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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2574 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2574 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
AAPS Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.118
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 29  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2574 journals]
  • Application of Item Response Theory to Model Disease Progression and
           Agomelatine Effect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
    • Abstract: Introduction In this paper, we studied the effect over time of agomelatine, an antidepressant drug administered in patient with major depressive disorder, through item response theory (IRT), taking into account a strong placebo effect and missing not at random. We also assessed the informativeness of the HAMD-17 scale’s item. Materials and Methods The data includes five phase III clinical trials sponsored by Servier Institute, totalling 1549 patients followed during a maximum of 1 year. At each observation, individual scores for the 17 items of the HAMD scale were recorded. The probability for each score was modelled with IRT. A non-linear mixed effects model was used to describe the evolution of the disease and was coupled with a time to event model to predict dropout. Clinical trial simulations were then used to compare placebo and active treatment. Informativeness of each item was evaluated using the Fisher information theory. Results The best model combined an IRT model, a longitudinal model for underlying depression which describes the remission and then a possible relapse, and a hazard model for dropout depending on the evolution from baseline. The drug effect was best modelled as an effect on the remission and the relapse phases. The median predicted drop in HAMD between baseline and 6 weeks was 8.8 (90% PI, 8.3–9.2) when on placebo and 13.1 (90% PI, 12.8–13.4) when treated. Nine items were found to be the most informative. Conclusion The IRT framework allowed to characterise the evolution of depression with time and estimate the effect of agomelatine, as well as the link between symptoms and disease.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Mechanistic Deconvolution of Oral Absorption Model with Dynamic
           Gastrointestinal Fluid to Predict Regional Rate and Extent of GI Drug
    • Abstract: Multiple approaches such as mathematical deconvolution and mechanistic oral absorption models have been used to predict in vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, these approaches are often validated by plasma pharmacokinetic profiles, but not by in vivo drug dissolution due to the limited data available regarding the local GI environment. It is also challenging to predict and validate in vivo dissolution in different regions of the GI tract (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). In this study, the dynamic fluid compartment absorption and transport (DFCAT) model was used to predict the in vivo dissolution profiles of ibuprofen, which was administered as an 800-mg immediate-release tablet to healthy subjects, in different regions of the GI tract. The prediction was validated with concentration time-courses of ibuprofen (BCS class 2a) in different regions of the GI tract that we have obtained over the past few years. The computational model predicted that the dissolution of ibuprofen was minimal in the stomach (2%), slightly more in the duodenum (6.3%), and primarily dissolved in the jejunum (63%) and the ileum (25%). The detailed model prediction of drug dissolution in different regions of GI can provide a quantitative reference of in vivo dissolution that may provide valuable insight in developing in vitro tests for drug product optimization and quality.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
  • Analysis of the Regulatory Divergence of Comparative Dissolution
           Requirements for Post-Approval Manufacturing Changes of Modified Release
           Solid Oral Dosage Forms
    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This manuscript discusses global regulatory divergence of dissolution requirements for modified release solid oral dosage forms and the obstacles that must be addressed to be compliant with evolving guidance and legislation. The proliferation of local guidance documents, changing regulatory expectations, and increased legal enforcement has resulted in mismatched country-specific dissolution testing requirements and similarity criteria, and heightens industry’s challenges with registration of modified release solid oral dosage forms. The lack of global harmonization and the complexity added by minor regional adaptations contributes to inefficiencies and hinders industry’s goal of developing and delivering medicines. Awareness of country-specific similarity requirements and alignment between industry leaders and regulators is needed to facilitate global harmonization which will enable delivering new and improved medicines. The purpose of this manuscript is to compare and contrast in vitro conditions stated in local regulatory guidelines, raise awareness of the need to work toward harmonization of global requirements, and propose an initial study design toward that aspiration.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • Phase-Appropriate Application of Analytical Methods to Monitor Subvisible
           Particles Across the Biotherapeutic Drug Product Life Cycle
    • Abstract: The phase-appropriate application of analytical methods to characterize, monitor, and control particles is an important aspect of the development of safe and efficacious biotherapeutics. The AAPS Product Attribute and Biological Consequences (PABC) focus group (which has since transformed into an AAPS community) conducted a survey where participating labs rated their method of choice to analyze protein aggregation/particle formation during the different stages of the product life cycle. The survey confirmed that pharmacopeial methods and SEC are the primary methods currently applied in earlier phases of the development to ensure that a product entering clinical trials is safe and efficacious. In later phases, additional techniques are added including those for non-GMP extended characterization for product and process characterization. Finally, only robust, globally-accepted, and stability-indicating methods are used for GMP quality control purposes. This was also consistent with the feedback during a webinar hosted by the group to discuss the survey results. In this white paper, the team shares the results of the survey and provides guidance on selecting phase-appropriate analytical methods and developing a robust particle control strategy.
