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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover acta ethologica
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 23]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Waste of leaf-cutting ants: disposal, nest structure, and abiotic soil
           factors around internal waste chambers
    • Authors: Sandra S. Verza; Eduardo A. Diniz; Mara F. Chiarelli; Rosilda M. Mussury; Odair C. Bueno
      Abstract: Abstract Leaf-cutting ants produce large quantities of waste that harbor bacteria and fungi that are harmful to the colony. To be protected from these pathogens, the workers of Atta species present a sophisticated organization to manage harmful material, which can be deposited outside the nest or in internal chambers. However, little is known about the behavior of Acromyrmex species in handling and disposal of waste. Due to some observations, we assume that the same species of Acromyrmex can deposit waste outside the nest and into internal chambers and raise the following question: what determines the occurrence of internal waste chambers in Acromyrmex? To address this question, we verified whether nest depth influences the waste-chamber occurrence. We also verified the nest structure and the abiotic factors of soil beside each waste-chamber: pH and water content of the soil. For this, eight nests were excavated for Acromyrmex balzani and Acromyrmex rugosus rugosus. We verified that not only can the same leaf-cutting ant species deposit debris both outside and inside the nest but also the same nest can present internal chambers and external waste deposit. The soil beside the waste chamber always presented an acidic pH, while the humidity varied widely. Our results showed that the nest depth was highly correlated with the depth of the waste chamber (p = 0.0003) and probably has some influence on waste disposal. The characteristics of the nest and the role of depth in the choice of waste chamber location are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0255-6
       
  • The defensive behavioral patterns of captive white-lipped and collared
           peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae): an approach for conservation of the
           species
    • Authors: Selene S. C. Nogueira; Aline M Reis; Stefane G. Marsaro; José M. B. Duarte; Viviana Moreto; Stella G. C. Lima; Thaise S. O. Costa; Sérgio L G Nogueira-Filho
      Abstract: Abstract Defensive behavioral patterns in response to human-induced rapid environmental change can affect animals’ fitness and may play a role in species conservation status. To test this hypothesis, we compared the risk assessment and defensive behavioral responses of captive white-lipped peccary (WLP; Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (CP; Pecari tajacu), which retain different conservation status; WLP are considered vulnerable and CP of least concern. We used an adapted paradigm of the mouse defense test battery (MDTB) comprising four consecutive tests. Two of these tests simulated a novel environment, while the other two stimulated the expression of defensive behavioral patterns. Besides differences in risk assessment and defensive threat/attack behavioral patterns between species, we compared flight initiation distance, flight speed, and plasma glucocorticoid concentrations. When facing a novel environment and risk challenges from humans’ predator-like cues, the white-lipped peccary showed more exploratory and defensive threat/attack behavioral patterns, shorter flight initiation distances, and lower flight speeds, whereas the collared peccaries showed more cautious and retreat patterns, longer flight initiation distances, and higher flight speeds. There were also correlations between physiological and behavioral parameters. We confirmed our hypothesis that the collared peccary’s cautiousness may help to prevent a decrease in its population, while the white-lipped peccary’s exploratory and confrontational behavioral patterns in overhunted areas, together with other simultaneous factors as forest fragmentation, might contribute to placing this species in the vulnerable category.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0256-5
       
  • Bivalve or gastropod? Using profitability estimates to predict prey
           choice by P. clarkii
    • Authors: Vera Gonçalves; Francesca Gherardi; Rui Rebelo
      Abstract: Abstract Recently, a highly invasive alien species, the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, has colonized Italian aquatic ecosystems that had been previously colonized by another highly invasive alien species—the North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii. This was the first time and world region where these two species met. To evaluate the relative importance of their interactions, we studied prey selection according to its length, as well as prey choice by P. clarkii preying on D. polymorpha in the presence and absence of alternative prey—the freshwater snail Physella acuta. We followed an optimability-based approach, by first estimating the most profitable length of each mollusc and then by conducting a prey choice experiment, on which both species were provided simultaneously to a crayfish with different size combinations. Prey selection was dependent on prey length, handling time and crayfish length for both molluscs. According to our profitability estimates, snails should be more profitable than mussels in the length range 7–10 mm, while for lengths over 11.0 mm, mussels should be more profitable. The results of the prey choice experiment indicated that D. polymorpha length, P. acuta length, and the difference in profitability between the offered individuals were all relevant for the choice of one species over the other by P. clarkii. However, the overall tendency was the choice of the smallest prey, regardless of species, and the estimates of prey profitability were not useful to predict prey choice. Our study shows that D. polymorpha represents a novel prey resource for P. clarkii, even in the presence of an alternative prey, and that zebra mussels may be a preferred prey, especially small-sized individuals (5–10 mm).
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0251-x
       
