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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AAPS Journal
  [SJR: 1.192]   [H-I: 74]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Recent Advances in Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration
    • Authors: Aliasger K. Salem
      Pages: 1253 - 1254
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0103-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Large-Scale Prediction of Drug-Target Interaction: a Data-Centric Review
    • Authors: Tiejun Cheng; Ming Hao; Takako Takeda; Stephen H. Bryant; Yanli Wang
      Pages: 1264 - 1275
      Abstract: Abstract The prediction of drug-target interactions (DTIs) is of extraordinary significance to modern drug discovery in terms of suggesting new drug candidates and repositioning old drugs. Despite technological advances, large-scale experimental determination of DTIs is still expensive and laborious. Effective and low-cost computational alternatives remain in strong need. Meanwhile, open-access resources have been rapidly growing with massive amount of bioactivity data becoming available, creating unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel in silico models for large-scale DTI prediction. In this work, we review the state-of-the-art computational approaches for identifying DTIs from a data-centric perspective: what the underlying data are and how they are utilized in each study. We also summarize popular public data resources and online tools for DTI prediction. It is found that various types of data were employed including properties of chemical structures, drug therapeutic effects and side effects, drug-target binding, drug-drug interactions, bioactivity data of drug molecules across multiple biological targets, and drug-induced gene expressions. More often, the heterogeneous data were integrated to offer better performance. However, challenges remain such as handling data imbalance, incorporating negative samples and quantitative bioactivity data, as well as maintaining cross-links among different data sources, which are essential for large-scale and automated information integration.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0092-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • The EP3 Receptor/G z Signaling Axis as a Therapeutic Target for Diabetes
           and Cardiovascular Disease
    • Authors: Michael D. Schaid; Jaclyn A. Wisinski; Michelle E. Kimple
      Pages: 1276 - 1283
      Abstract: Abstract Cardiovascular disease is a common co-morbidity found with obesity-linked type 2 diabetes. Current pharmaceuticals for these two diseases treat each of them separately. Yet, diabetes and cardiovascular disease share molecular signaling pathways that are increasingly being understood to contribute to disease pathophysiology, particularly in pre-clinical models. This review will focus on one such signaling pathway: that mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor, Prostaglandin E2 Receptor 3 (EP3), and its associated G protein in the insulin-secreting beta-cell and potentially the platelet, Gz. The EP3/Gz signaling axis may hold promise as a dual target for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0097-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Impact of Disintegrant Type, Surfactant, and API Properties on the
           Processability and Performance of Roller Compacted Formulations of
           Acetaminophen and Aspirin
    • Authors: Junshu Zhao; Otilia Koo; Duohai Pan; Yongmei Wu; Dinesh Morkhade; Sandeep Rana; Partha Saha; Arturo Marin
      Pages: 1387 - 1395
      Abstract: Abstract In formulation development, certain excipients, even though used in small quantities, can have a significant impact on the processability and performance of the dosage form. In this study, three common disintegrants, croscarmellose sodium (CCS), crospovidone (xPVP), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as well as the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were evaluated for their impact on the processability and performance of a typical dry granulation formulation. Two model compounds, the mechanically brittle and chemically inert acetaminophen and the mechanically ductile carboxylic acid aspirin, were used for the evaluation. It was found that the disintegrants were generally identical in their impact on the processability and little difference was observed in the granulation and compression processes. The exception is that when xPVP was used in the formulation of the brittle acetaminophen, lower compression forces were needed to reach the same tablet hardness, suggesting a binding effect of xPVP for such systems. In general, CCS and xPVP tend to provide slightly better disintegration than SSG. However, in the case of aspirin, a strong hydrogen bonding interaction between the carboxylic acid group of aspirin and the carbonyl group of xPVP was observed, resulting in slower release of the drug after fast disintegration. SLS was found to have a significant impact on the processability due to its lubricating effect, resulting in higher compression forces needed to achieve the target tablet hardness. Due to the higher degree of compression, the disintegration and dissolution of both drugs became slower despite the wetting effect of SLS.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0104-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Singlicate Ligand Binding Assay Using an Automated Microfluidic System: a