      PubDate: 2019-10-30
  • Development of In Vitro – In Vivo Correlation for Upadacitinib
           Extended-Release Tablet Formulation
    • Abstract: Upadacitinib is a selective Janus Kinase 1 inhibitor which is being developed for the treatment of several inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Upadacitinib was evaluated in Phase 3 studies as an oral extended-release (ER) formulation administered once daily. The purpose of this study was to develop a level A in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for upadacitinib ER formulation. The pharmacokinetics of four upadacitinib extended-release formulations with different in vitro release characteristics and an immediate-release capsule formulation of upadacitinib were evaluated in 20 healthy subjects in a single-dose, randomized, crossover study. In vivo pharmacokinetic data and in vitro dissolution data (USP Dissolution Apparatus 1; pH 6.8; 100 rpm) were used to establish a level A IVIVC. Three formulations were used to establish the IVIVC, and the fourth formulation was used for external validation. A non-linear IVIVC best described the relationship between upadacitinib in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption profiles. The absolute percent prediction errors (%PE) for upadacitinib Cmax and AUC were less than 10% for all three formulations used to establish the IVIVC, as well as for the %PE for the external validation formulation and the overall mean internal validation. Model was cross-validated using the leave-one-out approach; all evaluated cross-validation runs met the regulatory acceptance criteria. A level A IVIVC was successfully developed and validated for upadacitinib ER formulation, which meets the FDA and EMA regulatory validation criteria and can be used as surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence.
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
  • Inhibition of Hepatic CYP2D6 by the Active N -Oxide Metabolite of
    • Abstract: The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib (SOR) is used to treat patients with hepatocellular and renal carcinomas. SOR undergoes CYP-mediated biotransformation to a pharmacologically active N-oxide metabolite (SNO) that has been shown to accumulate to varying extents in individuals. Kinase inhibitors like SOR are frequently coadministered with a range of other drugs to improve the efficacy of anticancer drug therapy and to treat comorbidities. Recent evidence has suggested that SNO is more effective than SOR as an inhibitor of CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1′-hydroxylation. CYP2D6 is also reportedly inhibited by SOR. The present study assessed the possibility that SNO might contribute to CYP2D6 inhibition. The inhibition kinetics of CYP2D6-mediated dextromethorphan O-demethylation were analyzed in human hepatic microsomes, with SNO found to be ~ 19-fold more active than SOR (Kis 1.8 ± 0.3 μM and 34 ± 11 μM, respectively). Molecular docking studies of SOR and SNO were undertaken using multiple crystal structures of CYP2D6. Both molecules mediated interactions with key amino acid residues in putative substrate recognition sites of CYP2D6. However, a larger number of H-bonding interactions was noted between the N-oxide moiety of SNO and active site residues that account for its greater inhibition potency. These findings suggest that SNO has the potential to contribute to pharmacokinetic interactions involving SOR, perhaps in those individuals in whom SNO accumulates.
