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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
AAPS Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.118
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 23  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Tumor-Targeted Chemoimmunotherapy with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade for
           Enhanced Anti-Melanoma Efficacy
    • Authors: Man Li; Yuting Yang; Chaoqun Xu; Jiaojie Wei; Yingke Liu; Xingli Cun; Qianwen Yu; Xian Tang; Sheng Yin; Zhirong Zhang; Qin He
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Chemoimmunotherapy with chemotherapeutics and immunoadjuvant inhibits tumor growth by activating cytotoxic T cells. However, this process also upregulates the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 and consequently leads to immune suppression. To maximize the anti-tumor immune responses and alleviate immunosuppression, PD-L1 antibody was combined with paclitaxel (PTX) and the immunoadjuvant α-galactosylceramide (αGC), which were coencapsulated into pH-sensitive TH peptide-modified liposomes (PTX/αGC/TH-Lip) to treat melanoma and lung metastasis. Compared to treatment with PD-L1 antibody or PTX/αGC/TH-Lip alone, the combination of PD-L1 antibody and PTX/αGC/TH-Lip further elevated the tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell responses and promoted apoptosis in tumor cells, leading to enhanced anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects. In adoptive therapy, PD-L1 antibody further alleviated immunosuppression and enhanced the anti-tumor effect of CD8+ T cells. The combination of PD-L1 antibody and chemoimmunotherapy PTX/αGC/TH-Lip provides a promising strategy for enhancing treatment for melanoma and lung metastasis.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0289-3
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Survival Prolongation Index as a Novel Metric to Assess Anti-Tumor
           Activity in Xenograft Models
    • Authors: Fiona Chandra; Lihi Zaks; Andy Zhu
      Abstract: A single efficacy metric quantifying anti-tumor activity in xenograft models is useful in evaluating different tumors’ drug sensitivity and dose-response of an anti-tumor agent. Commonly used metrics include the ratio of tumor volume in treated vs. control mice (T/C), tumor growth inhibition (TGI), ratio of area under the curve (AUC), and growth rate inhibition (GRI). However, these metrics have some limitations. In particular, for biologics with long half-lives, tumor volume (TV) of treated xenografts displays a delay in volume reduction (and in some cases, complete regression) followed by a growth rebound. These observed data cannot be described by exponential functions, which is the underlying assumption of TGI and GRI, and the fit depends on how long the tumor volumes are monitored. On the other hand, T/C and TGI only utilizes information from one chosen time point. Here, we propose a new metric called Survival Prolongation Index (SPI), calculated as the time for drug-treated TV to reach a certain size (e.g., 600 mm3) divided by the time for control TV to reach 600mm3 and therefore not dependent on the chosen final time point tf. Simulations were conducted under different scenarios (i.e., exponential vs. saturable growth, linear vs. nonlinear kill function). For all cases, SPI is the most linear and growth-rate independent metric. Subsequently, a literature analysis was conducted using 11 drugs to evaluate the correlation between pre-clinically obtained SPI and clinical overall response. This retrospective analysis of approved drugs suggests that a predicted SPI of 2 is necessary for clinical response.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0284-8
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Sorafenib N -Oxide Is an Inhibitor of Human Hepatic CYP3A4
    • Authors: Sussan Ghassabian; Tina B. Gillani; Tristan Rawling; Severine Crettol; Pramod C. Nair; Michael Murray
      Abstract: The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (SOR) is clinically important in the treatment of hepatocellular and renal cancers and undergoes CYP3A4-dependent oxidation in liver to the pharmacologically active N-oxide metabolite (SNO). There have been reports that kinase inhibitors such as SOR may precipitate pharmacokinetic interactions with coadministered drugs that compete for CYP3A4-mediated biotransformation, but these occur non-uniformly in patients. Clinical evidence also indicates that SNO accumulates in serum of some patients during prolonged SOR therapy. In this study undertaken in hepatic microsomes from individual donors, we assessed the possibility that SNO might contribute to pharmacokinetic interactions mediated by SOR. Enzyme kinetics of CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1′-hydroxylation in individual human hepatic microsomes were analyzed by non-linear regression and appropriate replots. Thus, SNO and SOR were linear-mixed inhibitors of microsomal CYP3A4 activity (Kis 15 ± 4 and 33 ± 14 μM, respectively). To assess these findings, further molecular docking studies of SOR and SNO with the 1TQN crystal structure of CYP3A4 were undertaken. SNO elicited a larger number of interactions with key amino acid residues located in substrate recognition sequences of the enzyme. In the optimal docking pose, the N-oxide moiety of SNO was also found to interact directly with the heme moiety of CYP3A4. These findings suggest that SNO could contribute to pharmacokinetic interactions involving SOR, perhaps in individuals who produce high circulating concentrations of the metabolite.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0262-1
