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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover AAPS Journal
  [SJR: 1.192]   [H-I: 74]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Aspects of Oral Modified-Release Drug
    • Authors: Rong Wang; Dale P. Conner; Bing V. Li
      Pages: 360 - 366
      Abstract: Oral modified-release (MR) products are dosage forms administered through the mouth and designed to release drug in a controlled manner to achieve maximum efficacy, minimal side effects, and better patient compliance. With significant progress in pharmaceutical technologies and favored therapeutic benefit, more and more oral MR products including the generic versions of these products are being developed, marketed, and used in the USA. Because different types of MR products may exhibit unique drug release modes and specific pharmacokinetic profiles, a better understanding of the regulation and evaluation of these generic MR products can help development and marketing of generic MR products that are therapeutically equivalent to the corresponding reference product. This review summarizes the general regulatory requirements for establishing bioequivalence between generic and reference oral MR products. In addition, some special regulatory considerations for bioequivalence evaluation are highlighted with examples of specific oral MR drug products.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0025-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • GDF11 Treatment Attenuates the Recovery of Skeletal Muscle Function After
           Injury in Older Rats
    • Authors: Yu Zhou; Neel Sharma; David Dukes; Maria B. Myzithras; Priyanka Gupta; Ashraf Khalil; Julius Kahn; Jennifer S. Ahlberg; David B. Hayes; Michael Franti; Tracy Criswell
      Pages: 431 - 437
      Abstract: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function results in loss of mobility for elderly patients. Novel therapies that can protect and/or restore muscle function during aging would have profound effects on the quality of life for this population. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been proposed as a “youthful” circulating factor that can restore cardiac, neural, and skeletal muscle functions in aging animals. However, conflicting data has been recently published that casts doubt on these assertions. We used a complex rat model of skeletal muscle injury that physiologically mimics injuries seen in patients; to investigate the ability of GDF11 and to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration after injury in older rats. Our data showed that GDF11 treatment resulted in a significant increase in tissue fibrosis, accompanied by attenuated functional recovery, as compared to animals treated with vehicle alone. GDF11 impaired the recovery of skeletal muscle function in older rats after injury.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0024-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • Validation of a Drug-Resistant Anti-Adalimumab Antibody Assay to Monitor
           Immunogenicity in the Presence of High Concentrations of Adalimumab
    • Authors: Sumin Bian; Marc Ferrante; Ann Gils
      Pages: 468 - 474
      Abstract: With respect to patient safety and long-term efficacy, immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies remains an important issue. Pre-treatment of samples using either higher temperature or acidification in order to separate drug/anti-drug antibody complexes has been implemented in the traditional bridging assay and an in-house-developed affinity capture elution assay but only a limited drug tolerance was obtained. In this study, we aim to apply a drug-resistant anti-drug antibody assay to adalimumab through a combination of adalimumab/anti-adalimumab antibody complex precipitation and acid dissociation. A linear dose–response curve ranging from 3.1 to 200 ng/mL was obtained in 1/125 diluted serum, allowing detection of anti-adalimumab antibody concentrations up to 25 μg/mL equivalents MA-ADM6A10, a calibrator anti-adalimumab antibody. The cut-off point for detection was determined using 16 samples of adalimumab naïve patients and set at 0.39 μg/mL equivalents. Validation of the assay revealed that no detectable anti-adalimumab antibody concentrations were found in samples with either a positive anti-infliximab antibody concentration, a physiologic concentration of TNFα, or a high concentration of rheumatoid factor. Full recoveries were obtained when various concentrations of adalimumab (0, 1, 10, and 50 μg/mL) were spiked to 1, 2, and 4 μg/mL of MA-ADM6A10. Spiking of 50 μg/mL adalimumab to eight individual sera revealed similar anti-adalimumab antibody concentrations as in the absence of adalimumab, with a Pearson r correlation of 0.99 and an interclass correlation of 0.99. The assay allows accurate evaluation of adalimumab immunogenicity during induction or upon dose intensification and in serum samples not taken at trough.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0018-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • Tissue Concentration of Dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) Following Repeated IV
           Administration in the New Zealand White Rabbit
