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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Abdominal Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.866
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-004X - ISSN (Online) 2366-0058
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Imaging findings during and after percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic
    • Abstract: Objective Imaging plays a key role in the assessment of patients before, during, and after percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors. Intra-procedural and early post-procedure imaging with CT and MRI is vital to the assessment of technical success including adequacy of ablation zone coverage. Recognition of the normal expected post-procedure findings of hepatic cryoablation such as ice ball formation, hydrodissection, and the normal appearance of the ablation zone is crucial to be able to differentiate from complications including vascular, biliary, or non-target organ injury. Delayed imaging is essential for determination of clinical effectiveness and detection of unexpected findings such as residual unablated tumor and local tumor progression. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of expected and unexpected imaging findings that may occur during or after percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors. Conclusion Differentiating expected from unexpected findings during and after hepatic cryoablation helps radiologists identify residual or recurrent tumor and detect procedure-related complications.
      PubDate: 2019-04-19
  • Using principal component analysis for the prediction of tumor response to
           transarterial chemoembolization
    • Abstract: Purpose To quantitate the tumor blush of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using principal component analysis (PCA), and to correlate the quantitated tumor blush to response to therapy. Materials and methods In this proof-of-concept study, 27 primary HCC tumors in 25 patients (18 men, 7 women; mean age 66 years ± 9) were analyzed. We conducted a retrospective analysis of TACE procedures that were performed during March through July of 2017. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was combined with PCA to condense spatial and temporal information into a single image. The tumor and liver contrast enhancements were calculated, and the ratio was used to determine the relative vascular enhancement of the tumor. Tumor response to therapy was determined at 1-month post procedure. Results Using PCA-generated fluoroscopic imaging (PCA-FI), we quantitated the tumor blush and assigned a vascular enhancement value (VEV) to each tumor. Tumors that responded to treatment (N = 12) had statistically higher VEVs compared with the nonresponders (N = 15), with a mean value of 0.96 ± 0.455 vs. 0.57 ± 0.309, (p = 0.013). Conclusions We developed a method for quantitating tumor blush using routine angiographic images. The VEVs calculated using these images may allow for the prediction of tumor response to therapy. This pilot study suggests that there is a correlation between tumor blush intensity and tumor response.
      PubDate: 2019-04-19
  • Locally advanced rectal cancer: qualitative and quantitative evaluation of
           diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in restaging after
           neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy
    • Abstract: Purpose To determine the added value of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) restaging after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods A retrospective study was performed of 21 patients with LARC treated with CRT. All patients were evaluated with 1.5 T conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DWI (0–1000 s/mm²) before starting therapy and after neoadjuvant CRT. All included patients underwent surgery after CRT: the histopathological evaluation of surgical specimens represented the reference standard for local staging after neoadjuvant therapy. The qualitative analysis was carried out by two operators in consensus, who reviewed the conventional MR image set [T1-weighted and T2-weighted morphological sequences + dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences (DCE)] and the combined set of conventional and DW images. For the quantitative analysis, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured at each examination. For each lesion, the mean ADC value (ADCpre and ADCpost) and the ΔADC (ADCpost – ADCpre) were calculated, and values of the three groups of response [complete response (pCR), partial response (pPR), stable disease (pSD)] were compared. Results In LARC restaging, conventional MRI showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 50%, with a total diagnostic capacity of 71.40%, while by adding DWI sensitivity increased to 100%, specificity to 67%, and total diagnostic capacity to 90.40%. ΔADC correlates with treatment response and a cutoff of 1.35 × 10−3 mm²/s predicts the pCR with a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 83.3%. Conclusions Adding DWI to conventional sequences may improve MRI capability to evaluate tumor response to CRT. The quantitative DWI assessment is promising, but larger studies are required.
