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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Abdominal Imaging
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 60]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2366-004X - ISSN (Online) 2366-0058
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Imaging features of papillary renal cell carcinoma with cystic
           change-dominant appearance in the era of the 2016 WHO classification
    • Authors: Yukiko Honda; Keisuke Goto; Yuko Nakamura; Hiroaki Terada; Kazuhiro Sentani; Wataru Yasui; Yohei Sekino; Tetsutaro Hayashi; Jun Teishima; Akio Matsubara; Tomoyo Fuji; Yoko Kaichi; Toru Higaki; Yasutaka Baba; Makoto Iida; Kazuo Awai
      Abstract: Purpose Papillary renal cell carcinoma (P-RCC) typically exhibits a homogeneous, solid hypovascular mass; P-RCC with a cystic appearance is atypical. Tubulocystic RCC (TC-RCC), a newly proposed entity for renal tumors in the 2016 WHO classification, and cystic papillary RCC, may yield similar imaging findings. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of papillary RCC with cystic changes and compared its CT and pathologic features to differentiate between two entities. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 26 consecutive patients diagnosed with P-RCC. Two radiologists consensually identified dominant masses indicative of cystic changes on CT scans and recorded their Bosniak classification. In addition, two pathologists inspected the whole area of tumors macroscopically, labeled them as solid- or cystic change-dominant tumors, determined the pathogenesis of the cystic components (necrosis or hemorrhage), and recorded their inherent cystic characteristics (with/without TC-RCC components). We defined masses with cystic changes involving more than 50% of the entire tumor as cystic change-dominant tumors. Results Of the 26 tumors, 7 (27%) were diagnosed cystic change-dominant based on imaging and pathologic findings, of these, 2 were classified as Bosniak type III and 5 as Bosniak type IV. The pathologists confirmed that two type IV tumors demonstrated extensive necrosis and one type IV tumor revealed extensive hemorrhage. Four P-RCCs (type III and IV, 2 each) were of a mixed type harboring both solid and cystic components. Only one tumor exhibited a multilocular cystic appearance. All 7 cystic change-dominant P-RCCs were pathologically diagnosed as a pure P-RCC without TC-RCC components. Conclusion While P-RCCs may contain cystic features, the multilocular type of cystic P-RCC is rare.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1189-1
       
  • “Zebra pattern” in necrotizing enterocolitis
    • Authors: Eduardo Kaiser Ururahy Nunes Fonseca; Marco Philipe Teles Reis Ponte; Yoshino Tamaki Sameshima
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1191-7
       
  • Cottage loaf sign
    • Authors: S. Moliere
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1185-5
       
  • Fertility-sparing for young patients with gynecologic cancer: How MRI can
           guide patient selection prior to conservative management
    • Authors: Sinead H. McEvoy; Stephanie Nougaret; Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum; Hebert Alberto Vargas; Elizabeth A. Sadowski; Christine O. Menias; Fuki Shitano; Shinya Fujii; Ramon E. Sosa; Joanna G. Escalon; Evis Sala; Yulia Lakhman
      Abstract: Historically, cancer treatment has emphasized measures for the “cure” regardless of the long-term consequences. Advances in cancer detection and treatment have resulted in improved outcomes bringing to the fore various quality of life considerations including future fertility. For many young cancer patients, fertility preservation is now an integral component of clinical decision-making and treatment design. Optimal fertility-sparing options for young patients with gynecologic cancer are influenced by patient age, primary cancer, treatment regimens, and patient preferences. Possible approaches include embryo or oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian transposition, conservative surgery, and conservative medical treatment to delay radical surgery. These may be used alone or in combination to maximize fertility preservation. Awareness of the various fertility-sparing options, eligibility criteria, and the central role of magnetic resonance imaging in the proper selection of patients will enable radiologists to produce complete clinically relevant imaging reports and serve as effective consultants to referring clinicians. Knowledge of the potential imaging pitfalls is essential to avoid misinterpretation and guide appropriate management.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1179-3
       
