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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover AAPS Journal
  [SJR: 1.192]   [H-I: 74]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • A Proposal to Redefine Clinical Immunogenicity Assessment
    • Authors: Daniel T. Mytych; M. Benjamin Hock; Mark Kroenke; Vibha Jawa; Arunan Kaliyaperumal; Yanchen Zhou
      Pages: 599 - 602
      Abstract: Abstract With more than 100 therapeutic proteins (TP) approved since the first EMA guidance on immunogenicity in 2007, a vast amount of clinical experience with a variety of therapeutic proteins has been gained. This has provided data on anti-drug antibodies (ADA) and their observed clinical impact, or lack thereof. It has become evident that not all ADA responses are clinically relevant. The current “standard practice” is to test for ADA in all patients on every study. It is essential that we acknowledge the immunogenicity data gained from marketed TPs and that options for immunogenicity testing reflect this information. Improvements in bioanalytical support throughout the drug development process will eliminate extraneous, non-impactful practices. We propose that low-risk therapeutic proteins could be supported with an event-driven (“collect-and-hold”) immunogenicity testing strategy throughout early phases of the clinical program. In the absence of an event, only pivotal studies (where ADA incidence and impact can be decisively assessed) would include default ADA testing. In keeping with the “standard practice,” immunogenicity risk assessment must be an on-going and real-time evaluation. This approach has the potential to deliver meaningful, clinically relevant immunogenicity results while maintaining an emphasis on patient safety.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0059-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Identifying Metabolites of Meclonazepam by High-Resolution Mass
           Spectrometry Using Human Liver Microsomes, Hepatocytes, a Mouse Model, and
           Authentic Urine Samples
    • Authors: Svante Vikingsson; Ariane Wohlfarth; Mikael Andersson; Henrik Gréen; Markus Roman; Martin Josefsson; Fredrik C Kugelberg; Robert Kronstrand
      Pages: 736 - 742
      Abstract: Abstract Meclonazepam is a benzodiazepine patented in 1977 to treat parasitic worms, which recently appeared as a designer benzodiazepine and drug of abuse. The aim of this study was to identify metabolites suitable as biomarkers of drug intake in urine using high-resolution mass spectrometry, authentic urine samples, and different model systems including human liver microsomes, cryopreserved hepatocytes, and a mice model. The main metabolites of meclonazepam found in human urine were amino-meclonazepam and acetamido-meclonazepam; also, minor peaks for meclonazepam were observed in three of four urine samples. These observations are consistent with meclonazepam having a metabolism similar to that of other nitro containing benzodiazepines such as clonazepam, flunitrazepam, and nitrazepam. Both metabolites were produced by the hepatocytes and in the mice model, but the human liver microsomes were only capable of producing minor amounts of the amino metabolite. However, under nitrogen, the amount of amino-meclonazepam produced increased 140 times. This study comprehensively elucidated meclonazepam metabolism and also illustrates that careful selection of in vitro model systems for drug metabolism is needed, always taking into account the expected metabolism of the tested drug.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0040-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Reliable Rate Measurements for Active and Passive Hepatic
           Uptake Using Plated Human Hepatocytes
    • Authors: Yi-an Bi; Renato J. Scialis; Sarah Lazzaro; Sumathy Mathialagan; Emi Kimoto; Julie Keefer; Hui Zhang; Anna M. Vildhede; Chester Costales; A. David Rodrigues; Larry M. Tremaine; Manthena V. S. Varma
      Pages: 882 - 882
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0061-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
  • Breaking Bad: the Structure and Function of the Blood-Brain Barrier in
    • Abstract: Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disease with variable etiology and clinical manifestation, affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Although the ultimate precipitators of seizures are neurons, it is becoming evident that epileptic activity is associated with changes in the function of other cell types, including those consisting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and regulating its permeability. The interrelationships between impaired BBB function and epilepsy are complex, as BBB dysfunction may both lead to seizures and be induced by epileptic activity. In this article, we review alterations in key BBB properties that have been found in patients with epilepsy and in animal models of the disease. We highlight emerging biomarkers for individualized treatment, implications for pharmacotherapy, and potential BBB-related targets for drug development.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
  • QSP Toolbox: Computational Implementation of Integrated Workflow
