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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Abdominal Imaging
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 60]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2366-004X - ISSN (Online) 2366-0058
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • The draped aorta sign of impending aortic aneurysm rupture
    • Authors: Eduardo Kaiser Ururahy Nunes Fonseca; Adham do Amaral e Castro; Amanda de Vasconcelos Chambi Tames; Eduardo Matarolo Jayme; Omir Antunes Paiva; Luis Ricardo Sokolowski
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1114-7
  • The “polka-dot” sign
    • Authors: Da Jung Kim; Euddeum Shim; Baek Hyun Kim; Suk Keu Yeom
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1109-4
  • Evaluating histologic differentiation of hepatitis B virus-related
           hepatocellular carcinoma using intravoxel incoherent motion and AFP levels
           alone and in combination
    • Authors: Qungang Shan; Jingbiao Chen; Tianhui Zhang; Ronghua Yan; Jun Wu; Yunhong Shu; Zhuang Kang; Bingjun He; Zhongping Zhang; Jin Wang
      Abstract: Purpose To evaluate histologic differentiation of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived metrics and to compare findings with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels alone and in combination. Materials and method One hundred and six chronic HBV-related HCC patients who underwent IVIM diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with eleven b values were enrolled. Mean ADC, diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) values were determined for all detected lesions. The metrics and AFP levels of different histologically differentiated groups were compared. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the statistical dependence among the histologically differentiated HCCs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate diagnostic performance of these metrics and AFP levels alone and in combination. Results ADC, D, and f values and AFP levels were significantly different among well-, moderately, and poorly differentiated HCCs. The four metrics were significantly correlated with histologic differentiation. The area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC) of ADC, D, f, and AFP for diagnosing well-differentiated HCCs was 0.903, 0.84, 0.782, and 0.806, respectively, and the AUC-ROC of above metrics for diagnosing poorly differentiated HCCs was 0.787, 0.726, 0.624, and 0.633, respectively. The combination of ADC and AFP provided an AUC-ROC of 0.945 for well-differentiated HCC. However, this did not provide better performance for diagnosing poorly differentiated HCC. Conclusion ADC, IVIM metrics, and AFP levels may be useful for evaluating histologic differentiation of HBV-related HCCs, and the combination of ADC and AFP provides better diagnostic performance for well-differentiated HCC.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1107-6
  • Snowstorm testes
    • Authors: Eduardo Kaiser Ururahy Nunes Fonseca; Fernando Ide Yamauchi; Leonardo Lima Borges; Miguel José Francisco Neto; Ronaldo Hueb Baroni
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1110-y
  • The “stipple sign”
    • Authors: Virginia Planz; Raymond B. Dyer
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1106-7
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for differentiating benign from malignant
           solid small renal masses: comparison with contrast-enhanced CT
    • Authors: Shu-Ping Wei; Chao-Li Xu; Qing Zhang; Qi-Rui Zhang; Yan-E Zhao; Peng-Fei Huang; Ying-Dong Xie; Chang-Sheng Zhou; Fu-Li Tian; Bin Yang
      Abstract: Purpose The study aimed to compare the diagnostic efficiency of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in the evaluation of benign and malignant small renal masses (SRMs) (<4 cm) confirmed by pathology. Methods A total of 118 patients with 118 renal masses smaller than 4 cm diagnosed by both CEUS and CECT were enrolled in this study, including 25 benign lesions and 93 malignant lesions. All lesions were confirmed by histopathologic diagnosis after surgical resection. The diagnostic imaging studies of the patients were retrospectively reviewed by two independent ultrasonologists and two independent radiologists blinded to the CT or ultrasound findings and final histological results. All lesions on both CEUS and CECT were independently scored on a 3-point scale (1: benign, 2: equivocal, and 3: malignant). The concordance between interobserver agreement was interpreted using a weighted kappa statistic. The diagnostic efficiency of the evaluation of benign and malignant lesions was compared between CEUS and CECT. Results All the 118 included lesions were detected by both CEUS and CECT. In CEUS and CECT imaging evaluation of the 118 lesions, the weighted kappa value interpreting the concordance between interobserver agreement was 0.89 (95% CI 0.79–0.98) and 