  • A novel strategy to escape a poor habitat: red-necked grebes transfer
           flightless young to other ponds
    • Authors: Janusz Kloskowski; Karolina Frączek
      Abstract: Abstract Animals confronted with the threat of the death of their offspring may exhibit unusual and risk-prone behaviours. Grebes (Podicipediformes) are water birds which cannot effectively walk, thus unfledged young are assumed to be unable to depart from their natal ponds by land. We provide evidence that red-necked grebes Podiceps grisegena, breeding on ponds with scarce food resources, transferred their flightless young (2–4 weeks old) to other, unconnected ponds by land or air. Although a large proportion of breeding grebes in the study area nested on food-poor fish ponds acting as ecological traps, where they suffered significant brood losses, brood movements to new ponds accounted for only 3.3% of such breeding attempts. The infrequency of this strategy may be explained by the lack of suitable territories in close proximity and the high risk of predation or fatal injury. The means of chick transfer remains unclear; the chicks may have followed or been carried by parents shuffling across the pond levees; alternatively, parents may have carried the young on their backs in flight. Our findings indicate that red-necked grebes assess the current level of resources available for chicks and may adopt novel and risky strategies to escape total brood failure.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0254-7
       
  • Distraction display of the southernmost subspecies of the Golden-crowned
           Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus azarae (Aves: Parulidae) and a need for
           more detailed documentation of paratreptic behaviours
    • Authors: Paul Smith
      Abstract: Abstract Distraction displays or paratreptic behaviours are nest protection behaviours designed to lead predators away from an active nest. The reason for the widespread presence of terrestrial distraction displays in the largely arboreal Parulidae has been the subject of much debate, and a terrestrial or semi-terrestrial ancestor has been postulated to explain it. Recent phylogenetic analyses provide some support for this theory, but distraction displays in the Parulidae remain poorly documented and are often inaccurately and abruptly dismissed with misapplied terms such as “injury-feigning”. An observation of distraction display in the southern azarae subspecies of the widespread Neotropical species, Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus, showed that such behaviours are far more complex and multi-faceted than currently understood. The distraction display of this subspecies exhibits elements of injury-feigning, chick simulation, advertising and, perhaps, eccentric deportment. Given the possible ancestral origins of such behaviours, it is suggested that the careful documentation and description of such behaviours in Parulidae is warranted and that they may potentially assist in shedding light on the evolutionary history of the family.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0253-8
       
  • Thorough investigation of epileptic behavioral characterization of
           caffeine in adult zebrafishes in correlation with drug brain concentration
           
    • Authors: Surendra Vada; Divakar Goli; Uday Raj Sharma; Anirbandeep Bose; Sabayasachi Mandal
      Abstract: Abstract Our present research aimed to perform a detailed behavioral characterization of caffeine-induced seizure activity in zebrafish. Epileptic activity was observed by immersing individuals in different concentrations of caffeine solution at 250, 350, and 500 mg/l, respectively. Higher concentrations of caffeine rapidly induced intense behavioral activity resembling tonic seizures. Lower concentrations resulted in behavior that was less intense but sustained for longer periods. Significant attenuation of seizure severity was observed in zebrafish pretreated with the barbiturate phenobarbitone. Finally, brain caffeine levels were measured using HPLC-UV methodology in fish immersed in different concentrations of caffeine. Brain caffeine levels increased with higher concentrations of caffeine treatment; however, they were not significantly altered by pretreatment with phenobarbitone.
      PubDate: 2017-01-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0250-y
       
