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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Magnetic Resonance
  [SJR: 0.358]   [H-I: 34]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1613-7507 - ISSN (Online) 0937-9347
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Electron-Spin Relaxation Measurements of Biological [2Fe-2S] Cluster
           System in View of Electron Spin Quantum Bits
    • Authors: Amgalanbaatar Baldansuren
      Pages: 275 - 286
      Abstract: At 20 K, as long as \(T_m\sim 800-1000\)  ns were measured for the [2Fe-2S] cluster in its intrinsic protein environment. Such relaxations are a relatively long coherence time for the low-spin \(S=1/2\) system. For this biological cluster, the phase memory time was found significantly affected by the nuclear hyperfine interactions of \(^{14}\) N with \(I=1\) . When labeling the surrounding ligands with the \(^{15}\) N isotope uniformly, \(T_m\) are enhanced between \({\sim }1.1-1.4~\upmu\) s at the canonical orientations. This is already an order of magnitude longer than the duration of a single-spin qubit manipulation \({\sim }10-100\)  ns. While \(T_1\) are of the order of \({\sim }130\) \(\upmu\) s at the canonical orientations, the transient nutation experiments reflect on the coherent manipulation of the electron spin.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0857-6
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 3 (2017)
  • Unexpected Features of the Intramolecular Spin Exchange in Imidazoline
           Nitroxide Biradicals Dissolved in Ionic Liquids
    • Authors: A. I. Kokorin; B. Y. Mladenova-Kattnig; I. A. Grigor’ev; G. Grampp
      Pages: 287 - 296
      Abstract: Three imidazoline-type nitroxide biradicals of the similar composition R 5 NO –CH=N–N=CH–R 5 N , B1, R 5 NO –CH=N–N=C(CH3)–R 5 N , B2, and R 5 N –C(CH3)=N–N=C(CH3)–R 5 N , B3, with R 5 N and R 5 NO denoting, respectively, the nitroxide rings 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-imidazoline and 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-N–oxide imidazoline, have been studied by X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Variations of the intramolecular electron spin exchange in these biradicals dissolved in ethanol and the room temperature ionic liquid bmimBF4 were characterized as a function of temperature by means of the analysis of the EPR lines shape. Thermodynamic parameters of the conformational rearrangements in ethanol were calculated. Analyzing the EPR spectra of these biradicals in bmimBF4, it was revealed that the two-conformational model does not describe their conformational transitions. Moreover, the observed EPR spectra are not central symmetric especially at low temperatures that cannot be described and explained in the framework of the current theory of the intramolecular spin exchange. Probable reasons of this “strange” behavior are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0858-5
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 3 (2017)
  • 23 Na and 27 Al NMR Study of Structure and Dynamics in Mordenite
    • Authors: N. A. Sergeev; M. Paczwa; M. Olszewski; A. M. Panich
      Pages: 115 - 124
      Abstract: Temperature dependencies of 27Al and 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and spin–lattice relaxations in mordenite have been studied in static and magic angle spinning regimes. Our data show that the spin–lattice relaxations of the 23Na and 27Al nuclei are mainly governed by interaction of nuclear quadrupole moments with electric field gradients of the crystal, modulated by translational motion of water molecules in the mordenite channels. At temperatures below 200 K, the dipolar interaction of nuclear spins with paramagnetic impurities becomes an important relaxation mechanism of the 23Na and 27Al nuclei.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0847-8
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2017)
  • Visualization of Magnetization Transfer Effect in Polyethylene Glycol
           Impregnated Waterlogged Wood
    • Authors: Yuki Kanazawa; Tetsuya Yamada; Aki Kido; Koji Fujimoto; Kyoko Takakura; Hiroaki Hayashi; Yasutaka Fushimi; Satoshi Kozawa; Koji Koizumi; Makiko Okuni; Naomi Ueda; Kaori Togashi
      Pages: 125 - 134