  • Real-time elastography (RTE): a valuable sonography-based non-invasive
           method for the assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B
    • Authors: Tianyi Wang; Cuiping Shao; Guosheng Zhang; Youqing Xu
      Abstract: Purpose To investigate the diagnostic usefulness of real-time elastography (RTE) for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods 89 CHB patients were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsies, RTE, and blood testing were performed in all patients. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used to examine the diagnostic performance of liver fibrosis index (LFI) for the assessment of liver fibrosis. Results LFI differed significantly across histologic fibrosis stages (P < 0.05), except the comparison between S0 and S1 (P = 0.298). There was a strong positive correlation between LFI and histologic liver fibrosis stage (Spearman r = 0.831, P < 0.001). The cutoff LFI value of >2.74 indicated a sensitivity of 0.766 and a specificity of 0.872 for predicting significant liver fibrosis (S ≥ 2), and the cutoff LFI value of >3.61 indicated a sensitivity of 0.833 and a specificity of 0.878 for predicting early liver cirrhosis (S = 4). LFI showed higher AUROC for discriminating significant liver fibrosis (0.873 vs. 0.614) and early liver cirrhosis (0.923 vs. 0.769) than aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Conclusions RTE is a valuable sonography-based non-invasive method for assessment of liver fibrosis and has better discrimination power for significant liver fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis than APRI in CHB.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1186-4
       
  • Diagnostic accuracy for neoplastic IPMN: does the contrast make the
           difference'
    • Authors: Andrea Lisotti; Pietro Fusaroli
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1187-3
       
  • Utility of CT oral contrast administration in the emergency department of
           a quaternary oncology hospital: diagnostic implications, turnaround times,
           and assessment of ED physician ordering
    • Authors: Corey T. Jensen; Katherine J. Blair; Ott Le; Jia Sun; Wei Wei; Brinda Rao Korivi; Ajaykumar C. Morani; Nicolaus A. Wagner-Bartak
      Abstract: Purpose To compare studies with and without oral contrast on performance of multidetector computed tomography (CT) and the order to CT examination turnaround time in cancer patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). To the best of our knowledge, oral contrast utility has not previously been specifically assessed in cancer patients presenting to the emergency department. Materials & methods Retrospective review of CT abdomen examinations performed in oncology patients presenting to the emergency department during one month. CT examinations performed with and without oral contrast were rated by two consensus readers for degree of confidence and diagnostic ability. Correlations were assessed for primary cancer type, age, sex, chief complaint/examination indication, body mass index, intravenous contrast status, repeat CT examination within 4 weeks, and disposition. Turnaround times from order to the start of the CT examination were calculated. Results The studied group consisted of 267 patients (127 men and 140 women) with a mean age of 56 years and a mean body mass index of 27.8 kg/m2. One hundred sixty CT examinations were performed without oral contrast, and 107 CT examinations were performed with oral contrast. There was no significant difference between cases with oral contrast and cases without oral contrast in the number of cases rated as “improved confidence” (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–1.31, P = 0.17), “improved diagnosis” (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.20–1.64, P = 0.3), “impaired confidence” (OR 3.92, 95% CI 0.46–33.06, P = 0.21), or “impaired diagnosis” (OR 2.63, 95% CI 0.29–23.89, P = 0.39). The turnaround time in the group receiving oral contrast (mean, 141 min; standard deviation, 49.8 min) was significantly longer than that in the group not receiving oral contrast (mean, 109.2 min; standard deviation, 64.8 min) with a mean difference of 31.8 min (P < 0.0001). Conclusion On the basis of our findings and prior studies, targeted rather than default use of oral contrast shows acceptable diagnostic ability in the emergency setting for oncology patients. Benefit from oral contrast use is suggested in scenarios such as suspected fistula/bowel leak/abscess, hypoattenuating peritoneal disease, prior bowel surgery such as gastric bypass, and the absence of intravenous contrast administration. Improvement through the use of targeted oral contrast administration also supports the emergency department need for prompt diagnosis and disposition.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1175-7
       
