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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2354 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2354 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover acta ethologica
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 23]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Advertisement call variation and individual acoustic distinctiveness in
           the explosive breeding toad Peltophryne cataulaciceps (Anura: Bufonidae)
    • Authors: Roberto Alonso Bosch; Ariel Rodríguez; Maike Hernández Quinta
      Pages: 197 - 205
      Abstract: In this contribution, we offer new information about the advertisement call of Peltophryne cataulaciceps, an endemic toad species from Cuba and the smallest bufonid from the West Indies. We measured seven acoustic properties from 17 males and analyzed the variability at the within-individual and between-individual levels, using coefficients of variation, type II ANOVAs, and multivariate analysis. Dominant frequency was distinctly less variable within individuals than the rest of the acoustic properties; call rise time showed the highest variability. Variability between individuals was higher for pulse rate, call duration, and dominant frequency, and the CVb/CVw ratios showed that these acoustic properties are more reliable for individual distinctiveness. Discriminant function analyses assigned 54.1% of the calls to the correct individual, and this classification success increased when smaller groups of individuals were considered in the analysis. Results are compared with studies addressing individual acoustic distinctiveness in anurans. We support that the patterns of advertisement call variation within and among co-occurring males differ among explosive and prolonged breeding species/populations, but additional case studies including other explosive breeding species are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0261-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Nightly calling patterns in a Neotropical gladiator frog
    • Authors: Tailise Marques Dias; Cynthia P. A. Prado; Rogério Pereira Bastos
      Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: In anurans, vocalization is the primary communication form and acoustic parameters are influenced by climatic conditions, but also by social contexts. We investigated calling site use and within-individual variation of acoustic parameters throughout the night in the gladiator-frog Hypsiboas goianus. We expected that large males would call closer to the water and at higher perches to avoid dehydration and maximize sound propagation. Furthermore, we tested the prediction that males would emit more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls late at night. Male size was not correlated with either distance from the water or perch height. However, as expected, males of H. goianus adopted a calling strategy that consisted of emitting more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls later in the night. Furthermore, repetition rate and interval between notes of the aggressive calls and repetition rate of the advertisement calls showed within-individual variation throughout the night that agreed with our expectations. The calling strategy of H. goianus is probably related to the establishment of calling sites early in the night and an investment in female attraction in the middle of the night when males’ aggressive interactions have faded away, or due to habituation increasing the males’ aggressive thresholds. This is the first study investigating within-individual patterns of acoustic parameters of calls throughout the night for anurans.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0263-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Chemical sex recognition in the harvestman Discocyrtus prospicuus
           (Arachnida: Opiliones)
    • Authors: Nathália S. Fernandes; Estefanía Stanley; Fernando G. Costa; Carlos A. Toscano-Gadea; Rodrigo H. Willemart
      Pages: 215 - 221
      Abstract: Several arachnid species use chemicals to detect sexual partners. In harvestmen, there are evidences that chemicals may play a role in intraspecific communication. Using the behavior of Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg 1876), whose males expose the penis to females before they engage in mating posture, we tested if males detect females by contact chemoreception (chemicals left on the substrate) and if males detect females by olfaction. First, we exposed males to three experimental groups, where males had to choose between two substrates: female chemicals/blank control; male chemicals/blank control; female/male chemicals. Then, we gave males access to volatiles of males, females, and control simultaneously. We predicted that males would expose the penis when approaching volatiles and chemicals deposited on the substrate by females. We also tested if males spent more time close to the source of female volatiles and on the substrate with female chemicals and if males tapped the substrate with female chemicals for more time than the others. Finally, we put males and females together to observe if males would expose the penis upon touching the female’s cuticle. Most of our predictions were not supported, though males did tap for more time when exposed to female cues instead of male cues and exposed the penis in 70% of the observations when interacting with the female but only after touching her. Our data does not support olfaction as a way to detect females and corroborate the idea that contact chemicals, either on the substrate or on female’s cuticle, play an important role in the detection and recognition of the opposite sex. This is the first evidence in harvestmen that males may react differently to female/male chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0264-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Immune challenge of female great tits at nests affects provisioning and
           body conditions of their offspring
    • Authors: Emilia Grzędzicka
      Pages: 223 - 233
      Abstract: The trade-off between animal’s parental reproductive effort and survival is still poorly understood. Parental allocation between the workload during breeding attempts and the parents’ own body conditions can be assessed through the offspring quality. Here, I questioned whether the immune responsiveness of female great tits may be considered as a mediator of this trade-off. Specifically, I tested whether (1) the parental reproductive effort decreases, (2) the food composition provided to chicks changes, and (3) whether the nestling immunocompetence and body mass decrease after experimental immunisation. Two populations of great tit Parus major occupying nest boxes were studied in Niepołomice Forest and Krzyszkowice Forest (Southern Poland) in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three days after hatching, half of the females were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while other females were injected with phosphate-buffered saline PBS (control). Six days later, food provided by the parents was collected from nestlings. After another 2 days, the offspring’s body mass was measured and wing web swelling in response to an additional phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection. In both years, immunocompetence and in 2012 also body mass in the offspring of SRBC-immunised mothers were lower than in control nestlings, indicating a cost of mounting the immune response in the female. Six days after the start of the female treatment, the number of caterpillars and the volume of food items provided by parents to chicks were higher, whereas the number of spiders was lower in nests with SRBC treatment than in control ones. This might be explained by compensational parental feeding after recovery from the inflammation of a female. Thus, the trade-off between parental effort and survival of parents is mediated by the costs incurred for their immunity and can be assessed by the amount and quality of food provided to the nestlings and the offspring condition.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0265-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Territory size as a main driver of male-mating success in an Amazonian
           nurse frog ( Allobates paleovarzensis , Dendrobatoidea)
    • Authors: Sulamita Marques Correia da Rocha; Albertina Pimentel Lima; Igor Luis Kaefer
      Abstract: In polygamous mating systems, it is most often males that compete for the opposite sex, using strategies to provide access to as many females as possible. Females, on the other hand, constitute the sex that exerts the choice and so require a means of accessing the quality of a potential partner in comparison to its competitors. A common challenge in sexual selection studies is to identify the most relevant trait for mating success, since many are correlated with each other. In addition, little is known about how the female accesses the aspects related to male quality. In this context, we tested the role of different male characteristics on mating success in a natural environment using the Amazonian frog Allobates paleovarzensis as a model. A multiple linear regression model showed a positive relationship between territory size and number of male matings, while calling persistence was slightly related to the mating success. We did not detect a relation of the number of matings with the distance to the nearest body of water nor with male body size. Additionally, we observed that territory size was not related to calling persistence, but had a positive relation with the duration of the couple’s courting process. Thus, we conclude that: (1) territory size is the main determinant of male-mating success, and this is not correlated with the other attributes tested; and (2) females access the size of the males’ territory through the courting process that precedes oviposition.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0280-5
       