    • Authors: Christine Arthur; Lin Song; William Culp; Aliza Brown; Michael Borrelli; Robert Skinner; Howard Hendrickson
      Pages: 520 - 526
      Abstract: IV injection of dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) increases oxygen transportation and reduces brain infarct volume in a rabbit stroke model. Tissue distribution of the parent perfluorocarbon dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) is unknown but is critical to understanding the mechanism by which DDFPe is effective in treating ischemia and for determining safe dosing. Previous studies showed a DDFP blood half-life of <2 min yet therapeutic effects lasted >90 min after injection. We describe DDFP distribution in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and lung following nine dosing regimens in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Single and multi-dose schedules were administered to NZW rabbits (n = 27). A single DDFPe dose (0.6 ml/kg) group was sacrificed 2 min after dosing and eight multi-dose groups (4 doses of 0.3 or 0.6 ml/kg and 15 doses of 0.1, 0.3, or 0.6) were sacrificed 90 min after final injections. Tissues were flash frozen and analyzed with headspace sampling/GC-MS. DDFP brain concentration increased with increasing dose in the 15 dose groups (4.70, 8.34, and 14.3 μg/g) and indicative of linear pharmacokinetics within this dose range. The DDFP lung concentration was not reflective of increasing dose or dose frequency. The total clearance of DDFP was consistent with previous reports showing 98% of DDFP is cleared within 2 h of administration.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0013-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • Exposure–Response and Tumor Growth Inhibition Analyses of the Monovalent
           Anti-c-MET Antibody Onartuzumab (MetMAb) in the Second- and Third-Line
           Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    • Authors: Kelong Han; Pascal Chanu; Fredrik Jonsson; Helen Winter; René Bruno; Jin Jin; Mark Stroh
      Pages: 527 - 533
      Abstract: The phase III trial comparing onartuzumab + erlotinib vs. erlotinib in the second- and third-line non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) did not meet its primary endpoint of overall survival (OS). The objective was to assess whether doses higher than the phase III dose (15 mg/kg) might yield better efficacy without compromising the safety profile. Data were from 636 patients from the phase II and III NSCLC studies. Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) models were fit to longitudinal tumor size data to estimate individual TGI metrics including time to tumor re-growth (TTG). Cox regression models were developed for time-to-event endpoints (progression-free survival (PFS), OS, and TTG) to investigate relationships with baseline prognostic factors and onartuzumab exposure. Incidence of adverse events was modeled by logistic regression. In the final models, higher onartuzumab exposure was associated with longer PFS, but not with longer OS. Longer OS was associated with higher baseline albumin, longer TTG, smaller number of metastatic sites, female gender, lower ECOG score, and younger age. TTG was the only TGI metric retained in the final OS model. Onartuzumab exposure was not significantly associated with TTG after adjusting for prognostic factors. Higher Cmin was associated with increased incidence of infusion reactions and peripheral edema. Higher onartuzumab exposure was not significantly associated with improved OS after adjusting for prognostic factors and TTG, and there was a trend of unknown clinical significance toward increased incidence of infusion reactions and peripheral edema. These results did not support testing higher onartuzumab doses.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0029-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Intra-articular Injection of Urinary Bladder Matrix Reduces
           Osteoarthritis Development
    • Authors: Heather N. Jacobs; Sona Rathod; Matthew T. Wolf; Jennifer H. Elisseeff
      Pages: 595 - 595
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0012-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Tumor Static Concentration Curves in Combination Therapy
    • Authors: Tim Cardilin; Joachim Almquist; Mats Jirstand; Alexandre Soselly; Christiane Amendt; Samer El Bawab; Johan Gabrielsson
      Pages: 596 - 596
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0035-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
  • Controlled Release of Vanadium from a Composite Scaffold Stimulates
           Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteochondrogenesis
    • Authors: S. D. Schussler; K. Uske; P. Marwah; F. W. Kemp; J. D. Bogden; S. S. Lin; Treena Livingston Arinzeh