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • What Does it Take to Make Model-Informed Precision Dosing Common
           Practice' Report from the 1st Asian Symposium on Precision Dosing
    • Authors: Thomas M. Polasek; Amin Rostami-Hodjegan; Dong-Seok Yim; Masoud Jamei; Howard Lee; Holly Kimko; Jae Kyoung Kim; Phuong Thi Thu Nguyen; Adam S. Darwich; Jae-Gook Shin
      Abstract: Model-informed precision dosing (MIPD) is modeling and simulation in healthcare to predict the drug dose for a given patient based on their individual characteristics that is most likely to improve efficacy and/or lower toxicity in comparison to traditional dosing. This paper describes the background and status of MIPD and the activities at the 1st Asian Symposium of Precision Dosing. The theme of the meeting was the question, “What does it take to make MIPD common practice'” Formal presentations highlighted the distinction between genetic and non-genetic sources of variability in drug exposure and response, the use of modeling and simulation as decision support tools, and the facilitators to MIPD implementation. A panel discussion addressed the types of models used for MIPD, how the pharmaceutical industry views MIPD, ways to upscale MIPD beyond academic hospital centers, and the essential role of healthcare professional education as a way to progress. The meeting concluded with an ongoing commitment to use MIPD to improve patient care.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0286-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Scientific Considerations for the Review and Approval of First Generic
           Mometasone Furoate Nasal Suspension Spray in the United States from the
           Bioequivalence Perspective
    • Authors: Qing Liu; Mohammad Absar; Bhawana Saluja; Changning Guo; Badrul Chowdhury; Robert Lionberger; Dale P. Conner; Bing V. Li
      Abstract: In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first Abbreviated New Drug Application for Mometasone Furoate Nasal Suspension Spray. To establish the bioequivalence of this generic nasal suspension spray with the reference listed drug product (RLD), Nasonex®, a “weight-of-evidence” approach was utilized by the applicant that included formulation and device similarities, equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delivery. In addition to these testing for comprehensive evaluation of the drug product, FDA also considered supportive data generated by a novel in vitro method, Morphologically-Directed Raman Spectroscopy (MDRS), to characterize the particle size distribution (PSD) of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the drug product. In this case, MDRS data eliminated the need for a comparative clinical endpoint bioequivalence study. The approval of the first generic Mometasone Furoate Nasal Suspension Spray is precedent-setting and paves a new pathway to establish bioequivalence for generic nasal suspension sprays. This approval also exemplifies FDA’s commitment to advance regulatory science for evaluation of generic drug products.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0283-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Cellular Uptake of MCT1 Inhibitors AR-C155858 and AZD3965 and Their
           Effects on MCT-Mediated Transport of L-Lactate in Murine 4T1 Breast Tumor
           Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Xiaowen Guan; Vivian Rodriguez-Cruz; Marilyn E. Morris
      Abstract: AR-C155858 and AZD3965, pyrrole pyrimidine derivatives, represent potent monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitors, with potential immunomodulatory and chemotherapeutic properties. Currently, there is limited information on the inhibitory properties of this new class of MCT1 inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of L-lactate transport and the membrane permeability properties of AR-C155858 and AZD3965 in the murine 4T1 breast tumor cells that express MCT1. Our results demonstrated time-dependent inhibition of L-lactate uptake by AR-C155858 and AZD3965 with maximal inhibition occurring after a 5-min pre-incubation period and prolonged inhibition. Following removal of AR-C155858 or AZD3965 from the incubation buffer, inhibition of L-lactate uptake was only fully reversed after 3 and 12 h, respectively, indicating that these inhibitors are slowly reversible. The uptake of AR-C155858 was concentration-dependent in 4T1 cells, whereas the uptake of AZD3965 exhibited no concentration dependence over the range of concentrations examined. The uptake kinetics of AR-C155858 was best fitted to a Michaelis-Menten equation with a diffusional clearance component, P (Km = 0.399 ± 0.067 μM, Vmax = 4.79 ± 0.58 pmol/mg/min, and P = 0.330 ± 0.088 μL/mg/min). AR-C155858 uptake, but not AZD3965 uptake, was significantly inhibited by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a known nonspecific inhibitor of MCTs 1, 2, and 4. AR-C155858 demonstrated a trend toward higher uptake at lower pH, a characteristic of proton-dependent MCT1. These findings provide evidence that AR-C155858 and AZD3965 exert slowly reversible inhibition of MCT1-mediated L-lactate uptake in 4T1 cells, with AR-C155858 representing a potential substrate of MCT1.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0279-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Evaluation of a Particulate Breast Cancer Vaccine Delivered via Skin