  • Agonistic behavior between introduced beaver ( Castor canadensis ) and
           endemic culpeo fox ( Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides ) in Tierra del Fuego
           Island and implications
    • Authors: Tamara A. Tadich; Andrés J. Novaro; Pablo Kunzle; Mauricio Chacón; Miguel Barrientos; Cristóbal Briceño
      Abstract: Over the last 70 years, introduced beavers (Castor canadensis) have been successful in establishing and modifying the landscape of southernmost Patagonia. Habitat availability and lack of large carnivorous predators have contributed to this success. The Fuegian culpeo fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides) is an endangered subspecies and the largest native predator found in Tierra del Fuego Island. The predatory behavior of a culpeo towards a beaver was studied by analyzing a video footage recovered by tourists, and consumption of beaver was documented with camera traps. An ethogram of the predatory behavior sequence was developed and true durations and percentage of time allocated to each behavior were analyzed. The “capture” and “watch” behaviors had the highest durations within the predatory sequence (61.83 and 42.61 s, respectively), while “rest” was the most frequent maintenance behavior observed (93.82 s). The culpeo may provide the only natural population control for beavers, although up to date, there is no evidence to confirm this ecological role. Based upon photos from camera traps, we confirm the occurrence of fox feeding on beavers. This is the first description of the stages of the interaction between a Fuegian culpeo fox and a North American beaver under natural conditions. We discuss the ecological implications of this interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0278-z
       
  • Are right- and left-handedness relevant as general categories in a
           non-industrialized country'
    • Authors: Winati Nurhayu; Sarah Nila; Michel Raymond; Bambang Suryobroto
      Abstract: Whether right- and left-handedness are defined as a function of individual tasks or represent general categories across tasks has been long debated. However, the literature on handedness primarily concerns industrialized societies in which manual work has been extensively automated, and the majority of individuals in those countries do not use their arms and hands intensively for highly specialized tasks on an everyday basis. Thus, the question remains whether results from those countries regarding handedness are transferable to countries where the majority of individuals are still exploiting their lateralized skills. Here, we sampled 506 individuals from 143 locations on the islands of Flores and Adonara, Indonesia, to assess their hand preference for and hand performance on several tasks in order to evaluate, in a non-industrialized country, the level of manual specialization and the relevance of right- or left-handedness as general categories. Generalized-declared handedness was consistent with task-declared handedness across 10 specific tasks and with a measure of strength and a measure of skilfulness, suggesting that general handedness is a valid concept. This hand specialization for tasks is discussed in the context of intense and daily tool use in this agricultural society.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0279-y
       