      Abstract: Large bone defects often require the use of autograft, allograft, or synthetic bone graft augmentation; however, these treatments can result in delayed osseous integration. A tissue engineering strategy would be the use of a scaffold that could promote the normal fracture healing process of endochondral ossification, where an intermediate cartilage phase is later transformed to bone. This study investigated vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC), an insulin mimetic, combined with a fibrous composite scaffold, consisting of polycaprolactone with nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate, as a potential bone tissue engineering scaffold. The differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on 0.05 and 0.025 wt% VAC containing composite scaffolds (VAC composites) in vitro using three different induction media: osteogenic (OS), chondrogenic (CCM), and chondrogenic/osteogenic (C/O) media, which mimics endochondral ossification. The controlled release of VAC was achieved over 28 days for the VAC composites, where approximately 30% of the VAC was released over this period. MSCs cultured on the VAC composites in C/O media had increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin production, and collagen synthesis over the composite scaffold without VAC. In addition, gene expressions for chondrogenesis (Sox9) and hypertrophic markers (VEGF, MMP-13, and collagen X) were the highest on VAC composites. Almost a 1000-fold increase in VEGF gene expression and VEGF formation, as indicated by immunostaining, was achieved for cells cultured on VAC composites in C/O media, suggesting VAC will promote angiogenesis in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential of VAC composite scaffolds in supporting endochondral ossification as a bone tissue engineering strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0073-9
  • The impact of gastric pH, volume, and emptying on the food effect of
           ziprasidone oral absorption
    • Authors: Steven C Sutton; Richard Nause; Kuan Gandelman
      Abstract: ABSTRACT In a recent food effect clinical study, the authors concluded that a meal consisting of ≥500 kcal, regardless of fat content, produced the maximal bioavailability for ziprasidone. Using GastroPlus™, a commercially available pharmacokinetic simulation software, a semiphysiological model—a kind of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model—was developed that could predict the concentration-time profiles when ziprasidone was administered with any one of the five test meals or fasting. Ziprasidone intravenous pharmacokinetics and oral absorption permeability were determined from clinical studies following the intravenous and duodenal infusion of ziprasidone to volunteers. From the detailed dietary information of each meal provided in the previously published food effect study, the stomach pH, volume, and gastric emptying could be predicted. Incorporating these meal-specific parameters into the model improved the predictions beyond the default fed/fasted parameters commonly used in the software. Compared to the default models, the improved models resulted in an improved prediction of the average ziprasidone concentration-time profile for each meal. Using this type of semiphysiological absorption model, we have shown that the dietary contents of the meals should be taken into account to predict food effects for ziprasidone and perhaps other BCS class I or II compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0065-9
  • Current Trends in Ligand Binding Real-Time Measurement Technologies
    • Authors: Stephanie Fraser; Judy Y. Shih; Mark Ware; Edward O’Connor; Mark J. Cameron; Martin Schwickart; Xuemei Zhao; Karin Regnstrom
      Abstract: Numerous advances in ligand binding assay (LBA) real-time measurement technologies have been made within the last several years, ranging from the development of novel platforms to drive technology expansion to the adaptation of existing platforms to optimize performance and throughput. In this review, we have chosen to focus on technologies that provide increased value to two distinct segments of the LBA community. First, experimentally, by measuring real-time binding events, these technologies provide data that can be used to interrogate receptor/ligand binding interactions. While overall the platforms are not new, they have made significant advances in throughput, multiplexing, and/or sensitivity. Second, clinically, these point-of-care (POC) technologies provide instantaneous information which facilitates rapid treatment decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0067-7
  • Evaluation of the Potency, Neutralizing Antibody Response, and Stability
           of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine for Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Authors: E. Burlet; H. HogenEsch; A. Dunham; G. Morefield
      Abstract: Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Despite the increasing burden on global health caused by GAS, there is currently no licensed vaccine available. In this study, we evaluated immunogenicity, induction of neutralizing antibodies, and stability of a new recombinant fusion protein vaccine that targets infections from GAS. The recombinant fusion protein (SpeAB) combines inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). The SpeAB vaccine evaluated in this study was adsorbed to an aluminum adjuvant and demonstrated robust immunogenicity, eliciting production of specific neutralizing antibodies against SpeA and SpeB, two major virulence factors of S. pyogenes. Stability studies suggest that the vaccine will retain immunogenicity for at least 2 years when stored at refrigerated temperatures. This novel vaccine shows great potential to provide protection against GAS infections and to reduce the burden of GAS disease globally.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0069-5