      PubDate: 2019-10-21
  • Retrospective Analysis of Bioanalytical Method Validation Approaches in
           Biosimilar Biological Product Development
    • Abstract: Development and validation of a bioanalytical method for biosimilar biological product development (BPD) can be challenging. It requires the development of a bioanalytical method that reliably and accurately measures both proposed biosimilar and reference products in a biological matrix. This survey summarizes the current state of bioanalysis in BPD. Bioanalytical data from 28 biosimilar biologic license applications submitted to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) up to December 2018 were analyzed. The aim of the analysis was to provide (i) a summary of the bioanalytical landscape for BPD, (ii) a cumulative review of bioanalytical method validation approaches to aid in understanding how a specific method was selected, and (iii) a summary of data regarding bioanalytical bias differences between products. Results show diversity of the bioanalytical approaches used, as well as the observed differences in bioanalytical bias. Our findings highlight the need for understanding the critical aspects of BPD bioanalysis and clarifying BPD bioanalytical best practices, which could help ensure consistent method validation approaches in the BPD community.
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
  • Optimization of Cancer Treatment in the Frequency Domain
    • Abstract: Thorough exploration of alternative dosing frequencies is often not performed in conventional pharmacometrics approaches. Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) can provide novel insights into optimal dosing regimen and drug behaviors which could add a new dimension to the design of novel treatments. However, methods for such an approach are currently lacking. Recently, we illustrated the utility of frequency-domain response analysis (FdRA), an analytical method used in control engineering, using several generic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic case studies. While FdRA is not applicable to models harboring ever increasing variables such as those describing tumor growth, studying such models in the frequency domain provides valuable insight into optimal dosing frequencies. Through the analysis of three distinct tumor growth models (cell cycle-specific, metronomic, and acquired resistance), we demonstrate the application of a simulation-based analysis in the frequency domain to optimize cancer treatments. We study the response of tumor growth to dosing frequencies while simultaneously examining treatment safety, and found for all three models that above a certain dosing frequency, tumor size is insensitive to an increase in dosing frequency, e.g., for the cell cycle-specific model, one dose per 3 days, and an hourly dose yield the same reduction of tumor size to 3% of the initial size after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, we explore the effect of drug elimination rate changes on the tumor growth response. In summary, we show that the frequency-domain view of three models of tumor growth dynamics can help in optimizing drug dosing regimen to improve treatment success.
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
  • Fit-for-Purpose Quality Control System in Continuous Bioanalysis During
           Long-Term Pediatric Studies
    • Abstract: Pharmacokinetic studies are key to evidence-based pharmacotherapy. The reliability of pharmacokinetic parameters is closely related to the quality of bioanalytical data. Bioanalytical method validation is fully described by regulatory guidelines; however, it is conducted just once. To ensure reliability and comparability of clinical data, appropriate quality control systems must be enforced to monitor post-validation bioanalytical runs. While single bioanalytical run evaluation is described in international guidelines, somehow, the long-term reproducibility of the bioanalytical method is unattended; it becomes pivotal with the involvement of pediatric population. Therefore, a customized quality control system was developed that addresses regulatory requirements and encompasses the specific demands of pediatric research. It consisted of continuous multi-parameter assessment, including calibration curves, quality control samples, incurred sample reanalysis, and internal standard data. The recommendations provided by the guidelines were combined with the additional Westgard rules, statistical evaluation, and graphical observations. The applicability of the developed quality control system was investigated by using data from three pediatric clinical trials, where the system was able to identify 16% of all analytical runs as invalid. Using a pooled standard deviation provided a better estimate of long-term reproducibility by calculating the %CV, which ranged from 3.6 to 10.3% at all quality control levels. Irrespective of the difficulties encountered owing to vulnerable pediatric populations, the incurred sample reanalysis fulfilled the regulatory requirement of at least 67%. This quality control approach ensured reliable and comparable results over a whole 31-month duration in relation to pediatric studies.
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
  • How Transporters Have Changed Basic Pharmacokinetic Understanding
    • Abstract: The emergence and continued evolution of the transporter field has caused re-evaluation and refinement of the original principles surrounding drug disposition. In this paper, we emphasize the impact that transporters can have on volume of distribution and how this can affect the other major pharmacokinetic parameters. When metabolic drug–drug interactions or pharmacogenomic variance changes the metabolism of a drug, the volume of distribution appears to be unchanged while clearance, bioavailability, and half-life are changed. When transporters are involved in the drug–drug interactions or pharmacogenomic variance, the volume of distribution can be markedly affected causing counterintuitive changes in half-life. Cases are examined where a volume of distribution change is significant enough that although clearance decreases, half-life decreases. Thus, drug dosing decisions must be made based on CL/F changes, not half-life changes, as such volume of distribution alterations will also influence the half-life results.