0.93 (95% CI 0.87–0.99), respectively. Both CEUS and CECT demonstrated good diagnostic performance in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant SRMs with sensitivity of 93.5% and 89.2%, specificity of 68% and 76%, PPV of 91.6% and 93.3%, NPV of 73.9% and 65.5%, and AUC of 0.808 and 0.826, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in any of the diagnostic performance indices between these two methods (P > 0.05). However, the qualitative diagnosis of small papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by CEUS was significantly better than that by CECT (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in qualitative diagnostic accuracy on other histotypes of SRMs between CEUS and CECT (P > 0.05). Conclusions Both CEUS and CECT imaging modalities are effective for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant SRMs. Furthermore, CEUS may be more effective than CECT for the qualitative diagnosis of small papillary RCC.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1111-x
  • Adnexal masses associated with peritoneal involvement: diagnosis with CT
           and MRI
    • Authors: Audrey Ognong-Boulemo; Anthony Dohan; Christine Hoeffel; Agatha Stanek; François Golfier; Olivier Glehen; Pierre-Jean Valette; Pascal Rousset
      Abstract: Abstract Given the unique intra-peritoneal anatomic location of the adnexa, tubo-ovarian diseases can commonly spread into the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneal seeding may occur in a spectrum of adnexal conditions including infectious diseases, endometriosis, and benign or malignant primary or secondary ovarian tumors. CT is usually the imaging modality on which the concomitant involvement of the peritoneum and the ovary is depicted. The first diagnosis to be considered by the radiologist is generally peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer but other conditions cited above have also to be borne in mind and may be suggested on the basis of careful assessment of CT findings or on further MR findings. MRI may indeed help characterize the lesions in some cases. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical and imaging patterns of peritoneal involvement that may be found in association with different ovarian lesions. Familiarity with these patterns and diagnoses will help the radiologist narrow the differential diagnosis and make an accurate diagnosis, thus facilitating patient management and avoiding unnecessary invasive treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1089-4
  • Chilaiditi sign
    • Authors: Venkatraman Indiran; Kanakaraj Kannan; T. Ramachandra Prasad; Prabakaran Maduraimuthu
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1104-9
  • Texture analysis of the liver at MDCT for assessing hepatic fibrosis
    • Authors: Meghan G. Lubner; Kyle Malecki; John Kloke; Balaji Ganeshan; Perry J. Pickhardt
      Abstract: Purpose To evaluate CT texture analysis (CTTA) for staging of hepatic fibrosis (stages F0–F4) Methods Quantitative texture analysis (QTA) of the liver was performed on abdominal MDCT scans using commercially available software (TexRAD), which uses a filtration-histogram statistic-based technique. Single-slice ROI measurements of the total liver, Couinaud segments IV-VIII, and segments I–III were obtained. CTTA parameters were correlated against fibrosis stage (F0–F4), with biopsy performed within one year for all cases with intermediate fibrosis (F1–F3). Results The study cohort consisted of 289 adults (158M/131W; mean age, 51 years), including healthy controls (F0, n = 77), and patients with increasing stages of fibrosis (F1, n = 42; F2 n = 37; F3 n = 53; F4 n = 80). Mean gray-level intensity increased with fibrosis stage, demonstrating an ROC AUC of 0.78 at medium filtration for F0 vs F1-4, with sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 74% at cutoff 0.18. For significant fibrosis (≥F2), mean showed AUCs ranging from 0.71–0.73 across medium- and coarse- filtered textures with sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 68% at cutoff of 0.3, with similar performance also observed for advanced fibrosis (≥F3). Entropy showed a similar trend. Conversely, kurtosis and skewness decreased with increasing fibrosis, particularly in cirrhotic patients. For cirrhosis (≥F4), kurtosis and skewness showed AUCs of 0.86 and 0.87, respectively, at coarse-filtered scale, with skewness showing a sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 75% at cutoff of 1.3. Conclusion CTTA may be helpful in detecting the presence of hepatic fibrosis and discriminating between stages of fibrosis, particularly at advanced levels.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1096-5
  • High-pitch low-dose abdominopelvic CT with tin-filtration technique for
           detecting urinary stones
    • Authors: Gu-Mu-Yang Zhang; Bing Shi; Hao Sun; Hua-Dan Xue; Yun Wang; Ji-Xiang Liang; Kai Xu; Ming Wang; Man Wang; Min Xu; Zheng-Yu Jin
