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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2562 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2562 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.132
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 16  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-045X - ISSN (Online) 0895-5638
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Correction to: Appraisal Accuracy and Automated Valuation Models in Rural
    • Abstract: The article Appraisal Accuracy and Automated Valuation Models in Rural Areas, written by Alexander N. Bogin and Jessica Shui, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on August 2019 without open access.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • New Perspectives on Real Estate Valuation
    • PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Correction to: Local House Price Paths: Accelerations, Declines, and
    • Abstract: The article Local House Price Paths: Accelerations, Declines, and Recoveries written by Alexander N. Bogin, William M. Doerner and William D. Larson was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on December 2019 without open access.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • A Microeconomic Model for the Decision of Reverse Mortgage Borrowers to
           Sell their House Early and its Application on the Estimation of
           Termination Rates
    • Abstract: Reverse mortgage (RM) borrowers may get benefit from terminating the contract by selling their house early. For analyzing the termination rate, the authors investigate the rules that govern an elder’s decision to sell a house early. The decision is found to be influenced by the strength of the elder’s desire to stay in the home, the uncertainty of the elder’s death time, and the stochastic price of the house. To more thoroughly elucidate changes in the probability of a sale over time, the authors provide an example illustrating how one can use this decision rule to calculate the probability distribution for selling a house early. Sensitivity analyses are provided to show the influence of the model’s parameters on this distribution. Evidence that the model estimates the termination rate more accurately than the traditional model is also provided. The authors’ investigation should not only help RM lenders better understand the RM borrower’s decision-making process but also help them accurately estimate the RM’s termination rate.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
  • Computation of Hedging Coefficients for Mortgage Default and Prepayment
           Options: Malliavin Calculus Approach
    • Abstract: This study explores the hedging coefficients of the financial options to default and to prepay embedded into mortgage contracts based on the change in spot rate, underlying house price and its volatility. In the computations, the finite-dimensional Malliavin calculus is applied since the distribution of both options is unknown and their payoffs are non-differentiable. Naturally, the hedging coefficients are obtained as a product of option’s payoff and an independent weight, which permits the user to derive estimations for the hedging coefficients by running a crude Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. The simulations reveal that the financial options to default and to prepay are both more sensitive to a change in spot rate than a change in underlying house price and its volatility. There are two potential usages of the hedging coefficients: first, they allow the user to determine the effects of spot rate and underlying house price change and its volatility on the default and prepayment options, and second, borrowers and lenders can replicate and hedge their main portfolio by using the balance between these coefficients and the default and prepayment options.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • A Farewell to ARMs or Ever Changing Market Segments'
    • Abstract: The mortgage market has given rise to a changing and diverse set of borrowers actively using ARMs. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for 2007 and 2013–2015 are used to study borrowing decisions. One view is that an ARM should be offered and taken by those better able to respond to an upward reset. Yet favorable economic conditions induce a demand for mortgages, including by higher risk borrowers, and for these households transactions occur at higher rates, often as ARMs, especially as of 2007. Panel analysis confirms some response to the spread but also to changing demand for mortgages in the shorter run. During the boom, the use of ARMs as a tool for ‘affordability’ led to actual transaction rates exceeding those for fixed rate mortgages. Analysis confirms substantial payment difficulties. Yet, analysis of mortgage transitions, 2007–13, establishes that the ‘affordability’ component to ARM, though less significant, still was present. ARMs were often taken by minorities and those with less education and with family income under $60,000 per year.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Evaluation of Mortgage Default Characteristics Using Fannie Mae’s
           Loan Performance Data
    • Abstract: Mortgage default has been characterized as ruthless or predominantly driven by the relation of house price to mortgage value by proponents of pure option theoretic model (Kau et al. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 24(3), 279–299 1992, Ambrose et al. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 29(3), 314–325 1997), and as non-ruthless by researchers who argue that transaction costs and other idiosyncratic factors determine when mortgage holders default (Foster and Order Housing Finance Review, 3(4), 351–372 1984; Vandell Journal of Housing Research, 6(2), 245–264 1995). This work uses Fannie Mae loan performance data to present evidence supporting the hypothesis that a significant number of mortgage defaults are non-ruthless. It uses a new approach to track mortgages that are likely to default by tracking 90-day delinquent mortgages and studying which ones eventually default. It evaluates the joint put-call option embedded in a mortgage contract using a Monte-Carlo simulation for the underlying stochastic variables. It identifies key differences between ruthless and non-ruthless mortgage defaults and illustrates the propensity of non-ruthless mortgage defaulters to become current on their 90-day delinquent mortgages. These observations provide valuable insights for policymakers and creditors in their task of structuring debt-relief programs for delinquent mortgage holders. It augments the analysis of mortgage defaults by considering the impact of loan-to-value ratio at mortgage origination.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • An Unintended Consequence of Mortgage Financing Regulation – a