           Components for Deploying Multi-Scale Mechanistic Models
    • Abstract: Abstract Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling has become increasingly important in pharmaceutical research and development, and is a powerful tool to gain mechanistic insights into the complex dynamics of biological systems in response to drug treatment. However, even once a suitable mathematical framework to describe the pathophysiology and mechanisms of interest is established, final model calibration and the exploration of variability can be challenging and time consuming. QSP models are often formulated as multi-scale, multi-compartment nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. Commonly accepted modeling strategies, workflows, and tools have promise to greatly improve the efficiency of QSP methods and improve productivity. In this paper, we present the QSP Toolbox, a set of functions, structure array conventions, and class definitions that computationally implement critical elements of QSP workflows including data integration, model calibration, and variability exploration. We present the application of the toolbox to an ordinary differential equations-based model for antibody drug conjugates. As opposed to a single stepwise reference model calibration, the toolbox also facilitates simultaneous parameter optimization and variation across multiple in vitro, in vivo, and clinical assays to more comprehensively generate alternate mechanistic hypotheses that are in quantitative agreement with available data. The toolbox also includes scripts for developing and applying virtual populations to mechanistic exploration of biomarkers and efficacy. We anticipate that the QSP Toolbox will be a useful resource that will facilitate implementation, evaluation, and sharing of new methodologies in a common framework that will greatly benefit the community.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
  • Ultra-Sensitive Measurement of IL-17A and IL-17F in Psoriasis Patient
           Serum and Skin
    • Abstract: Abstract Interleukin 17 is a family of cytokines that play a central role in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17A has been implicated as a key driver of psoriasis, mediating a chronic cycle of T-cell activation, keratinocyte proliferation and angiogenesis. It has been hypothesized that expression of IL-17A and the related cytokine IL-17F could be used as predictive biomarkers for therapeutic response, though they have been difficult to measure locally or in circulation because of their low abundance. We developed ultrasensitive methods for measuring IL-17A and IL-17F in human serum samples and found that serum from psoriasis patients had higher and a broader range of concentrations of both IL-17 proteins compared to healthy volunteers. We also adapted these methods for tissue biopsies and saw higher concentrations of both IL-17 proteins in psoriatic lesions, but they were undetectable in non-lesional skin from the same patients.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
  • Development and Characterization of a Neutralizing Anti-idiotype Antibody
           Against Mirvetuximab for Analysis of Clinical Samples
    • Abstract: Abstract Antibody-drug-conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging class of biological therapeutics. Mirvetuximab soravtansine is a novel folate receptor alpha (FRα)-targeting ADC which represents a potential new treatment for patients with ovarian and other FRα-positive cancers. Since patient immune responses to biological therapeutics may negatively affect drug efficacy and patient safety, regulatory authorities require rigorous monitoring of patient samples. Taking advantage of the immune system’s ability to generate highly specific antibodies, the field has turned to anti-idiotype antibodies as powerful tools for the development of sensitive and specific bioassays. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a highly specific neutralizing anti-idiotype antibody directed against M9346A, the antibody moiety of mirvetuximab soravtansine. The anti-idiotype antibody recognizes M9346A with double-digit picomolar affinity, competes with folate receptor antigen for binding to M9346A, and can be used to develop both anti-drug-antibody and neutralizing antibody assays.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
  • Incorporation of the Time-Varying Postprandial Increase in Splanchnic
           Blood Flow into a PBPK Model to Predict the Effect of Food on the
           Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered High-Extraction Drugs
    • Authors: Rachel H. Rose; David B. Turner; Sibylle Neuhoff; Masoud Jamei
