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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AAPS Journal
  [SJR: 1.192]   [H-I: 74]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Approaches for Establishing Clinically Relevant Dissolution Specifications
           for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms
    • Authors: Andre Hermans; Andreas M. Abend; Filippos Kesisoglou; Talia Flanagan; Michael J. Cohen; Dorys A. Diaz; Y. Mao; Limin Zhang; Gregory K. Webster; Yiqing Lin; David A. Hahn; Carrie A. Coutant; Haiyan Grady
      Pages: 1537 - 1549
      Abstract: This manuscript represents the perspective of the Dissolution Analytical Working Group of the IQ Consortium. The intent of this manuscript is to highlight the challenges of, and to provide a recommendation on, the development of clinically relevant dissolution specifications (CRS) for immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms. A roadmap toward the development of CRS for IR products containing active ingredients with a non-narrow therapeutic window is discussed, within the context of mechanistic dissolution understanding, supported by in-human pharmacokinetic (PK) data. Two case studies present potential outcomes of following the CRS roadmap and setting dissolution specifications. These cases reveal some benefits and challenges of pursuing CRS with additional PK data, in light of current regulatory positions, including that of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who generally favor this approach, but with the understanding that both industry and regulatory agency perspectives are still evolving in this relatively new field. The CRS roadmap discussed in this manuscript also describes a way to develop clinically relevant dissolution specifications based primarily on dissolution data for batches used in pivotal clinical studies, acknowledging that not all IR product development efforts need to be supported by additional PK studies, albeit with the associated risk of potentially unnecessarily tight manufacturing controls. Recommendations are provided on what stages during the life cycle investment into in vivo studies may be valuable. Finally, the opportunities for CRS within the context of post-approval changes, Modeling and Simulation (M&S), and the application of biowaivers, are briefly discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0117-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • Recommendations for the Assessment and Management of Pre-existing
           Drug-Reactive Antibodies During Biotherapeutic Development
    • Authors: Li Xue; Adrienne Clements-Egan; Lakshmi Amaravadi; Mary Birchler; Boris Gorovits; Meina Liang; Heather Myler; Shobha Purushothama; Marta Starcevic Manning; Crystal Sung
      Pages: 1576 - 1586
      Abstract: Anti-drug antibodies (ADA) pose a potential risk to patient safety and efficacy and are routinely monitored during clinical trials. Pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies are present in patients without prior drug exposure and are defined by their ability to bind to a component of the drug. These pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies are frequently observed and could represent an adaptive immune response of an individual who has been previously exposed to antigens with structural similarities to the biotherapeutic. Clinical consequences of these antibodies can vary from no impact to adverse effects on patient safety, exposure, and efficacy, and are highly dependent on biotherapeutic modality, disease indications, and patient demographics. This paper describes how the immunogenicity risk assessment of a biotherapeutic integrates the existence of pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies, and provides recommendations for risk-based strategies to evaluate treatment-emergent ADA responses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0153-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • Development of a Translational Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model
           for Antibody-Drug Conjugates: a Case Study with T-DM1
    • Authors: Antari Khot; Jay Tibbitts; Dan Rock; Dhaval K. Shah
      Pages: 1715 - 1734
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Systems pharmacokinetic (PK) models that can characterize and predict whole body disposition of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are needed to support (i) development of reliable exposure-response relationships for ADCs and (ii) selection of ADC targets with optimal tumor and tissue expression profiles. Towards this goal, we have developed a translational physiologically based PK (PBPK) model for ADCs, using T-DM1 as a tool compound. The preclinical PBPK model was developed using rat data. Biodistribution of DM1 in rats was used to develop the small molecule PBPK model, and the PK of conjugated trastuzumab (i.e., T-DM1) in rats was characterized using platform PBPK model for antibody. Both the PBPK models were combined via degradation and deconjugation processes. The degradation of conjugated antibody was assumed to be similar to a normal antibody, and the deconjugation of DM1 from T-DM1 in rats was estimated using plasma PK