  • Computer-manipulated stimuli as a research tool in Mozambique tilapia
           Oreochromis mossambicus
    • Authors: Marie A. Wackermannova; Pavel Horky; M. Clara P. Amorim; Paulo J. Fonseca
      Abstract: Abstract Multimodal communication is essential in social interactions in cichlid fish, including conspecifics’ recognition, agonistic interactions and courtship behaviour. Computer-manipulated image stimuli and sound playback offer powerful tools to assess the relative relevance of visual and acoustic stimuli in fish behavioural studies, but these techniques require validation for each taxon. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus responds to computer-manipulated visual stimuli and acoustic playback. Six experiments were conducted: computer animation playback, video playback, interaction with a mirror, presentation of a live male in a jar alone and combined with courting sound playback or with white noise playback. Individual agonistic interactions (lateral displays, up and down swimming, butting) and courting behaviours (tilting leading, digging) were tallied for each experiment. Our results suggest that non-interactive computer-manipulated visual stimuli is not a suitable tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia. In contrast, interaction with a live male in a jar seems to remain the best visual research instrument inducing significant strong behavioural responses. Although none or only a few agonistic interactions were observed towards video playbacks or computer animations, such interactions significantly increased towards a male in jar and were modulated by courtship sound playback, suggesting the additional relevance of sound playback as a tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia, including the study of multimodal signalling.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0252-9
       
  • Social network predicts loss of fertilizations in nesting males of a fish
           with alternative reproductive tactics
    • Authors: Sara D. Cardoso; Ana I. Faustino; Silvia S. Costa; Fábio Valério; David Gonçalves; Rui F. Oliveira
      Abstract: Abstract Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) evolve when there is strong intra-sexual competition between conspecifics for access to mates. Typically, larger “bourgeois” males reproduce by securing the access to reproductive resources while smaller “parasitic” males reproduce by stealing fertilizations from larger males. A number of factors can influence the reproductive success of each tactic, including intrinsic (e.g. size) and extrinsic (e.g. tactic relative frequency) variables. An example where plastic ARTs occur is the peacock blenny Salaria pavo, with large males reproducing by defending nests and attracting females (bourgeois tactic) and small males reproducing by achieving sneaked fertilizations (parasitic tactic). In this study, we conducted field observations on individually tagged animals to determine their social network and collected eggs from 11 nests to determine the fertilization success of each male tactic. Paternity estimates for 550 offspring indicated an average fertilization success for nest-holder males of 95%. Nest-holder male morphological traits and social network parameters were tested as predictors of fertilization success, but only the number of sneakers present in the nest-holder’s social networks was found to be a predictor of paternity loss. Although male morphological traits had been previously found to be strongly correlated with reproductive success of nest-holder males, as measured by the number of eggs collected in the male’s nest, no correlation was found between any of the measured morphological traits and fertilization success for these males. The results suggest a stronger influence of the social environment than of morphological variables in the proportion of lost fertilizations by nest-holder males of this species.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0249-9
       
  • Prey or play: interactions between walruses and seabirds
    • Authors: Andrey Giljov; Karina Karenina; Anatoly Kochnev
      Abstract: Abstract Several anecdotal reports indicate that walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) occasionally attack seabirds, which potentially impacts local bird populations. However, the manner in which walruses interact with seabirds and the motivational basis of such interactions have not been investigated. Here, we describe and characterize the behaviour of wild Pacific walruses (O. r. divergens) directed at seabirds in water near the summer haulout in the Chukchi Sea. Although most walruses showed no interest in seabirds nearby, some individuals intentionally approached them both alone and in groups. A total of 74 seabird encounters for 71 individually identified walruses were registered. Behavioural analysis based on detailed observations, photography and video recording showed that the most common types of walrus behaviour toward a bird were approach by surfacing and splash, approach by surfacing and hit and attack from below. Immature individuals initiated 82% of encounters. The motivation to approach a bird was low in adult individuals, with the majority of encounters involving adults initiated by males. Walrus encounters with live birds showed a very low rate of bird kill. Encounters with dead birds were followed by further manipulations with bird carcasses, which included both the consumption of bird soft tissue and object play taking the form of drop–catch behaviour. In addition eight cases of the object-oriented play with a bird carcass in a group of walruses were observed. Object play in wild walruses is reported for the first time. Our results indicate that in seabird encounters, walruses display diverse behavioural patterns, not limited to predatory responses.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0248-x
       