      Abstract: To visualize the condition of impregnation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in waterlogged wood, we demonstrated magnetic transfer (MT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) through a series of process of PEG impregnation. Three different samples were examined; reference wood, 10 cm cut wood, and 5 cm cut wood. During this study, the upper section sample was kept immersed in water, for the middle and lower sections the concentration of PEG solution was changed at 20 wt% intervals from 20 to 100 wt%. The impregnated periods of each PEG solution concentration were 14 days. Then, MR imaging were performed with/without MT pulse. The MTR value for both 10 cm- and 5 cm-samples were shown to decrease at 20 wt% PEG at peak concentration. When the sample volume was large, e.g., 10 cm-sample, the MTR value decreased to 100 wt% PEG concentration. In contrast, when a sample volume was small, e.g., 5 cm-sample, MTR value decreased to 60 wt% PEG concentration. In conclusion, MTR analysis makes it possible to nondestructively visualize and evaluate the inner condition concerning the PEG impregnation method for waterlogged wood.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0850-0
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2017)
  • The Oil-Swelling Processes Characterization in Rubbers Studied by 1 H NMR
    • Authors: Roman R. Bavin; Dmitry I. Furtsov; Vladimir A. Zabrodin; Victor P. Tarasov; Vitaly I. Volkov
      Pages: 135 - 142
      Abstract: The swelling processes of rubbers on the basis of ethylene–propylene SKEPT-40, butadiene–nitrile SKN-18, and fluorine SKF-26 caoutchoucs in transformer oil GK were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 1H NMR relaxation techniques. The main rubber-swelling singularities were developed. It was shown that polymeric affinity to oil decreases in the next rubber row—ethylene–propylene, fluorine, and butadiene–nitrile. The oil molecular mobility is on the contrary increased in the same row. The surface NMR probe express test of oil amount in real production was introduced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0851-z
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2017)
  • Magnetic Resonance Study of Fe-Implanted TiO 2 Rutile
    • Authors: C. Okay; I. R. Vakhitov; V. F. Valeev; R. I. Khaibullin; B. Rameev
      Abstract: Single-crystal (100) and (001) TiO2 rutile substrates have been implanted with 40 keV Fe+ at room temperature with high doses in the range of (0.5–1.5) × 1017 ions/cm2. A ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) signal has been observed for all samples with the intensity and the out-of-plane anisotropy increasing with the implantation dose. The FMR signal has been related to the formation of a percolated metal layer consisting of close-packed iron nanoparticles in the implanted region of TiO2 substrate. Electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of paramagnetic Fe3+ ions substituting Ti4+ positions in the TiO2 rutile structure has been also observed. The dependences of FMR resonance fields on the DC magnetic field orientation reveal a strong in-plane anisotropy for both (100) and (001) substrate planes. An origin of the in-plane anisotropy of FMR signal is attributed to the textured growth of the iron nanoparticles. As result of the nanoparticle growth aligned with respect to the structure of the rutile host, the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the samples reflects the symmetry of the crystal structure of the TiO2 substrates. Crystallographic directions of the preferential growth of iron nanoparticles have been determined by computer modeling of anisotropic ESR signal of substitutional Fe3+ ions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0868-y
  • Influence of Defects on Photoconductivity and Photocatalytic Activity of
           Nitrogen-Doped Titania
    • Authors: A. A. Minnekhanov; N. T. Le; E. A. Konstantinova; P. K. Kashkarov
      Abstract: Samples of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (anatase, 0.2 ≤ N ≤ 1.0 wt%) prepared by the sol–gel method were investigated using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoconductivity, and photocatalysis measurements. N· and NO· paramagnetic defects in N-TiO2 have been observed; their concentrations and spin-Hamiltonian parameters were calculated. An increase both in the rate of the generation of free charge carriers and in the rate of photocatalysis was found in N-TiO2 in contrast with non-doped titania under visible light. The correlation of the density of the observed radicals with the photoconductivity and photocatalysis data is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0870-4
  • T 1 – T 2 Correlation and Biopolymer Diffusion Within Human
           Osteoarthritic Cartilage Measured with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
