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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AAPS Journal
  [SJR: 1.192]   [H-I: 74]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • The Phenotypic Effects of Exosomes Secreted from Distinct Cellular
           Sources: a Comparative Study Based on miRNA Composition
    • Authors: Scott Ferguson; Sera Kim; Christine Lee; Michael Deci; Juliane Nguyen
      Abstract: Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles composed of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Their molecular landscape is diverse, and exosomes derived from different cell types have distinct biological activities. Since exosomes are now being utilized as delivery vehicles for exogenous therapeutic cargoes, their intrinsic properties and biological effects must be understood. We performed miRNA profiling and found substantial differences in the miRNA landscape of prostate cancer (PC3) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 exosomes with little correlation in abundance of common miRNAs (R2 = 0.16). Using a systems-level bioinformatics approach, the most abundant miRNAs in PC3 exosomes but not HEK exosomes were predicted to significantly modulate integrin signaling, with integrin-β3 loss inducing macrophage M2 polarization. PC3 but not HEK exosomes downregulated integrin-β3 expression levels by 70%. There was a dose-dependent polarization of RAW 264.7 macrophages toward an M2 phenotype when treated with PC3-derived exosomes but not HEK-derived exosomes. Conversely, HEK exosomes, widely utilized as delivery vehicles, were predicted to target cadherin signaling, with experimental validation showing a significant increase in the migratory potential of MCF7 breast cancer cells treated with HEK exosomes. Even widely utilized exosomes are unlikely to be inert, and their intrinsic activity ought to be assessed before therapeutic deployment.
      PubDate: 2018-04-30
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0227-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Integrative Pharmacology: Advancing Development of Effective
    • Authors: Mohammad Tabrizi; Daping Zhang; Vaishnavi Ganti; Glareh Azadi
      Abstract: With the recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, it is now evident that the antigen-specific activation of the patients’ immune responses can be utilized for achieving significant therapeutic benefits. Novel molecules have been developed and promising advances have been achieved in cancer therapy. The recent success of cancer immunotherapy clearly reflects the novelty of the approach and importance of this class of therapeutics. Due to the nature of immunotherapy, i.e., harnessing the patient’s immune system, it becomes critical to evaluate the important variables that can guide preclinical development, translational strategies, patient selection, and effective clinical dosing paradigms following single and combination therapies. To further boost the durability and efficacy profiles of IO (immuno-oncology) drugs following single agent therapy, novel combination therapies are being sought. Combination strategies have become critical for enhancing the anti-tumor immunity in broader cancer indications. Comprehensive methods are being developed to quantify the synergistic combination effect profiles at various development phases. Further evaluation of the signaling and pathway components can potentially establish a unique “signature” characteristic for specific combination therapies following modulation of various immunomodulatory pathways. In this article, critical topics related to preclinical, translational, and clinical development of IO agents are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0229-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Generic Anti-PEG Antibody Assay on ProterixBio’s (Formerly BioScale)
           ViBE Platform Shows Poor Reproducibility
    • Authors: Shannon D. Chilewski; Julie Shields; Johanna R. Mora; Heather Myler
      Abstract: PEGylation is a modification commonly used to increase the half-life of therapeutic proteins. The strategy for immunogenicity testing of these compounds should include methods to detect both anti-protein and anti-PEG antibodies. We previously reported a method for the detection of anti-PEG antibodies using ProterixBio’s (formerly BioScale) acoustic membrane microparticle (AMMP) technology. Our initial method development work showed the assay was capable of detecting antibodies in human serum with a sensitivity of 1 μg/mL with good reproducibility (CV < 7%). Since the publication of this initial paper, additional experimentation was performed in an effort to validate the assay for support of clinical sample analysis. This additional data indicate that the method has high variability (CV% > 20) and is unsuitable to support clinical sample analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0228-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Feasibility of Exposure-Response Analyses for Clinical Dose-Ranging
           Studies of Drug Combinations
    • Authors: Theodoros Papathanasiou; Anders Strathe; Andrew C. Hooker; Trine Meldgaard Lund; Rune Viig Overgaard