           Clinical Case Study
    • Authors: Hao Jiang; Alex Kozhich; Jennifer Cummings; Janice Gambardella; Frank Zambito; Craig Titsch; Jonathan Haulenbeek; Kelli Phillips; Ross Fergus; Heather Myler
      Pages: 1461 - 1468
      Abstract: Abstract The bioanalytical strategy for monoclonal antibody therapeutics, intended for multiple oncology indications, includes multiple integrated measurements of pharmacologically relevant therapeutics from discovery through development. Three ligand binding assays were cohesively developed and validated, as applicable, using the Gyrolab microfluidic system for the measurement of a free monoclonal antibody BMS-986207. Accuracy and precision demonstrate %bias from −6.3 to 4.4%, percent coefficient of variation (%CV) from 2.6 to 9.8%, and total error from 4.2 to 13.4% in the nonclinical assay; %bias from −0.3 to 3.3%, %CV from 3.5 to 18.2%, and total error from 6.1 to 19.7% in the clinical assay; and >97% of the sample meeting incurred sample reanalysis criteria. The clinical assay was validated using singlicate wells after gaining significant data in the early phase studies to support this cost-effective and efficient strategy. Each assay met fit-for-purpose and/or regulated bioanalytical method validation criteria including stability, selectivity, dilutional linearity, carryover, and specificity criteria with no interference from co-administered monoclonal antibody.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0105-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 5 (2017)
  • Early to Long-Term Alterations of CNS Barriers After Traumatic Brain
           Injury: Considerations for Drug Development
    • Authors: Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande; Aleksandra Ichkova; Sighild Lemarchant; Jerome Badaut
      Abstract: Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability, particularly amongst the young and the elderly. The functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) are strongly impaired after TBI, thus affecting brain homeostasis. Following the primary mechanical injury that characterizes TBI, a secondary injury develops over time, including events such as edema formation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and alterations in paracelullar and transcellular transport. To date, most therapeutic interventions for TBI have aimed at direct neuroprotection during the acute phase and have not been successful. Targeting the barriers of the central nervous system (CNS) could be a wider therapeutic approach, given that restoration of brain homeostasis would benefit all brain cells, including neurons. Importantly, BBB disregulation has been observed even years after TBI, concomitantly with neurological and psychosocial sequelae; however, treatments targeting the post-acute phase are scarce. Here, we review the mechanisms of primary and secondary injury of CNS barriers, the accumulating evidence showing long-term damage to these structures and some of the therapies that have targeted these mechanisms. Finally, we discuss how the injury characteristics (hemorrhagic vs non-hemorrhagic, involvement of head rotation, gray vs white matter), the sex, and the age of the patient need to be carefully considered to improve clinical trial design and outcome interpretation, and to improve future drug development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0123-3
  • New Botanical Anxiolytics for Use in Companion Animals and Humans
    • Authors: Rui Liu; Fida Ahmed; Christian Cayer; Martha Mullally; Ana Francis Carballo; Marco Otarola Rojas; Mario Garcia; John Baker; Aleksandar Masic; Pablo E Sanchez; Luis Poveda; Zul Merali; Tony Durst; John T. Arnason
      Abstract: Abstract As part of our ongoing research into botanical therapies for anxiety disorders, the neotropical vine Souroubea sympetala was chosen for study as a phytochemical discovery strategy focusing on rare Central American plant families. When orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats, the crude plant extract, its ethyl acetate fraction, supercritical carbon dioxide fraction, or its isolated triterpenes reduced anxiety and/or fear-related behavior in standardized behavioral models. Pharmacological studies showed that the extracts acted at the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor and reduced corticosterone levels. A preparation containing Souroubea fortified with a second triterpene containing plant, Platanus occidentalis, was shown to be safe in a 28-day feeding trial with beagles at 5 times the intended dose. Subsequent trials with beagles in a thunderstorm model of noise aversion showed that the material reduced anxiety behaviors and cortisol levels in dogs. The formulation has been released for the companion animal market in Canada and the USA under the Trademark “Zentrol.” Ongoing research is exploring the use of the material in treatment of anxiety and post-traumatic stress in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0144-y