  • Predator recognition and differential behavioural responses of adult wood
           warblers Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    • Authors: Marta Maziarz; Charlotte Piggott; Malcolm Burgess
      Abstract: Birds often engage in nest defence against predators to improve breeding success, but defence efficiency requires the capability to assess the threat level posed by potential predators. For species with low breeding-site tenacity, which may encounter varying occurrence and density of predators in different areas, threat recognition could be compromised due to naivety, and so predator recognition may focus on broad key features to diminish the risk of misidentification. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by recording behavioural reactions of the nomadic wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix to objects reflecting various levels of threat: least weasel and Eurasian jay taxidermy mounts, an inanimate object and an empty display mount. To assess actual nest predators, we used remote cameras to record predation events at wood warbler nests. As in other studies in Western Europe, Eurasian jay was found to be the main nest predator, with occasional predation by least weasel. The reaction of adult warblers to the models was generally to remain silent and on nests during the incubation stage presumably due to the need to maintain efficient nest camouflage and concealment. During the nestling stage, behavioural responses of adult warblers, calling and suspended feeding of young, showed the strongest effects from the jay taxidermy mount, moderate to the weasel and weakest to the inanimate object and empty mount. As the reaction of wood warblers reflected the degree of genuine threat posed by the predators depicted by the models, we conclude that predator recognition may be present in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0275-2
       
  • Effect of female group size on harem male roosting behavior of the Indian
           short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx
    • Authors: Valliyappan Mahandran; Chinnaperamanoor Madhappan Murugan; Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil Nathan
      Abstract: Mate guarding has been known to incur costs and cause constraints for harem males in many polygynous species. However, the effect of female group size on the harem male’s time budget in bats has received very limited attention. The Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, exhibits resource defense polygyny, in which tent roosting males construct tents and defend multiple female bats. We studied the effect of female group size on three aspects of harem male behavior: social grooming by reciprocal licking, tent maintenance, and tent guarding in the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia. In the process of reciprocal licking, all the bats in the harem were drenched in saliva before emergence, and this activity was positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Once females departed for foraging, harem males remained in their respective tents at night-time between intermittent foraging bouts and engaged in tent maintenance and tent guarding. Time invested by harem male bats in tent maintenance and tent guarding were positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Harem males extended their presence in tent by utilizing tents as feeding roosts. Female group size also influenced the emergence time of harem male bats, where males with largest group emerged later than did the smallest group. Likewise, harem male with the smallest group had more time available for foraging than the male with the largest group. Findings of this study suggest that having a larger harem may indeed be costly for the males by reducing their foraging time.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0276-1
       
  • Socio-genetic correlates of unbiased sex dispersal in a population of
           black capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus nigritus )
    • Authors: Marcos Tokuda; Milene M. Martins; Patrícia Izar
      Abstract: Most social mammal species exhibit male-biased dispersal. Sex bias in dispersal leads to a higher degree of relatedness among individuals of the philopatric sex, thus an atypical dispersal pattern might lead to deviations in the typical within-group kinship structure. Kinship, in turn, influences patterns of social interactions, as widely evident by kin-biased behaviors. We investigated the link between dispersal, relatedness structure, and sociopositive interactions established by adult females of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) living in a population that experiences female dispersal, an unusual pattern for capuchin monkeys. The study was conducted in Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB), within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We addressed dispersal and relatedness patterns by genotyping 20 adults of 3 groups across 9 microsatellite loci. We also sampled the monkeys’ behavior and compared spatial association frequencies and rates of grooming among same- and opposite-sex dyads. There was no difference between males and females in genetic parameters; both males and females show low coefficients of relatedness indicating that neither sex is consistently philopatric. The mean pairwise coefficient of relatedness for co-resident females was not higher than that for co-resident males. Compared to other populations of capuchin monkeys, female bond was weak, as evident by lower spatial association frequencies, reduced rates of grooming and lack of correlation between coefficients of relatedness and measures of dyadic sociopositive interactions. Our findings thus confirm that female dispersal is a habitual process in the capuchin population of PECB, and that, as expected, dispersal by females strongly influences the relatedness structure of the population as well as the affiliative relationships among female groupmates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0277-0
       