      Abstract: The exposure-response relationship of combinatory drug effects can be quantitatively described using pharmacodynamic interaction models, which can be used for the selection of optimal dose combinations. The aim of this simulation study was to evaluate the reliability of parameter estimates and the probability for accurate dose identification for various underlying exposure-response profiles, under a number of different phase II designs. An efficacy variable driven by the combined exposure of two theoretical compounds was simulated and model parameters were estimated using two different models, one estimating all parameters and one assuming that adequate previous knowledge for one drug is readily available. Estimation of all pharmacodynamic parameters under a realistic, in terms of sample size and study design, phase II trial, proved to be challenging. Inaccurate estimates were found in all exposure-response scenarios, except for situations where no pharmacodynamic interaction was present, with the drug potency and interaction parameters being the hardest to estimate. When previous knowledge of the exposure-response relationship of one of the monocomponents is available, such information should be utilized, as it enabled relevant improvements in parameter estimation and in correct dose identification. No general trends for classification of the performance of the tested study designs across different scenarios could be identified. This study shows that pharmacodynamic interactions models can be used for the exposure-response analysis of clinical endpoints especially when accompanied by appropriate dose selection in regard to the expected drug potencies and appropriate trial size and if information regarding the exposure-response profile of one monocomponent is available.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0226-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Investigation of the Mechanism of Therapeutic Protein-Drug Interaction
           Between Methotrexate and Golimumab, an Anti-TNFα Monoclonal Antibody
    • Authors: Weirong Wang; Jocelyn Leu; Rebecca Watson; Zhenhua Xu; Honghui Zhou
      Abstract: A prominent example of human therapeutic protein-drug interaction (TP-DI) is between methotrexate (MTX) and anti-TNFα mAbs. One plausible mechanism for this TP-DI is through the pharmacodynamic effect of MTX on immunogenicity. However, there is no definitive evidence to substantiate this mechanism, and other competing hypotheses, such as MTX suppressing FcγRI expression thereby affecting mAb PK, have also been proposed. In order to understand this mechanism, a cynomolgus monkey study was conducted using golimumab as a model compound. Golimumab elicited high incidences of immunogenicity in healthy cynomolgus monkeys. Concomitant dosing of MTX delayed the onset and reduced the magnitude of anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. The impact of MTX on golimumab PK correlated with the ADA status. Prior to ADA formation, MTX has no discernable effect on golimumab PK. Additionally, no alteration in FcγRI expression was observed following MTX treatment. The impact of MTX on golimumab immunogenicity and PK has been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and ankylosing spondylitis. In a representative phase 3 study of golimumab in patients with PsA, patients not receiving concomitant MTX was reported to have ~ 30% lower steady-state trough golimumab levels compared to those who received MTX. However, further analysis showed that PsA patients who were negative for ADA in both treatment groups had comparable trough levels of golimumab. Taken together, our results suggest that the mechanism of TP-DI between MTX and golimumab can mostly be attributed to the pharmacodynamic effect of MTX, i.e., the lowering of immunogenicity and immunogenicity-mediated clearance of mAbs.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0219-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Equivalence Testing of Complex Particle Size Distribution Profiles Based
           on Earth Mover’s Distance
    • Authors: Meng Hu; Xiaohui Jiang; Mohammad Absar; Stephanie Choi; Darby Kozak; Meiyu Shen; Yu-Ting Weng; Liang Zhao; Robert Lionberger
      Abstract: Particle size distribution (PSD) is an important property of particulates in drug products. In the evaluation of generic drug products formulated as suspensions, emulsions, and liposomes, the PSD comparisons between a test product and the branded product can provide useful information regarding in vitro and in vivo performance. Historically, the FDA has recommended the population bioequivalence (PBE) statistical approach to compare the PSD descriptors D50 and SPAN from test and reference products to support product equivalence. In this study, the earth mover’s distance (EMD) is proposed as a new metric for comparing PSD particularly when the PSD profile exhibits complex distribution (e.g., multiple peaks) that is not accurately described by the D50 and SPAN descriptor. EMD is a statistical metric that measures the discrepancy (distance) between size distribution profiles without a prior assumption of the distribution. PBE is then adopted to perform statistical test to establish equivalence based on the calculated EMD distances. Simulations show that proposed EMD-based approach is effective in comparing test and reference profiles for equivalence testing and is superior compared to commonly used distance measures, e.g., Euclidean and Kolmogorov–Smirnov distances. The proposed approach was demonstrated by evaluating equivalence of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion PSDs that were manufactured under different conditions. Our results show that proposed approach can effectively pass an equivalent product (e.g., reference product against itself) and reject an inequivalent product (e.g., reference product against negative control), thus suggesting its usefulness in supporting bioequivalence determination of a test product to the reference product which both possess multimodal PSDs.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0212-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Extracellular Vesicles
    • Authors: Kyle I. Mentkowski; Jonathan D. Snitzer; Sarah Rusnak; Jennifer K. Lang
      Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous group of small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, which play a critical role in intracellular communication and regulation of numerous physiological processes in health and disease. Naturally released from virtually all cells, these vesicles contain an array of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins which they transfer to target cells within their local milieu and systemically. They have been proposed as a means of “cell-free, cell therapy” for cancer, immune disorders, and more recently cardiovascular disease. In addition, their unique properties of stability, biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity have prompted research into their potential as therapeutic delivery agents for drugs and small molecules. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of extracellular vesicle biology as well as engineering strategies in play to improve their therapeutic potential.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0211-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Towards Bridging Translational Gap in Cardiotoxicity Prediction: an
           Application of Progressive Cardiac Risk Assessment Strategy in TdP Risk
           Assessment of Moxifloxacin
    • Authors: Nikunjkumar Patel; Oliver Hatley; Alexander Berg; Klaus Romero; Barbara Wisniowska; Debra Hanna; David Hermann; Sebastian Polak
      Abstract: Drug-induced cardiac arrhythmia, especially occurrence of torsade de pointes (TdP), has been a leading cause of attrition and post-approval re-labeling and withdrawal of many drugs. TdP is a multifactorial event, reflecting more than just drug-induced cardiac ion channel inhibition and QT interval prolongation. This presents a translational gap in extrapolating pre-clinical and clinical cardiac safety assessment to estimate TdP risk reliably, especially when the drug of interest is used in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs for treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis. A multi-scale mechanistic modeling framework consisting of physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) simulations of clinically relevant drug exposures combined with Quantitative Systems Toxicology (QST) models of cardiac electro-physiology could bridge this gap. We illustrate this PBPK-QST approach in cardiac risk assessment as exemplified by moxifloxacin, an anti-tuberculosis drug with abundant clinical cardiac safety data. PBPK simulations of moxifloxacin concentrations (systemic circulation and estimated in heart tissue) were linked with in vitro measurements of cardiac ion channel inhibition to predict the magnitude of QT prolongation in healthy individuals. Predictions closely reproduced the clinically observed QT interval prolongation, but no arrhythmia was observed, even at ×10 exposure. However, the same exposure levels in presence of physiological risk factors, e.g., hypokalemia and tachycardia, led to arrhythmic event in simulations, consistent with reported moxifloxacin-related TdP events. Application of a progressive PBPK-QST cardiac risk assessment paradigm starting in early development could guide drug development decisions and later define a clinical “safe space” for post-approval risk management to identify high-risk clinical scenarios.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0199-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model with a Nested
           Endosome Compartment for Novel Engineered Antibodies
    • Authors: Dongfen Yuan; Frederik Rode; Yanguang Cao
      Abstract: We proposed here a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model for a group of novel engineered antibodies in mice and humans. These antibodies are designed with altered binding properties of their Fc domain with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) or the Fab domain with their cognate targets (recycling antibodies) in acidic endosomes. To enable simulations of such binding features in the change of antibody pharmacokinetics and its target suppression, we nested an endothelial endosome compartment in parallel with plasma compartment based on our previously established mPBPK model. The fluid-phase pinocytosis rate from plasma to endothelial endosomes was reflected by the clearance of antibodies in FcRn dysfunctional humans or FcRn-knockout mice. The endosomal recycling rate of FcRn-bound antibodies was calculated based on the reported endosomal transit time. The nonspecific catabolism in endosomes was fitted using pharmacokinetic data of a human wild-type IgG1 adalimumab in humans and B21M in human FcRn (hFcRn) transgenic mice. The developed model adequately predicted the pharmacokinetics of infliximab, motavizumab, and an Fc variant of motavizumab in humans and the pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab, an Fc variant of bevacizumab, and a recycling antibody PH-IgG1 and its non-pH dependent counterpart NPH-IgG1 in hFcRn transgenic mice. Our proposed model provides a platform for evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and disposition behaviors of Fc-engineered antibodies and recycling antibodies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-017-0183-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Selection of a Ligand-Binding Neutralizing Antibody Assay for
           Benralizumab: Comparison with an Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated
           Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Cell-Based Assay
    • Authors: Yuling Wu; Ahmad Akhgar; Jia J Li; Binbing Yu; Cecil Chen; Nancy Lee; Wendy I. White; Lorin K. Roskos