data. The rat PBPK model was translated to humans to predict clinical PK of T-DM1. The translation involved the use of human antibody PBPK model to characterize the PK of conjugated trastuzumab, use of allometric scaling to predict human clearance of DM1 catabolites, and use of monkey PK data to predict deconjugation of DM1 in the clinic. PBPK model-predicted clinical PK profiles were compared with clinically observed data. The PK of total trastuzumab and T-DM1 were predicted reasonably well, and slight systemic deviations were observed for the PK of DM1-containing catabolites. The ADC PBPK model presented here can serve as a platform to develop models for other ADCs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0131-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • Characterization of Apolipoprotein C3 (Apo C3) LNA/DNA Impurities and
           Degradation Products by LC-MS/MS
    • Authors: Olga V. Friese; Justin B. Sperry; Yan He; Liji Joseph; James A. Carroll; Jason C. Rouse
      Pages: 1735 - 1744
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein C3 (Apo C3) LNA/DNA gapmer was evaluated under various stress and formulation conditions for the purpose of its development as a potential biotherapeutic for low density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering. Using ion-pairing (IP) reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatography ultra-high resolution (UHR) tandem mass spectrometry (IP-RPLC-MS/MS), a combination of accurate mass measurements and collision-induced dissociation enabled in-depth characterization of Apo C3 LNA/DNA oligonucleotide, in particular the inherent impurities following synthesis and degradation products after exposure to stress conditions. In this study, oligonucleotide samples were stressed under different pH and UV exposure conditions. The primary impurities in Apo C3 LNA/DNA were losses of nucleotide moieties from both the 5′- and 3′-terminus leading to n-1, n-2, etc. species. Desulfurization and depurination were observed in Apo C3 LNA/DNA after a week under UV light stress conditions at low pH. Guanine oxidation and dimerization were the primary degradation products detected under UV light exposure for 1 week at high pH. The effect of antioxidants on the levels of these degradation products was evaluated under neutral pH conditions. In the presence of all antioxidants, levels of guanine oxidation and desulfurization under tested conditions were the same as those in the unstressed sample, except for sodium ascorbate. The thorough understanding of the Apo C3 LNA/DNA oligonucleotide structure, its impurities, and degradation products laid the foundation for the successful formulation development of this novel biotherapeutic modality.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0088-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • Comparison of NMR and Dynamic Light Scattering for Measuring Diffusion
           Coefficients of Formulated Insulin: Implications for Particle Size
           Distribution Measurements in Drug Products
    • Authors: Sharadrao M. Patil; David A. Keire; Kang Chen
      Pages: 1760 - 1766
      Abstract: Particle size distribution, a measurable physicochemical quantity, is a critical quality attribute of drug products that needs to be controlled in drug manufacturing. The non-invasive methods of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Diffusion Ordered SpectroscopY (DOSY) NMR can be used to measure diffusion coefficient and derive the corresponding hydrodynamic radius. However, little is known about their use and sensitivity as analytical tools for particle size measurement of formulated protein therapeutics. Here, DLS and DOSY-NMR methods are shown to be orthogonal and yield identical diffusion coefficient results for a homogenous monomeric protein standard, ribonuclease A. However, different diffusion coefficients were observed for five insulin drug products measured using the two methods. DOSY-NMR yielded an averaged diffusion coefficient among fast exchanging insulin oligomers, ranging between dimer and hexamer in size. By contrast, DLS showed several distinct species, including dimer, hexamer, dodecamer and other aggregates. The heterogeneity or polydisperse nature of insulin oligomers in formulation caused DOSY-NMR and DLS results to differ from each other. DLS measurements provided more quality attributes and higher sensitivity to larger aggregates than DOSY-NMR. Nevertheless, each method was sensitive to a different range of particle sizes and complemented each other. The application of both methods increases the assurance of complex drug quality in this similarity comparison.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0127-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • Pharmacokinetics of Mephedrone and Its Metabolites in Human by LC-MS/MS
    • Authors: Eulàlia Olesti; Magí Farré; Esther Papaseit; Aristotelis Krotonoulas; Mitona Pujadas; Rafael de la Torre; Óscar J. Pozo
      Pages: 1767 - 1778