  • Pharmacokinetics of the Inhaled Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor
           Modulator AZD5423 Following Inhalation Using Different Devices
    • Authors: Johanna Melin; Susanne Prothon; Charlotte Kloft; Adriaan Cleton; Carl Amilon; Carin Jorup; Per Bäckman; Bo Olsson; Ulrika Wählby Hamrén
      Abstract: AZD5423 is a non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor modulator, with low aqueous solubility, developed for treatment of asthma and COPD. In this work, we aim to evaluate and compare the absorption pharmacokinetics (PK) of AZD5423 after inhalation via four devices, (Spira®, I-neb®, Turbuhaler® and a new dry powder inhaler (new DPI)) with two formulations using differently sized primary particles, and to compare the pulmonary bioavailability with the predicted lung deposited dose. Plasma concentration-time data after intravenous, oral and inhaled administration via four devices were available from two clinical studies in healthy and asthmatic subjects. A population PK modelling approach was taken to sequentially incorporate each route of administration, assuming parallel absorption compartments for inhaled AZD5423. A non-compartmental analysis for derivation of PK parameters was performed for comparison. Pulmonary bioavailability varied between devices, with the lowest estimates for I-neb (27%) and Turbuhaler (30%) and the highest for the new DPI (46%) and Spira (35–49%). The pulmonary bioavailability was substantially lower than the predicted lung deposited dose (range 59–90%). Lung absorption was separated into a faster and a slower process in the model. The half-life of the faster absorption appeared formulation-dependent, while the slower absorption (half-life of 0.59–0.78 h) appeared independent of formulation. The large difference in the estimated pulmonary bioavailability and the predicted lung deposited dose for AZD5423 implies an impact of mucociliary clearance. The lung absorption half-life indicates that AZD5423 is retained in the lung for a relatively short time.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0042-8
  • Development Considerations for Nanocrystal Drug Products
    • Authors: Mei-Ling Chen; Mathew John; Sau L. Lee; Katherine M. Tyner
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Nanocrystal technology has emerged as a valuable tool for facilitating the delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and enhancing API bioavailability. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received over 80 applications for drug products containing nanocrystals. These products can be delivered by different routes of administration and are used in a variety of therapeutic areas. To aid in identifying key developmental considerations for these products, a retrospective analysis was performed on the submissions received by the FDA to date. Over 60% of the submissions were for the oral route of administration. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), most nanocrystal drugs submitted to the FDA are class II compounds that possess low aqueous solubility and high intestinal permeability. Impact of food on drug bioavailability was reduced for most nanocrystal formulations as compared with their micronized counterparts. For all routes of administration, dose proportionality was observed for some, but not all, nanocrystal products. Particular emphasis in the development of nanocrystal products was placed on the in-process tests and controls at critical manufacturing steps (such as milling process), mitigation and control of process-related impurities, and the stability of APIs or polymorphic form (s) during manufacturing and upon storage. This emphasis resulted in identifying challenges to the development of these products including accurate determination of particle size (distribution) of drug substance and/or nanocrystal colloidal dispersion, identification of polymorphic form (s), and establishment of drug substance/product specifications.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0064-x
  • Microdialysis: the Key to Physiologically Based Model Prediction of Human
           CNS Target Site Concentrations
    • Authors: Yumi Yamamoto; Meindert Danhof; Elizabeth C. M. de Lange
      Abstract: Despite the enormous research efforts that have been put into the development of central nervous system (CNS) drugs, the success rate in this area is still disappointing. To increase the successful rate in the clinical trials, first the problem of predicting human CNS drug distribution should be solved. As it is the unbound drug that equilibrates over membranes and is able to interact with targets, especially knowledge on unbound extracellular drug concentration-time profiles in different CNS compartments is important. The only technique able to provide such information in vivo is microdialysis. Also, obtaining CNS drug distribution data from human subjects is highly limited, and therefore, we have to rely on preclinical approaches combined with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, taking unbound drug CNS concentrations into account. The next step is then to link local CNS pharmacokinetics to target interaction kinetics and CNS drug effects. In this review, system properties and small-molecule drug properties that together govern CNS drug distribution are summarized. Furthermore, the currently available approaches on prediction of CNS pharmacokinetics are discussed, including in vitro, in vivo, ex vivo, and in silico approaches, with special focus on the powerful combination of in vivo microdialysis and PBPK modeling. Also, sources of variability on drug kinetics in the CNS are discussed. Finally, remaining gaps and challenges are highlighted and future directions are suggested.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0050-3