      PubDate: 2019-04-19
  • “Giant” hydronephrosis
    • PubDate: 2019-04-16
  • Mucinous rectal cancer: concepts and imaging challenges
    • Abstract: Rectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous components is an uncommon type of rectal cancer with two distinct histologic subtypes: mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma. Mucin can also be identified as pattern of response after neoadjuvant treatment. On imaging modalities, mucin typically demonstrates high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, low attenuation on computed tomography, and may be negative on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. After neoadjuvant CRT, cellular and acellular mucin share similar imaging features, and differentiating them is currently the main challenge faced by radiologists. Radiologists should be aware of pros, cons, and limitations of each imaging modality in the primary staging and restaging to avoid misinterpretation of the radiological findings.
      PubDate: 2019-04-16
  • The role of multimodal imaging in guiding resectability and cytoreduction
           in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: focus on PET and MRI
    • Abstract: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms that secrete peptides and neuro-amines. pNETs can be sporadic or hereditary, syndromic or non-syndromic with different clinical presentations and prognoses. The role of medical imaging includes locating the tumor, assessing its extent, and evaluating the feasibility of curative surgery or cytoreduction. Pancreatic NETs have very distinctive phenotypes on CT, MRI, and PET. PET have been demonstrated to be very sensitive to detect either well-differentiated pNETs using 68Gallium somatostatin receptor (SSTR) radiotracers, or more aggressive undifferentiated pNETS using 18F-FDG. A comprehensive interpretation of multimodal imaging guides resectability and cytoreduction in pNETs. The imaging phenotype provides information on the differentiation and proliferation of pNETs, as well as the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumors with prognostic and therapeutic implications. This review provides a structured approach for standardized reading and reporting of medical imaging studies with a focus on PET and MR techniques. It explains which imaging approach should be used for different subtypes of pNET and what a radiologist should be looking for and reporting when interpreting these studies.
      PubDate: 2019-04-12
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor risk classification: spectral CT
           quantitative parameters
    • Abstract: Purpose To examine the value of spectral CT quantitative parameters in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) risk classification. Materials and methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement for informed consent was signed. The authors evaluated 86 patients (30 high risk, 22 medium risk, 28 low risk, and 6 very low risk; mean age: 59 years [range 19–83 years]) with pathologically confirmed GIST who underwent plain and triple-phase contrast-enhanced CT with spectral CT imaging mode from March 2015 through September 2017, with manual follow-up. Quantitative parameters including the CT value of 70 keV monochromatic images, the slope of spectral curves, and the normalized iodine concentration (NIC) and water (iodine) concentrations were measured and calculated, and conducted a power analysis of the above data. Results (1) The CT values at 70 keV of the high-risk group were higher than the intermediate and low groups in each of the enhanced phases (P ≤ 0.001), no significant differences in the intermediate-risk and low-risk groups were noted (P = 0.874, 0.871, 0.831, respectively). (2) The slope of the spectral curve of the high-risk group was higher than those of the intermediate and low groups in each of the enhanced phases (P ≤ 0.001), and there were no significant differences between the intermediate- and low-risk groups (P = 0.069, 0.466, 0.840, respectively). (3) The NIC of the high-risk group significantly differed from the lower risk groups (P ≤ 0.001). There was also no significant difference observed between the intermediate- and low-risk groups (P = 0.671, 0.457, 0.833, respectively). (4) The power analysis results show that only the low-risk group with delay period is 0.530, the rest groups are all greater than 0.999. Conclusion Dual-energy spectral CT with quantitative analysis may help to increase the accuracy in differentiating the pathological risk classification of GIST between high risk and non-high risk, preoperatively. There were limitations for distinguishing the intermediate- and low-risk groups.