    • Authors: Sarah E. Mailhiot; Nathan H. Williamson; Jennifer R. Brown; Joseph D. Seymour; Sarah L. Codd; Ronald K. June
      Abstract: Cartilage is a load-bearing tissue that provides smooth articulation during motion of human joints like the knee and hip. Cartilage deterioration in the form of osteoarthritis (OA) causes painful joint motion in more than 100 million patients worldwide, and thus there is great interest in improving our understanding of cartilage to further clinical treatment. Previous studies have examined many aspects of cartilage mechanics, including the flow of interstitial water and repulsion of neighboring glycosaminoglycan chains. However, the contributions of specific molecules to overall tissue properties remain unclear. In this study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusometry and relaxometry to examine the molecular dynamics of water and cartilage polymers in OA human articular cartilage. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of two macromolecular populations corresponding to collagen and proteoglycan in human cartilage through their diffusive properties. Further, we performed NMR T 1–T 2 correlation studies on human cartilage and observed two populations of water distinguished by differing NMR relaxation corresponding to a solid-like component and a liquid-like component. These results provide fundamental insight on the water behavior and polymeric interactions that drive the functional mechanics of cartilage. This study provides a basis to both expand our understanding of basic cartilage mechanics and provide molecular dynamics data for design of novel biomaterials to improve joint health.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0869-x
  • β-Phosphorus Hyperfine Coupling Constant in Nitroxides: Conformational
           Effects in 6-Membered Ring Nitroxides
    • Authors: Lionel Bosco; Teddy Butscher; Sylvain R. A. Marque
      Abstract: Recently, we reported a significant solvent effect on the phosphorus hyperfine coupling constant a P in β-phosphorylated 6-membered ring nitroxides (∆a P = 24 G in Org. Biomol. Chem. 2015). Thus, it led us to investigate the effect of solvent for several 6-membered ring nitroxides. Although smaller than mentioned above, a change of 5–7 G in a P with the polarity of solvent was still observed for these nitroxides. As for other β-phosphorylated nitroxides, a N increases with the polarity/polarizability π* and the Hydrogen Bond Donating α properties of the solvent whereas a P exhibits the reverse trends. The change of a P with the solvent depends a lot on a subtle interplay between the destabilizing steric hindrance due to the bulkiness of the substituents and the stabilizing hyperconjugation interactions SOMO → σ*C–P between the anti-bonding orbitals of the C–P bond and the SOMO.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0867-z
  • Accelerated 3D Coronary Vessel Wall MR Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing
           with a Block-Weighted Total Variation Regularization
    • Authors: Zhongzhou Chen; Xiaoyong Zhang; Caiyun Shi; Shi Su; Zhaoyang Fan; Jim X. Ji; Guoxi Xie; Xin Liu
      Abstract: Coronary vessel wall magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is important for heart disease diagnosis but often suffers long scan time. Compressed sensing (CS) has been previously used to accelerate MR imaging by reconstructing an MR image from undersampled k-space data using a regularization framework. However, the widely used regularizations in the current CS methods often lead to smoothing effects and thus are unable to reconstruct the coronary vessel walls with sufficient resolution. To address this issue, a novel block-weighted total variation regularization is presented to accelerate the coronary vessel wall MR imaging. The proposed regularization divides the image into two parts: a region-of-interest (ROI) which contains the coronary vessel wall, and the other region with less concerned features. Different penalty weights are given to the two regions. As a result, the small details within ROI do not suffer from over-smoothing while the noise outside the ROI can be significantly suppressed. Results with both numerical simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrated that the proposed method can reconstruct the coronary vessel wall from undersampled k-space data with higher qualities than the conventional CS with the total variation or the edge-preserved total variation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0866-0