  • siRNA-Mediated RNA Interference in Precision-Cut Tissue Slices Prepared
           from Mouse Lung and Kidney
    • Authors: Mitchel J. R. Ruigrok; Nalinie Maggan; Delphine Willaert; Henderik W. Frijlink; Barbro N. Melgert; Peter Olinga; Wouter L. J. Hinrichs
      Abstract: Abstract Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated RNAi interference (RNAi) is a powerful post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism which can be used to study the function of genes in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models). However, there is a translational gap between these models. Hence, there is a need for novel experimental models that combine the advantages of in vitro and in vivo models (e.g., simplicity, flexibility, throughput, and representability) to study the effects of siRNA. This need may be addressed by precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS), which represent an ex vivo model that mimics the structural and functional characteristics of a whole organ. The goal of this study was to investigate whether self-deliverable siRNA (Accell siRNA) can be used in precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKS) to achieve RNAi ex vivo. PCLuS and PCKS were prepared from mouse tissue, and they were subsequently incubated up to 48 h with no siRNA (untransfected), non-targeting Accell siRNA, or Gapdh-targeting Accell siRNA. Significant Gapdh mRNA silencing was achieved (PCLuS ~ 55%; PCKS ~ 40%) without compromising the viability and morphology of slices. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Accell siRNA diffused into PCLuS and PCKS. Spontaneous inflammation upon incubation was observed in PCLuS and PCKS as shown by a higher mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il1b, Il6, and Tnfa, although Accell siRNA appeared to diminish this response in PCLuS after 24 h. In conclusion, this ex vivo transfection model can be used to evaluate the effects of siRNA in relevant biological environments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0136-y
  • Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Artemisinin
           Resistance in Southeast Asia
    • Authors: Jesmin Lohy Das; Arjen M. Dondorp; Francois Nosten; Aung Pyae Phyo; Warunee Hanpithakpong; Pascal Ringwald; Pharath Lim; Nicholas J. White; Mats O. Karlsson; Martin Bergstrand; Joel Tarning
      Abstract: Abstract Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with artemisinin sensitive and resistant malaria infections. Patients were recruited in Pailin, Cambodia (n = 39), and Wang Pha, Thailand (n = 40), and received either 2 mg/kg/day of artesunate mono-therapy for 7 consecutive days or 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate monotherapy for 3 consecutive days followed by mefloquine 15 and 10 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days. Plasma concentrations of artesunate and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, and microscopy-based parasite densities were measured and evaluated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. All treatments were well tolerated with minor and transient adverse reactions. Patients in Cambodia had substantially slower parasite clearance compared to patients in Thailand. The pharmacokinetic properties of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were well described by transit-compartment absorption followed by one-compartment disposition models. Parasite density was a significant covariate, and higher parasite densities were associated with increased absorption. Dihydroartemisinin-dependent parasite killing was described by a delayed sigmoidal Emax model, and a mixture function was implemented to differentiate between sensitive and resistant infections. This predicted that 84% and 16% of infections in Cambodia and Thailand, respectively, were artemisinin resistant. The final model was used to develop a simple diagnostic nomogram to identify patients with artemisinin-resistant infections. The nomogram showed > 80% specificity and sensitivity, and outperformed the current practice of day 3 positivity testing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0141-1
  • In vitro Approaches to Support Bioequivalence and Substitutability of
           Generic Proton Pump Inhibitors via Nasogastric Tube Administration
    • Authors: Ping Ren; Minglei Cui; Om Anand; Li Xia; Zhuojun J. Zhao; Dajun Sun; Trueman Sharp; Dale P. Conner; John Peters; Wenlei Jiang; Ethan Stier; Xiaojian Jiang