      Abstract: Objectives To evaluate urinary stone detection, radiation exposure, image quality, breathing-motion artifacts, and scanning time with high-pitch tin filter-based abdominopelvic CT. Methods Sixty-three consecutive patients with urolithiasis underwent non-enhanced abdominopelvic CT with both regular (120 kV, pitch 0.6) and low-dose (Sn150kV, pitch 3.0) protocols on a third-generation dual-source CT. Stone characteristics, image noise (SD), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), subjective image quality on a 5-point likert scale breathing-motion artifacts, and scanning time were evaluated. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (ED) were compared. Results A total of 157 urinary stones were detected by regular protocol; 154 were correctly identified by low-dose protocol with an overall detection rate of 98.1%. No significant differences were observed in SD, SNR, or subjective image quality between two protocols (P > 0.05). Compared to regular protocol, CTDIvol and ED were 56.6% (7.19 vs. 3.12 mGy, P < 0.001) and 55.6% (5.25 vs. 2.33 mSv, P < 0.001) lower; scanning time was 89.5% (7.9 vs. 0.83, P < 0.001) shorter; and breathing-motion artifacts were fewer (8 vs. 0 patients) with low-dose protocol. Conclusions High-pitch abdominopelvic CT with Sn150kV substantially reduced radiation exposure and scanning time, while maintained stone detection and image quality and prevented breathing-motion artifacts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1103-x
  • Pathologic correlation of transperineal in-bore 3-Tesla magnetic resonance
           imaging-guided prostate biopsy samples with radical prostatectomy specimen
    • Authors: Erik Velez; Andriy Fedorov; Kemal Tuncali; Olutayo Olubiyi; Christopher B. Allard; Adam S. Kibel; Clare M. Tempany
      Abstract: Purpose To determine the accuracy of in-bore transperineal 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided prostate biopsies for predicting final Gleason grades in patients who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods A retrospective review of men who underwent transperineal MR imaging-guided prostate biopsy (tpMRGB) with subsequent radical prostatectomy within 1 year was conducted from 2010 to 2015. All patients underwent a baseline 3-T multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) with endorectal coil and were selected for biopsy based on MR findings of a suspicious prostate lesion and high degree of clinical suspicion for cancer. Spearman correlation was performed to assess concordance between tpMRGB and final RP pathology among patients with and without previous transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. Results A total of 24 men met all eligibility requirements, with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 11.7). The median time from biopsy to RP was 85 days (IQR 50.5). Final pathology revealed Gleason 3 + 4 = 7 in 12 patients, 4 + 3 = 7 in 10 patients, and 4 + 4 = 8 in 2 patients. A strong correlation (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001) between tpMRGB and RP results was observed, with Gleason scores concordant in 17 cases (71%). 16 of the 24 patients underwent prior TRUS biopsies. Subsequent tpMRGB revealed Gleason upgrading in 88% of cases, which was concordant with RP Gleason scores in 69% of cases (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001). Conclusion Final Gleason scores diagnosed by tpMRGB at 3-T correlate strongly with final RP surgical pathology. This may facilitate prostate cancer diagnosis, particularly in patients with negative or low-grade TRUS biopsy results in whom clinically significant cancer is suspected or detected on mpMRI.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1102-y
  • Placental recess accompanied by a T2 dark band: a new finding for
           diagnosing placental invasion
    • Authors: Tomomi Sato; Naoko Mori; Osamu Hasegawa; Takeshi Shigihara; Keiya Fujimori; Kazuhiro Tasaki; Fumio Shishido
      Abstract: Purpose Our aim was to assess the usefulness of a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding, the placental recess, for diagnosing placental invasion. Methods This retrospective study included 51 patients (mean age 34.1 years, range 26–43 years) with suspected placental invasion who underwent cesarean section. Preoperative MRI was performed using a 1.5-T unit and included axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with half-Fourier fast spin-echo sequences. Overall, 9 patients showed placental invasion, and 42 did not. Placental recess was defined as a placental deformity with contraction of the placental surface and outer rim of the uterus accompanied by a T2 dark band. Two radiologists independently assessed the presence of the placental recess and conventional findings including uterine bulging, abnormal placental vascularity, placental heterogeneous intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and the T2 dark band. Fisher’s two-sided exact test was used to compare findings between patients with and without placental invasion. Interobserver reliability was assessed using the kappa statistic. Results MRI features had interobserver reliability of >0.40. Placental recess yielded the highest kappa value (0.898). Significant differences were identified between patients with and without placental invasion regarding abnormal placental vascularity, placental heterogeneous intensity, a T2 dark band, and the placental recess on T2WI (p = 0.0282, 0.0003, 0.0003, <0.0001, respectively). The placental recess had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of 56, 100, 100, 91, and 92%, respectively. Conclusion The placental recess was useful for diagnosing placental invasion, with high interobserver variability and accuracy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1100-0
  • Post-Whipple imaging in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma:
           association with overall survival: a multivariate analysis
    • Authors: Azadeh Elmi; Janet Murphy; Sandeep Hedgire; Shaunagh McDermott; Seyed-Mahdi Abtahi; Elkan Halpern; Carlos Fernandez-del Castillo; Mukesh Harisinghani
      Abstract: Purpose To compare the survival outcomes in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who had regular imaging surveillance with those who had clinical follow-up after Whipple. Method We identified 229 patients, who underwent Whipple for resection of PDAC from 2005 to 2011, and had regular postoperative clinical follow-up at our hospital. Patients were retrospectively selected for two follow-up groups: imaging surveillance (IS) defined as routine imaging at scheduled intervals, vs. clinical (C) defined as imaging triggered by either change in clinical status or change in CA19-9. Follow-up was obtained through the hospital and Cancer Data Registry records. Survival was calculated from the date of surgery to death or last follow-up, with data censored as of March 13, 2013. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were compared using the log-rank test, and Cox regression models were used for multivariate analysis. Results Patients were followed for a mean period of 24.35 ± 2.56 months. IS-group underwent significantly more imaging (4.41 vs. 2.08 scans/year). The most frequent imaging was CT of chest and abdomen at 3–4 month interval. Univariate associations with overall survival were detected with post-Whipple ECOG status, T-stage, N-stage, tumor grade, surgical margin, recurrence, and IS. In multivariate analysis, grade, ECOG status, and recurrence were independent predictors of survival. Also, our predictor of interest, IS, was highly associated with longer survival in multivariate modeling (median overall survival, 30.4±3.85 (IS-group) vs. 17.1 ± 2.42 (C-groups) month, log-rank p = 0.002). Conclusion Routine imaging surveillance was associated with prolonged overall survival post-Whipple in a multivariate model. This is a hypothesis-generating finding that should be studied prospectively and could ultimately impact surveillance guidelines.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1099-2
  • Quantitative computer-aided diagnostic algorithm for automated detection
           of peak lesion attenuation in differentiating clear cell from papillary
           and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and fat-poor
           angiomyolipoma on multiphasic multidetector computed tomography
    • Authors: Heidi Coy; Jonathan R. Young; Michael L. Douek; Matthew S. Brown; James Sayre; Steven S. Raman
      Abstract: Objective To evaluate the performance of a novel, quantitative computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithm on four-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect peak lesion attenuation to enable differentiation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from chromophobe RCC (chRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma (fp-AML). Materials and methods We queried our clinical databases to obtain a cohort of histologically proven renal masses with preoperative MDCT with four phases [unenhanced (U), corticomedullary (CM), nephrographic (NP), and excretory (E)]. A whole lesion 3D contour was obtained in all four phases. The CAD algorithm determined a region of interest (ROI) of peak lesion attenuation within the 3D lesion contour. For comparison, a manual ROI was separately placed in the most enhancing portion of the lesion by visual inspection for a reference standard, and in uninvolved renal cortex. Relative lesion attenuation for both CAD and manual methods was obtained by normalizing the CAD peak lesion attenuation ROI (and the reference standard manually placed ROI) to uninvolved renal cortex with the formula [(peak lesion attenuation ROI − cortex ROI)/cortex ROI] × 100%. ROC analysis and