  • Thanatosis in the Brazilian seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933
           (Teleostei: Syngnathidae)
    • Authors: Natalie V. Freret-Meurer; Tatiane C. Fernandez; Daniela A. Lopes; Amanda C. Vaccani; Nayara B. Okada
      Abstract: Abstract The present study reports thanatosis behavior in Hippocampus reidi seahorses. We observed two different types of tonic immobility during seahorse handling, both in the laboratory and in field studies. In the former, the seahorses assumed a stretched posture, and in the latter, pointed their heads towards their bellies and curled their tails in a spiral towards their abdomen. The displays lasted 124 ± 100 s (n = 3) in the laboratory and 155 ± 7.07 s (n = 5) in the field. Camouflage is the seahorses primary defense from predators and our observations suggest that thanatosis is a secondary strategy that could be more effective than retaliation or escaping predators, due to the fact that seahorses lack teeth and have limited swimming ability. The responses caused by fear occurred after manipulation, allowing for the conclusion that the seahorse H. reidi may use thanatosis as a secondary defense strategy under major stress events.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0247-y
       
  • Offenders tend to be heavier: experimental encounters in mangrove-dwelling
           monitor lizards ( Varanus indicus )
    • Authors: Petra Frýdlová; Olga Šimková; Veronika Janovská; Petr Velenský; Daniel Frynta
      Abstract: Abstract The evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism is often explained by sexual selection providing competitive advantage to the larger males. The aggressive interactions are often dangerous and energy consuming; thus, it is advantageous to reduce the risks by adjusting behavior to correspond with body size as a predictor of fighting success. Organization of contests into distinct phases with the initial displays preceding the real combat allows individuals to assess the body size and strength of the rival. We staged interactions between mangrove-dwelling monitor lizards (Varanus indicus) to uncover the initialization of aggression and factors determining the course of an encounter. The analyses revealed the importance of both absolute and relative body size of encountering males. The attack rate increases with the body weight of the lizard and offenders initializing a contact phase of the fight tend to be the heavier male of the dyad. Regardless of the final outcome of the combat, the results show that only short visual contact provides sufficient information about the body size of the opponent. This enables combatants to determine whether to initiate the fight or not. This finding together with the ethological details of contests provides the first evidence for the ability of mutual assessment in varanids.
      PubDate: 2016-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0246-z
       
  • Effects of male apparent length on female preference for absolute body
           size in Xiphophorus helleri
    • Authors: R. David MacLaren
      Abstract: Abstract Female green swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) prefer males of longer body and sword lengths, which may reflect perceptual constraints. Larger males project a larger image onto the female’s retina at a given viewing distance, which may elicit greater stimulation of the visual system and a stronger behavioral response. This study investigates the effects of male apparent size, as affected by proximity and sword length, on female preference for absolute body size in X. helleri. Females were presented pairs of dummy males in ten treatments organized into six categories: (1) the Actual Length Control where identically sized males were held at different viewing distances from the female; (2) the Sword Compensation Treatment in which viewing distance and apparent length (body + sword) were held constant, pairing sworded with swordless dummies of equal total length; (3) the Body Length Preference Treatment where male distance from the female was held constant, while varying body size; (4) the Apparent (Sword) Length Preference Treatments where male distance from the female was held constant, while varying sword length; (5) the Apparent Length Controls where body length, sword length, and viewing distances varied while holding apparent length constant; and (6) the Experimental Treatment in which the smaller-sworded male of the pair appeared larger. In each of the Actual Length Control, Body, and Sword Length Treatments, females preferred the closer, larger-bodied, and longer-sworded males, respectively. However, females exhibited preferences in neither any of the Apparent Size Control treatments nor any of the Sword Compensation Treatment. Additionally, females in the Experimental Treatment preferred the apparently longer-sworded dummy to the male whose sword was actually longer. These results suggest that female preference for male body and sword length is based on the male’s apparent rather than actual size.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0245-0
       