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Following a meal, a transient increase in splanchnic blood flow occurs that can result in increased exposure to orally administered high-extraction drugs. Typically, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have incorporated this increase in blood flow as a time-invariant fed/fasted ratio, but this approach is unable to explain the extent of increased drug exposure. A model for the time-varying increase in splanchnic blood flow following a moderate- to high-calorie meal (TV-Q Splanch) was developed to describe the observed data for healthy individuals. This was integrated within a PBPK model and used to predict the contribution of increased splanchnic blood flow to the observed food effect for two orally administered high-extraction drugs, propranolol and ibrutinib. The model predicted geometric mean fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios of 1.24 and 1.29 for propranolol, which were within the range of published values (within 1.0–1.8-fold of values from eight clinical studies). For ibrutinib, the predicted geometric mean fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios were 2.0 and 1.84, respectively, which was within 1.1-fold of the reported fed/fasted AUC ratio but underestimated the reported C max ratio by up to 1.9-fold. For both drugs, the interindividual variability in fed/fasted AUC and C max ratios was underpredicted. This suggests that the postprandial change in splanchnic blood flow is a major mechanism of the food effect for propranolol and ibrutinib but is insufficient to fully explain the observations. The proposed model is anticipated to improve the prediction of food effect for high-extraction drugs, but should be considered with other mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0099-z
  • Distribution of Exogenous and Endogenous CYP3A Markers and Related Factors
           in Healthy Males and Females
    • Authors: Jieon Lee; Andrew HyoungJin Kim; SoJeong Yi; SeungHwan Lee; Seo Hyun Yoon; Kyung-Sang Yu; In-Jin Jang; Joo-Youn Cho
      Abstract: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme in humans. Assessing CYP3A activity is necessary for predicting therapeutic outcomes or the potential adverse events of various therapeutics. This study sought to evaluate the distribution of endogenous and exogenous markers reflecting hepatic CYP3A activity and related factors affecting its activity in healthy male and female. Each subject was given a single 1 mg dose of midazolam intravenously. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacometabolomics, and pharmacogenomics analyses were performed to evaluate CYP3A activity. Urinary and plasma steroids were quantified with gas chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the concentrations of midazolam and its metabolites were quantified with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 100 subjects completed this study. Midazolam clearance (MDZ CL) and the metabolic ratio (MDZ MR) were significantly correlated with 6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol and 6β-OH-cortisone/cortisone. MDZ CL, 6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol, and 6β-OH-cortisone/cortisone decreased with increasing age (Pearson r = −0.333, −0.329, and −0.528, respectively; P < 0.05). When the markers were compared according to sex, MDZ CL and 6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol showed significant difference between sexes. However, MDZ CL was higher in female group than male group and 6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol was higher in male group than female group. No significant differences in markers were found when comparing progesterone levels. Our results indicate that both exogenous and endogenous markers showed decreased CYP3A activity with increasing age, which suggested that age could be a factor that significantly influences CYP3A activity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0090-8
  • Evolution of Choice of Solubility and Dissolution Media After Two Decades
           of Biopharmaceutical Classification System
    • Authors: Nadia Bou-Chacra; Katherine Jasmine Curo Melo; Ivan Andrés Cordova Morales; Erika S. Stippler; Filippos Kesisoglou; Mehran Yazdanian; Raimar Löbenberg
      Abstract: The introduction of the biopharmaceutics drug classification system (Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)), in 1995, provided a simple way to describe the biopharmaceutics behavior of a drug. Solubility and permeability are among the major parameters, which determine the fraction dose absorbed of a drug substance and consequently its chances to be bioavailable. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evolution of the media used for determining solubility and dissolution and how this can be used in modern drug development. Over the years, physiologically adapted media and buffers were introduced with the intention to better predict the in vivo solubility and dissolution of drug substances. Water, buffer solutions, compendial media, micellar solubilization media, and biorelevant media are reviewed. At this time point, there is no universal medium available which can be used to predict every drug substance’s solubility or a drug product’s in vivo dissolution behavior. However, there have been many improvements and additions made to media to optimize their in vivo predictability; for example, the current phosphate concentrations in buffers seem to be too high to correlate with the carbonate buffer concentrations in vivo. Biorelevant media were updated to correlate them better with the composition of human intestinal fluids. The BCS was introduced into regulatory sciences as a scientific risk management tool to waive bioequivalence studies under certain conditions. Today’s different guidance documents define the dose-solubility ratio differently. As shown for amoxicillin, this can cause more confusion than certainty for globally operating companies. Harmonization of BCS guidelines is highly desirable.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0085-5