  • Influence of Pressure on the Intramolecular Spin Exchange in a Short
           Imidazolium-Nitroxide Biradical
    • Authors: Boryana Mladenova-Kattnig; Günter Grampp; Alexander I. Kokorin
      Abstract: A short-chain imidazoline-type nitroxide biradical R 5 NO –CH=N–N=C(CH3)–R 5 N , B2, with nitroxide rings R 5 N and R 5 NO as 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-imidazoline and 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-N-oxide imidazoline, respectively, has been studied using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in CH3CN solutions at variable temperature T and pressure P. Changes of the solution viscosity on the intramolecular electron spin exchange in B2 is characterized by calculating the value of the exchange integral J/a , where a denotes the 14N hyperfine splitting (hfs) constant. It is revealed that the intramolecular dynamics in B2 do not follow the Debye–Stokes–Einstein law, while the Arrhenius dependence is fulfilled. Probable reasons of such behavior are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0865-1
  • A Degenerate Birdcage with Integrated Tx/Rx Switches and Butler Matrix for
           the Human Limbs at 7 T
    • Authors: Riccardo Stara; Gianluigi Tiberi; Fabio Morsani; Mark Symms; Maria Evelina Fantacci; Massimo Marletta; Virna Zampa; Mihir Pendse; Alessandra Retico; Brian K. Rutt; Michela Tosetti
      Abstract: The theoretically known degeneracy condition of the band-pass birdcage coil has rarely been exploited in transmit coil designs. We have created an eight-channel degenerate birdcage for the human limbs at 7 T, with dedicated Tx/Rx switches and a Butler matrix. The coil can be split into two half cylinders, as required for its application to patients with limited mobility. The design of the coil, the Butler matrix, and Tx/Rx switches relied on a combination of analytical, circuital, and numerical simulations. The birdcage theory was extended to the degenerate case. The theoretical and practical aspects of the design and construction of the coil are presented. The performance of the coil was demonstrated by simulations, workbench, and scanner measurements. The fully assembled prototype presents good performance in terms of efficiency, B1 homogeneity, and signal-to-noise ratio, despite the asymmetry introduced by the splittable design. The first in vivo images of the knee are also shown. A novel RF coil design consisting of an eight-channel splittable degenerate birdcage has been developed, and it is now available for 7 T MRI applications of the human lower limbs, including high-resolution imaging of the knee cartilages and of the patellar trabecular structure.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0864-2
  • Relaxation Model and Mapping of Magnetic Field Gradients in MRI
    • Authors: Alexey V. Protopopov
      Abstract: The purpose of the work is development of algorithms for separate mapping of T 2 relaxation time and gradients, using gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequence. Application of three-dimensional (3D) model of gradients and their volumetric averaging within a voxel lead to analytical model of relaxation function, which is consistent with experimental data for both regular macroscopic and randomized micro- and mesoscopic gradients. The model is verified by fitting into experimental data obtained on specially made phantoms. Verification of algorithms is completed by comparing gradient maps obtained on specially made cylindrical phantoms with theoretical maps of their exact 3D electro-dynamic solutions. Analytical model of relaxation function proved to be in good agreement with experimental relaxation curves. On the basis of this model, fast and unambiguous fittingless algorithms were developed. Gradient maps measured on special cylindrical phantoms are in good qualitative agreement with theory. 3D statistical model and fittingless algorithms provide the basis for separating the GRE signal into two meaningful parameters—T 2 and gradients, thus doubling information from magnetic resonance imaging.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0863-3
  • Validation of MRI-Based Fiber-Tracking Results
    • Authors: K. A. Il’yasov; L. V. Konopleva; O. V. Nedopekin