    • Authors: Lipika Chablani; Suprita A. Tawde; Archana Akalkotkar; Martin J. D’Souza
      Abstract: Breast cancer impacts female population globally and is the second most common cancer for females. With various limitations and adverse effects of current therapies, several immunotherapies are being explored. Development of an effective breast cancer vaccine can be a groundbreaking immunotherapeutic approach. Such approaches are being evaluated by several clinical trials currently. On similar lines, our research study aims to evaluate a particulate breast cancer vaccine delivered via skin. This particulate breast cancer vaccine was prepared by spray drying technique and utilized murine breast cancer whole cell lysate as a source of tumor-associated antigens. The average size of the particulate vaccine was 1.5 μm, which resembled the pathogenic species, thereby assisting in phagocytosis and antigen presentation leading to further activation of the immune response. The particulate vaccine was delivered via skin using commercially available metal microneedles. Methylene blue staining and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the microchannels. The results showed that microneedles created aqueous conduits of 50 ± 10 μm to deliver the microparticulate vaccine to the skin layers. Further, an in vivo comparison of immune response depicted significantly higher concentration of serum IgG, IgG2a, and B and T cell (CD4+ and CD8+) populations in the vaccinated animals than the control animals (p < 0.001). Upon challenge with live murine breast cancer cells, the vaccinated animals showed five times more tumor suppression than the control animals confirming the immune response activation and protection (p < 0.001). This research paves a way for individualized immunotherapy following surgical tumor removal to prolong relapse episodes.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0285-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Covariates in Pharmacometric Repeated Time-to-Event Models: Old and New
           (Pre)Selection Tools
    • Authors: Sebastiaan C. Goulooze; Elke H. J. Krekels; Thomas Hankemeier; Catherijne A. J. Knibbe
      Abstract: During covariate modeling in pharmacometrics, computational time can be reduced by using a fast preselection tool to identify a subset of promising covariates that are to be tested with the more computationally demanding likelihood ratio test (LRT), which is considered to be the standard for covariate selection. There is however a lack of knowledge on best practices for covariate (pre)selection in pharmacometric repeated time-to-event (RTTE) models. Therefore, we aimed to systematically evaluate the performance of three covariate (pre)selection tools for RTTE models: the likelihood ratio test (LRT), the empirical Bayes estimates (EBE) test, and a novel Schoenfeld-like residual test. This was done in simulated datasets with and without a “true” time-constant covariate, and both in the presence and absence of high EBE shrinkage. In scenarios with a “true” covariate effect, all tools had comparable power to detect this effect. In scenarios without a “true” covariate effect, the false positive rates of the LRT and the Schoenfeld-like residual test were slightly inflated to 5.7% and 7.2% respectively, while the EBE test had no inflated false positive rate. The presence of high EBE shrinkage (> 40%) did not affect the performance of any of the covariate (pre)selection tools. We found the EBE test to be a fast and accurate tool for covariate preselection in RTTE models. The novel Schoenfeld-like residual test proposed here had a similar performance in the tested scenarios and might be applied more readily to time-varying covariates, such as drug concentration and dynamic biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0278-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Golimumab Dried Blood Spot Analysis (GOUDA): a Prospective Trial Showing
           Excellent Correlation with Venepuncture Samples and More Detailed
           Pharmacokinetic Information
    • Authors: Iris Detrez; Ganel Schops; Jolien Lefrère; Sophie Tops; Gert Van Assche; Séverine Vermeire; Wouter Van Moerkercke; Marc Ferrante; Ann Gils
