth in the choice of waste chamber location are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0255-6
       
  • The defensive behavioral patterns of captive white-lipped and collared
           peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae): an approach for conservation of the
           species
    • Authors: Selene S. C. Nogueira; Aline M Reis; Stefane G. Marsaro; José M. B. Duarte; Viviana Moreto; Stella G. C. Lima; Thaise S. O. Costa; Sérgio L G Nogueira-Filho
      Abstract: Defensive behavioral patterns in response to human-induced rapid environmental change can affect animals’ fitness and may play a role in species conservation status. To test this hypothesis, we compared the risk assessment and defensive behavioral responses of captive white-lipped peccary (WLP; Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (CP; Pecari tajacu), which retain different conservation status; WLP are considered vulnerable and CP of least concern. We used an adapted paradigm of the mouse defense test battery (MDTB) comprising four consecutive tests. Two of these tests simulated a novel environment, while the other two stimulated the expression of defensive behavioral patterns. Besides differences in risk assessment and defensive threat/attack behavioral patterns between species, we compared flight initiation distance, flight speed, and plasma glucocorticoid concentrations. When facing a novel environment and risk challenges from humans’ predator-like cues, the white-lipped peccary showed more exploratory and defensive threat/attack behavioral patterns, shorter flight initiation distances, and lower flight speeds, whereas the collared peccaries showed more cautious and retreat patterns, longer flight initiation distances, and higher flight speeds. There were also correlations between physiological and behavioral parameters. We confirmed our hypothesis that the collared peccary’s cautiousness may help to prevent a decrease in its population, while the white-lipped peccary’s exploratory and confrontational behavioral patterns in overhunted areas, together with other simultaneous factors as forest fragmentation, might contribute to placing this species in the vulnerable category.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0256-5
       
  • Bivalve or gastropod? Using profitability estimates to predict prey
           choice by P. clarkii
    • Authors: Vera Gonçalves; Francesca Gherardi; Rui Rebelo
      Abstract: Recently, a highly invasive alien species, the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, has colonized Italian aquatic ecosystems that had been previously colonized by another highly invasive alien species—the North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii. This was the first time and world region where these two species met. To evaluate the relative importance of their interactions, we studied prey selection according to its length, as well as prey choice by P. clarkii preying on D. polymorpha in the presence and absence of alternative prey—the freshwater snail Physella acuta. We followed an optimability-based approach, by first estimating the most profitable length of each mollusc and then by conducting a prey choice experiment, on which both species were provided simultaneously to a crayfish with different size combinations. Prey selection was dependent on prey length, handling time and crayfish length for both molluscs. According to our profitability estimates, snails should be more profitable than mussels in the length range 7–10 mm, while for lengths over 11.0 mm, mussels should be more profitable. The results of the prey choice experiment indicated that D. polymorpha length, P. acuta length, and the difference in profitability between the offered individuals were all relevant for the choice of one species over the other by P. clarkii. However, the overall tendency was the choice of the smallest prey, regardless of species, and the estimates of prey profitability were not useful to predict prey choice. Our study shows that D. polymorpha represents a novel prey resource for P. clarkii, even in the presence of an alternative prey, and that zebra mussels may be a preferred prey, especially small-sized individuals (5–10 mm).
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0251-x
       
  • A novel strategy to escape a poor habitat: red-necked grebes transfer
           flightless young to other ponds
    • Authors: Janusz Kloskowski; Karolina Frączek
      Abstract: Animals confronted with the threat of the death of their offspring may exhibit unusual and risk-prone behaviours. Grebes (Podicipediformes) are water birds which cannot effectively walk, thus unfledged young are assumed to be unable to depart from their natal ponds by land. We provide evidence that red-necked grebes Podiceps grisegena, breeding on ponds with scarce food resources, transferred their flightless young (2–4 weeks old) to other, unconnected ponds by land or air. Although a large proportion of breeding grebes in the study area nested on food-poor fish ponds acting as ecological traps, where they suffered significant brood losses, brood movements to new ponds accounted for only 3.3% of such breeding attempts. The infrequency of this strategy may be explained by the lack of suitable territories in close proximity and the high risk of predation or fatal injury. The means of chick transfer remains unclear; the chicks may have followed or been carried by parents shuffling across the pond levees; alternatively, parents may have carried the young on their backs in flight. Our findings indicate that red-necked grebes assess the current level of resources available for chicks and may adopt novel and risky strategies to escape total brood failure.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0254-7
       