area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess diagnostic performance. Bland–Altman analysis was used to compare peak ROI between CAD and manual method. Results The study cohort comprised 200 patients with 200 unique renal masses: 106 (53%) ccRCC, 32 (16%) oncocytomas, 18 (9%) chRCCs, 34 (17%) pRCCs, and 10 (5%) fp-AMLs. In the CM phase, CAD-derived ROI enabled characterization of ccRCC from chRCC, pRCC, oncocytoma, and fp-AML with AUCs of 0.850 (95% CI 0.732–0.968), 0.959 (95% CI 0.930–0.989), 0.792 (95% CI 0.716–0.869), and 0.825 (95% CI 0.703–0.948), respectively. On Bland–Altman analysis, there was excellent agreement of CAD and manual methods with mean differences between 14 and 26 HU in each phase. Conclusion A novel, quantitative CAD algorithm enabled robust peak HU lesion detection and discrimination of ccRCC from other renal lesions with similar performance compared to the manual method.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1095-6
  • Type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma: differentiation from Type 2
           papillary RCC on multiphasic MDCT
    • Authors: Jonathan R. Young; Heidi Coy; Michael Douek; Pechin Lo; James Sayre; Allan J. Pantuck; Steven S. Raman
      Abstract: Purpose To investigate whether multiphasic MDCT enhancement can help differentiate type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from type 2 papillary RCC. Methods With IRB approval for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, we derived a cohort of 36 type 1 papillary RCCs and 33 type 2 papillary RCCs with preoperative multiphasic MDCT with up to four phases (unenhanced, corticomedullary, nephrographic, and excretory) from 2000 to 2013. Following segmentation, a computer-assisted detection (CAD) algorithm selected a 0.5 cm-diameter region of maximal attenuation within each lesion in each phase; a 0.5 cm-diameter region of interest was manually placed on uninvolved renal cortex in each phase. The relative attenuation of each lesion was calculated as [(Lesion attenuation−cortex attenuation)/cortex attenuation] × 100. Absolute and relative attenuation values were compared using Mann–Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results Relative excretory phase attenuation of type 2 papillary RCCs was significantly greater than that of type 1 papillary RCCs (2.0 vs. −18.3, p = 0.005). Relative excretory phase attenuation differentiated type 1 papillary RCCs from type 2 papillary RCCs with an accuracy of 73% (36/49), sensitivity of 87% (26/30), positive predictive value of 74% (26/35), and negative predictive value of 71% (10/14). Conclusion Multiphasic MDCT enhancement may assist in differentiating type 1 papillary RCCs from type 2 papillary RCCs, if prospectively validated.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1091-x
  • Split-bolus CT urogram: Is less more'
    • Authors: Hiram Shaish; Jeffrey H. Newhouse
      Abstract: Purpose To determine the accuracy of split-bolus CT urogram (SB-CTU) without special maneuvers for ureteral distention in diagnosing upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UCA). Materials and methods A hospital database was searched from 1/1/10, to 9/1/15, for SB-CTU exams without special maneuvers for ureteral distention. Accuracy of SB-CTU for detecting upper and lower urinary tract UCA was computed by comparing the prospective radiology report with cystoscopy, ureteroscopy, and/or urologic clinical follow-up. Patients with less than 12 months of clinical follow-up were excluded. Results 339 studies were identified in 334 patients (60% male 40% female, avg. age 64). 119 studies were performed for microhematuria, 150 for gross hematuria, 13 for hematuria not otherwise specified, 57 for history of UCA, and one for a collecting system mass on a prior CT. There were five upper tract and 33 bladder tumors with overall prevalence of 1.5% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence varied significantly with patient age and clinical indication for SB-CTU. There were one false negative and four false positives for upper urinary tract UCA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detecting upper tract and bladder tumors were 80%, 99%, 44%, and 100%, respectively, and 55%, 98%, 78%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Based on this study, SB-CTU without special maneuvers for ureteral distention is highly sensitive for detecting upper tract UCA, although with a low positive predictive value, false positives do occur. The clinical utility of increasing accuracy in diagnosing this low-prevalence disease through other more complex CT urogram protocols should be weighed against the added cost and radiation dose associated with these protocols.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1098-3
  • Cholangiocarcinoma: classification, diagnosis, staging, imaging features,
           and management