      Abstract: Development of a dried blood spot (DBS) method for golimumab will facilitate sample collection in a study setting and will give a more complete insight in the total drug exposure (area under the curve, AUC). We established a DBS method and assessed its robustness, user-friendliness and clinical usefulness in 10 patients with ulcerative colitis during golimumab induction and maintenance regimens. DBS was obtained through spotting of golimumab spiked in whole citrated blood to a filter paper. Several extraction conditions were evaluated and the selected extraction condition analytically validated. In a clinical setting, DBS and serum samples were taken simultaneously through intensive sampling regimens and a conversion factor was determined. Golimumab concentrations were measured using an in-house-developed ELISA and a CE-marked ELISA kit. User-friendliness was evaluated using a questionnaire. Mucosal healing was evaluated at week 14. A total of 79 matched pairs of serum and DBS sample golimumab concentrations revealed an overall conversion factor of 3.9. DBS golimumab concentrations after conversion correlated strongly with serum golimumab concentrations (ICC = 0.984). During induction, no linear correlation was found between golimumab trough concentration (TC) and AUC (R2 = 0.29). Multiple peaks emerged during drug absorption. Patients who achieved mucosal healing appeared to have less fluctuating TC and a constant AUC over time. Nine out of 10 patients reported DBS sampling as user-friendly. The GOUDA study showed that DBS sampling is a robust and patient-friendly alternative to venous blood collection. DBS sampling may provide better insights into golimumab absorption and exposure. ( NCT02910375)
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0282-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Measurement of IL-17AA and IL-17FF as Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers to
           Demonstrate Target Engagement in the Phase I Study of MCAF5352A
    • Authors: Kun Peng; Yehong Wang; Ketevan Siradze; Rich Erickson; Saloumeh K. Fischer; Tracy L. Staton
      Abstract: The interleukin (IL)-17 pathway has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases. MCAF5352A is a humanized monoclonal antibody which targets both IL-17A and IL-17F, thereby inhibiting the activity of IL-17 dimers (IL-17AA, IL-17AF, and IL-17FF). The pharmacokinetic profile of MCAF5352A has been characterized in both a Phase Ia single ascending dose study and a Phase Ib multiple ascending dose study. Two qualified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure total IL-17AA and IL-17FF levels in serum as pharmacodynamic biomarkers in the Phase I studies. The two assays demonstrated specificity for IL-17AA or IL-17FF with sensitivity at low picogram/milliliter levels. The assay precision and accuracy also met acceptance criteria. Although total serum IL-17AA and IL-17FF levels were below the assay detection limits prior to administration of MCAF5352A, post-treatment levels in both the single and multiple dose cohorts became detectable and increased in a dose-dependent manner. These data are consistent with target engagement by MCAF5352A. Our work highlights bioanalytical challenges encountered while developing biomarker assays requiring high sensitivity and specificity. Data generated using these assays enabled the confirmation of target engagement during early clinical drug development.
      PubDate: 2018-12-13
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0280-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • PBPK and its Virtual Populations: the Impact of Physiology on Pediatric
           Pharmacokinetic Predictions of Tramadol
    • Authors: Huybrecht T’jollyn; An Vermeulen; Jan Van Bocxlaer
      Abstract: In pediatric PBPK models, age-related changes in the body are known to occur. Given the sparsity of and the variability associated with relevant physiological parameters, different PBPK software providers may vary in their system’s data. In this work, three commercially available PBPK software packages (PK-Sim®, Simcyp®, and Gastroplus®) were investigated regarding their differences in system-related information, possibly affecting clearance prediction. Three retrograde PBPK clearance models were set up to enable prediction of pediatric tramadol clearance. These models were qualified in terms of total, CYP2D6, and renal clearance in adults. Tramadol pediatric clearance predictions from PBPK were compared with a pooled popPK model covering clearance ranging from neonates to adults. Fold prediction errors were used to evaluate the results. Marked differences in liver clearance prediction between PBPK models were observed. In general, the prediction bias of total clearance was greatest at the youngest population and decreased with age. Regarding CYP2D6 and renal clearance, important differences exist between PBPK software tools. Interestingly, the PBPK model with the shortest CYP2D6 maturation half-life (PK-Sim) agreed best with the in vivo CYP2D6 maturation model. Marked differences in physiological data explain the observed differences in hepatic clearance prediction in early life between the various PBPK software providers tested. Consensus on the most suited pediatric data to use should harmonize and optimize pediatric clearance predictions. Moreover, the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, using a convenient probe substrate, has the potential to update system-related parameters in order to better represent pediatric physiology.