      PubDate: 2019-09-03
  • On the Comparison of Methods in Analyzing Bounded Outcome Score Data
    • Abstract: Clinical trial endpoints often take the form of bounded outcome scores (BOS) which report a discrete set of values on a finite range. Conceptually such endpoints are ordered categorical in nature, but in practice they are often analyzed as continuous variables, which may result in data range violations and difficulties to handle data skewness. Analysis methods dedicated for BOS data have been proposed; however, much confusion exists among pharmacometricians on how to compare the possible methods. This commentary reviews the main methods used in pharmacometrics applications and discusses their theoretical and practical comparisons. The expected performance of some conceptually appealing methods in different situations is discussed, and a guideline is provided on selecting analysis methods in practice.
      PubDate: 2019-08-26
  • Comparison of Bevacizumab Quantification Results in Plasma of Non-small
           Cell Lung Cancer Patients Using Bioanalytical Techniques Between LC-MS/MS,
           ELISA, and Microfluidic-based Immunoassay
    • Abstract: The development of analytical techniques to study therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is expected to be useful for pharmacokinetic analysis and for the development of therapeutic indexes to determine dosage standards. To date, the blood concentration of antibody drugs has been analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, with the development of mass spectrometry and microfluidization technologies, the assay implication is drastically changing. We have developed an analytical validation method for many monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins using Fab-selective proteolysis nSMOL coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, the correlation between the analyzed data characterization and the referable value from individual measurement techniques has not been adequately discussed. Therefore, in this study, we discussed in detail the relationship of the bioanalytical data from three different techniques, LC-MS/MS, ELISA, and microfluidic immunoassay, using 245 clinical plasma samples from non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with bevacizumab. The quantified concentration data of bevacizumab in human plasma indicated that the results obtained were almost the same correlation regardless of which technique was used. And the referable value from LC-MS/MS and microfluidic immunoassay were similar and correlated compared with ELISA.
      PubDate: 2019-08-20
  • Correction to: Metabolic Profile of 3-Acetyl-11-Keto-β-Boswellic Acid and
           11-Keto-β-Boswellic Acid in Human Preparations In Vitro , Species
           Differences, and Bioactivity Variation
    • Abstract: The authors regret that Fig. 7d for the group: LPS+M-2 (80 μM) was mistakenly uploaded.
      PubDate: 2019-08-14
  • Reconciling Human-Canine Differences in Oral Bioavailability: Looking
           beyond the Biopharmaceutics Classification System
    • Abstract: The extrapolation of oral bioavailability (F) information between dogs and humans has had an important role in the drug development process, whether it be to support an assessment of potential human pharmaceutical formulations or to identify the bioavailability challenges that may be encountered in dogs. Accordingly, these interspecies extrapolations could benefit from a tool that helps identify those drug characteristics consistent with species similarities in F. Our initial effort to find such a tool led to an exploration of species differences as it pertained to the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). However, using a range of compounds, we concluded that solubility and permeability alone could not explain interspecies inconsistencies in estimates of F. Therefore, we have now extended our evaluation to include canine versus human comparisons of F based upon the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) and the extended clearance classification system (ECCS). Using the same data as that in our initial BCS assessments, we conclude that although neither the BDDCS nor the ECCS can reliably improve our ability to determine when F will be similar in humans and dogs, the ECCS provides a mechanism to help define possible causes for observed human-canine inconsistencies.