  • Structure-Promiscuity Relationship Puzzles—Extensively Assayed Analogs
           with Large Differences in Target Annotations
    • Authors: Ye Hu; Swarit Jasial; Erik Gilberg; Jürgen Bajorath
      Abstract: Publicly available screening data were systematically searched for extensively assayed structural analogs with large differences in the number of targets they were active against. Screening compounds with potential chemical liabilities that may give rise to assay artifacts were identified and excluded from the analysis. “Promiscuity cliffs” were frequently identified, defined here as pairs of structural analogs with a difference of at least 20 target annotations across all assays they were tested in. New assay indices were introduced to prioritize cliffs formed by screening compounds that were extensively tested in comparably large numbers of assays including many shared assays. In these cases, large differences in promiscuity degrees were not attributable to differences in assay frequency and/or lack of assay overlap. Such analog pairs have high priority for further exploring molecular origins of multi-target activities. Therefore, these promiscuity cliffs and associated target annotations are made freely available. The corresponding analogs often represent equally puzzling and interesting examples of structure-promiscuity relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0066-8
  • Global Harmonization of Comparator Products for Bioequivalence Studies
    • Authors: Luther Gwaza; John Gordon; Hubert Leufkens; Matthias Stahl; Alfredo García-Arieta
      Abstract: Comparator products should be the products that were shown to be safe and efficacious in pivotal clinical trials to ensure prescribability of generics. The use of a common comparator ensures switchability between generics. The selection of the comparator is a national responsibility and may be different between countries. This paper discusses the current recommendations on selection of comparators, the associated problems, and the possibility of harmonization. Most countries follow the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for selecting comparator products and require the comparator product to be obtained from their national markets to ensure switchability between the local comparator and their generics. These recommendations are only feasible in the few countries where the repetition of the bioequivalence study is economically feasible, but they are impracticable in all other countries. Furthermore, the exclusive use of the local comparator to ensure switchability is ethically and scientifically questionable. The innovator product from well-regulated markets should be the global comparator. This harmonization is feasible as the concept already applies in the WHO prequalification program. It is ineffectual to harmonize only the requirements for performing bioequivalence studies, if such a study has to be repeated for every single country simply because of the different comparator products.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0068-6
  • Exploring Canine-Human Differences in Product Performance. Part II: Use of
           Modeling and Simulation to Explore the Impact of Formulation on
           Ciprofloxacin In Vivo Absorption and Dissolution in Dogs
    • Authors: M. N. Martinez; B. Mistry; V. Lukacova; K. A. Lentz; J. E. Polli; S. W. Hoag; T. Dowling; R. Kona; R. M. Fahmy
      Abstract: This study explored the in vivo performance of three oral ciprofloxacin formulations (oral solution, fast, or slow dissolving tablets) in beagle dogs. The in vivo absorption and dissolution behaviors, estimated with in silico mechanistic models, were compared to the results previously published in human volunteers. Six normal healthy male beagle dogs (five to completion) received three oral formulations and an intravenous infusion in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were estimated by tandem mass spectrometry detection. A mechanistic absorption model was used to predict the in vivo dissolution and absorption characteristics of the oral formulations. Canine ciprofloxacin absorption was constrained to the duodenum/jejunum. This absorption window was far narrower than that seen in humans. Furthermore, while substantial within-individual variability in drug absorption was seen in human subjects, a greater magnitude of variability was observed in dogs. For three sets of data, a lag time in gastric emptying was necessary to improve the accuracy of model-generated in vivo blood level profile predictions. In addition to species-associated dissimilarities in drug solubilization due to human versus canine differences in gastrointestinal fluid compositions, the far more rapid intestinal transit time and potential segmental differences in drug absorption needed to be considered during human-canine extrapolation of oral drug and drug product performance. Through the use of mechanistic models, the data generated in the human and canine studies contributed insights into some aspects of the interspecies differences to be considered when extrapolating oral bioavailability/formulation effect data between dogs and humans.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0055-y