      PubDate: 2018-11-29
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0277-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Assessment of Quality Attributes for Biosimilars: a Statistical
           Perspective on Current Practice and a Proposal
    • Authors: Johanna Mielke; Franz Innerbichler; Martin Schiestl; Nicolas M. Ballarini; Byron Jones
      Abstract: Establishing comparability of the originator and its biosimilar at the structural and functional level, by analyzing so-called quality attributes, is an important step in biosimilar development. The statistical assessment of quality attributes is currently in the focus of attention because both the FDA and the EMA are working on regulatory documents for advising companies on the use of statistical approaches for strengthening their comparability claim. In this paper, we first discuss “comparable” and “not comparable” settings and propose a shift away from the usual comparison of the mean values: we argue that two products can be considered comparable if the range of the originator fully covers the range of the biosimilar. We then introduce a novel statistical testing procedure (the “tail-test”) and compare the operating characteristics of the proposed approach with approaches currently used in practice. In contrast to the currently used approaches, we note that our proposed methodology is compatible with the proposed understanding of comparability and has, compared to other frequently applied range-based approaches, the advantage of being a formal statistical testing procedure which controls the patient’s risk and has reasonable large-sample properties.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0275-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Overlooked Issues on Pharmacokinetics Data Interpretation of Protein
           Drugs—a Case Example of Erythropoietin
    • Authors: Guohua An; Robert L. Schmidt; Donald M. Mock; Peter Veng-Pedersen; John A. Widness
      PubDate: 2018-11-26
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0269-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of the Plasticizer DEHP in Blood Collection Bags on Human Plasma
           Fraction Unbound Determination for Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein (AAG) Binding
    • Authors: Nicholas Ingram; Christopher Dishinger; Jennifer Wood; J. Matthew Hutzler; Sherri Smith; Michael Huskin
      Abstract: Fraction unbound (fu) is a critical drug distribution parameter commonly utilized for modeling efficacious dosage and safety margin predictions. An over-estimation of fu for 13 chemically diverse small molecule drugs primarily bound to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) in human plasma was discovered when in vitro results from our screening lab were compared to literature values. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer known to be used in the manufacture of blood collection bags, was extracted from plasma obtained through three common techniques that allowed contact with DEHP, and drug fu values in plasma from each collection method were estimated using the HTDialysis protein binding methodology. Additionally, fu of test compounds in plasma spiked with varying concentrations of DEHP (0–800 μM) was determined, and DEHP extractions were performed from plasma stored in Terumo bags over 7 days. Blood stored in Terumo bags, blood collected in Terumo bags, but immediately transferred to conical vials, and vacutainer-collected blood yielded DEHP concentrations of 300–1000 μM, 1–10 μM, and 0.1–2 μM, respectively. This finding corresponded with the fu of tested drugs in DEHP-spiked plasma increasing between 2- and 5-fold. Additionally, DEHP was discovered to leach from the Terumo bag, with concentrations increasing 10-fold over a 7-day test period. In summary, the presence of DEHP in commercially available blood collection bags confounds in vitro fu estimation for drugs that bind primarily to AAG. It is recommended that vacutainer-collected human plasma, which contains negligible DEHP, be used for the most accurate estimation of fu in human plasma.