      Abstract: Abstract Administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) through nasogastric tubes may present risks. If the PPI drug products are not prepared properly, clogging or obstruction of nasogastric tubes can pose a safety concern. In addition, the integrity of the enteric coating of the drug product may be damaged resulting in reduced bioavailability of the active moiety. From the perspective of administration of generic PPIs when compared to the reference drug product, differences in formulation can potentially result in a greater relative risk for the generic drug product. As part of the assessment of bioequivalence, the Office of Generic Drugs (OGD) has developed a suite of in vitro testing to compare the delivery of the generic and reference products via nasogastric tubes. These in vitro tests assess essential attributes associated with the likelihood of clogging and maintenance of the enteric coating. These in vitro tests include studies evaluating sedimentation, granule size distribution, drug recovery, and acid resistance. One of the challenges is that while the administration of PPIs through nasogastric tubes is common in clinical practice, this issue is not uniformly addressed in the FDA approved label of the reference drug products. This paper discusses the design and rationale for in vitro testing of PPI formulations with respect to bioequivalence via nasogastric tube administration and in addition, it summarizes commonly occurring deficiencies in the in vitro nasogastric tube testing of 14 recent Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) submitted for five generic PPI drug products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0137-x
  • Determination of Critical Quality Attributes for a Biotherapeutic in the
           QbD Paradigm: GCSF as a Case Study
    • Authors: Sumit K. Singh; Deepak Kumar; Anurag S. Rathore
      Abstract: Abstract Estimating impact of the various product-related variants and impurities on a biotherapeutic’s safety and efficacy is an essential requirement in the quality by design paradigm. In view of the limited role that clinical studies offer in this regard, we demonstrate a preclinical approach to achieve this for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF). While our repeated-dose toxicity data suggest that these variants do not elicit any adverse effects or histopathological changes, aggregated GCSF impurity caused sluggishness in animal behavior manifested by a possible muscular injury. Cell assay data revealed that the cys-64-cys74 disulfide bond in reduced GCSF imparts stabilization in absence of the cys-36-cys42 bond. PK data demonstrate variability in half lives of different species when compared to the native GCSF. PD data along with differential expression of JAK-2 and STAT5a genes show that all the tested variants triggered the required signal transduction pathways for neutrophil proliferation and activation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0139-8
  • Development of an Enantioselective and Biomarker-Informed Translational
           Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for Etodolac
    • Authors: Carolina de Miranda Silva; Adriana Rocha; Eduardo Tozatto; Lucienir Maria da Silva; Eduardo Antônio Donadi; Teresa Dalla Costa; Vera Lucia Lanchote; Stephan Schmidt; Jürgen B. Bulitta
      Abstract: Abstract Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) isoform has a critical role in the development of pain. Inhibition of COX-2 in vitro serves as a biomarker for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The NSAID concentrations yielding 80% COX-2 inhibition (IC80) correlate with therapeutic doses to achieve analgesia across multiple COX-2 inhibitors. However, there are no time-course models relating COX-2 inhibition with decreased pain. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between NSAID concentrations, in vitro COX-2 inhibition, and acute pain decrease in humans over time by a translational approach using clinical pharmacokinetic and literature reported in vitro and clinical pharmacodynamic data. In a two-way cross-over study, eight healthy volunteers received 300 and 400 mg racemic etodolac, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor. R- and S-etodolac were determined by LC-MS/MS and simultaneously modeled. Literature in vitro IC50 data for COX-2 inhibition by S-etodolac were used to fit adjusted pain score profiles from dental patients receiving etodolac. External model qualification was performed using published ibuprofen data. Etodolac absorption was highly variable due to gastric transit kinetics and low aqueous solubility. The disposition parameters differed substantially between enantiomers with a total clearance of 2.21 L/h for R-etodolac and 26.8 L/h for S-etodolac. Volume of distribution at steady-state was 14.6 L for R-etodolac and 45.8 L for S-etodolac. Inhibition of COX-2 by 78.1% caused a half-maximal pain decrease. The time-course of pain decrease following ibuprofen was successfully predicted via the developed translational model. This proposed enantioselective pharmacodynamic-informed approach presents the first quantitative time-course model for COX-2 induced pain inhibition in patients.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0138-9
  • Peripheral Nerve Nanoimaging: Monitoring Treatment and Regeneration
    • Authors: Jelena M. Janjic; Vijay S. Gorantla