  • Reproductive synchrony in a temperate damselfish, Chromis limbata
    • Authors: Betty J.L. Laglbauer; Pedro Afonso; Anick Donnay; Ricardo S. Santos; Jorge Fontes
      Abstract: Synchronous reproduction has been reported in many tropical damselfishes, and it appears that temperature is the main driver of synchrony at these latitudes. However, reproductive synchrony and its relation to temperature is less well understood in temperate damselfish. The endemic Azores chromis (Chromis limbata) was chosen as a study species to address this topic. First, an ethogram of the reproductive behaviour and embryo development of the Azores chromis is provided. Then, are investigated (1) the reproductive dynamics at the colonial and inter-colonial levels, (2) how these are affected by temperature, and (3) the relation between reproductive dynamics and the social organization of temperate damselfish. In the Azores chromis, reproduction was cyclic with a high periodicity of 7.2 ± 0.63 days on average. Embryo development was synchronous within colonies towards the beginning and the end of incubation, but not at intermediate stages of development. Colonies that were closer were more synchronized than those located further apart, despite contrasting temperature and depth profiles. Embryo size differences were also greater between colonies that were further apart, and embryos tended to grow larger in warmer water. A literature review revealed that reproductive synchrony was common in colonial breeding damselfish species. Although these results suggest that within the breeding season, the timing and length of reproductive cycles cannot be explained by temperature alone, the observed changes in embryo size raise concern about the effects of changing oceanic conditions on this species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0269-0
       
  • Threat level influences the use of venom in a scorpion species, Tityus
           stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae)
    • Authors: André F.A. Lira; Adriana B. Santos; Nathália A. Silva; René D. Martins
      Abstract: Venom demands high metabolic costs of the organisms that produce it because it is comprised of a complex mixture of various toxins. Due to this high cost, venomous animals modulate the amount or type of venom used depending on factors such as size of prey or intensity of predation threat. This paper shows that Tityus stigmurus, a prevalent scorpion species in the urban environment in the Northeast of Brazil, modulates its venom in response to different levels of stimuli. Sixty animals were collected in Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco. The animals were subjected to either high or low levels of threats. During the tests, the animals were gently touched five times on the mesosoma with forceps at an interval of 5 s (high threat) or 5 min (low threat). The response varied significantly between intensity levels, with the animals exposed to low threat stinging in 70% of the observations and releasing a clear venom. In contrast, individuals subjected to a high level of threat stung in 83% of the observations and released a milky venom. Our results suggest that T. stigmurus reacts differently depending on the stimulus level. When the threat was considered high, the animal reacted more aggressively. Our results support the assumption that milky venom is only used when the animal is highly stressed because this venom represents higher metabolic costs than the production of clear venom.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0274-3
       
  • The advertising display of double-crested cormorants varies with
           microhabitat and time of the season in a tree-nesting colony
    • Authors: Meagan J. Mc Rae; Mahdis Azadbakhsh; Gail S. Fraser
      Abstract: Male double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) perform advertising displays at potential nest locations at spring breeding grounds to attract females. Yet, there is no research on how the frequency of this behaviour changes over time or its association with habitat features. Studies of this behavioural display may provide insight into how birds choose areas for nesting, an important issue given the environmental and societal impacts of dense colonies of cormorants. Advertising behaviour was observed in trees throughout the 2014 nesting season, at six different sampling stations, using both scan sampling (for temporal changes in display frequency) and focal sampling (for temporal changes in four microhabitat variables: tree health, height in tree, nest density and presence of a nest). Advertising data (scans N = 484 birds; focal samples N = 827 birds) were divided into pre-incubation, incubation and chicks-present categories using a breeding chronology dataset. The number of cormorants advertising varied temporally and spatially. Using scan data in a marginal model, we found that the number of cormorants advertising was highest at the beginning of the season (peaking at week 3) and lowest once chicks were present. The GLM (focal data) showed that most cormorants advertised without nests especially past the second week of the season. The model also indicated that cormorants advertised in low nest density trees from pre- to mid-incubation. Contrary to our predictions based on colony expansion over the season, we did not observe an interaction of tree health*time or station*time, which suggests that the advertising display revealed a nest site selection process that was not visible at the population level.
      PubDate: 2017-07-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0272-5
       