  • Preliminary observations of complex object manipulation in a wild
           population of Sapajus cay Illiger 1815 (primates: Cebidae) in a fragment
           of upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, Rancho Laguna Blanca, eastern Paraguay
    • Abstract: Abstract Capuchin monkeys are known for their cognitive abilities, including object manipulation and use of a variety of tools. The hooded capuchin (Sapajus cay) is the only representative of its genus found in Paraguay and is critically understudied in the country. This paper reports on preliminary observations of a group of hooded capuchins, in Rancho Laguna Blanca, San Pedro, Paraguay, using two different first-order object manipulation techniques to open the seeds of the tree Cariniana estrellensis (Lecythidaceae). Some individuals held the seed in both hands and stood bipedally, using their entire body weight to smash the seed against a branch. The more commonly observed technique involved the monkeys holding the seed in one hand and repeatedly striking the branch with the fruit until they could extract the seed. Only adults were ever observed to be successful in opening the fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0244-1
       
  • Interspecific interactions between wild black and gold howlermonkeys (
           Alouatta caraya ) and other mammals in northeastern Argentina
    • Abstract: Abstract We studied the interactions between wild black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) and other mammals at three sites with different human disturbance levels and forest structures in northeastern Argentina. The main goal was to evaluate the effects of the study site and type of interaction (agonistic or non-agonistic) on the rate of interaction. In addition, we also described the associations between interspecific interaction rate, species involved, howler monkeys’ activity, and seasonality. We present 50 group-years for 14 groups, collected between 2003 and 2012. We registered a total of 29 interactions (0.22 ± 0.26 interactions/100 h). Most interactions (56.7%) were agonistic (12% of high intensity and 88% of low intensity), 41.9% were neutral, and 1.5% were affiliative. We found that both factors, site and type of interaction, have an effect on the rate of interaction. Interspecific interactions were more frequent at the two sites without human settlement than in the rural site. Interspecific interactions occurred during resting (46.73%), traveling (27.40%), and feeding (25.87%). Interactions occurred throughout the year but were concentrated in August (late winter) and September (beginning of spring). Our results suggest that both site and type of interaction affected the rate of interaction between howler monkeys and other mammals in northeastern Argentina. Agonistic interactions were more frequent that non-agonistic ones, and monkeys reacted agonistically to several mammalian species, but these interactions were mainly of low intensity.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0243-2
       
  • Escape tactics by a neotropical montane lizard: a comparison of flight
           responses against natural and nonnatural predators
    • Authors: Stefânia P. R. Ventura; Daniel C. Passos; Leonardo L. Machado; Guydo Horta; Conrado A. B. Galdino
      Abstract: Abstract Prey must judge the level of threat related to a given predator attack to employ the most efficient escape strategy at a low cost. In this context, the capacity of prey to correctly assess the threat from predators might optimise their decision on the strategy employed to flee. We examined the escape behaviour of the montane lizard Tropidurus montanus in response to different types of predatory stimuli. Lizards stimulated by a model of a natural predator ran shorter distances straight towards shelter and spent less time in flight. On the other hand, when exposed to a model of a nonnatural predator, T. montanus performed longer flights in distance and time, running across open and exposed substrates in the view of predators. These results showed that the lizard T. montanus made different escape decisions according to the type of predatory stimulus.
      PubDate: 2016-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0242-3
       
  • Female perception of a partner’s mate value discrepancy and controlling
           behaviour in romantic relationships
    • Authors: Dariusz P. Danel; Agnieszka Siennicka; Kinga Glińska; Piotr Fedurek; Natalia Nowak-Szczepańska; Ewa A. Jankowska; Bogusław Pawłowski; Zdzisław Lewandowski
      Abstract: Abstract Mate value discrepancy (MVD) between heterosexual partners is an important factor influencing relationship satisfaction which, in turn, has an effect on the quality and the stability of the relationship. Therefore, partners’ involvement in mate retention behaviours, such as controlling behaviours, can be related to MVD and our study aims to determine whether such an association exists. In order to do so, we analysed female perception of MVD and their opinion regarding the intensity of controlling behaviours performed by themselves as well as their romantic partners. Female perception of the intensity of controlling behaviours performed by both partners was the highest in couples where a woman assesses her own mate value (MV) as higher than her partner’s MV and significantly different than in relationships where male MV exceeded those of the female. Our study also indicates that MVD should be taken into account when analysing sex differences in intensities of mate retention behaviours. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the significance of the relationship length for controlling behaviour intensity. Findings are discussed within an evolutionary perspective.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0240-5
       