      Abstract: Abstract Accidental and iatrogenic trauma are major causes of peripheral nerve injury. Healing after nerve injury is complex and often incomplete, which can lead to acute or chronic pain and functional impairment. Current assessment methods for nerve regeneration lack sensitivity and objectivity. There is a need for reliable and reproducible, noninvasive strategies with adequate spatial and temporal resolution for longitudinal evaluation of degeneration or regeneration after injury/treatment. Methods for noninvasive monitoring of the efficacy and effectiveness of neurotherapeutics in nerve regeneration or of neuropathic pain are needed to ensure adequacy and responsiveness to management, especially given the large variability in the patient populations, etiologies, and complexity of nerve injuries. Surrogate biomarkers are needed with positive predictive correlation for the dynamics and kinetics of neuroregeneration. They can provide direct real-time insight into the efficacy and mechanisms of individualized therapeutic intervention. Here, we review the state-of-the-art tools, technologies, and therapies in peripheral nerve injury and regeneration as well as provide perspectives for the future. We present compelling evidence that advancements in nanomedicine and innovation in nanotechnology such as nanotheranostics hold groundbreaking potential as paradigm shifts in noninvasive peripheral nerve imaging and drug delivery. Nanotechnology, which revolutionized molecular imaging in cancer and inflammatory disease, can be used to delineate dynamic molecular imaging signatures of neuroinflammation and neuroregeneration while simultaneously monitoring cellular or tissue response to drug therapy. We believe that current clinical successes of nanotechnology can and should be adopted and adapted to the science of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0129-x
  • Data to Decisions: Creating a Culture of Model-Driven Drug Discovery
    • Authors: Frank K. Brown; Farida Kopti; Charlie Chang; Scott A. Johnson; Meir Glick; Chris L. Waller
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, is undergoing a transformation in the way that it prosecutes R&D programs. Through the adoption of a “model-driven” culture, enhanced R&D productivity is anticipated, both in the form of decreased attrition at each stage of the process and by providing a rational framework for understanding and learning from the data generated along the way. This new approach focuses on the concept of a “Design Cycle” that makes use of all the data possible, internally and externally, to drive decision-making. These data can take the form of bioactivity, 3D structures, genomics, pathway, PK/PD, safety data, etc. Synthesis of high-quality data into models utilizing both well-established and cutting-edge methods has been shown to yield high confidence predictions to prioritize decision-making and efficiently reposition resources within R&D. The goal is to design an adaptive research operating plan that uses both modeled data and experiments, rather than just testing, to drive project decision-making. To support this emerging culture, an ambitious information management (IT) program has been initiated to implement a harmonized platform to facilitate the construction of cross-domain workflows to enable data-driven decision-making and the construction and validation of predictive models. These goals are achieved through depositing model-ready data, agile persona-driven access to data, a unified cross-domain predictive model lifecycle management platform, and support for flexible scientist-developed workflows that simplify data manipulation and consume model services. The end-to-end nature of the platform, in turn, not only supports but also drives the culture change by enabling scientists to apply predictive sciences throughout their work and over the lifetime of a project. This shift in mindset for both scientists and IT was driven by an early impactful demonstration of the potential benefits of the platform, in which expert-level early discovery predictive models were made available from familiar desktop tools, such as ChemDraw. This was built using a workflow-driven service-oriented architecture (SOA) on top of the rigorous registration of all underlying model entities.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0124-2
  • Microdialysis as an Important Technique in Systems Pharmacology—a
           Historical and Methodological Review
    • Authors: Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes
      Abstract: Abstract Microdialysis has contributed with very important knowledge to the understanding of target-specific concentrations and their relationship to pharmacodynamic effects from a systems pharmacology perspective, aiding in the global understanding of drug effects. This review focuses on the historical development of microdialysis as a method to quantify the pharmacologically very important unbound tissue concentrations and of recent findings relating to modeling microdialysis data to extrapolate from rodents to humans, understanding distribution of drugs in different tissues and disease conditions. Quantitative microdialysis developed very rapidly during the early 1990s. Method development was in focus in the early years including development of quantitative microdialysis, to be able to estimate true extracellular concentrations. Microdialysis has significantly contributed to the understanding of active transport at the blood-brain barrier and in other organs. Examples are presented where microdialysis together with modeling has increased the knowledge on tissue distribution between species, in overweight patients and in tumors, and in metabolite contribution to drug effects. More integrated metabolomic studies are still sparse within the microdialysis field, although a great potential for tissue and disease-specific measurements is evident.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0108-2
  • Optimization and Application of a Biotinylation Method for Quantification
           of Plasma Membrane Expression of Transporters in Cells
    • Authors: Vineet Kumar; Tot Bui Nguyen; Beáta Tóth; Viktoria Juhasz; Jashvant D. Unadkat
      Abstract: Abstract Quantitative proteomics, using LC-MS/MS, is increasingly used to quantify drug transporters present in tissues and cells. Most of these investigations quantify total transporter expression in the cells by utilizing a total membrane fraction, not only the plasma membrane. Here, we report development and optimization of a biotinylation method to quantify protein expression of transporters in the plasma membrane of cells. The Pierce cell surface isolation protocol was optimized for plasma membrane isolation. Incubation of OATP1B1-expressing CHO cells with 0.78 mg/mL of membrane impermeable biotinylation reagent (sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin) at 37°C for 1 h resulted in optimum isolation of the plasma membrane. Subsequently, the expression of transporters in the plasma membrane as a percent of the total was determined by quantitative proteomics using LC-MS/MS. Mean (±SD) plasma membrane expression of OATP1B1 in plated OATP1B1-expressing CHO, MDCKII, and HEK293 cells was found to be 79.7% (±4.7%), 67.7% (±12.2%), and 65.3% (±6.8%) of total cell OATP1B1 expression. Mean (±SD) plasma membrane expression of OATP1B3 in plated OATP1B3-expressing HEK293 cells, OATP2B1 in plated OATP2B1-expressing MDCKII cells, and sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) in plated NTCP-expressing CHO cells was 63.2% (±1.6%), 37.1% (±15.7%), and 71.7% (±1.2%), respectively. This method of quantifying transporter protein expression in the plasma membrane will be useful in the future to predict transporter-mediated drug disposition.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0121-5
  • Clinical Evaluation of Modified Release and Immediate Release Tacrolimus
    • Authors: Simon Tremblay; Rita R. Alloway
      Abstract: Abstract The science of drug delivery has evolved considerably and has led to the development of multiple sustained release formulations. Each of these formulations can present particular challenges in terms of clinical evaluation and necessitate careful study to identify their optimal use in practice. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent that is widely used in organ transplant recipients. However, it is poorly soluble, has an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile subject to important genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions, and has a narrow therapeutic index. For these reasons, it represents an agent that could benefit from modified release formulations to overcome these limitations. The objective of this review is to discuss the clinical evaluation of immediate and modified release tacrolimus formulations in renal transplant recipients. Clinical trials from early development of immediate release tacrolimus to formulation-specific post-marketing trials of modified release tacrolimus formulations are reviewed with an emphasis on key elements relating to trial design end endpoint assessment. Particular elements that can be addressed with formulation alterations, such as pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, and toxicity and corresponding clinical evaluations are discussed. In addition, current knowledge gaps in the clinical evaluation of immediate and modified release tacrolimus formulations are discussed to highlight potential avenues for the future development of different tacrolimus formulations with outcomes relevant to the regulators, the transplant community, and to transplant recipients. This review shows that new formulations may alter tacrolimus bioavailability, alleviate certain adverse events while potentially enhancing patient convenience.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0119-z
  • Utility of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Absorption Modeling to
           Predict the Impact of Salt-to-Base Conversion on Prasugrel HCl Product