      Abstract: Assessment of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) for neutralizing activity is important for the clinical development of biopharmaceuticals. Two types of neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays (competitive ligand-binding assay [CLBA] and cell-based assay [CBA]) are commonly used to characterize neutralizing activities. To support the clinical development of benralizumab, a humanized, anti–interleukin-5 receptor α, anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody, we developed and validated a CLBA and a CBA. The CLBA and CBA were compared for sensitivity, drug tolerance, and precision to detect NAbs in serum samples from clinical trials. The CLBA was more sensitive (27.1 and 37.5 ng/mL) than the CBA (1.02 and 1.10 μg/mL) in detecting NAbs to benralizumab for the polyclonal and monoclonal ADA controls, respectively. With the same polyclonal ADA control, the CLBA detected 250 ng/mL of ADA in the presence of 100 ng/mL of benralizumab, whereas the CBA detected 1.25 μg/mL of ADA in the presence of 780 ng/mL of benralizumab. In 195 ADA-positive samples from 5 studies, 63.59% (124/195) and 16.9% (33/195) were positive for NAb as measured by the CLBA and the CBA, respectively. ADA titers were strongly correlated (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0.91; n = 195) with CLBA titers. Moreover, the CLBA titer correlated with CBA percentage inhibition in the CBA-positive samples (Spearman’s coefficient r = 0.50; n = 33). Our data demonstrated advantages of the CLBA in various aspects and supported the choice of the CLBA as a NAb assay for the phase III trials.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0207-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Computational Fragment-Based Drug Design: Current Trends, Strategies, and
    • Abstract: Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an effective methodology for drug development for decades. Successful applications of this strategy brought both opportunities and challenges to the field of Pharmaceutical Science. Recent progress in the computational fragment-based drug design provide an additional approach for future research in a time- and labor-efficient manner. Combining multiple in silico methodologies, computational FBDD possesses flexibilities on fragment library selection, protein model generation, and fragments/compounds docking mode prediction. These characteristics provide computational FBDD superiority in designing novel and potential compounds for a certain target. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest advances, ranging from commonly used strategies to novel concepts and technologies in computational fragment-based drug design. Particularly, in this review, specifications and advantages are compared between experimental and computational FBDD, and additionally, limitations and future prospective are discussed and emphasized.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0216-7
  • Dissolution and Translational Modeling Strategies Enabling Patient-Centric
           Drug Product Development: the M-CERSI Workshop Summary Report
    • Abstract: On May 15th–17th, 2017, the US FDA and the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development (IQ) held a workshop at the University of Maryland’s Center of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation (M-CERSI), to discuss the role of dissolution testing and translational modeling and simulation in enabling patient-centric solid oral drug product development. This 3-day event was attended by scientists from regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and academia. The workshop included podium presentations followed by breakout session discussions. The first day of the meeting focused on the challenges in dissolution method development and the role of dissolution testing throughout drug product development. On the second day, approaches to establish a link between in vitro testing and in vivo drug product performance (e.g., systemic exposure) were presented. Overall success rates and challenges in establishing IVIVCs via traditional and modern physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation approaches were discussed. Day 3 provided an opportunity to discuss the expectations for establishing clinically relevant drug product specifications (CRDPS). It was recognized that understanding the impact of formulation and process variations on dissolution and in vivo performance is critical for most drug products formulated with poorly soluble drugs to ensure consistent product performance. The breakout sessions served as platforms for discussing controversial topics such as the clarification of dissolution terminology, PBPK model development and validation expectations, and approaches to set CRDPS. The meeting concluded with a commitment to continue the dialog between regulators, industry, and academia to advance overall product quality understanding.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0213-x
  • Deep Learning for Drug Design: an Artificial Intelligence Paradigm for
           Drug Discovery in the Big Data Era
    • Abstract: Over the last decade, deep learning (DL) methods have been extremely successful and widely used to develop artificial intelligence (AI) in almost every domain, especially after it achieved its proud record on computational Go. Compared to traditional machine learning (ML) algorithms, DL methods still have a long way to go to achieve recognition in small molecular drug discovery and development. And there is still lots of work to do for the popularization and application of DL for research purpose, e.g., for small molecule drug research and development. In this review, we mainly discussed several most powerful and mainstream architectures, including the convolutional neural network (CNN), recurrent neural network (RNN), and deep auto-encoder networks (DAENs), for supervised learning and nonsupervised learning; summarized most of the representative applications in small molecule drug design; and briefly introduced how DL methods were used in those applications. The discussion for the pros and cons of DL methods as well as the main challenges we need to tackle were also emphasized.