  • Does emotional state influence motor lateralization in California sea
           lions ( Zalophus californianus )'
    • Authors: Sophie Le Ray; Manon Le Gal; Fabienne Delfour
      Abstract: Motor lateralization is a behavioural asymmetry between the left and the right side of an individual due to hemispheric specialization. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere the right side. The right hemisphere processes negative emotions such as fear and frustration, and on the contrary, the left hemisphere processes positive emotions such as happiness. This study, conducted at Parc Asterix Delphinarium (Plailly, France), tested the influence of supposedly positive, negative and neutral emotional situations on four California sea lions’ (Zalophus californianus) motor lateralization while performing a known exercise, here climbing on a stool. Latency between the caretakers’ command and the animals’ response was recorded. The results showed an interindividual variability in the effect of the supposed emotional situations on their motor lateralization and their response latency. The nature and the strength of this effect require deeper investigation by further studies, on a larger number of individuals and contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0273-4
       
  • Social organization and endocrine profiles of Australoheros facetus , an
           exotic freshwater fish in southern Portugal
    • Authors: Flávia Baduy; Pedro M. Guerreiro; Adelino V. Canário; João L. Saraiva
      Abstract: Australoheros facetus is a neotropical cichlid and an exotic species in the Guadiana and Odelouca basins (Southern Portugal). In this research, we aimed to characterize the main behavioural patterns and circulating hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) for females, and testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and cortisol for both sexes, during the formation of social groups, a crucial step in the life-history of A. facetus. A pair-breeding strategy with territorial behaviour and aggressive interactions was found, with a positive correlation between dominance and size for both sexes. There were no significant differences between non-territorial and territorial individuals in the baseline levels of hormones, but 11KT was higher in males when they became territorial, as E2 for territorial females, while there was no clear pattern for testosterone. In contrast, cortisol was higher in non-territorial males and correlated negatively with social dominance. These results suggest that size is the main driver for social dominance and that formation of stable hierarchies result in higher circulating 11KT and lowers stress in territorial males. Related to A. facetus’ behaviour, aggressiveness and biparental care may be an advantage during the invasion process of A. facetus, facilitating colonization of new habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0271-6
       
  • Effects of social isolation on growth, stress response, and immunity of
           zebrafish
    • Authors: Mohammad Navid Forsatkar; Omid Safari; Cristiano Boiti
      Abstract: Stressful housing conditions like social isolation have been shown to profoundly affect the physiology and health of various organisms which is rarely addressed in fish species. In the present study, we used a shoaling species, zebrafish, to investigate the stress reactivity of grouped and individually housed fish. We also hypothesized if isolation is a stressful condition may disrupt growth performance and innate immune response of individuals. To this end, fish were housed individually (social isolated treatment) or in groups of five fish (control treatment) for 60 days. Growth indices of fish were not affected by social isolation. Sixty-day social isolation did insignificant effect on baseline cortisol levels of specimens; however, individually housed zebrafish showed lower plasma cortisol to chasing stress than the control grouped fish. On the contrary, exposure to predator caused higher cortisol levels in social isolated fish. Serum lysozyme activity of isolated individuals was significantly lower than control fish, but activity of serum complement remained unchanged. Our results represent evidences that zebrafish experienced social isolation showed broad changes in physiological and immunological functions which may affect the quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0270-7
       
  • Ethological and phenotypic divergence in insular fire salamanders: diurnal
           activity mediated by predation'
    • Authors: Guillermo Velo-Antón; Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
      Abstract: Phenotypic divergence can occur through both local adaptations and phenotypic plasticity in response to particular environmental pressures. Holocene land-bridge islands harbor recent isolated populations that offer an excellent natural framework to study the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid or ongoing phenotypic shifts. Two insular populations (Ons and San Martiño) of Salamandra salamandra in NW Iberian Peninsula exemplify these phenotypic shifts with a rapid evolutionary transition in reproductive mode and genetic differentiation since their isolation ca. 8000 years ago. We evaluate parallel phenotypic changes in body size and behavior. In particular, we (1) collected observational fieldwork data during diurnal and nocturnal transects in both islands for over a decade (2004–2016); (2) investigated the climatic conditions associated to fire salamanders’ activity; (3) compared physical condition between insular and mainland populations; and (4) used plasticine models and camera trapping to identify potential predators that might cause the observed diurnal activity in San Martiño Island. Our 13-year-long study shows that salamanders from San Martiño show mainly diurnal activity and are significantly smaller than salamanders from Ons and nearby continental populations. Overall, we present an exceptional case of behavior and phenotypic differentiation of an insular population of fire salamanders and suggest that this unusual behavior in the small population of San Martiño might be triggered by a response to predator pressure exerted by a dense population of Rattus rattus.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0267-2
       