      Abstract: Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone consumed as a recreational drug. Recently, it was identified several of its metabolites in vivo in humans but there is little information about its pharmacokinetics in plasma and urine. Although several analytical methods have been proposed for mephedrone quantification in different matrices, none are available for its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop and validate an analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of mephedrone, nor-mephedrone, N-succinyl-nor-mephedrone, 1′-dihydro-mephedrone, and 4′-carboxy-mephedrone. The method was validated in human plasma and urine and in rat brain homogenates. Six healthy male subjects, recreational users of new psychoactive substances, ingested 150 mg of mephedrone within the context of a clinical trial. 4′-Carboxy-mephedrone, followed by nor-mephedrone, was the most abundant metabolites found in plasma. Dihydro-mephedrone represented 10% of the amount of mephedrone in plasma and N-succinyl-nor-mephedrone was the metabolite eliminated with the longer half-life of 8.2 h. In urine, 4′-carboxy-mephedrone was the main metabolite excreted with amounts recovered being about 10 times those of mephedrone. Additionally, the validated method was used to test metabolite ability to cross the blood-brain barrier in vivo in rats with mephedrone and nor-mephedrone as the main active compounds present in the brain. The method described is useful for the determinations of mephedrone and metabolites in biological samples. Graphical ᅟ
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0132-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • A Flavonoid Glycoside Compound from Murraya paniculata (L.) Interrupts
           Metastatic Characteristics of A549 Cells by Regulating STAT3/NF-κB/COX-2
           and EGFR Signaling Pathways
    • Authors: Qing Shi; Zhou Jiang; Jingyi Yang; Yunlong Cheng; Yaqiong Pang; Ning Zheng; Jiahang Chen; Wenge Chen; Lee Jia
      Pages: 1779 - 1790
      Abstract: Metastasis remains the leading cause of death from lung carcinoma. It is urgent to find safe and efficient pre-metastasis preventive agents for cancer survivors. We isolated a flavonoid glycoside, hexamethoxy flavanone-o-[rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-rhamnopyranoside (HMFRR), from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Murraya paniculata (L.) that can effectively inhibit the adhesion, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. Molecular and cellular studies demonstrated that HMFRR significantly downregulated the expressions of cell adhesion-related and invasion-related molecules such as integrin β1, EGFR, COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 proteins. Additionally, HMFRR effectively downregulated the expressions of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and upregulated that of E-cadherin. Moreover, these inhibitions were mediated by interrupting STAT3/NF-κB/COX-2 and EGFR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Furthermore, HMFRR counteracted the expressions of cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin) stimulated by interleukin-1β in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). As a result, HMFRR interrupted the adhesion of A549 cells to HPMECs. Collectively, these results indicate that HMFRR may become a good candidate for cancer metastatic chemopreventive agents by interrupting the STAT3/NF-κB/COX-2 and EGFR signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0134-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • Quantification of the Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Morphine and
           Gabapentin Using a Response Surface Approach
    • Authors: Theodoros Papathanasiou; Rasmus Vestergaard Juul; Charlotte Gabel-Jensen; Mads Kreilgaard; Anne-Marie Heegaard; Trine Meldgaard Lund
      Pages: 1804 - 1813
      Abstract: The combination of morphine and gabapentin has shown to be promising for managing postoperative pain but finding the right dose for the combination has proven to be a challenge. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the pharmacodynamic interaction between the two drugs and to identify the optimal concentration–effect relationship of the combination. Information regarding plasma concentrations and von Frey withdrawal thresholds following incisional surgery on Sprague Dawley rats, after administration of morphine, gabapentin, or their combination was available from published studies. The combined pharmacodynamic effect of morphine and gabapentin was analyzed and linked to drug plasma concentrations via a response surface approach using non-linear mixed-effect modeling. Full reversal of withdrawal thresholds for the pain stimulation to presurgery values was estimated at morphine plasma concentration of 435.1 ng/mL. Co-administration of up to 40 μg/mL of gabapentin led to a reduction of the needed morphine concentration down to 307.5 ng/mL (~ 29% reduction). Combination of concentration ranges of gabapentin between 20 and 40 μg/mL with any morphine concentrations between 100 and 600 ng/mL were found to lead up to 50% increased effect relatively to the effect attained by morphine alone. This study highlights the importance of finding the right combination in multimodal analgesia and demonstrates the usefulness of the response surface approach for the study of pharmacodynamic interactions. The proposed pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model may provide the basis for a rational clinical trial design with the aim to identify the optimal dose combination ratios in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0140-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2017)