           Racial Disparity
    • Abstract: This study investigates whether mortgage financing regulation unintentionally leads to minorities paying a higher loan contract rate under a risk-based pricing system. We provide evidence that minority borrowers prepay less frequently than comparable non-minority borrowers and thus have lower termination risk. Racially neutral lending policies prohibit the lender from considering this reduced termination risk, resulting in a disparate impact from the overstatement of a minority borrower’s termination risk. While we find little evidence of a rate differential among borrowers under the current regulatory structure, results show minorities pay a higher rate when the variation in termination risk is recognized.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Listing Agent Signals: Does a Picture Paint a Thousand Words'
    • Abstract: Utilizing signaling theory, this study examines the effectiveness of images and words to influence homebuyers to move from reading a property listing to deciding to see a property in person. We first compare real estate agents’ perceptions of terms commonly used in MLS records to those of potential homebuyers and find that the signal being sent by agents is generally interpreted as intended. In the second stage, after controlling for demographics, real estate experience, and empathy, we find that using only positive words has a significantly higher impact on likelihood to visit a property than a high-quality picture and the type of home. These results are robust to both a between subjects and within subjects design framework.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Risk and Performance of Mutual Funds’ Securitized Mortgage
    • Abstract: We expand the debate on incentives embedded in the originate-to-distribute lending model by presenting evidence on the placement of mortgage-backed securities (MBS) with mutual funds. We do so by capitalizing on a unique testing platform encompassing institutional holdings of private-label MBS and their corresponding underlying collateral risk characteristics. We explore MBS placement based on a funds’ potential access to information underlying deals as measured by affiliation to the deal’s underwriter/issuer and vertical integration in securitization.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Commercial Real Estate Market Property Level Capital Expenditures: An
           Options Analysis
    • Abstract: Option pricing theory predicts that capital improvement expenditures are positively linked with high or increasing market lease rates. Ceteris paribus, when the market lease rate is high, or when there is an expectation of higher lease rates in the future, owners are encouraged to increase investment to capture a larger profit. In contrast, when the market lease rate is low, or when there is an expectation of lower lease rates in the future, owners are encouraged to defer capital improvements, causing a skewness in the cash flows. Our empirical results generally support the notion that normal levels of capital expenditures not only maintain value but also actually may create value.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • The Optimal Selling Strategy of Residential Real Estate
    • Abstract: This paper studies three selling strategies of residential real estate: delegation to a broker, cheap talk with a broker and For Sale By Owner (FSBO). We find that if the state of the market is very uncertain and information of the market is scarce, the seller should hire a broker and delegate the decision right to the broker, even if the broker has no informational advantage. In this case, delegation may induce the broker to over-invest in information acquisition, i.e., more than what the seller would do in FSBO. If the market is certain and information is easily available, FSBO is optimal. Cheap talk, on the other hand, is never optimal, as much information is lost in the cheap-talk communication, weakening the broker’s incentive to acquire information.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Energy Factors, Leasing Structure and the Market Price of Office Buildings
           in the U.S.
    • Abstract: This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relation between energy factor markets, leasing structures, and the transaction prices of office buildings in the U.S. We employ a large sample of 15,133 office building transactions between 2001 and 2010. In addition to building characteristics, we also include information on the operating expenses, net operating income, and market capitalization rates at sale to estimate an asset-pricing model for commercial office real estate assets. A further set of important controls in our analysis is the forward/futures contract prices for electricity and natural gas. We also include weather metrics for each building’s location and sale date. Our final set of controls includes information on the dominant contractual leasing structure of the buildings. Our empirical results suggest that Energy Star labels do not explain additional variance in property prices once the key asset-pricing factors of expenses, income and market capitalization rates are included. By contrast, energy-factor market prices, the shape of the energy forward price curves, and weather metrics are consistently significant determinants of office building transaction prices, suggesting that commercial office building prices are exposed to shocks in these markets.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Only the Best' Exploring Cross-Border Investor Preferences in US
           Gateway Cities
    • Abstract: Despite heady growth in cross-border investment into commercial real estate over recent decades, there are few studies that examine differences in investment preferences between domestic and cross-border investors at a micro level. We address the gap by examining the characteristics of assets acquired by cross border investors in six major US metro areas, comparing them with the purchases made by US investors in those same areas. Our study uses data on more than 67,500 transactions recorded by Real Capital Analytics (RCA) over the period from Q1 2003 to Q3 2016. As well as examining cross-border investors in aggregate, we isolate and examine purchases by investors from each of the four principal source nations for cross-border real estate investment in these cities. This is important since treating cross-border investors as a single group may obscure important differences between them. We employ multilevel logit techniques and we find across a number of specifications that cross-border investors prefer larger assets, newer assets and CBD locations regardless of nationality. However, temporal and sectoral patterns of investment, as well as evidence for return chasing behavior, vary with the nationality of investor being studied.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • How Big of a Lemons Market is the Secondary Market for Private Equity Real