  • Infanticide in a jaguar ( Panthera onca ) population—does the provision
           of livestock carcasses increase the risk?
    • Authors: Fernando R. Tortato; Allison L. Devlin; Rafael Hoogesteijn; Joares A. May Júnior; Jacqueline L. Frair; Peter G. Crawshaw; Thiago J. Izzo; Howard B. Quigley
      Abstract: Abstract Infanticide is an antagonistic behavior that may provide an evolutionary benefit for the perpetrator. Cases of infanticide have rarely been reported in Neotropical carnivores. The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence of infanticide in a local jaguar (Panthera onca) population in the Brazilian Pantanal. We present infanticide data from opportunistic sampling. Each month, from 2013 to 2015, we monitored pastures for evidence of livestock carcasses. A remotely triggered camera trap was placed at encountered fresh cattle carcasses. Through this monitoring, two cases of infanticide were recorded. Both cases occurred in close proximity to a cattle carcass, a large prey item that may attract multiple jaguars—including females with cubs around age of weaning—and increase the risk of infanticide. Our observations provide new empirical evidence of jaguar social behavior and intraspecific competitive interactions, potentially driven by locally high population density and resource provision.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0241-4
       
  • Is hissing behaviour of incubating great tits related to reproductive
           investment in the wild'
    • Authors: Kaarin Koosa; Vallo Tilgar
      Abstract: Abstract Anti-predator behaviour of breeding animals is a complex trait that depends on current reproductive investment as well as individual differences in risk-taking propensities. In response to nest predation, many bird species produce specific sounds, such as the hissing calls in incubating great tits (Parus major), that may provoke an acoustic startle response in the predator. However, it is still unclear whether the propensity of incubating females to produce hissing calls towards nest predators depends on the reproductive investment. With our 3-year study, we show that response type (females that do not hiss versus females giving hissing calls) to a potential nest predator, the woodpecker, is a repeatable trait. We found no differences in the studied reproductive traits between hissing and non-hissing birds. Interestingly, among hissing birds, fast-responding females started egg-laying earlier than slow-responding ones. Among non-hissing birds, heavier birds initiated clutches earlier. We also revealed that hissing birds breed in areas with decreased nest-box occupancy, suggesting either that they potentially select different areas to breed or that territory size is larger as a result of hissing birds being more aggressive. These findings demonstrate that response type is not related to the early reproductive value of the brood across distinct behavioural groups. However, our results do suggest that non-hissing and hissing females differ in terms of individual quality or dominance or personality related aspects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0239-y
       
  • Personality and behavioural syndrome in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia:
           Cricetidae): notes on dispersal and invasion processes
    • Authors: J. Malange; P. Izar; H. Japyassú
      Abstract: Abstract Recent studies showed that behavioural individual features are related to species invasion and occupation abilities. In particular, the recent literature on animal personality has pointed to a correlation between behavioural profiles and the success in different phases of the invasion. In the present study, we investigated personality traits in the Neotropical species Necromys lasiurus. This wild rodent is expanding its original distribution to disturbed areas in the Atlantic Forest biome in response to anthropogenic impacts, acting as an invasive species (broad sense). In order to evaluate personality, we performed three behavioural assays as follows: open field, aversive open field and holeboard field. We extracted three personality domains—activity, exploration, and neophilia—using principal component analysis. There was significant positive correlation between these personality domains characterising a behavioural syndrome. We discussed the implications of this behavioural profile to dispersal and potential invasion abilities in this species.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0238-z
       
  • Social play in wild brown bears of varying age-sex class
    • Authors: Melanie Clapham; John Kitchin
      Abstract: Abstract Social play behaviour is a well-described phenomenon, almost ubiquitous among mammals. Despite its prevalence, social play takes several forms and may vary in function across species. For solitary species, the function of play outside of the family group remains unclear. Here, we describe the motor patterns of play among non-littermate wild brown bears Ursus arctos of different age-sex class. Play was documented during a time of abundant food availability in three different scenarios: play among non-littermate subadults, play among non-littermate cubs, and play among a ‘group’ of bears of different age and sex class. We used a previously described behavioural ethogram to recognise play. Play followed typical motor patterns and postures expressed by bears during play-fighting: relaxed face, puckered-lip, ears partially flattened to crescent, wrestling, jaw gaping, play-biting, paw-swatting, and lunging. No vocalisations were conducted during play bouts. Older bears displayed ‘self-handicapping’ and ‘role-reversal’ in the play postures they selected when playing with younger bears, suggesting that tactics vary according to age class and dominance ranking. Playing likely allows for the evaluation of conspecifics in a non-aggressive way during times of reduced competition and could also relieve stress in complex social situations.
      PubDate: 2016-05-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0237-0
       