      PubDate: 2018-03-30
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0210-0
  • Comparison of Model Averaging and Model Selection in Dose Finding Trials
           Analyzed by Nonlinear Mixed Effect Models
    • Abstract: In drug development, pharmacometric approaches consist in identifying via a model selection (MS) process the model structure that best describes the data. However, making predictions using a selected model ignores model structure uncertainty, which could impair predictive performance. To overcome this drawback, model averaging (MA) takes into account the uncertainty across a set of candidate models by weighting them as a function of an information criterion. Our primary objective was to use clinical trial simulations (CTSs) to compare model selection (MS) with model averaging (MA) in dose finding clinical trials, based on the AIC information criterion. A secondary aim of this analysis was to challenge the use of AIC by comparing MA and MS using five different information criteria. CTSs were based on a nonlinear mixed effect model characterizing the time course of visual acuity in wet age-related macular degeneration patients. Predictive performances of the modeling approaches were evaluated using three performance criteria focused on the main objectives of a phase II clinical trial. In this framework, MA adequately described the data and showed better predictive performance than MS, increasing the likelihood of accurately characterizing the dose-response relationship and defining the minimum effective dose. Moreover, regardless of the modeling approach, AIC was associated with the best predictive performances.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0205-x
  • Measuring the Impact of Gastrointestinal Variables on the Systemic Outcome
           of Two Suspensions of Posaconazole by a PBPK Model
    • Abstract: For the last two decades, the application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models has grown exponentially in the field of oral absorption and in a regulatory context. Although these models are widely used, their predictive power should be validated and optimized in order to rely on these models and to know exactly what is going on “under the hood”. In this study, an automated sensitivity analysis (ASA) was performed for 11 gastrointestinal (GI) variables that are integrated into the PBPK software program Simcyp®. The model of interest was a previously validated workspace that was able to predict the intraluminal and systemic behavior of two different suspensions of posaconazole in the Simcyp® Simulator. The sensitivity of the following GI parameters was evaluated in this model: gastric and duodenal pH, gastric and duodenal bicarbonate concentrations (reflecting buffer capacity), duodenal bile salts concentration, gastric emptying, the interdigestive migrating motor complex (IMMC), small intestinal transit time (SITT), gastric and jejunal volumes, and permeability. The most sensitive parameters were gastric/duodenal pH and gastric emptying, for both suspensions. The outcome of the sensitivity analyses highlights the important GI variables that must be integrated into an in vivo predictive dissolution test to help and create a rational and scientific framework/design for product development of novel and generic drug products.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0217-6
  • Correction to: Model-Based Adaptive Optimal Design (MBAOD) Improves
           Combination Dose Finding Designs: an Example in Oncology
    • Abstract: The middle initial in the fifth author’s name is incorrect in the original article. “Lena F. Friberg” should be “Lena E. Friberg”. The original article was corrected.