  • Fully navigated 3 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver
           metastases with inner-volume saturation
    • Authors: Carolin Reischauer; Andreas Hock; Orpheus Kolokythas; Christoph A. Binkert; Andreas Gutzeit
      Abstract: Purpose To demonstrate that fully navigated magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with inner-volume saturation (IVS) at 3 T results in high-quality spectra that permit evaluating metabolic changes in hepatic metastases without the need for patient compliance. Methods Nine patients with untreated, biopsy-proven large hepatic metastases (minimum diameter of 3 cm) were included. In each patient, localized proton MRS was performed in the metastatic lesion and in uninvolved liver parenchyma. To improve quality and consistency of proton MRS, navigator gating was thereby performed not only during acquisition of the spectroscopic data but also during localization imaging and throughout the preparation phases. IVS was utilized to reduce chemical shift displacement between different metabolites and to diminish flow artifacts. Metabolite quantities were normalized relative to the unsuppressed water peak and choline-containing compounds (CCC) to lipid ratios were determined. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess differences in the amounts of lipids and CCC as well as the CCC-to-lipid ratios between liver metastases and normal-appearing liver parenchyma. Results Fully navigated point-resolved spectroscopy with IVS resulted in high-quality spectra in all patients. Navigator gating during localization imaging and spectroscopic acquisition thereby ensured a precise localization of the spectroscopic voxel. Decreased quantities of lipid and CCC were observed in metastatic tissue compared with uninvolved liver parenchyma. However, the latter trend fell short of statistical significance. Moreover, elevated levels of the CCC-to-lipid ratios were detected in metastatic tissue relative to normal-appearing liver parenchyma. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that fully navigated MRS of the liver with IVS at 3 T allows for a precise localization of the spectroscopic voxel and results in high-quality spectra that permit evaluating liver metabolism without the need for patient compliance.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1173-9
       
  • Pictorial review of vascular involvement and complex vascular
           reconstructions in borderline to minimally advanced pancreatic
           malignancies
    • Authors: Donald L. Ly; Seng Thipphavong; Boraiah Sreeharsha
      Abstract: Purpose To review borderline resectability criteria for pancreatic malignancies, show examples of few surgically treated minimally advanced pancreatic malignancies, discuss various complex vascular reconstructions, and highlight the imaging appearances. Background Often aggressive surgical approaches are used to treat borderline to minimally advanced pancreatic malignancies in specialist centers. As abdominal radiologists it is essential to have up-to-date knowledge to distinguish such tumors with accuracy and also be well versed with the various vascular reconstructions used in such surgeries. Imaging findings We will show various examples of resected borderline resectable and minimally advanced pancreatic malignancies, highlight crucial vascular involvements, describe various types of advanced vascular reconstructions, and review their standard imaging appearances. We will also briefly describe the vascular complications and highlight the importance of imaging surveillance in early post-operative period. Conclusions It is essential for abdominal radiologists in specialist centers where aggressive surgical approaches are used to have accurate knowledge to assess vascular involvement in pancreatic malignancies and equally to recognize and assess vascular reconstructions on imaging after complex surgeries.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1172-x
       
  • The football sign
    • Authors: Meshal Ali Alshahrani; Faisal Fahad Aloufi; Faisal Mohammed Alabdulkarim; Abdulrahman Hesham Nadrah
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1177-5
       
  • Quantitative assessment of the degree of differentiation in colon cancer
           with dual-energy spectral CT
    • Authors: Yang Chuang-bo; He Tai-ping; Duan Hai-feng; Jia Yong-jun; Zhang Xi-rong; Ma Guang-ming; Ren Chenglong; Wang Jun; Yu Yong
      Abstract: Objective To evaluate dual-energy spectral CT imaging in evaluating the degree of differentiation in colon cancer. Methods Forty-seven colon cancer patients underwent spectral CT during arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP), and were characterized pathologically differentiated to well-differentiated (A, n = 18) and poorly differentiated or undifferentiated carcinoma group (B, n = 29). Lesion iodine concentration (IC) was measured and normalized to that of aorta (NIC). CT numbers were measured and the slope (λ HU) of the spectral HU curve was calculated. These parameters were statistically compared between the two groups. ROC curves were used to evaluate their diagnostic efficacies. Results There were significant differences in IC (1.01 ± 0.20 vs. 1.59 ± 0.57 mg/ml), NIC (0.12 ± 0.03 vs. 0.19 ± 0.09), λ HU (1.41 ± 0.29 vs. 2.03 ± 0.85), and CT number at 70 keV (48.61 ± 9.03HU vs. 63.97 ± 15.86HU) between groups A and B in AP (p < 0.05), but no difference in PP. Using IC = 1.13 mg/ml in AP as the threshold, one obtained a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 71.4% for differentiating well-differentiated from poorly differentiated or undifferentiated carcinoma. These values were statistically higher than those (64.7% and 62.3%) using CT number at 70 keV. Conclusion Spectral CT imaging parameters (IC, NIC, and λ HU) in AP provide improved accuracy for evaluating the degrees of differentiation in colon cancer than CT number at 70 keV.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1176-6
       