  • Mechanistic Modeling of the Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic
           Relationship of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-Neutralizing Antibody (BAY
           1093884) in Cynomolgus Monkeys
    • Authors: Jian-Ming Gu; Xiao-Yan Zhao; Thomas Schwarz; Joachim Schuhmacher; Andreas Baumann; Elena Ho; Babu Subramanyan; Kathy Tran; Timothy Myles; Chandra Patel; Maria Koellnberger
      Abstract: BAY 1093884 is a fully human monoclonal antibody against the tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in development as prophylaxis in patients with hemophilia with or without inhibitors. In vitro, BAY 1093884 binds to human, mouse, and monkey TFPI. The objective of this study was to find a pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarker after administration of BAY 1093884 to normal monkeys. In monkey plasma, BAY 1093884 exhibited an IC50 (concentration that inhibits 50%) of 4.65 and 6.19 nM for free TFPI and diluted prothrombin time (dPT), respectively. The BAY 1093884 pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and its PD effects on dPT and free TFPI levels were assessed after intravenous and subcutaneous administration of BAY 1093884 (5 and 20 mg/kg) to female cynomolgus monkeys. Free TFPI concentrations in plasma decreased rapidly and increased to baseline in a dose-dependent manner. dPT clotting time was shortened and correlated with free TFPI levels and drug concentration in plasma, demonstrating the relationship between PD activities (dPT clotting time and free TFPI levels) and drug concentration. BAY 1093884 exhibited nonlinear PK, and a target-mediated drug disposition model was used to characterize the BAY 1093884 versus TFPI concentration–response relationship. We concluded that a mechanism-based PK/PD binding model could be useful for predicting human response to BAY 1093884. For the first-in-human study, measurement of free TFPI will be included as part of the dose-escalation design.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0086-4
  • Controlled Ion Release from Novel Polyester/Ceramic Composites Enhances
    • Authors: Soheila Ali Akbari Ghavimi; Rama Rao Tata; Andrew J. Greenwald; Brittany N. Allen; David A. Grant; Sheila A. Grant; Mark W. Lee; Bret D. Ulery
      Abstract: Abstract Due to the growing number of patients suffering from musculoskeletal defects and the limited supply of and sub-optimal outcomes associated with biological graft materials, novel biomaterials must be created that can function as graft substitutes. For bone regeneration, composite materials that mimic the organic and inorganic phases of natural bone can provide cues which expedite and enhance endogenous repair. Specifically, recent research has shown that calcium and phosphate ions are inherently osteoinductive, so controllably delivering their release holds significant promise for this field. In this study, unique aliphatic polyesters were synthesized and complexed with a rapidly decomposing ceramic (monobasic calcium phosphate, MCP) yielding novel polymer/ceramic composite biomaterials. It was discovered that the fast dissolution and rapid burst release of ions from MCP could be modulated depending on polymer length and chemistry. Also, controlled ion release was found to moderate solution pH associated with polyester degradation. When composite biomaterials were incubated with mesenchymal stems cells (MSCs) they were found to better facilitate osteogenic differentiation than the individual components as evidenced by increased alkaline phosphate expression and more rapid mineralization. These results indicate that controlling calcium and phosphate ion release via a polyester matrix is a promising approach for bone regenerative engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0072-x
  • Erratum to: Microdialysis: the Key to Physiologically Based Model
           Prediction of Human CNS Target Site Concentrations
    • Authors: Yumi Yamamoto; Meindert Danhof; Elizabeth C. M. de Lange
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0080-x
  • Characterization of Apolipoprotein C3 (Apo C3) LNA/DNA Impurities and
           Degradation Products by LC-MS/MS
    • Authors: Olga V. Friese; Justin B. Sperry; Yan He; Liji Joseph; James A. Carroll; Jason C. Rouse