      PubDate: 2019-04-12
  • “Horseshoe” sign in a female urethral diverticulum
    • PubDate: 2019-04-11
  • Automated segmentation and quantification of aortic calcification at
           abdominal CT: application of a deep learning-based algorithm to a
           longitudinal screening cohort
    • Abstract: Objective To investigate an automated aortic calcium segmentation and scoring tool at abdominal CT in an adult screening cohort. Methods Using instance segmentation with convolutional neural networks (Mask R-CNN), a fully automated vascular calcification algorithm was applied to a data set of 9914 non-contrast CT scans from 9032 consecutive asymptomatic adults (mean age, 57.5 ± 7.8 years; 4467 M/5447F) undergoing colonography screening. Follow-up scans were performed in a subset of 866 individuals (mean interval, 5.4 years). Automated abdominal aortic calcium volume, mass, and Agatston score were assessed. In addition, comparison was made with a separate validated semi-automated approach in a subset of 812 cases. Results Mean values were significantly higher in males for Agatston score (924.2 ± 2066.2 vs. 564.2 ± 1484.2, p < 0.001), aortic calcium mass (222.2 ± 526.0 mg vs. 144.5 ± 405.4 mg, p < 0.001) and volume (699.4 ± 1552.4 ml vs. 426.9 ± 1115.5 HU, p < 0.001). Overall age-specific Agatston scores increased an average of 10%/year for the entire cohort; males had a larger Agatston score increase between the ages of 40 to 60 than females (91.2% vs. 75.1%, p < 0.001) and had significantly higher mean Agatston scores between ages 50 and 80 (p < 0.001). For the 812-scan subset with both automated and semi-automated methods, median difference in Agatston score was 66.4 with an r2 agreement value of 0.84. Among the 866-patient cohort with longitudinal follow-up, the average Agatston score change was 524.1 ± 1317.5 (median 130.9), reflecting a mean increase of 25.5% (median 73.6%). Conclusion This robust, fully automated abdominal aortic calcification scoring tool allows for both individualized and population-based assessment. Such data could be automatically derived at non-contrast abdominal CT, regardless of the study indication, allowing for opportunistic assessment of cardiovascular risk.
      PubDate: 2019-04-11
  • Clinical significance of incidentally discovered renal cysts in pediatric
    • Abstract: Purpose To determine the clinical significance of incidentally discovered renal cysts in pediatric patients and identify imaging predictors of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods A retrospective search of radiology reports from 2000 to 2016 was performed to identify patients < 18 years old with an imaging exam identifying at least one renal cyst and a ≥ 1-year follow-up renal imaging exam for cyst evaluation and/or diagnosis of ADPKD. Cysts with clear solid mass components were excluded. Results 84 pediatric patients with renal cysts were identified (mean age, 9.5 years), including 76 patients with incidentally discovered cysts and 8 patients with cysts identified from screening for ADPKD family history. Among the incidentally discovered cyst group, 7.9% were found to have ADPKD compared with 100% of patients with cysts and ADPKD family history. Maximum cyst diameter was significantly increased in patients with ADPKD compared to patients without ADPKD (22.0 mm vs 12.7 mm; P < 0.001, Fisher’s Exact test). Multiple cysts or bilateral cysts were imaging features associated with a significantly higher (P < 0.01) incidence of ADPKD, both for the entire study population and the incidentally discovered cyst group. An increase in cyst size on the follow-up study was associated with higher incidence of ADPKD (P < 0.05). No malignancies were identified. Conclusions Incidentally discovered renal cysts in pediatric patients are associated with a small but non-zero risk of ADPKD. Among cyst characteristics, bilaterality, multiplicity, large size, and increased size on follow-up imaging were associated with a statistically significant elevation of ADPKD risk, and should prompt diagnostic evaluation.