  • Exosomes for the Enhanced Tissue Bioavailability and Efficacy of Curcumin
    • Authors: Farrukh Aqil; Radha Munagala; Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan; Ashish Kumar Agrawal; Ramesh Gupta
      Abstract: Exosomes are extracellular microvesicles with a particle size of 30–100 nm and carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA. Their properties of shuttling in-and-out of the cells suggest that these particles can be exploited as a nano drug carrier. In this manuscript, we show that curcumin can be delivered effectively using milk-derived exosomes. Curcumin when mixed with exosomes in the presence of 10% ethanol:acetonitrile (1:1) provided a drug load of 18–24%, and the formulation stored at − 80°C was stable for 6 months as determined by particle size analysis, drug load, and antiproliferative activity. The uptake of exosomes by cancer cells involved caveolae/clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Oral administration of exosomal curcumin (ExoCUR) in Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrated 3–5 times higher levels in various organs versus free agent. ExoCUR showed enhanced antiproliferative activity against multiple cancer cell lines including, breast, lung, and cervical cancer compared with the free curcumin. ExoCUR showed significantly higher anti-inflammatory activity measured as NF-κB activation in human lung and breast cancer cells. To determine in vivo antitumor activity, nude mice bearing the cervical CaSki tumor xenograft were treated with ExoCUR by oral gavage, curcumin diet, exosomes alone, and PBS as controls. While curcumin via dietary route failed to elicit any effect, exosomes had a modest (25–30%) tumor growth inhibition. However, ExoCUR showed significant inhibition (61%; p < 0.01) of the cervical tumor xenograft. No gross or systemic toxicity was observed in the rats administered with the exosomes or ExoCUR. These results suggest that exosomes can be developed as potential nano carriers for delivering curcumin which otherwise has encountered significant tissue bioavailability issues in the past.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0154-9
  • Nanotechnology as a Delivery Tool for Precision Cancer Therapies
    • Authors: Bhawna Sharma; Rachael M. Crist; Pavan P. Adiseshaiah
      Abstract: Genomic analyses from patients with cancer have improved the understanding of the genetic elements that drive the disease, provided new targets for treating this relentless disease, and offered criteria for stratifying patient populations that will benefit most from treatments. In the last decade, several new targeted therapies have been approved by the FDA based on these omics findings, leading to significantly improved survival and quality of life for select patient populations. However, many of these precision medicines, e.g., nucleic acid-based therapies and antibodies, suffer from poor plasma stability, suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties, and immunological toxicities that prohibit their clinical translation. Nanotechnology is being explored as a delivery platform that can enable the successful delivery of these precision medicine treatments without these limitations. These precision nanomedicines are able to protect the cargo from degradation or premature/burst release prior to accumulation at the tumor site and improve the selectivity to cancer cells by incorporating ligands that can target receptors overexpressed on the cancer cell surface. Here, we review the development of several precision nanomedicines based on genomic analysis of clinical samples, actively targeted nanoparticle delivery systems in the clinic, and the pathophysiological barriers of the tumor microenvironment. Successful translation of these precision nanomedicine initiatives will require an effective collaboration between basic and clinical investigators to match the right patient with the right therapies and to deliver them at therapeutic concentrations which will improve overall treatment responses.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0152-y
  • Mechanistic Fluid Transport Model to Estimate Gastrointestinal Fluid
           Volume and Its Dynamic Change Over Time
    • Authors: Alex Yu; Trachette Jackson; Yasuhiro Tsume; Mark Koenigsknecht; Jeffrey Wysocki; Luca Marciani; Gordon L. Amidon; Ann Frances; Jason R. Baker; William Hasler; Bo Wen; Amit Pai; Duxin Sun