      Abstract: A new approach to estimating the probability of the fiber-track existence has been developed and validated on the basis of digital phantoms and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging measurements on human brain. The proposed approach includes two parameters—the local probability of the tract direction and the Shannon entropy. The local probability of the tract direction characterizes how well tracts “fit” the direction information in a voxel. The Shannon entropy characterizes the shape of diffusivity in the voxel. Calculations on digital phantoms and in vivo data showed that the combination of these parameters makes it possible to verify fiber-tracking results.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0859-z
  • Structural Phase Transition of Perovskite-Type N(CH 3 ) 4 CdBr 3 Studied
           by MAS NMR and Static NMR
    • Authors: Ae Ran Lim
      Abstract: The structural geometry change in the perovskite-type N(CH3)4CdBr3 single crystal near the phase transition temperature of T C = 390 K was investigated using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. For 1H and 13C nuclei, the temperature dependences of their chemical shift, spectral intensity, and spin–lattice relaxation time (T 1ρ) in the rotating frame were obtained and analyzed. While the chemical shift and T 1ρ of 1H showed change near T C, those of 13C did not. In addition, the 113Cd spin–lattice relaxation time T 1 in the laboratory frame near T C show no evidence of anomalous change near the phase transition temperature, which coincides with the measured changes in the 1H T 1ρ. The driving force for this phase transition was connected to the 1H in the CH3 groups.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0861-5
  • Line Profile Measure as a Stopping Criterion in CG-SENSE Algorithm
    • Authors: Mahwish Khan; Taquwa Aslam; Hassan Shahzad; Hammad Omer
      Abstract: Conjugate gradient SENSE (CG-SENSE) is a parallel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction algorithm which solves the inversion problem of SENSE iteratively. One major limitation of CG-SENSE is the appropriate choice of the number of iterations required for good reconstruction results. Fewer iterations result in aliasing artifacts and too many iterations result in an increased noise level. This paper proposes a novel method to define the stopping criterion of CG-SENSE algorithm which is based on the use of correlation measure between the line profiles of the reconstructed images in the current and the previous iterations. The results are compared with Bregman distance-stopping criterion. Artifact power and peak signal-to-noise ratio are used to quantify the quality of the reconstructed images. The results demonstrate that the line profile correlation measure acts as an effective stopping criterion in CG-SENSE.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0860-6
  • Mimicking the Electromagnetic Distribution in the Human Brain: A
           Multi-frequency MRI Head Phantom
    • Authors: Ana L. Neves; Lisa Leroi; Nicolas Cochinaire; Redha Abdeddaim; Pierre Sabouroux; Alexandre Vignaud
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to fabricate and test a multi-frequency human brain-mimicking phantom for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment purposes. An anatomically realistic human head phantom was elaborated, for different Larmor frequencies, which allows rapid quantification of \({\text{B}}_{1}^{ + }\) . It is a simple alternative solution in time and cost as compared to numerical simulations to validate simulation when the coil geometry and components cannot be known as a unique solution. The permittivity \(\varepsilon^{{\prime }}\) and conductivity \(\sigma\) of sucrose/salt/agar aqueous solutions of varying concentrations were determined; a solution with these components and having the adequate concentration to obtain the brain’s dielectric properties at 3, 7 and 11.7T was manufactured. An anthropomorphic polymeric skull was filled with this mixture. To check the behavior of this phantom in a MRI configuration, both numerical and experimental validations were done: a \({\text{B}}_{1}^{ + }\) field distribution inside the phantom was calculated with CST Microwave Studio inside a birdcage coil at 7T; the same mapping was assessed in a 7T MRI. The feasibility of a multi-MRI static field phantom was demonstrated. A solution composed by 54.7 wt% of sucrose, 3.1 wt% of salt and 3.1 wt% of agar was fabricated with good permittivity and conductivity matching for 3, 7 and 11.7T. The results were confirmed by both numerical simulation and MRI acquisition. This work has shown the possibility of manufacturing a head phantom with accessible and cheap components for MRI evaluation, having an adequate \({\text{B}}_{1}^{ + }\) field distribution and the dielectric properties of the human brain.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-017-0862-4