      PubDate: 2019-04-10
  • The “inverted Napoleon’s hat” sign
    • PubDate: 2019-04-09
  • Bare area sign
    • PubDate: 2019-04-09
  • In comparison with other abdominal imaging modalities, which radiologists
           interpret abdominal MRI'
    • Abstract: Purpose To assess subspecialty mix and case volumes of general and abdominal subspecialty radiologists interpreting abdominal MRI. Methods The 2016 CMS Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master File was used to obtain billed counts of radiologist-interpreted abdominal fluoroscopy, US, CT, and MRI examinations. The CMS Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File was used to assess the subspecialty mix and case volume of the radiologists interpreting those examinations. Results The fraction of all abdominal imaging examinations interpreted by generalists and abdominal subspecialty radiologists was 70.7% and 16.5% for fluoroscopy; 68.7% and 21.0% for US; 71.4% and 19.2% for CT; and 41.9% and 52.5% for MRI. In 2016, the fraction of general and abdominal radiologists interpreting > 50 fluoroscopy examinations on Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries was 15.1% and 16.2%. For > 50 US examinations, the fraction was 61.5% and 60.5%; for > 50 CT examinations, 91.2% and 79.6%; and for > 50 MRI examinations, 4.0% and 28.5%. The fraction of abdominal imaging examinations interpreted overall by low-volume providers (those interpreting ≤ 50 examinations in 2016) was 59.5% for fluoroscopy, 17.5% for US, 6.3% for CT, and 50.6% for MRI. Conclusion Nationally, most abdominal fluoroscopy, US, and CT examinations are interpreted by general radiologists, who have similar annual volumes of these examinations as abdominal subspecialty radiologists. In contrast, most abdominal MRI examinations are interpreted by abdominal subspecialty radiologists, who attain considerably higher volumes. These findings have implications for workforce planning and abdominal imaging fellowship design to ensure their graduates are optimally prepared to contribute to their future practices.
      PubDate: 2019-04-09
  • Placenta accreta spectrum: value of placental bulge as a sign of
           myometrial invasion on MR imaging
    • Abstract: Purpose To evaluate correlation of “placental bulge sign” with myometrial invasion in placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders. Placental bulge is defined as deviation of external uterine contour from expected plane caused by abnormal outward bulge of placental tissue. Materials and methods In this IRB-approved, retrospective study, all patients undergoing MRI for PAS disorders between March 2014 and 2018 were included. Patients who delivered elsewhere were excluded. Imaging was reviewed by 2 independent readers. Surgical pathology from Cesarean hysterectomy or pathology of the delivered placenta was used as reference standard. Fisher’s exact and kappa tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Sixty-one patients underwent MRI for PAS disorders. Two excluded patients delivered elsewhere. Placental bulge was present in 32 of 34 cases with myometrial invasion [True positive 32/34 = 94% (95% CI 0.80–0.99)]. Placental bulge was absent in 24 of 25 cases of normal placenta or placenta accreta without myometrial invasion [True negative = 24/25, 96% (95% CI 80–99.8%)]. Positive and negative predictive values were 97% and 96%, respectively. Placental bulge in conjunction with other findings of PAS disorder was 100% indicative of myometrial invasion (p < 0.01). Kappa value of 0.87 signified excellent inter-reader concordance. In 1 false positive, placenta itself was normal but the bulge was present. Surgical pathology revealed markedly thinned, fibrotic myometrium without accreta. One false-negative case was imaged at 16 weeks and may have been imaged too early. Conclusions Placental bulge in conjunction with other findings of invasive placenta is 100% predictive of myometrial invasion. Using the bulge alone without other signs can lead to false-positive results.
      PubDate: 2019-04-09
  • Percutaneous stenting for malignant hilar biliary obstruction: a
           randomized controlled trial of unilateral versus bilateral stenting
    • Abstract: Purpose To compare the clinical outcomes between unilateral and bilateral metal stenting for patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHO). Methods This is a single-center, open-label, prospective, randomized study. Between January 2016 and March 2018, patients with MHO who were treated by percutaneous unilateral or bilateral metal stenting were enrolled. The primary endpoint was stent dysfunction. The secondary endpoints included technical success, clinical success, adverse events, and death. The protocol is registered at (identifier: NCT02649712). Results A total of 72 patients were randomly grouped for the unilateral (n = 36) or bilateral (n = 36) stenting. The bilateral stenting was performed through the side-by-side technique. While technically, the rates of success of unilateral and bilateral stenting were 83.3% (30/36) in both the cases (P = 1.000), the clinical rates of success in unilateral and bilateral stenting were 90.0% (27/30) and 96.7% (29/30), respectively (P = 0.605). Based on the per-protocol analysis, stent dysfunction was found in 5 and 3 patients in unilateral and bilateral groups, respectively (16.7% vs. 10.0%, P = 0.704). No predictor was observed to influence stent dysfunction. The median cumulative survival in the unilateral group was 122 days and in the bilateral group was 125 days (P = 0.844). We also observed higher levels of post-operative total bilirubin and pre-operative alanine aminotransferase, and the absence of post-operative anticancer treatment as predictors of worse survival. Conclusion When compared, the bilateral and unilateral stentings provide a similar clinical effectiveness in patients with MHO.