  • Arterial injury during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for
           hepatocellular carcinoma: predictors of risk and outcome
    • Authors: Hironori Onizuka; Eijun Sueyoshi; Hideki Ishimaru; Ichiro Sakamoto; Masataka Uetani
      Abstract: Purpose To investigate clinical features and results of follow-up in patients with arterial injury during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods From 2005 to 2015, 2219 TACE procedures were performed in 906 patients in our hospital. Iatrogenic arterial injury occurred during 38 TACE procedures (sessions) in 35 patients (24 men, 11 women; mean age 71.8 years). The incidence of arterial injury was 1.7%. We evaluated the characteristics of arterial injury, and evaluated the risk factors for incomplete recanalization of the injured artery at follow-up angiography conducted after 1–11 months (mean 102.5 days). Results Iatrogenic arterial injury was caused by the microcatheter in 34 of 38 cases (86.8%). There were 15 cases (39.5%) in which the replaced hepatic artery or the extrahepatic artery was the parasitic supply. Extravasation occurred in five cases. In 36 of 38 cases, follow-up angiography was performed. We divided 36 cases into two groups: complete reopening (n = 24) and non-complete reopening (n = 12). The two groups were compared regarding the factors associated with incomplete recanalization of the injured artery at follow-up. Injury length >3 cm (p = 0.0002) and proximal arterial injury (proximal to the segmental artery; p = 0.03) were significant risk factors for non-complete reopening of the injured artery. Conclusion Iatrogenic arterial injury frequently occurred in the extrahepatic artery or replaced hepatic artery. Recanalization rate of arterial injury was high; however, injury length >3 cm and proximal arterial injury were risk factors for non-complete reopening of the injured artery.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1168-6
       
  • Quality of routine diagnostic abdominal images generated from a novel
           detector-based spectral CT scanner: a technical report on a phantom and
           clinical study
    • Authors: Mojgan Hojjati; Steven Van Hedent; Negin Rassouli; Curtis Tatsuoka; David Jordan; Amar Dhanantwari; Prabhakar Rajiah
      Abstract: Purpose To evaluate the image quality of routine diagnostic images generated from a novel detector-based spectral detector CT (SDCT) and compare it with CT images obtained from a conventional scanner with an energy-integrating detector (Brilliance iCT), Routine diagnostic (conventional/polyenergetic) images are non-material-specific images that resemble single-energy images obtained at the same radiation, Methods ACR guideline-based phantom evaluations were performed on both SDCT and iCT for CT adult body protocol. Retrospective analysis was performed on 50 abdominal CT scans from each scanner. Identical ROIs were placed at multiple locations in the abdomen and attenuation, noise, SNR, and CNR were measured. Subjective image quality analysis on a 5-point Likert scale was performed by 2 readers for enhancement, noise, and image quality. Results On phantom studies, SDCT images met the ACR requirements for CT number and deviation, CNR and effective radiation dose. In patients, the qualitative scores were significantly higher for the SDCT than the iCT, including enhancement (4.79 ± 0.38 vs. 4.60 ± 0.51, p = 0.005), noise (4.63 ± 0.42 vs. 4.29 ± 0.50, p = 0.000), and quality (4.85 ± 0.32, vs. 4.57 ± 0.50, p = 0.000). The SNR was higher in SDCT than iCT for liver (7.4 ± 4.2 vs. 7.2 ± 5.3, p = 0.662), spleen (8.6 ± 4.1 vs. 7.4 ± 3.5, p = 0.152), kidney (11.1 ± 6.3 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0, p = 0.033), pancreas (6.90 ± 3.45 vs 6.11 ± 2.64, p = 0.303), aorta (14.2 ± 6.2 vs. 11.0 ± 4.9, p = 0.007), but was slightly lower in lumbar-vertebra (7.7 ± 4.2 vs. 7.8 ± 4.5, p = 0.937). The CNR of the SDCT was also higher than iCT for all abdominal organs. Conclusion Image quality of routine diagnostic images from the SDCT is comparable to images of a conventional CT scanner with energy-integrating detectors, making it suitable for diagnostic purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1170-z
       