  • Threat-sensitive anti-predator defence in precocial wader, the northern
           lapwing Vanellus vanellus
    • Authors: Natalia Królikowska; Jakub Szymkowiak; Rebecca Anne Laidlaw; Lechosław Kuczyński
      Abstract: Abstract Birds exhibit various forms of anti-predator behaviours to avoid reproductive failure, with mobbing—observation, approach and usually harassment of a predator—being one of the most commonly observed. Here, we investigate patterns of temporal variation in the mobbing response exhibited by a precocial species, the northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). We test whether brood age and self-reliance, or the perceived risk posed by various predators, affect mobbing response of lapwings. We quantified aggressive interactions between lapwings and their natural avian predators and used generalized additive models to test how timing and predator species identity are related to the mobbing response of lapwings. Lapwings diversified mobbing response within the breeding season and depending on predator species. Raven Corvus corax, hooded crow Corvus cornix and harriers evoked the strongest response, while common buzzard Buteo buteo, white stork Ciconia ciconia, black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus and rook Corvus frugilegus were less frequently attacked. Lapwings increased their mobbing response against raven, common buzzard, white stork and rook throughout the breeding season, while defence against hooded crow, harriers and black-headed gull did not exhibit clear temporal patterns. Mobbing behaviour of lapwings apparently constitutes a flexible anti-predator strategy. The anti-predator response depends on predator species, which may suggest that lapwings distinguish between predator types and match mobbing response to the perceived hazard at different stages of the breeding cycle. We conclude that a single species may exhibit various patterns of temporal variation in anti-predator defence, which may correspond with various hypotheses derived from parental investment theory.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0236-1
       
  • Communication in a noisy environment: short-term acoustic adjustments and
           the underlying acoustic niche of a Neotropical stream-breeding frog
    • Authors: Vinícius Matheus Caldart; Samanta Iop; Rodrigo Lingnau; Sonia Zanini Cechin
      Abstract: Abstract Acoustically active animals may show long- and short-term adaptations in acoustic traits for coping with ambient noise. Given the key role of calls in anurans’ life history, long- and short-term adaptations are expected in species inhabiting noisy habitats. However, to disentangle such adaptations is a difficult task, incipiently addressed for Neotropical frogs. We investigated if males of a stream-breeding frog (Crossodactylus schmidti) adjust call traits according to the background noise, and if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies between call harmonics and along call notes. We measured sound pressure levels of calls and noise in the field and used a fine-scale acoustic analysis to describe the signal and noise structure and test for noise-related call adjustments. The multi-note harmonic call of C. schmidti greatly varied in the spectral structure, including a trend for increasing note amplitude along the call, a wide frequency bandwidth of the 2nd harmonic, a minor call frequency modulation due to a trend for increasing note frequency within the same harmonic, and a major call frequency modulation due to the variable location of the dominant harmonic along the call. Calls had significantly higher frequencies than the noise at the range of the 1st and the 2nd call harmonics, and significantly louder sound pressure than the noise at the range of all harmonics. Males emitted the majority of call notes showing positive SNR, and though males also emitted some notes with negative SNR, when a given harmonic was negative the other harmonics in the same note did not tend to be SNR-negative. Our results indicate that male C. schmidti show short-term acoustic adjustments that make the advertisement call effective for coping with the interference of the stream-generated noise. We suggest that the call spectral plasticity serves for coping with temporary changes in the background noise, whilst we also discuss the possibility that the redundant, harmonic-structured call may have evolved to diminish masking interference on the acoustic signal by the background noise. This is the first study to uncouple noise-related acoustic adjustments and putative long-term acoustic adaptations for a Hylodidae, providing insights on behavioral plasticity and signal evolution of stream-breeding frogs.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-016-0235-2
       
 
 
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