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein C3 (Apo C3) LNA/DNA gapmer was evaluated under various stress and formulation conditions for the purpose of its development as a potential biotherapeutic for low density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering. Using ion-pairing (IP) reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatography ultra-high resolution (UHR) tandem mass spectrometry (IP-RPLC-MS/MS), a combination of accurate mass measurements and collision-induced dissociation enabled in-depth characterization of Apo C3 LNA/DNA oligonucleotide, in particular the inherent impurities following synthesis and degradation products after exposure to stress conditions. In this study, oligonucleotide samples were stressed under different pH and UV exposure conditions. The primary impurities in Apo C3 LNA/DNA were losses of nucleotide moieties from both the 5′- and 3′-terminus leading to n-1, n-2, etc. species. Desulfurization and depurination were observed in Apo C3 LNA/DNA after a week under UV light stress conditions at low pH. Guanine oxidation and dimerization were the primary degradation products detected under UV light exposure for 1 week at high pH. The effect of antioxidants on the levels of these degradation products was evaluated under neutral pH conditions. In the presence of all antioxidants, levels of guanine oxidation and desulfurization under tested conditions were the same as those in the unstressed sample, except for sodium ascorbate. The thorough understanding of the Apo C3 LNA/DNA oligonucleotide structure, its impurities, and degradation products laid the foundation for the successful formulation development of this novel biotherapeutic modality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0088-2
  • Controlled Release of Second Generation mTOR Inhibitors to Restrain
           Inflammation in Primary Immune Cells
    • Authors: Emily A. Gosselin; Lisa H. Tostanoski; Christopher M. Jewell
      Abstract: Abstract Autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system incorrectly targets the body’s own tissue. Inflammatory CD4+ T cell phenotypes, such as TH1 and TH17, are key drivers of this attack. Recent studies demonstrate treatment with rapamycin—a key inhibitor of the mTOR pathway—can skew T cell development, moving T cell responses away from inflammatory phenotypes and toward regulatory T cells (TREGS). TREGS are important in inducing and maintaining tolerance to self-antigens, creating new potential to treat autoimmune diseases more effectively and specifically. Next generation analogs of rapamycin, such as everolimus and temsirolimus, confer increased potency with reduced toxicity, but are understudied in the context of autoimmunity. Further, these drugs are still broadly-acting and require frequent treatment due to short half-lives. Thus, there is strong interest in harnessing the unique properties of biomaterials—controlled drug release and targeting, for example, to improve autoimmune therapies. Using second generation mTOR inhibitors and rapamycin, we prepared sets of degradable polymer particles from poly(lactide-co-glycolide). We then used these materials to assess physicochemical properties and the ability to control autoimmune inflammation in a primary cell co-culture model. Treatment with particle formulations resulted in significant dose-dependent decreases in dendritic cell activation, T cell proliferation, inflammatory cytokines, and frequencies of inflammatory TH1 phenotypes. Considering the current limitations of rapamycin, and the potential of next-generation analogs, this work provides a screening platform for biomaterials and sets the stage for in vivo evaluation, where delivery kinetics, stability, and targeting could improve autoimmune therapies through biomaterial-enabled delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0089-1
  • Blood-Brain Barrier Protection as a Therapeutic Strategy for Acute
           Ischemic Stroke
    • Authors: Ali Ehsan Sifat; Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya; Thomas J. Abbruscato
      Abstract: Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) containing tight junctional (TJ) proteins and different ion and nutrient transporters which maintain normal brain physiology. BBB disruption is a major pathological hallmark in the course of ischemic stroke which is regulated by the actions of different factors working at different stages of cerebral ischemia including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), inflammatory modulators, vesicular trafficking, oxidative pathways, and junctional-cytoskeletal interactions. These components interact further to disrupt maintenance of both the paracellular and transport barriers of the central nervous system (CNS) to worsen ischemic brain injury and the propensity for hemorrhagic transformation (HT) associated with injury and/or thrombolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). We propose that these complex molecular pathways should be evaluated further so that they could be targeted alone or in combination to protect the BBB during cerebral ischemia. These types of novel interventions should be guided by advanced imaging techniques for better diagnosis of BBB damage which may exert significant therapeutic benefit including the extension of therapeutic window of tPA. This review will focus on the different stages and mechanisms of BBB damage in acute ischemic stroke and novel therapeutic strategies to target those pathways for better therapeutic outcome in stroke.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0091-7