      PubDate: 2018-11-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0276-8
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Approaches to Resolve False Reporting in Neutralizing Antibody Assays
           Caused by Reagent Leaching from Affinity Capture Elution Solid Phase
    • Authors: Yuhong Xiang; John Kamerud; Jean Donley; Katrina Olson; Teresa Caiazzo; Dave Yeung; Chuenlei Parng; Boris Gorovits
      Abstract: Insufficient drug tolerance presents a major challenge in the development of neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays for biotherapeutics. Sample pre-treatment using solid-phase extraction with acid dissociation (SPEAD) is widely reported to improve drug tolerance. In this paper, a case study is presented in which SPEAD was used in conjunction with a competitive ligand binding NAb assay format. A significant degree of biotin-drug conjugate leaching was observed resulting in the reporting of both false positive and false negative results in NAb assay. Mitigation steps have been evaluated to address drug/biotin-drug conjugate leaching. These steps included assessment of the streptavidin-coated plate in conjunction with biotin-drug conjugates at various biotin molar challenge ratios (MCR). In addition, an alternative method based on covalent capture of the drug on an aldehyde-activated plate was assessed. Both approaches were compared for the degree of drug/biotin-drug conjugate leaching during the second elution step of the SPEAD procedure. Moreover, the impact of various conditions on the assay performance was assessed, including elution pH, sample incubation time, and biotin MCR. For the covalent drug capture method, capture conditions were evaluated. Optimized conditions in both streptavidin capture and covalent capture methods enabled a significant reduction of drug/biotin-drug conjugate leaching. A streptavidin high binding capacity approach using biotin-drug conjugate with a MCR of 50:1 was chosen as the optimal method yielding a NAb assay with a fit for purpose sensitivity (153 ng/mL) and a drug tolerance of up to 50 μg/mL with 500 ng/mL PC.
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0274-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of the Monocarboxylate Transporter 1
           Inhibitor AR-C155858 in the Murine 4T1 Breast Cancer Tumor Model
    • Authors: Xiaowen Guan; Mark A. Bryniarski; Marilyn E. Morris
      Abstract: Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), also known as a l-lactate transporter, is a potential therapeutic target in cancer. The objectives of this study were to evaluate efficacy and assess concentration-effect relationships of AR-C155858 (a selective and potent MCT1 inhibitor) in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells and in the 4T1 tumor xenograft model. Western blotting of 4T1 cells demonstrated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) characteristics and overexpression of MCT1 and CD147 (a MCT1 accessory protein), but absence of MCT4 expression. AR-C155858 inhibited the cellular l-lactate uptake and cellular proliferation at low nanomolar potencies (IC50 values of 25.0 ± 4.2 and 20.2 ± 0.2 nM, respectively). In the xenograft 4T1 mouse model of immunocompetent animals, AR-C155858 (10 mg/kg i.p. once daily) had no effect on tumor volume and weight. Treatment with AR-C155858 resulted in slightly increased tumor lactate concentrations; however, the changes were not statistically significant. AR-C155858 was well tolerated, as demonstrated by the unchanged body weight and blood lactate concentrations. Average blood and tumor AR-C155858 concentrations (110 ± 22 and 574 ± 245 nM, respectively), 24 h after the last dose, were well above the IC50 values. These data indicate that AR-C155858 penetrated 4T1 xenograft tumors and was present at high concentrations but was ineffective in decreasing tumor growth. Evaluations of AR-C155858 in other preclinical models of breast cancer are needed to further assess its efficacy.
      PubDate: 2018-11-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0261-2
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Journey to AAPS 2020: a Reflection from Strategic Planning to PharmSci
    • Authors: Joseph W. Polli; for the AAPS Leadership; Christopher R. McCurdy; Dale Eric Wurster; Binodh S. DeSilva; Annette Bak; Reina Bendayan; Bernd Meibohm; Allen C. Templeton; William Weiser
      PubDate: 2018-11-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0273-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Population Pharmacokinetics of AL-335 and Its Two Main Metabolites
           (ALS-022399, ALS-022227) in Monotherapy and in Combination with Odalasvir
           and/or Simeprevir
    • Authors: Elodie Valade; Thomas N. Kakuda; Matthew W. McClure; Christopher Westland; Belén Valenzuela; Sivi Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan; Juan José Perez-Ruixo; Oliver Ackaert
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to characterize the time course of plasma concentrations of AL-335 and its main metabolites (ALS-022399 and ALS-022227) after oral administration in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects, in monotherapy as well as in combination with simeprevir and/or odalasvir. AL-335, ALS-022399, and ALS-022227 plasma concentrations from subjects receiving 800 mg of AL-335 orally once daily (qd) as monotherapy or in combination were pooled and analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect modeling approach. The typical values (between subject variability) of AL-335 and ALS-022399 apparent linear clearances were 3300 L/h (33.9%) and 1910 L/h (30.0%), respectively. ALS-022227 elimination was characterized as a nonlinear process, with typical values of Vmax,ALS-022227 and Km,ALS-022227 estimated to be 84,799 ng/h (14.9%) and 450.2 ng/mL, respectively. AL-335 and ALS-022399 plasma concentrations were increased more than 2-fold in presence of simeprevir and/or odalasvir, while the effect on ALS-022227 plasma concentrations was limited. The effect of simeprevir and/or odalasvir might be explained by their capacity to inhibit P-glycoprotein. Internal evaluation confirmed that the population pharmacokinetic model developed was deemed appropriate to describe the time course of AL-335, ALS-022399, and ALS-022227 plasma concentrations and their associated variability in both healthy and HCV-infected subjects, as well as the interaction effect of simeprevir and/or odalasvir over AL-335 and its metabolites in healthy subjects. This model can be used as a starting point to evaluate drug-drug interaction processes in HCV-infected patients and support the development of a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination.