      PubDate: 2019-04-09
  • 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in newly diagnosed prostate cancer: diagnostic
           sensitivity and interobserver agreement
    • Abstract: Purpose To determine the diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of Gallium 68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT) imaging for diagnosis and staging of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC). Materials and methods One hundred and seventy-three men (mean age, 68 ± 7.7 years; range 46–84 years) with newly diagnosed, untreated PC were enrolled in this prospective study between January 2017 and August 2018. All patients underwent a 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT examination. For each patient, we determined the disease stage, the Gleason score, and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for primary prostatic tumor and extraprostatic metastases. The diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for diagnosis and staging of PC were established by histopathology as the reference standard. Results 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT examinations were interpreted as positive for PC in 166 of 173 patients (101 patients had primary prostatic tumor only, two patients had extraprostatic metastases only and 63 patients had combined lesions). The sensitivity of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT examination in the diagnosis of PC was 96%. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT produced a significant change of stage in 28.6% patients with an upstage in 17.9% patients and a downstage in 10.7% patients. The interobserver agreements were almost good to perfect (k = 0.63–0.89) for visual image interpretation, SUVmax measurement, and tumor staging. Conclusion 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT is a valuable tool with high diagnostic sensitivity (96%) and high reproducibility for diagnosis and staging of patients with newly diagnosed PC.
      PubDate: 2019-04-08
  • Ischiorectal fossa: benign and malignant neoplasms of this “ignored”
           radiological anatomical space
    • Abstract: Purpose To review the pertinent anatomy and the imaging features of common and uncommon benign and malignant neoplasms and masses of the ischiorectal fossa. Results The ischiorectal or ischioanal fossa is the largest space in the anorectal region. The benign neoplasms that develop in the ischiorectal originate from the different components that forms the fossa including vascular tumors such as aggressive angiomyxoma or hemangioma; neural tumors as plexiform neurofibroma or schwannoma; fat tumors as lipoma; skin/skin appendages tumors as hidradenoma papilliferum; smooth or skeletal muscle tumors as solitary fibrous tumor. The malignant neoplasms that develop in the ischiorectal fossa also originate from different components that forms the fossa including vascular tumors such as angiosarcoma, neural tumors as malignant granular cell tumor and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; fat tumors as liposarcoma; smooth or skeletal muscle tumors as leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant PEComa, or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Additionally, the ischiorectal fossa can also harbor secondary hematogenous metastases and be affected by direct invasion from neoplasms of adjacent pelvic organs and structures. Furthermore, other miscellaneous masses can occur in the ischiorectal fossa including congenital and developmental lesions, and inflammatory and infectious processes. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy, and the spectrum of imaging findings of common and uncommon benign and malignant neoplasms of the ischiorectal fossa is crucial for the radiologists during interpretation of images allowing them to make contributions to the diagnosis and better patient management.