  • Distraction display of the southernmost subspecies of the Golden-crowned
           Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus azarae (Aves: Parulidae) and a need for
           more detailed documentation of paratreptic behaviours
    • Authors: Paul Smith
      Abstract: Distraction displays or paratreptic behaviours are nest protection behaviours designed to lead predators away from an active nest. The reason for the widespread presence of terrestrial distraction displays in the largely arboreal Parulidae has been the subject of much debate, and a terrestrial or semi-terrestrial ancestor has been postulated to explain it. Recent phylogenetic analyses provide some support for this theory, but distraction displays in the Parulidae remain poorly documented and are often inaccurately and abruptly dismissed with misapplied terms such as “injury-feigning”. An observation of distraction display in the southern azarae subspecies of the widespread Neotropical species, Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus, showed that such behaviours are far more complex and multi-faceted than currently understood. The distraction display of this subspecies exhibits elements of injury-feigning, chick simulation, advertising and, perhaps, eccentric deportment. Given the possible ancestral origins of such behaviours, it is suggested that the careful documentation and description of such behaviours in Parulidae is warranted and that they may potentially assist in shedding light on the evolutionary history of the family.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0253-8
       
  • Preliminary observations of complex object manipulation in a wild
           population of Sapajus cay Illiger 1815 (primates: Cebidae) in a fragment
           of upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, Rancho Laguna Blanca, eastern Paraguay
    • Abstract: Capuchin monkeys are known for their cognitive abilities, including object manipulation and use of a variety of tools. The hooded capuchin (Sapajus cay) is the only representative of its genus found in Paraguay and is critically understudied in the country. This paper reports on preliminary observations of a group of hooded capuchins, in Rancho Laguna Blanca, San Pedro, Paraguay, using two different first-order object manipulation techniques to open the seeds of the tree Cariniana estrellensis (Lecythidaceae). Some individuals held the seed in both hands and stood bipedally, using their entire body weight to smash the seed against a branch. The more commonly observed technique involved the monkeys holding the seed in one hand and repeatedly striking the branch with the fruit until they could extract the seed. Only adults were ever observed to be successful in opening the fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0244-1
       
  • Escape tactics by a neotropical montane lizard: a comparison of flight
           responses against natural and nonnatural predators
    • Authors: Stefânia P. R. Ventura; Daniel C. Passos; Leonardo L. Machado; Guydo Horta; Conrado A. B. Galdino
      Abstract: Prey must judge the level of threat related to a given predator attack to employ the most efficient escape strategy at a low cost. In this context, the capacity of prey to correctly assess the threat from predators might optimise their decision on the strategy employed to flee. We examined the escape behaviour of the montane lizard Tropidurus montanus in response to different types of predatory stimuli. Lizards stimulated by a model of a natural predator ran shorter distances straight towards shelter and spent less time in flight. On the other hand, when exposed to a model of a nonnatural predator, T. montanus performed longer flights in distance and time, running across open and exposed substrates in the view of predators. These results showed that the lizard T. montanus made different escape decisions according to the type of predatory stimulus.
      PubDate: 2016-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0242-3
       
  • Female perception of a partner’s mate value discrepancy and controlling
           behaviour in romantic relationships
    • Authors: Dariusz P. Danel; Agnieszka Siennicka; Kinga Glińska; Piotr Fedurek; Natalia Nowak-Szczepańska; Ewa A. Jankowska; Bogusław Pawłowski; Zdzisław Lewandowski
      Abstract: Mate value discrepancy (MVD) between heterosexual partners is an important factor influencing relationship satisfaction which, in turn, has an effect on the quality and the stability of the relationship. Therefore, partners’ involvement in mate retention behaviours, such as controlling behaviours, can be related to MVD and our study aims to determine whether such an association exists. In order to do so, we analysed female perception of MVD and their opinion regarding the intensity of controlling behaviours performed by themselves as well as their romantic partners. Female perception of the intensity of controlling behaviours performed by both partners was the highest in couples where a woman assesses her own mate value (MV) as higher than her partner’s MV and significantly different than in relationships where male MV exceeded those of the female. Our study also indicates that MVD should be taken into account when analysing sex differences in intensities of mate retention behaviours. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the significance of the relationship length for controlling behaviour intensity. Findings are discussed within an evolutionary perspective.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0240-5
       
  • Infanticide in a jaguar ( Panthera onca ) population—does the provision
           of livestock carcasses increase the risk?
    • Authors: Fernando R. Tortato; Allison L. Devlin; Rafael Hoogesteijn; Joares A. May Júnior; Jacqueline L. Frair; Peter G. Crawshaw; Thiago J. Izzo; Howard B. Quigley
      Abstract: Infanticide is an antagonistic behavior that may provide an evolutionary benefit for the perpetrator. Cases of infanticide have rarely been reported in Neotropical carnivores. The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence of infanticide in a local jaguar (Panthera onca) population in the Brazilian Pantanal. We present infanticide data from opportunistic sampling. Each month, from 2013 to 2015, we monitored pastures for evidence of livestock carcasses. A remotely triggered camera trap was placed at encountered fresh cattle carcasses. Through this monitoring, two cases of infanticide were recorded. Both cases occurred in close proximity to a cattle carcass, a large prey item that may attract multiple jaguars—including females with cubs around age of weaning—and increase the risk of infanticide. Our observations provide new empirical evidence of jaguar social behavior and intraspecific competitive interactions, potentially driven by locally high population density and resource provision.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0241-4
       
 
 
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