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
  • Cellular Uptake and Distribution of Gemini Surfactant Nanoparticles Used
           as Gene Delivery Agents
    • Abstract: Gemini surfactants are promising molecules utilized as non-viral gene delivery vectors. However, little is known about their cellular uptake and distribution after they release their therapeutic cargo. Therefore, we quantitatively evaluated the cellular uptake and distribution of three gemini surfactants: unsubstituted (16-3-16), with pyridinium head groups (16(Py)-S-2-S-16(Py)) and substituted with a glycyl-lysine di-peptide (16-7N(GK)-16). We also assessed the relationship between cellular uptake and distribution of each gemini surfactant and its overall efficiency and toxicity. Epidermal keratinocytes PAM 212 were treated with gemini surfactant nanoparticles formulated with plasmid DNA and harvested at various time points to collect the enriched nuclear, mitochondrial, plasma membrane, and cytosolic fractions. Gemini surfactants were then extracted from each subcellular fraction and quantified using a validated flow injection analysis-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS) method. Mass spectrometry is superior to the use of fluorescent tags that alter the physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics of the nanoparticles and can be cleaved from the gemini surfactant molecules within biological systems. Overall, a significantly higher cellular uptake was observed for 16-7N(GK)-16 (17.0%) compared with 16-3-6 (3.6%) and 16(Py)-S-2-S-16(Py) (1.4%), which explained the relatively higher transfection efficiency of 16-7N(GK)-16. Gemini surfactants 16-3-16 and 16(Py)-S-2-S-16(Py) displayed similar subcellular distribution patterns, with major accumulation in the nucleus, followed by the mitochondrion, cytosol, and plasma membrane. In contrast, 16-7N(GK)-16 was relatively evenly distributed across all four subcellular fractions. However, accumulation within the nucleus after 5 h of treatment was the highest for 16(Py)-S-2-S-16(Py) (50.3%), followed by 16-3-16 (41.8%) and then 16-7N(GK)-16 (33.4%), possibly leading to its relatively higher toxicity. Graphical
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
  • Evaluation of Assumptions Underpinning Pharmacometric Models
    • Abstract: Assumptions inherent to pharmacometric model development and use are not routinely acknowledged, described, or evaluated. The aim of this work is to present a framework for systematic evaluation of assumptions. To aid identification of assumptions, we categorise assumptions into two types: implicit and explicit assumptions. Implicit assumptions are inherent in a method or model and underpin its derivation and use. Explicit assumptions arise from heuristic principles and are typically defined by the user to enable the application of a method or model. A flowchart was developed for systematic evaluation of assumptions. For each assumption, the impact of assumption violation (‘significant’, ‘insignificant’, ‘unknown’) and the probability of assumption violation (‘likely’, ‘unlikely’, ‘unknown’) will be evaluated based on prior knowledge or the result of an additional bespoke study to arrive at a decision (‘go’, ‘no-go’) for both model building and model use. A table of assumptions with standardised headings has been proposed to facilitate the documentation of assumptions and evaluation of results. The utility of the proposed framework was illustrated using four assumptions underpinning a top-down model describing the warfarin-coagulation proteins’ relationship. The next step of this work is to apply the framework to a series of other settings to fully assess its practicality and its value in identifying and making inferences from assumptions.
      PubDate: 2019-08-05
  • TCPro: an In Silico Risk Assessment Tool for Biotherapeutic Protein
    • Abstract: Most immune responses to biotherapeutic proteins involve the development of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). New drugs must undergo immunogenicity assessments to identify potential risks at early stages in the drug development process. This immune response is T cell-dependent. Ex vivo assays that monitor T cell proliferation often are used to assess immunogenicity risk. Such assays can be expensive and time-consuming to carry out. Furthermore, T cell proliferation requires presentation of the immunogenic epitope by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) proteins on antigen-presenting cells. The MHC proteins are the most diverse in the human genome. Thus, obtaining cells from subjects that reflect the distribution of the different MHCII proteins in the human population can be challenging. The allelic frequencies of MHCII proteins differ among subpopulations, and understanding the potential immunogenicity risks would thus require generation of datasets for specific subpopulations involving complex subject recruitment. We developed TCPro, a computational tool that predicts the temporal dynamics of T cell counts in common ex vivo assays for drug immunogenicity. Using TCPro, we can test virtual pools of subjects based on MHCII frequencies and estimate immunogenicity risks for different populations. It also provides rapid and inexpensive initial screens for new biotherapeutics and can be used to determine the potential immunogenicity risk of new sequences introduced while bioengineering proteins. We validated TCPro using an experimental immunogenicity dataset, making predictions on the population-based immunogenicity risk of 15 protein-based biotherapeutics. Immunogenicity rankings generated using TCPro are consistent with the reported clinical experience with these therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2019-08-02