  • Nontraumatic large bowel perforation: spectrum of etiologies and CT
           findings
    • Authors: Kunal Kothari; Barak Friedman; Gregory M. Grimaldi; John J. Hines
      Abstract: Abstract Large bowel perforation is an abdominal emergency that results from a wide range of etiologies. Computed tomography is the most reliable modality in detecting the site of large bowel perforation. The diagnosis is made by identifying direct CT findings such as extraluminal gas or contrast and discontinuity along the bowel wall. Indirect CT findings can help support the diagnosis, and include bowel wall thickening, pericolic fat stranding, abnormal bowel wall enhancement, abscess, and a feculent collection adjacent to the bowel. Common etiologies that cause large bowel perforation are colon cancer, foreign body aspiration, stercoral colitis, diverticulitis, ischemia, inflammatory and infectious colitides, and various iatrogenic causes. Recognizing a large bowel perforation on CT can be difficult at times, and there are various entities that may be misinterpreted as a colonic perforation. The purpose of this article is to outline the MDCT technique used for evaluation of suspected colorectal perforation, discuss relevant imaging findings, review common etiologies, and point out potential pitfalls in making the diagnosis of large bowel perforation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1180-x
       
  • Gastroduodenal and pancreatic surgeries: indications, surgical techniques,
           and imaging features
    • Authors: Nishant A. Patel; Katherine E. Maturen; Scott E. Regenbogen; Mahmoud M. Al-Hawary; Ravi K. Kaza; Ashish P. Wasnik
      Abstract: Abstract This review article focuses on gastroduodenal and pancreatic surgeries with the goal of identifying radiologic findings that translate to important surgical considerations. The topics covered include partial gastrectomy with reconstruction techniques, total gastrectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and pancreaticojejunostomy. Indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, and postoperative imaging are described within each of these topics. Knowledge of these surgical techniques is extremely helpful for the interpreting radiologists to identify expected postoperative anatomy and related complications that would remain clinically relevant to our surgical colleagues and direct timely patient management.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1165-9
       
  • Novel contrast-injection protocol for high-resolution abdominal
           CT-angiography: vascular visualization improvement with vasodilator
    • Authors: Minori Hoshika; Kotaro Yasui; Takefumi Niguma; Toru Kojima; Norimi Nishiyama; Daisuke Suzuki; Izumi Togami
      Abstract: Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of a novel contrast-injection protocol for high-resolution abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) using nitroglycerin (NTG). Methods Abdominal CTA was performed in 80 patients using two 64-detector-row CT scanners. Forty patients were examined after administration of sublingual NTG (NTG group), while 40 were examined without NTG administration (non-NTG group). Arterial phase images were acquired with maximum intensity projection and volume rendering. Reduction rates: vessel cross-sectional areas ratio of 10 cm distal to origin at the superior mesenteric artery, contrast enhancements, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were assessed. Three reviewers evaluated degree of depiction of the peripancreatic vasculature using a four-point scale (1 = poor, 4 = excellent). Results Reduction rates were significantly lower in the NTG group (P < 0.001), while there were no significant differences in contrast enhancements, SNR, or CNR between groups. Visual evaluation results of the NTG group were significantly better than those of the non-NTG group (P < 0.01). Conclusion Abdominal CTA using NTG improved visualization of the abdominal peripheral vessels. This improved arterial view may be beneficial for preoperative evaluation of the arterial anatomy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1163-y
       
  • Letter to the editor
    • Authors: Jonathan Lyske; Raghuram Sathyanarayana
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1178-4
       