  • ESR Study on Scavenging Effect of Squalene on Free Radicals in Mainstream
           Cigarette Smoke
    • Authors: Yuan Liang; Zhang Yuxia; Jin Yabo; Hu Yajie; Wei Jianyu; Chen Zepeng; Jiang Dingxin
      Abstract: Radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) have been proposed to contribute to the harm caused by cigarette smoking. In the present study, we used natural antioxidant, squalene, to treat cigarette filters and tobacco for scavenging gas- and particulate-phase free radicals in MCS. The scavenging activities of cigarette filter and tobacco containing squalene against gas and particulate-phase free radicals were detected and quantified using spin-trapping or directly electron spin resonance spectroscopy method. The results revealed that squalene could significantly scavenge gas- and particulate-phase free radicals in MCS in a dose-dependent manner. The radical-scavenging activity of cigarette filter treatment was higher than that of tobacco treatment, irrespective of either gas-phase free radicals, or particulate-phase free radicals in MCS. Among them, 3 mg squalene/filter treatment showed that the highest scavenging effects against gas- and particulate-phase free radicals were 35.9 and 35.4%, respectively. The use of squalene as potential scavenger for reducing free radicals in cigarette smoke is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0856-7
  • EPR Line Shifts and Line Shape Changes Due to Spin Exchange Between
           Nitroxide Free Radicals in Liquids 10. Spin-Exchange Frequencies of the
           Order of the Nitrogen Hyperfine Interaction: A Hypothesis
    • Authors: Barney L. Bales; Miroslav Peric
      Abstract: The behavior of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra due to 15N and 14N nitroxide free radicals undergoing spin exchange in liquids at frequencies \(\omega_{\text{ex}}\) that are high, of the same order of magnitude as the nitrogen hyperfine coupling constant \(A_{0}\) , is investigated. The well-known features are reconfirmed: (1) at low values of \(\omega_{\text{ex}}\) where the lines broaden, shift toward the center of the spectrum, and change shape due to the introduction of a resonance of the form of a dispersion component; (2) at values of \(\omega_{\text{ex}}\) comparable to \(A_{0}\) , where the lines merge into one; and (3) at values much larger than \(A_{0}\) , where the merged line narrows. It is found that each line of a spectrum may be decomposed into an admixture of a single absorption and a single dispersion component of Lorentzian shape. These two- or three-line absorption–dispersion admixtures, for 15N and 14N, respectively, retain their individual identities even after the spectrum has merged and has begun to narrow. For both isotopes, the average broadening and integrated intensities are equal to the predictions of perturbation theory although, in the case of 14N, the outer lines broaden faster than the central line and intensity moves from the outer lines to the central line. In fact, the outer line intensity becomes zero and then negative at higher values of \(\omega_{\text{ex}}\) which is compensated by the central line becoming more intense than the overall integrated intensity. For both isotopes, the dispersion components and the line shifts depart from the perturbation predictions. The results are presented in terms of measurable quantities normalized to \(A_{0}\) so that they may be applied to any two- or three-line spectrum.
      PubDate: 2016-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0854-9
  • Magnetic Resonance Study of the Bi 2 Te 3 Doped with Manganese
    • Authors: Yu. Talanov; V. Sakhin; E. Kukovitskii; N. Garif’yanov; G. Teitel’baum
      Abstract: Crystals of 3D topological insulators, bismuth telluride Bi2Te3, doped with manganese were studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy together with the SQUID magnetometry, transport measurements, and X-ray characterization. The obtained ESR data, such as the temperature and the angular dependence of the resonance field, reveal the specific critical behavior and confirm the ferromagnetic ordering of Mn spins even at modest doping. In addition to the studies of the critical behavior of diluted ferromagnet Bi2−x Mn x Te3, we also discuss the effects of the limited solubility of Mn ions giving rise to microscopic inclusions of the spurious magnetic phases which were revealed using ESR technique.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00723-016-0853-x
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