  • Optimizing Dose-Finding Studies for Drug Combinations Based on
           Exposure-Response Models
    • Abstract: Combinations of pharmacological treatments are increasingly being investigated for potentially higher clinical benefit, especially when the combined drugs are expected to act via synergistic interactions. The clinical development of combination treatments is particularly challenging, particularly during the dose-selection phase, where a vast range of possible combination doses exists. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the added value of using optimal design for guiding the dose allocation in drug combination dose-finding studies as compared with a typical drug-combination trial. Optimizations were performed using local [D(s)-optimality] and global [ED(s)-optimality] optimal designs to maximize the precision of model parameters in a number of potential exposure-response (E-R) surfaces. A compound criterion [D(s)/V-optimality] was used to optimize the precision of model predictions in specific parts of the E-R surfaces. Optimal designs provided unbiased estimates and significantly improved the accuracy of results relative to the typical design. It was possible to improve the efficiency and overall parameter precision up to 7832% and 96.6% respectively. When the compound criterion was used, the probability to accurately identify the optimal dose-combination increased from 71% for the typical design up to 91%. These results indicate that optimal design methodology in tandem with E-R analyses is a beneficial tool that can be used for appropriate dose allocation in dose-finding studies for drug combinations.
      PubDate: 2019-07-29
  • Evaluating a Multiscale Mechanistic Model of the Immune System to Predict
           Human Immunogenicity for a Biotherapeutic in Phase 1
    • Abstract: A mechanistic model of the immune response was evaluated for its ability to predict anti-drug antibody (ADA) and their impact on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) for a biotherapeutic in a phase 1 clinical trial. Observed ADA incidence ranged from 33 to 67% after single doses and 27–50% after multiple doses. The model captured the single dose incidence well; however, there was overprediction after multiple dosing. The model was updated to include a T-regulatory (Treg) cell mediated tolerance, which reduced the overprediction (relative decrease in predicted incidence rate of 21.5–59.3% across multidose panels) without compromising the single dose predictions (relative decrease in predicted incidence rate of 0.6–13%). The Treg-adjusted model predicted no ADA impact on PK or PD, consistent with the observed data. A prospective phase 2 trial was simulated, including co-medication effects in the form of corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression. Predicted ADA incidences were 0–10%, depending on co-medication dosage. This work demonstrates the utility in applying an integrated, iterative modeling approach to predict ADA during different stages of clinical development.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
  • Modeling Combined Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dexamethasone and
           Tofacitinib in Arthritic Rats
    • Abstract: Tofacitinib (TOF), a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, which was approved in 2012, has been recommended for the treatment of clinically active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Dexamethasone (DEX), a potent corticosteroid, is also used in RA therapy but with limited usefulness due to dose- and time-dependent adverse effects. This pilot study examines the single and combined effects of DEX and TOF in order to explore the steroid-sparing potential of TOF. Collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) rats were subcutaneously (SC) dosed with vehicle, 1.5 mg/kg TOF, 5 mg/kg TOF, 0.225 mg/kg DEX, or a combination of 1.5 mg/kg TOF and 0.225 mg/kg DEX. Paw sizes were measured as an index of disease and drug efficacy and dynamically depicted using a logistic function for natural paw growth, a turnover model for disease progression, an indirect response model for inhibitory effects of TOF and DEX and a non-competitive interaction model for the combined effect of DEX and TOF. TOF alone exerted only a slight inhibitory effect on RA paw edema compared to DEX, which reduced edema by 40%. In combination, TOF and DEX had additive effects with an interaction factor of 0.76. Using model simulations, a single SC dose of TOF does not have a visible steroid-sparing potential, although BID oral dosing has such potential. The current study suggests an additive effect of TOF and DEX and simulations indicate that further exploration of TOF and DEX administration timing may produce desirable drug efficacy with lower DEX doses.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
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