      PubDate: 2018-10-24
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0272-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Conjugation to Ascorbic Acid Enhances Brain Availability of Losartan
           Carboxylic Acid and Protects Against Parkinsonism in Rats
    • Authors: Bharat Bhusan Subudhi; Pratap Kumar Sahu; Vijay Kumar Singh; Shaktiketan Prusty
      Abstract: Identification of renin-angiotensin system in the interplay of hypertension and neurodegeneration has paved the way for the repurposing of antihypertensive drugs against Parkinsonism. Losartan carboxylic acid (LCA), the potent AT1 blocker metabolite of losartan, suffers from poor bioavailability and brain access. Since ascorbate transporters have earlier shown enough flexibility as carriers, we have conjugated losartan carboxylic acid to ascorbic acid with the aim of achieving higher oral/brain availability. Ester of LCA and ascorbic acid (FED) was developed keeping in view the substrate specificity of ascorbate transporters. Oral/brain bioavailability was assessed using in vivo pharmacokinetic model. Effect on central nervous system (CNS) and protection against Parkinsonism was evaluated using in vivo models. FED enhanced bioavailability of LCA. The higher brain availability of LCA enabled CNS protection as evident from the increase in locomotor activity, improved motor coordination, and protection against drug-induced catatonia. In conclusion, FED offers an approach to repurpose LCA against Parkinsonism. This can encourage further investigation to simultaneously address hypertension and neurodegeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0270-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
  • Characterizing the Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Simeprevir and
           Odalasvir in Healthy Volunteers Using a Population Modeling Approach
    • Authors: Elodie Valade; Belén Valenzuela; Thomas N. Kakuda; Christopher Westland; Matthew W. McClure; Sivi Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan; Juan José Perez-Ruixo; Oliver Ackaert
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic drug–drug interaction (DDI) between simeprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and odalasvir (NS5A inhibitor) after oral administration to support the design and dose selection of clinical studies with this combination for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV). Simeprevir and odalasvir plasma concentrations from 30 healthy subjects receiving these drugs in monotherapy as well as in combination were pooled and analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic modeling approach. Previous pharmacokinetic models developed to characterize the pharmacokinetics for each drug were used as starting point. The dual effect of simeprevir and odalasvir on their pharmacokinetic parameters was explored. Simulations were performed to assess the impact of the DDI on exposure parameters. In presence of odalasvir, the relative bioavailability of simeprevir increased by 26% and the apparent clearance was reduced following competitive inhibition depending on odalasvir plasma concentrations, with an inhibitory constant (Ki) estimated to be 1610 ng/mL. The apparent odalasvir clearance was reduced by simeprevir plasma concentrations following an Imax model, characterized by a maximum inhibitory effect of 46.7% and an IC50 of 257 ng/mL. Model-based simulations indicated that both Cmax and AUC24h increased for both drugs, when co-administered. The pharmacokinetic model adequately describes the time course of plasma concentrations and their variability when simeprevir and/or odalasvir were orally administered. This model can be used as a first step to predict the exposures of concomitant administration of simeprevir and odalasvir in HCV-infected subjects. Data from study AL355-602 (NCT02512562) were used for this analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0271-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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