  • Minipig and Human Metabolism of Aldehyde Oxidase Substrates: In Vitro
           – In Vivo Comparisons
    • Authors: David J. Wilkinson; Rosalind L. Southall; Mingguang Li; Lisa M. Wright; Lindsay J. Corfield; Thomas A. Heeley; Benjamin Bratby; Ranbir Mannu; Sarah L. Johnson; Victoria Shaw; Holly L. Friett; Louise A. Blakeburn; John S. Kendrick; Michael B. Otteneder
      Abstract: Abstract The importance of aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is becoming increasingly recognized in the prediction of human pharmacokinetic parameters from animal data. The objectives of these studies were to ascertain whether an in vitro–in vivo correlation existed in the clearance and metabolic pathways of AOX substrates and to establish whether the minipig represented an appropriate non-rodent model for man in the pre-clinical development of drugs metabolized by AOX. Using the AOX substrates carbazeran, 6-deoxypenciclovir and zaleplon, clearance was estimated from in vitro depletion experiments with minipig and human liver cytosol and microsomes and scaled before comparison with data generated in parallel in vivo studies in minipigs. In vitro and in vivo metabolic pathways were characterized by LC–MS/MS. Scaling of in vitro metabolism data to predict in vivo clearance underestimated in vivo values, although the rank order of clearance for the three compounds was preserved. Prediction of human in vivo clearance from scaled minipig in vivo data produced results which correlated well with published clinical values. Overall, this study is the first to compare minipig in vitro metabolism data with in vivo pharmacokinetic data for compounds metabolized by AOX and provides a scientific rationale for the selection of this species as a model for humans in the development of drugs which are substrates of AOX.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0087-3
  • Erratum to: Systematic Verification of Bioanalytical Similarity Between a
           Biosimilar and a Reference Biotherapeutic: Committee Recommendations for
           the Development and Validation of a Single Ligand-Binding Assay to Support
           Pharmacokinetic Assessments
    • Authors: Joseph C. Marini; Michael Anderson; Xiao-Yan Cai; John Chappell; Todd Coffey; Dominique Gouty; Aparna Kasinath; Vera Koppenburg; Philip Oldfield; Shannon Rebarchak; Ronald R. Bowsher
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0074-8
  • Evaluation of the Potency, Neutralizing Antibody Response, and Stability
           of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine for Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Authors: E. Burlet; H. HogenEsch; A. Dunham; G. Morefield
      Abstract: Abstract Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Despite the increasing burden on global health caused by GAS, there is currently no licensed vaccine available. In this study, we evaluated immunogenicity, induction of neutralizing antibodies, and stability of a new recombinant fusion protein vaccine that targets infections from GAS. The recombinant fusion protein (SpeAB) combines inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). The SpeAB vaccine evaluated in this study was adsorbed to an aluminum adjuvant and demonstrated robust immunogenicity, eliciting production of specific neutralizing antibodies against SpeA and SpeB, two major virulence factors of S. pyogenes. Stability studies suggest that the vaccine will retain immunogenicity for at least 2 years when stored at refrigerated temperatures. This novel vaccine shows great potential to provide protection against GAS infections and to reduce the burden of GAS disease globally.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0069-5
  • Structure-Promiscuity Relationship Puzzles—Extensively Assayed Analogs
           with Large Differences in Target Annotations
    • Authors: Ye Hu; Swarit Jasial; Erik Gilberg; Jürgen Bajorath
      Abstract: Abstract Publicly available screening data were systematically searched for extensively assayed structural analogs with large differences in the number of targets they were active against. Screening compounds with potential chemical liabilities that may give rise to assay artifacts were identified and excluded from the analysis. “Promiscuity cliffs” were frequently identified, defined here as pairs of structural analogs with a difference of at least 20 target annotations across all assays they were tested in. New assay indices were introduced to prioritize cliffs formed by screening compounds that were extensively tested in comparably large numbers of assays including many shared assays. In these cases, large differences in promiscuity degrees were not attributable to differences in assay frequency and/or lack of assay overlap. Such analog pairs have high priority for further exploring molecular origins of multi-target activities. Therefore, these promiscuity cliffs and associated target annotations are made freely available. The corresponding analogs often represent equally puzzling and interesting examples of structure-promiscuity relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0066-8
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