    • Authors: Irai S. Oliveira; Aoife Kilcoyne; Jamie M. Everett; Mari Mino-Kenudson; Mukesh G. Harisinghani; Karthik Ganesan
      Abstract: Abstract Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively uncommon malignant neoplasm with poor prognosis. The distinction between extrahepatic and intrahepatic subtypes is important as epidemiological features, biologic and pathologic characteristics, and clinical course are different for both entities. This review study focuses on the role imaging plays in the diagnosis, classification, staging, and post-treatment assessment of cholangiocarcinoma.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1094-7
  • Abdominal schwannomas: review of imaging findings and pathology
    • Authors: Nam Ju Lee; Ralph H. Hruban; Elliot K. Fishman
      Abstract: Abstract Schwannomas are typically slow growing, encapsulated benign neoplasms. Visceral schwannomas are rare, and preoperative diagnosis is challenging, as they are often confused with other neoplasms even with advanced imaging studies. Surgical excision is usually needed to establish a definitive diagnosis, as pathology is the “gold standard.” We review the imaging findings of abdominal schwannomas focusing on pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and retroperitoneal/adrenal schwannomas with pathology correlation. We conclude that schwannoma should be included in the broad differential diagnosis of an abdominal mass and that when it is unnecessary radical resection can be avoided.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1088-5
  • Renal tumors with low signal intensities on T2-weighted MR image:
           radiologic-pathologic correlation
    • Authors: Youyeon Kim; Deuk Jae Sung; Ki Choon Sim; Na Yeon Han; Beom Jin Park; Min Ju Kim; Sung Bum Cho
      Abstract: Abstract Accurate characterization of renal masses is essential for ensuring appropriate management. Low T2 signal intensity is a common feature of papillary renal cell carcinoma and fat-poor angiomyolipoma. Nonetheless, other types of renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, hemangioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma, and urothelial cell carcinoma also can show low signal intensities on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). Histopathologic features that can lead to low T2 signal intensities in renal tumors include smooth muscle component, papillary architecture, a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and hemorrhage. To establish an appropriate differential diagnosis for renal tumors on MRI, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the MR signal intensities and the histopathologic and morphologic features, in addition to contrast enhancement patterns and diffusion characteristics of the tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1097-4
  • Usefulness of 3D balanced turbo-field-echo MR sequence evaluating the
           branching pattern of the intrahepatic bile ducts: comparison with drip
           infusion CT cholangiography
    • Authors: Masaki Ogawa; Yoshiyuki Ozawa; Kengo Ohta; Tomoya Sekiguchi; Shingo Omata; Misugi Urano; Yoichi Matsuo; Yuta Shibamoto
      Abstract: Purpose For liver surgery, it is crucial to preoperatively examine the course of the right posterior bile duct. While MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) can only visualize the bile ducts, 3D balanced turbo-field-echo (BTFE) sequence clearly depicts the bile ducts and portal veins as well as drip infusion CT cholangiography (DIC-CT), without contrast media. We evaluated whether BTFE could substitute for DIC-CT. Materials and methods Thirty patients undergoing MRCP and BTFE on 1.5-T MR and DIC-CT were evaluated. Two readers retrospectively evaluated the branching pattern (supra-type: A–C or infra-type: D–E) and scored the degree of confidence and motion artifacts using a 3-point scale for the three 2-mm-thick reconstructed images. Results The bile duct diameter did not differ between DIC-CT and MRCP (p = 0.07). Five patients (17%) had intrahepatic biliary dilatation (>3 mm). The A, B, C, D, and E types were diagnosed in 21, 6, 1, 1, and 1 patient, respectively (28 supra-types and 2 infra-types) on DIC-CT. For DIC-CT, MRCP, and BTFE, the mean motion artifact scores were 3.0/3.0, 2.7/2.6, and 2.9/2.8, respectively. The mean diagnostic confidence scores were 2.9/2.9, 2.4/2.4, and 2.9/2.8, respectively, with no difference between DIC-CT and BTFE. The concordance between DIC-CT and BTFE was high (infra- or supra-type: κ = 1.00/1.00, A–E: κ = 0.86/0.66), but it was poor between DIC-CT and MRCP (infra- or supra-type: κ = 0.35/−0.05, A–E: κ = 0.33/0.41) for both readers. Conclusions Similar to DIC-CT, the BTFE MR sequence had high diagnostic accuracy regarding the branching pattern of the intrahepatic bile duct, especially for the supra/infraportal type.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1093-8
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