           Estate Limited Partnerships'
    • Abstract: We find that shares of real estate limited partnerships sell at substantial discounts to net asset values (NAV) and these discounts are influenced by factors associated with agency costs and unrealized gains. Our study builds on previous work by Barber (1996) by examining a much longer time period (1994-2013), including additional control variables, and utilizing Tobit estimation instead of OLS, which we find superior. We find much larger effects of unrealized capital gains than Barber (1996). Factors that reduce fund managers’ freedom to take actions that might reduce shareholder returns such as leverage and high dividend payments reduce discounts.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Rent Premiums and Vertical Sorting in Amsterdam’s Multi-Tenant
           Office Buildings
    • Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of vertical location and tenant sorting on commercial office rents within the tall office towers of Amsterdam. In economic geography and urban economics’ approach to productivity tall buildings constitute an important, density-increasing typology that fosters agglomeration. Through econometric modelling of 627 office rent transactions in 33 tall office buildings in Amsterdam rented during the period 2000–2016, this paper provides empirical evidence to the growing body of knowledge on the economics of height. This paper is the first to decompose the vertical rent premium whereby 27% is related to view, 3% to industry-level differences and the remaining 70% to firm-level signalling and other factors. The results indicate positive rent premiums for higher floor locations consistent across a wide range of specifications, strong premiums associated with the top output-per-job industry sectors and a weak presence of vertical sorting. Additional sorting evidence shows clear differences among industry sectors for height preference (law firms and consultancy & management practices), or lack of it despite high productivity (ICT sector). Relative price differentials for view and status were consistent across the various industry sectors with the exception of insurance carriers who seem to prefer status over the view aspect of height. The good performance of the OLS model with submarket fixed effects indicates the strong delineation of office submarkets in Amsterdam.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Valuing Curb Appeal
    • Abstract: We recover the value of curb appeal in residential housing by using photos obtained from Google Street View, a deep learning classification algorithm and a variety of hedonic controls. We show that own property curb appeal is worth about twice that of an across the street neighbor. Together, neighbor and own property curb appeal together may account for up to 7% of a house’s sale price. The curb appeal premium is more pronounced during times of housing market weakness and greater in neighborhoods with high average curb appeal. Results are robust to a variety of spatial controls and curb appeal specifications.
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
  • Examining the Information Content of Residuals from Hedonic and Spatial
           Models Using Trees and Forests
    • Abstract: Machine learning algorithms such as neural nets, support vector machines, and tree-based techniques (classification and regression trees) have shown great success in dealing with a number of complex problems (Hastie et al. 2009). However, real estate data exhibit both temporal dependence and high levels of spatial dependence (Pace et al., International Journal of Forecasting16(2), 229–246, 2000; LeSage and Pace 2009) that may make it harder to use with off-the-shelf machine learning procedures. We examine tree-based techniques (CART, boosting, and bagging) and compare these to spatiotemporal methods. We find that bagging works well and can give lower ex-sample residuals than global spatiotemporal methods, but do not perform better than local spatiotemporal methods.
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
  • The Effect of Fair Value Method Adoption: Evidence from Real Estate Firms
           in the EU
    • Abstract: The adoption of the International Accounting Standard 40 (IAS 40) in 2005 by public companies in the European Union required firms to disclose the fair value of their investment properties. We study whether this increase in the transparency in financial reporting reduces information asymmetry and leads to higher pricing efficiency and improved liquidity. We investigate this question in the context of the real estate industry, which due to its unique structure stands to be affected the most by the adoption of the fair value method. We observe that post regulation the coefficients of variation of trading volume and daily turnover decreased significantly, while turnover ratio increased significantly. In addition, these effects are stronger for larger firms. We further note that although post-IAS 40 asymmetric information decreases and liquidity increases, the disclosure of fair value does not lead to lower NAV deviation. Furthermore, our results suggest that fair value disclosure exacerbates NAV deviation and illiquidity during the crisis period.
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
  • Energy Efficiency Information and Valuation Practices in Rental Housing
    • Abstract: The consensus in the academic literature is that energy efficiency is associated with transaction value premiums, but it is not clear to what extent property appraisers take account of this. We decompose external appraisals of rental housing by international valuation firms in England and the Netherlands in two waves, keeping the samples of valued homes constant between these years. We find a notable change in the behavior of external property appraisers. In England, energy performance does not impact assessed values in 2012, while estimation results for 2015 show a significant discount in assessed values for D-, E- and F- relative to C-labeled dwellings. For the Netherlands, we do not observe a significant relationship between energy efficiency and assessed values in 2010, but in 2015 we find that more energy efficiency leads to higher external valuations.
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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