  • Erratum to: Optimal Affinity of a Monoclonal Antibody: Guiding Principles
           Using Mechanistic Modeling
    • Authors: Abhinav Tiwari; Anson K. Abraham; John M. Harrold; Anup Zutshi; Pratap Singh
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0046-z
  • A Comparative Study of the Bone Regenerative Effect of Chemically Modified
           RNA Encoding BMP-2 or BMP-9
    • Authors: Behnoush Khorsand; Satheesh Elangovan; Liu Hong; Alexander Dewerth; Michael S. D. Kormann; Aliasger K. Salem
      Abstract: Employing cost-effective biomaterials to deliver chemically modified ribonucleic acid (cmRNA) in a controlled manner addresses the high cost, safety concerns, and lower transfection efficiency that exist with protein and gene therapeutic approaches. By eliminating the need for nuclear entry, cmRNA therapeutics can potentially overcome the lower transfection efficiencies associated with non-viral gene delivery systems. Here, we investigated the osteogenic potential of cmRNA-encoding BMP-9, in comparison to cmRNA-encoding BMP-2. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a vector to increase in vitro transfection efficacy. Complexes of PEI-cmRNA (encoding BMP-2 or BMP-9) were fabricated at an amine (N) to phosphate (P) ratio of 10 and characterized for transfection efficacy in vitro using human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The osteogenic potential of BMSCs treated with these complexes was determined by evaluating the expression of bone-specific genes as well as through the detection of bone matrix deposition. It was found that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression 3 days post transfection in the group treated with BMP-9-cmRNA was significantly higher than that in the group that received BMP-2-cmRNA treatment. Alizarin red staining and atomic absorption spectroscopy demonstrated enhanced osteogenic differentiation as evidenced by increased bone matrix production by the BMSCs treated with BMP-9-cmRNA when compared to cells treated with BMP-2-cmRNA. In vivo studies showed increased bone formation in calvarial defects treated with the BMP-9-cmRNA and BMP-2-cmRNA collagen scaffolds when compared to empty defects. The connectivity density of the regenerated bone was higher (2-fold-higher) in the group that received BMP-9-cmRNA compared to BMP-2-cmRNA. Together, these findings suggest that cmRNA-activated matrix encoding osteogenic molecules can provide a powerful strategy for bone regeneration with significant clinical translational potential.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0034-8
  • Pharmacokinetics and Saturable Absorption of Gabapentin in Nursing Home
           Elderly Patients
    • Authors: Ghada F. Ahmed; Sai Praneeth R. Bathena; Richard C. Brundage; Ilo E. Leppik; Jeannine M. Conway; Janice B. Schwartz; Angela K. Birnbaum
      Abstract: Pharmacokinetic data of gabapentin (GBP) in community-dwelling elderly patients show a significant effect of advanced age on GBP pharmacokinetics due to altered renal function. However, there are no data in elderly nursing home (NH) patients to evaluate gabapentin absorption and elimination. Our objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of GBP in elderly nursing home patients maintained on GBP therapy. This was a prospective pharmacokinetic study in elderly nursing home patients (≥60 years) receiving GBP for the management of chronic pain or epilepsy from seven nursing homes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. A one-compartment model described the data and clearance (CL) was associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p < 0.0001). The GBP CL in elderly nursing home patients was 2.93 L/h. After adjusting for the effect of GFR, GBP CL was not affected by age, sex, body weight, or comorbidity scores. No significant effects of body size measures, age, and sex were detected on volume of distribution. Dose-dependent bioavailability of GBP was demonstrated, and the saturable absorption profile was described by a nonlinear hyperbolic function. Prediction-corrected visual predictive check (pc-VPC) suggests adequate fixed- and random-effects models that successfully simulated the mean trend and variability in gabapentin concentration-time profiles. In this analysis, the parameters of the hyperbolic nonlinearity appear to be similar between elderly and younger adults.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-016-0022-z
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