      PubDate: 2019-04-06
  • Revisiting quantitative multi-parametric MRI of benign prostatic
           hyperplasia and its differentiation from transition zone cancer
    • Abstract: Purpose This study investigates the multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) appearance of different types of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and whether quantitative mpMRI is effective in differentiating between prostate cancer (PCa) and BPH. Materials and methods Patients (n = 60) with confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3T MRI. T2-weighted, multi-echo T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced images (DCE) were obtained prior to undergoing prostatectomy. PCa and BPH (cystic, glandular or stromal) were identified in the transition zone and matched with MRI. Quantitative mpMRI metrics: T2, ADC and DCE-MRI parameters using an empirical mathematical model were measured. Results ADC values were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in PCa compared to all BPH types and can differentiate between PCa and BPH with high accuracy (AUC = 0.87, p < 0.001). T2 values were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in PCa compared to cystic BPH only, while glandular (p = 0.27) and stromal BPH (p = 0.99) showed no significant difference from PCa. BPH mimics PCa in the transition zone on DCE-MRI evidenced by no significant difference between them. mpMRI values of glandular (ADC = 1.31 ± 0.22 µm2/ms, T2 = 115.7 ± 37.3 ms) and cystic BPH (ADC = 1.92 ± 0.43 µm2/ms, T2 = 242.8 ± 117.9 ms) are significantly different. There was no significant difference in ADC (p = 0.72) and T2 (p = 0.46) between glandular and stromal BPH. Conclusions Multiparametric MRI and specifically quantitative ADC values can be used for differentiating PCa and BPH, improving PCa diagnosis in the transition zone. However, DCE-MRI metrics are not effective in distinguishing PCa and BPH. Glandular BPH are not hyperintense on ADC and T2 as previously thought and have similar quantitative mpMRI measurements to stromal BPH. Glandular and cystic BPH appear differently on mpMRI and are histologically different.
      PubDate: 2019-04-06
  • Interobserver agreement of computed tomography reporting standards for
           chronic pancreatitis
    • Abstract: Aim To assess the interobserver agreement of computed tomography (CT) reporting standards for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Subjects and methods Retrospective analysis of CT of 47 patients (33 males and 11 females, age range 36 to 56 years) with CP who presented with abdominal pain (n = 41), steatorrhea (n = 37), and glucose intolerance (n = 31). The patients underwent CT study using a 16-multidetector CT scanner with a pancreatic protocol including a nonenhanced scan followed by pancreatic phase at 35 s and portal venous phase at 65 s after intravenous injection of nonionic contrast medium. Image analysis was performed by two radiologists according to reporting standards for CP. Results There was excellent interobserver agreement (84.8 %) between the two reviewers in CT reporting standards for CP (K = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.75–0.85, P = 0.001). There was good interobserver agreement for pancreatic duct (PD) caliber (K = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.56–0.87, P = 0.001), PD contour (K = 0.76, 95 % CI 0.61–0.91, P = 0.001), PD stricture (K = 0.070, 95 % CI 0.53–0.88, P = 0.001), and distribution of findings (K = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51–0.86, P = 0.001). There was excellent interobserver agreement for intraductal calculi (K = 0.84, 95 % CI 0.68–0.98, P = 0.001), pancreatic calcifications (K = 0.86, 95 % CI 0.84–0.98, P = 0.001), and pancreatic diameter (K = 0.87, 95 % CI 0.75–0.99, P = 0.001). Conclusion CT reporting standards for CP is a reliable method for diagnosis of patients with CP.
      PubDate: 2019-04-06
  • Hepatic disorders associated with exogenous sex steroids: MR imaging
    • Abstract: Objective To describe the MRI findings of the effects of exogenous sex steroids on the liver. Findings Estrogens, progesterone and synthetic testosterone are exogenous sex steroids that may result in a variety of liver diseases, including tumour formation and vascular disorders. These hormones are mainly administered in the form of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and anabolic steroids. Both are implicated in hepatic adenoma formation. The HNF-1α-mutated and inflammatory adenoma subgroups are more commonly seen in association with the OCP whereas there is an increased incidence of the β-catenin positive subtype with anabolic steroid use. Furthermore, anabolic steroids are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma resulting from malignant transformation of β-catenin positive adenomas. The oral contraceptive pill may also induce vascular disorders within the liver, some of which are related to the prothrombotic effect of the hormones, such as hepatic and portal vein thrombosis. Other hepatic vascular abnormalities resulting from exogenous sex steroids include veno-occlusive disease and peliosis hepatis.
      PubDate: 2019-04-06
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