      PubDate: 2018-03-27
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0218-5
  • Improved Prediction of Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Through Machine
           Learning with Combined Use of Molecular Property-Based Descriptors and
    • Abstract: Blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability of a compound determines whether the compound can effectively enter the brain. It is an essential property which must be accounted for in drug discovery with a target in the brain. Several computational methods have been used to predict the BBB permeability. In particular, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based machine learning method, has been used popularly in this field. For SVM training and prediction, the compounds are characterized by molecular descriptors. Some SVM models were based on the use of molecular property-based descriptors (including 1D, 2D, and 3D descriptors) or fragment-based descriptors (known as the fingerprints of a molecule). The selection of descriptors is critical for the performance of a SVM model. In this study, we aimed to develop a generally applicable new SVM model by combining all of the features of the molecular property-based descriptors and fingerprints to improve the accuracy for the BBB permeability prediction. The results indicate that our SVM model has improved accuracy compared to the currently available models of the BBB permeability prediction.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0215-8
  • Development of Fc-Fused Cocaine Hydrolase for Cocaine Addiction Treatment:
           Catalytic and Pharmacokinetic Properties
    • Abstract: Cocaine abuse is a worldwide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication. Accelerating cocaine metabolism that produces biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine hydrolase (CocH) has been recognized as a promising strategy for cocaine abuse treatment. However, the therapeutic effects of CocH are limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). In this study, we designed and prepared a set of Fc-fusion proteins constructed by fusing Fc(M3) with CocH3 at the N-terminus of CocH3. A linker between the two protein domains was optimized to improve both the biological half-life and catalytic activity against cocaine. It has been concluded that Fc(M3)-G6S-CocH3 not only has fully retained the catalytic efficiency of CocH3 against cocaine but also has the longest biological half-life (e.g., ∼ 136 h in rats) among all of the long-acting CocHs identified so far. A single dose (0.2 mg/kg, IV) of Fc(M3)-G6S-CocH3 was able to significantly attenuate 15 mg/kg cocaine-induced hyperactivity for at least 11 days (268 h) after the Fc(M3)-G6S-CocH3 administration.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0214-9
  • PharmTeX: a LaTeX-Based Open-Source Platform for Automated Reporting
    • Abstract: Every year, the pharmaceutical industry generates a large number of scientific reports related to drug research, development, and regulatory submissions. Many of these reports are created using text processing tools such as Microsoft Word. Given the large number of figures, tables, references, and other elements, this is often a tedious task involving hours of copying and pasting and substantial efforts in quality control (QC). In the present article, we present the LaTeX-based open-source reporting platform, PharmTeX, a community-based effort to make reporting simple, reproducible, and user-friendly. The PharmTeX creators put a substantial effort into simplifying the sometimes complex elements of LaTeX into user-friendly functions that rely on advanced LaTeX and Perl code running in the background. Using this setup makes LaTeX much more accessible for users with no prior LaTeX experience. A software collection was compiled for users not wanting to manually install the required software components. The PharmTeX templates allow for inclusion of tables directly from mathematical software output as well and figures from several formats. Code listings can be included directly from source. No previous experience and only a few hours of training are required to start writing reports using PharmTeX. PharmTeX significantly reduces the time required for creating a scientific report fully compliant with regulatory and industry expectations. QC is made much simpler, since there is a direct link between analysis output and report input. PharmTeX makes available to report authors the strengths of LaTeX document processing without the need for extensive training. Graphical ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0202-0
  • Detection of Memory B Activity Against a Therapeutic Protein in
           Treatment-Naïve Subjects
    • Abstract: Bridging immunoassays commonly used to detect and characterize immunogenicity during biologic development do not provide direct information on the presence or development of a memory anti-drug antibody (ADA) response. In this study, a B cell ELISPOT assay method was used to evaluate pre-existing ADA for anti-TNFR1 domain antibody, GSK1995057, an experimental biologic in treatment naive subjects. This assay utilized a 7-day activation of PBMCs by a combination of GSK1995057 (antigen) and polyclonal stimulator followed by GSK1995057-specific ELISPOT for the enumeration of memory B cells that have differentiated into antibody secreting cells (ASC) in vitro. We demonstrated that GSK1995057-specific ASC were detectable in treatment-naïve subjects with pre-existing ADA; the frequency of drug-specific ASC was low and ranged from 1 to 10 spot forming units (SFU) per million cells. Interestingly, the frequency of drug-specific ASC correlated with the ADA level measured using an in vitro ADA assay. We further confirmed that the ASC originated from CD27+ memory B cells, not from CD27−-naïve B cells. Our data demonstrated the utility of the B cell ELISPOT method in therapeutic protein immunogenicity evaluation, providing a novel way to confirm and characterize the cell population producing pre-existing ADA. This novel application of a B cell ELISPOT assay informs and characterizes immune memory activity regarding incidence and magnitude associated with a pre-existing ADA response.
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0198-5
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