           Bioequivalence in the Presence of Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • Authors: Jianghong Fan; Xinyuan Zhang; Liang Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract Prasugrel HCl may convert to prasugrel base during manufacturing or storage. It was reported that formulations with different ratios of salt to base were bioequivalent in healthy subjects, but formulations with a higher extent of conversion were not bioequivalent in subjects taking proton pump inhibitor (PPI) whose stomach pH is elevated. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of impact of salt-to-base conversion on prasugrel HCl products BE evaluation in healthy subjects on PPI. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model was constructed to predict pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of active metabolite after oral administration of prasugrel HCl products containing various fractions of base based on the prasugrel salt and base intrinsic solubility. The intrinsic solubility was obtained by deconvoluting the model against the observed active metabolite PK profiles with various fractions of base in healthy subjects with or without PPI. The developed PBPK absorption model accurately predicted the average active metabolite PK profiles in healthy subjects without PPI for the product containing 100% salt. A model based on assumptions of the fraction of a dose absorbed remaining unchanged for formulations containing different fractions of base over predicted the reduction of bioavailability upon conversion to the base. Therefore, this represented the conservative estimate with respect to the impact of free base in a product on BE evaluation. Virtual BE trial simulation predicted that less than 20% free base in prasugrel HCl product ensures in vivo BE of the generic product including in subjects that may be taking PPI.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0116-2
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacogenomics of Bupropion in Three Different
           Formulations with Different Release Kinetics in Healthy Human Volunteers
    • Authors: Jamie N. Connarn; Stephanie Flowers; Marisa Kelly; Ruijuan Luo; Kristen M. Ward; Gloria Harrington; Ila Moncion; Masoud Kamali; Melivin McInnis; Meihua R. Feng; Vicki Ellingrod; Andrew Babiskin; Xinyuan Zhang; Duxin Sun
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this pharmacokinetics (PK) study was to investigate whether different release kinetics from bupropion hydrochloride (HCl) immediate release (IR), sustained release (SR), and extended release (ER) formulations alter its metabolism and to test the hypothesis that the unsuccessful bioequivalence (BE) study of the higher strength (300 mg) of bupropion HCl ER tablets based on the successful BE study of the lower strength (150 mg) was due to metabolic saturation in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen. A randomized six-way crossover study was conducted in healthy volunteers. During each period, subjects took a single dose of IR (75/100 mg), SR (100/150 mg), or ER (150/300 mg) formulations of bupropion HCl; plasma samples for PK analysis were collected from 0–96 h for all formulations. In addition, each subject’s whole blood was collected for the genotyping of various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of bupropion’s major metabolic enzymes. The data indicates that the relative bioavailability of the ER formulations was 72.3–78.8% compared with IR 75 mg. No differences were observed for ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) of metabolite to AUC of parent for the three major metabolites. The pharmacogenomics analysis suggested no statistically significant correlation between polymorphisms and PK parameters of the various formulations. Altogether, these data suggested that the different release kinetics of the formulations did not change metabolites-to-parent ratio. Therefore, the differing BE result between the 150 and 300 mg bupropion HCl ER tablets was unlikely due to the metabolic saturation in the GI lumen caused by different release patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0102-8
  • Biopharmaceutical Evaluation and CMC Aspects of Oral Modified Release
    • Authors: Rong-Kun Chang; Neil Mathias; Munir A. Hussain
      Abstract: Abstract This article discusses the range of outcomes from biopharmaceutical studies of specific modified release (MR) product examples in preclinical models and humans. It touches upon five major biopharmaceutical areas for MR drug products: (1) evidence for regional permeability throughout the GI tract, (2) susceptibility to food-effect, (3) susceptibility to pH-effect, (4) impact of chronopharmacology in designing MR products, and (5) implications to narrow therapeutic index products. Robust bioperformance requires that product quality is met through a thorough understanding of the appropriate critical quality attributes that ensure reliable and robust manufacture of a MR dosage form. The quality-by-design (QbD) aspects of MR dosage form design and development are discussed with the emphasis on the regulatory view of the data required to support dosage form development.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0112-6
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