  • Pregnant pipefish with a simple brooding surface loose less weight when
           carrying heavier eggs: evidence of compensation for low oocyte
           quality'
    • Authors: B. Miranda; N. Vieira; Nuno Monteiro
      Abstract: The evolutionary radiation of syngnathids has been accompanied by a diversification of structures involved in parental care, from a hypothetical ancestral presenting a simple brooding structure. The architectural simplicity of Nerophis male brooding structures led to the hypothesis that the relationship between father and developing embryos was feeble, unlike that observed in syngnathids with brood pouches. Here, we show that males loose considerable weight during pregnancy, especially so when egg weight is low. These results highlight the possibility of a compensatory mechanism and help justify why males in the wild tend to select large and colourful females, which are more fecund and able to produce larger eggs. Together with available information on the mating system, we also discuss some of the interplaying reasons behind the observed sex role reversal and high sexual dimorphism in the worm pipefish.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0268-1
       
  • Behavioural and life history responses to predation risk by common frog
           tadpoles exposed to two predators during ontogeny
    • Authors: Andrea Gazzola; Alessandro Balestrieri; Michele Ghitti; Daniele Paganelli; Paolo Galeotti
      Abstract: The presence of predators can induce changes in both the morphology and behaviour of Anuran larvae, affecting both their size and developmental stage at metamorphosis and, consequently, the fitness of adult individuals. Tadpoles have been shown to be capable of finely tuning their defensive responses according to the actual risk perceived, which is expected to vary according to the prey-to-predator size ratio. In this study, we exposed common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles (Gosner stages 28–30), for a period of 2 weeks, to the non-lethal presence of dragonfly larvae (Anax imperator) and backswimmers (Notonecta glauca). In such a narrow window of time, we expected behavioural responses to be similar for both predators and exposure to predation risk to have negligible effects on tadpole development and weight. Overall, tadpoles increased hiding behaviour and were less active when predators were present in the experimental mesocosms, but behavioural responses were constrained to the early phase of the ontogeny and were no longer used when tadpoles reached a threshold size. Developmental rate slightly slowed down for predator treatments in comparison to controls, possibly as a consequence of energetic investment in unrecorded morphological defences. Although variation in laboratory conditions and protocols makes it hard to compare the results of different experiments, our results contribute to verify the consistency of behavioural responses in Anuran larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0266-3
       
  • Effects of size, caudal autotomy, and predator kairomones on the foraging
           behavior of Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders ( Desmognathus
           ochrophaeus )
    • Authors: Emilia A. R. Gildemeister; Wesley I. Payette; Aaron M. Sullivan
      Abstract: Prey must balance the conflicting demands of foraging and defensive behavior. Foraging under the threat of predation may be further complicated among species that engage in caudal autotomy, the loss of a portion of the tail at preformed breakage planes, because the tail may serve as an important energy storage organ and contribute to motility, culminating in a trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance. As a result of the advantages conferred by the presence of a tail, individuals that have recently undergone autotomy may be more motivated to forage despite elevated levels of threat indicated by predator kairomones. We used a full factorial design to evaluate the combined effects of body size, exposure to predator kairomones, and experience with autotomy on the latency to strike at Drosophila prey, number of strikes, and prey captured per strike by Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus). In our study, caudal autotomy was the only significant main effect and influenced both the latency to attack prey and the number of strikes attempted. In terms of latency to attack prey, there was a significant interaction between body size and autotomy such that “small” salamanders (≤3.2 cm SVL) without tails delayed their foraging behavior. In terms of the number of strikes toward prey, there was a significant interaction between autotomy and exposure to predator kairomones such that individuals with intact tails exhibited a greater number of strikes, with the exception of the “large” (>3.2 cm SVL) salamanders, which performed fewer strikes when exposed to the snake kairomones. There was no significant effect on foraging efficiency, although the trend in the data suggests that autotomized individuals forage more efficiently. This study was designed to evaluate the confluence of factors related to size, caudal autotomy, and exposure to stimuli from predators and hints at the magnitude of caudal autotomy on antipredator decision-making. Our data suggest that despite the importance of tail tissue for energy storage, locomotion, and mating, salamanders without tails are cautious when foraging under elevated risk.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0259-2
       
 
 
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