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal (GI) fluid volume and its dynamic change are integral to study drug disintegration, dissolution, transit, and absorption. However, key questions regarding the local volume and its absorption, secretion, and transit remain unanswered. The dynamic fluid compartment absorption and transit (DFCAT) model is proposed to estimate in vivo GI volume and GI fluid transport based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantified fluid volume. The model was validated using GI local concentration of phenol red in human GI tract, which was directly measured by human GI intubation study after oral dosing of non-absorbable phenol red. The measured local GI concentration of phenol red ranged from 0.05 to 168 μg/mL (stomach), to 563 μg/mL (duodenum), to 202 μg/mL (proximal jejunum), and to 478 μg/mL (distal jejunum). The DFCAT model characterized observed MRI fluid volume and its dynamic changes from 275 to 46.5 mL in stomach (from 0 to 30 min) with mucus layer volume of 40 mL. The volumes of the 30 small intestine compartments were characterized by a max of 14.98 mL to a min of 0.26 mL (0–120 min) and a mucus layer volume of 5 mL per compartment. Regional fluid volumes over 0 to 120 min ranged from 5.6 to 20.38 mL in the proximal small intestine, 36.4 to 44.08 mL in distal small intestine, and from 42 to 64.46 mL in total small intestine. The DFCAT model can be applied to predict drug dissolution and absorption in the human GI tract with future improvements.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0145-x
  • How Close Are We to Profiling Immunogenicity Risk Using In Silico
           Algorithms and In Vitro Methods': an Industry Perspective
    • Authors: Jochem Gokemeijer; Vibha Jawa; Shibani Mitra-Kaushik
      Abstract: In silico HLA-binding algorithms and in vitro T cell-based assays as predictive tools for human immunogenicity risk have made inroads in the biotherapeutic drug discovery and development process. Currently, these tools are being used only for candidate selection or characterization and not for making a go/no-go decision for further development. A clear limitation for a broader implementation is the lack of correlation between the predicted T cell epitope content/immune reactivity potential of a biotherapeutic and the subsequent ADA-related clinical immunogenicity outcome. The current state of technologies and their pros and cons were discussed as a part of the 2016 AAPS National Biotechnology Conference in a themed session. A review of the advances in the area and the session talks along with the ensuing discussions are summarized in this commentary.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0143-z
  • Recommendations for Selection and Characterization of Protein Biomarker
           Assay Calibrator Material
    • Authors: Kyra J. Cowan; Lakshmi Amaravadi; Mark J. Cameron; Damien Fink; Darshana Jani; Medha Kamat; Lindsay King; Robert J. Neely; Yan Ni; Paul Rhyne; Renee Riffon; Yuda Zhu
      Abstract: As biomarkers continue to become an integral part of drug development and decision-making, there are increased expectations for reliable and quantitative assays. Protein biomarker assay results are directly influenced by the calibrator material. The selection of calibrator material presents many challenges that impact the relative accuracy and performance of the assay. There is an industry-wide challenge finding reliable and well-characterized calibrator material with good documentation. Several case studies are presented that demonstrate some of the challenges involved in selecting appropriate calibrators along with the resolutions that were ultimately applied. From these experiences, we present here a set of recommendations for selecting and characterizing calibrator material based on the intended purpose of the assay. Finally, we introduce a commutability approach, based on common clinical chemistry practices, which can be used to demonstrate inter-changeability with calibrator materials across multiple lots and technology platforms for all types of protein biomarker assays.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0146-9
  • Investigating Oral Absorption of Carbamazepine in Pediatric Populations
    • Authors: Philip Kohlmann; Cordula Stillhart; Martin Kuentz; Neil Parrott
      Abstract: Prediction of the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs in children is of importance to optimize the efficacy and safety of pediatric medicines. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can be helpful for this purpose. However, application of these tools is limited by significant knowledge gaps regarding the physiological and anatomical changes which occur with age. This study aimed at investigating the age-dependent differences in oral absorption of a poorly soluble model compound, carbamazepine (CBZ) in children, infants, and neonates. We developed an oral absorption model in GastroPlus® and, after evaluation of the PBPK model for adults, extrapolation to younger ages was verified with clinical data and sensitivity analyses were applied for uncertain model parameters. We found that age-based scaling of physiological parameters, with clearance in particular, was important to obtain adequate simulation results. The sensitivity analysis revealed that CBZ absorption was influenced by solubility, particle radius, and small intestinal transit time depending on the pediatric age group and CBZ dose. However, in vitro dissolution testing using proposed pediatric biorelevant media suggested no major age dependency of dissolution kinetics. Such better understanding of oral absorption in pediatric patients is required to improve the prediction of exposure in children and the confidence in oral biopharmaceutical tools.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0149-6