  • Unilateral versus bilateral stent insertion for malignant hilar biliary
           obstruction
    • Authors: Gang Chang; Feng-Fei Xia; Hong-Fu Li; Su Niu; Yuan-Shun Xu
      Abstract: Purpose To determine the clinical efficiency and long-term outcomes between unilateral and bilateral stent insertion in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction. Methods From August 2012 to February 2016, 63 consecutive patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction were treated with unilateral or bilateral stent insertion at our center. The bilateral stents were inserted using the side-by-side technique. The clinical efficiency and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results Unilateral and bilateral stent insertions were successfully performed in 31 of 33 and 27 of 30 patients, respectively (P = 0.912). No procedure-related complication occurred. Clinical success was achieved in 29 of 31 patients in the unilateral stent group and in 26 of 27 patients in the bilateral stent group (P = 0.637). During the follow-up, re-obstruction of stent occurred in five patients in the unilateral stent group and in three patients in the bilateral stent group (P = 0.58). The significant differences were not observed in the stent patency time (368 vs. 387 days, P = 0.685) and survival (200 vs. 198 days, P = 0.751) between two groups. Based on the univariate and multivariate analyses, the independent risk factors for decreasing the survival time included higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P = 0.018), higher alanine aminotransferase level (P = 0.009), and absence of anticancer treatment after stent insertion (P = 0.002). Conclusion Compared to bilateral stent insertion for malignant hilar biliary obstruction, unilateral stent insertion can provide comparable clinical efficiency and long-term outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1174-8
       
  • Hepatic venous pressure gradient correlates with advanced hepatic
           fibrosis: a retrospective review
    • Authors: Jonathan K. Vincent; Christopher Stark; Joseph T. Shields; Anant D. Bhave; Christopher S. Morris
      Abstract: Purpose To determine if hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) correlates with advanced hepatic fibrosis, as a complement to transjugular (transvenous) core needle liver biopsy. Materials and methods After institutional review board approval, a retrospective review was conducted on 340 patients who underwent transjugular (transvenous) core needle liver biopsy with concurrent pressure measurements between 6/1/2007 and 6/1/2013. Spearman correlation and linear regression were performed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was created and sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. Results Indications included hepatitis C, abnormal liver function tests, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and cirrhosis, among others. Biopsies showed stage 1 or 2 fibrosis in 15.6% each, stage 3 fibrosis in 21.6%, stage 4 fibrosis in 40.7%, and no fibrosis in 6.5%. Mean HVPG was 6.5 mm Hg (SD 5.0) with a range of 0–26 mm Hg. Spearman correlation coefficient for association between HVPG and fibrosis stage was 0.561 (p < 0.001). R2 on linear regression was 0.247 (p < 0.001). ROC curve for the prediction of stage 4 fibrosis had an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% CI 0.73–0.85). HVPG of ≥6 mm Hg had a sensitivity of 71.3%, specificity of 79.6%, positive predictive value of 70.5%, negative predictive value of 80.2%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.49 (95% CI 2.45–4.97) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.36 (95% CI 0.26–0.50) for diagnosis of stage 4 fibrosis. Conclusions HVPG correlates with stage 4 (advanced) hepatic fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1171-y
       
  • Evaluation of biliary ductal anatomy in potential living liver donors:
           comparison between MRCP and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI
    • Authors: D. Santosh; A. Goel; I. W. Birchall; A. Kumar; K. H. Lee; V. H. Patel; G. Low
      Abstract: Purpose To compare magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of the biliary anatomy in potential living liver donors (LLDs). Methods A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care liver transplant center after obtaining ethics and institutional approvals. A total of 42 potential LLD MRI examinations were performed between November 2013 and March 2016. All patients underwent a standard MRI protocol which included MRCP and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI sequences in a single session. Three abdominal MR radiologists independently reviewed the studies and completed a customized data collection sheet for each MR sequence. The readers subjectively scored the bile duct visualization on each MR sequence on a Likert scale and classified the biliary anatomic configuration. Statistical analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient and the McNemar Chi-square (χ 2) test. Results The 42 potential LLDs included 22 males and 20 females with an age range of 18–60 years. There was ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ inter-reader agreement on either MRI examination for the visualization of the first- and second-order ducts and the majority of third-order ducts. ‘Good’ inter-reader agreement on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and ‘fair’ inter-reader agreement on MRCP was noted for the left third-order medial duct. There was significantly better visualization of the cystic duct, left hepatic duct, and right second-order ducts on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI compared with MRCP. A 12.6% improvement in classifying the biliary branch pattern was also observed on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI compared with MRCP (P = 0.03). Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI provides additional diagnostic confidence over MRCP in the evaluation of the biliary ductal anatomy in potential LLDs.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-017-1157-9
       
 
 
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