  • Alternative Splicing: Expanding Diversity in Major ABC and SLC Drug
    • Authors: Ji Eun Park; Gongmi Ryoo; Wooin Lee
      Abstract: Alternative splicing is an important mechanism of genetic regulation enhancing diversity and complexity of the transcriptome and proteome from the finite number of genes. Many reported cases demonstrate that alternative splicing events can lead to changes in the expression/function of proteins during disease development and progression. For pharmacogenes that can influence drug disposition and response, the role of alternative splicing has begun to receive increasing attention as an under-explored source of variable drug response. Here, we provide an overview of alternative spliced variants reported for the major drug transporters of SLC and ABC families with their possible implications in disease and drug therapy. As more comprehensive analyses on the abundance and functional outcomes of variably spliced isoforms of major drug transporters become available, it will be possible to utilize the obtained knowledge as novel therapeutic targets for tailored treatment strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0150-0
  • New Botanical Anxiolytics for Use in Companion Animals and Humans
    • Authors: Rui Liu; Fida Ahmed; Christian Cayer; Martha Mullally; Ana Francis Carballo; Marco Otarola Rojas; Mario Garcia; John Baker; Aleksandar Masic; Pablo E Sanchez; Luis Poveda; Zul Merali; Tony Durst; John T. Arnason
      Abstract: As part of our ongoing research into botanical therapies for anxiety disorders, the neotropical vine Souroubea sympetala was chosen for study as a phytochemical discovery strategy focusing on rare Central American plant families. When orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats, the crude plant extract, its ethyl acetate fraction, supercritical carbon dioxide fraction, or its isolated triterpenes reduced anxiety and/or fear-related behavior in standardized behavioral models. Pharmacological studies showed that the extracts acted at the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor and reduced corticosterone levels. A preparation containing Souroubea fortified with a second triterpene containing plant, Platanus occidentalis, was shown to be safe in a 28-day feeding trial with beagles at 5 times the intended dose. Subsequent trials with beagles in a thunderstorm model of noise aversion showed that the material reduced anxiety behaviors and cortisol levels in dogs. The formulation has been released for the companion animal market in Canada and the USA under the Trademark “Zentrol.” Ongoing research is exploring the use of the material in treatment of anxiety and post-traumatic stress in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0144-y
  • siRNA-Mediated RNA Interference in Precision-Cut Tissue Slices Prepared
           from Mouse Lung and Kidney
    • Authors: Mitchel J. R. Ruigrok; Nalinie Maggan; Delphine Willaert; Henderik W. Frijlink; Barbro N. Melgert; Peter Olinga; Wouter L. J. Hinrichs
      Abstract: Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated RNAi interference (RNAi) is a powerful post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism which can be used to study the function of genes in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models). However, there is a translational gap between these models. Hence, there is a need for novel experimental models that combine the advantages of in vitro and in vivo models (e.g., simplicity, flexibility, throughput, and representability) to study the effects of siRNA. This need may be addressed by precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS), which represent an ex vivo model that mimics the structural and functional characteristics of a whole organ. The goal of this study was to investigate whether self-deliverable siRNA (Accell siRNA) can be used in precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKS) to achieve RNAi ex vivo. PCLuS and PCKS were prepared from mouse tissue, and they were subsequently incubated up to 48 h with no siRNA (untransfected), non-targeting Accell siRNA, or Gapdh-targeting Accell siRNA. Significant Gapdh mRNA silencing was achieved (PCLuS ~ 55%; PCKS ~ 40%) without compromising the viability and morphology of slices. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Accell siRNA diffused into PCLuS and PCKS. Spontaneous inflammation upon incubation was observed in PCLuS and PCKS as shown by a higher mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il1b, Il6, and Tnfa, although Accell siRNA appeared to diminish this response in PCLuS after 24 h. In conclusion, this ex vivo transfection model can be used to evaluate the effects of siRNA in relevant biological environments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0136-y
  • Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Artemisinin
           Resistance in Southeast Asia
    • Authors: Jesmin Lohy Das; Arjen M. Dondorp; Francois Nosten; Aung Pyae Phyo; Warunee Hanpithakpong; Pascal Ringwald; Pharath Lim; Nicholas J. White; Mats O. Karlsson; Martin Bergstrand; Joel Tarning
      Abstract: Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with artemisinin sensitive and resistant malaria infections. Patients were recruited in Pailin, Cambodia (n = 39), and Wang Pha, Thailand (n = 40), and received either 2 mg/kg/day of artesunate mono-therapy for 7 consecutive days or 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate monotherapy for 3 consecutive days followed by mefloquine 15 and 10 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days. Plasma concentrations of artesunate and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, and microscopy-based parasite densities were measured and evaluated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. All treatments were well tolerated with minor and transient adverse reactions. Patients in Cambodia had substantially slower parasite clearance compared to patients in Thailand. The pharmacokinetic properties of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were well described by transit-compartment absorption followed by one-compartment disposition models. Parasite density was a significant covariate, and higher parasite densities were associated with increased absorption. Dihydroartemisinin-dependent parasite killing was described by a delayed sigmoidal Emax model, and a mixture function was implemented to differentiate between sensitive and resistant infections. This predicted that 84% and 16% of infections in Cambodia and Thailand, respectively, were artemisinin resistant. The final model was used to develop a simple diagnostic nomogram to identify patients with artemisinin-resistant infections. The nomogram showed > 80% specificity and sensitivity, and outperformed the current practice of day 3 positivity testing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0141-1
  • In vitro Approaches to Support Bioequivalence and Substitutability of
           Generic Proton Pump Inhibitors via Nasogastric Tube Administration
    • Authors: Ping Ren; Minglei Cui; Om Anand; Li Xia; Zhuojun J. Zhao; Dajun Sun; Trueman Sharp; Dale P. Conner; John Peters; Wenlei Jiang; Ethan Stier; Xiaojian Jiang
      Abstract: Administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) through nasogastric tubes may present risks. If the PPI drug products are not prepared properly, clogging or obstruction of nasogastric tubes can pose a safety concern. In addition, the integrity of the enteric coating of the drug product may be damaged resulting in reduced bioavailability of the active moiety. From the perspective of administration of generic PPIs when compared to the reference drug product, differences in formulation can potentially result in a greater relative risk for the generic drug product. As part of the assessment of bioequivalence, the Office of Generic Drugs (OGD) has developed a suite of in vitro testing to compare the delivery of the generic and reference products via nasogastric tubes. These in vitro tests assess essential attributes associated with the likelihood of clogging and maintenance of the enteric coating. These in vitro tests include studies evaluating sedimentation, granule size distribution, drug recovery, and acid resistance. One of the challenges is that while the administration of PPIs through nasogastric tubes is common in clinical practice, this issue is not uniformly addressed in the FDA approved label of the reference drug products. This paper discusses the design and rationale for in vitro testing of PPI formulations with respect to bioequivalence via nasogastric tube administration and in addition, it summarizes commonly occurring deficiencies in the in vitro nasogastric tube testing of 14 recent Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) submitted for five generic PPI drug products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0137-x
  • Determination of Critical Quality Attributes for a Biotherapeutic in the
           QbD Paradigm: GCSF as a Case Study
    • Authors: Sumit K. Singh; Deepak Kumar; Anurag S. Rathore
      Abstract: Estimating impact of the various product-related variants and impurities on a biotherapeutic’s safety and efficacy is an essential requirement in the quality by design paradigm. In view of the limited role that clinical studies offer in this regard, we demonstrate a preclinical approach to achieve this for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF). While our repeated-dose toxicity data suggest that these variants do not elicit any adverse effects or histopathological changes, aggregated GCSF impurity caused sluggishness in animal behavior manifested by a possible muscular injury. Cell assay data revealed that the cys-64-cys74 disulfide bond in reduced GCSF imparts stabilization in absence of the cys-36-cys42 bond. PK data demonstrate variability in half lives of different species when compared to the native GCSF. PD data along with differential expression of JAK-2 and STAT5a genes show that all the tested variants triggered the required signal transduction pathways for neutrophil proliferation and activation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0139-8
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