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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Abdominal Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.866
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-004X - ISSN (Online) 2366-0058
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Teardrop sign
    • Abstract: We have submitted an interesting image of teardrop sign on prostate MRI.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • Distinguished Reviewer Acknowledgements
    • PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • Diffusion tensor imaging of the kidney in healthy controls and in children
           and young adults with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
    • Abstract: Objective To compare diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the kidneys and its derived parameters in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) versus healthy controls. Methods In a prospective IRB-approved study, we evaluated the use of DTI to compare kidney parenchyma FA values in healthy controls (age-matched children with no history of renal disease) versus patients with ARPKD. A 20-direction DTI with b-values of b = 0 s/mm2 and b = 400 s/mm2 was used to acquire data in coronal direction using a fat-suppressed spin-echo echo-planar sequence. Diffusion Toolkit and TrackVis were used for analysis and segmentation. TrackVis was used to draw regions of interest (ROIs) covering the entire volume of the renal parenchyma, excluding the collecting system. Fibers were reconstructed using a deterministic fiber tracking algorithm. The FA values based on the ROI data, mean length, and volume of the tracks based on the fiber tracking data were recorded. Results Eight healthy controls (mean age = 12.9 years ± 4.0; 1/8 males) and six ARPKD participants (mean age = 13.8 years ± 8.5; 5/6 males) were included in the study. Compared to healthy controls, patients with ARPKD had significantly lower FA values (0.33 ± 0.03 vs. 0.25 ± 0.02, p = 0.002) and mean track length (16.73 ± 3.43 vs. 11.61 ± 1.29 mm, p = 0.005). Conclusion DTI of the kidneys shows significantly lower FA values and mean track length in children and young adults with ARPKD compared to normal subjects. DTI of the kidney offers a novel approach for characterizing renal disease based on changes in diffusion anisotropy and kidney structure.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • Differentiating IgG4-related sclerosing cholangiopathy from
           cholangiocarcinoma using CT and MRI: experience from a tertiary referring
    • Abstract: Purpose To compare the cross-sectional imaging findings of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangiopathy (IgG4-SC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Methods Retrospective search of radiology and pathology databases identified 24 patients with IgG4-SC and over 500 patients with CCA from January 2009 to December 2016. Patients with no pre-treatment imaging studies available on PACS, non-contrasted imaging only, presence of mass lesions, metastatic disease or biliary stents were excluded. 17 patients with IgG4-SC and a selected group of 20 (age and gender matched) patients with CCA were obtained. Images were blinded and independently reviewed by two radiologists. Differences in proportions and means between groups were analyzed using Fishers and Mann–Whitney tests, respectively. Results Both readers identified a statistically significant difference in the presence of abrupt common bile duct narrowing between IgG4-SC and CCA (6.7% vs. 68.4%, p < 0.001; 33.3% vs. 75%, p = 0.019). No difference was seen in biliary wall thickening, wall enhancement, extrahepatic exclusive location of disease, or pancreatic duct dilation. Inter-observer variability was κ = 0.52. Total bilirubin and CA 19-9 were unable to differentiate between IgG4-SC and CCA. Serum IgG4 was positive in two of six IgG4-SC patients who were tested. Conclusion IgG4-SC and CCA share many clinical and imaging findings on CT and MRI. Abrupt bile duct cut sign strongly favors CCA. In the absence of this finding, IgG4-SC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in all cases of suspected extrahepatic CCA.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • The “kissing sign” of liver and spleen
    • PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • MR findings of uterine PEComa in patients with tuberous sclerosis: report
           of two cases
    • Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a rare autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder, is characterized by the presence of benign congenital tumors in multiple organs. Neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComas), including angiomyolipoma (AML) and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), can occur in association with TSC. This report describes two cases of uterine PEComas presenting characteristic MR imaging features reflecting pathological findings. From MR images, both cases showed single or multiple large, irregularly shaped or lobulated hemorrhagic lesions within the myometrium. They differed from typical adenomyotic cysts in their large size and irregular margins. Histopathologic analysis revealed that the hemorrhage was caused by adenomyosis and tumor cells that proliferated in surrounding stroma of the hemorrhagic lesions, compatible with PEComas. Microscopic observation revealed an infiltrative growth pattern of PEComas, with small nodules formed. The tumor lesions, however, were difficult to detect on MR images. The myometrium showed normal appearance on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images in both cases. We speculate that PEComas may infiltrate extensively into the myometrium even when the myometrium shows almost normal radiologic appearance.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Deep learning and radiomics: the utility of Google TensorFlow™ Inception
           in classifying clear cell renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma on
           multiphasic CT
    • Abstract: Purpose Currently, all solid enhancing renal masses without microscopic fat are considered malignant until proven otherwise and there is substantial overlap in the imaging findings of benign and malignant renal masses, particularly between clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and benign oncocytoma (ONC). Radiomics has attracted increased attention for its utility in pre-operative work-up on routine clinical images. Radiomics based approaches have converted medical images into mineable data and identified prognostic imaging signatures that machine learning algorithms can use to construct predictive models by learning the decision boundaries of the underlying data distribution. The TensorFlow™ framework from Google is a state-of-the-art open-source software library that can be used for training deep learning neural networks for performing machine learning tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value and feasibility of a deep learning-based renal lesion classifier using open-source Google TensorFlow™ Inception in differentiating ccRCC from ONC on routine four-phase MDCT in patients with pathologically confirmed renal masses. Methods With institutional review board approval for this 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study and a waiver of informed consent, we queried our institution’s pathology, clinical, and radiology databases for histologically proven cases of ccRCC and ONC obtained between January 2000 and January 2016 scanned with a an intravenous contrast-enhanced four-phase renal mass protocol (unenhanced (UN), corticomedullary (CM), nephrographic (NP), and excretory (EX) phases). To extract features to be used for the machine learning model, the entire renal mass was contoured in the axial plane in each of the four phases, resulting in a 3D volume of interest (VOI) representative of the entire renal mass. We investigated thirteen different approaches to convert the acquired VOI data into a set of images that adequately represented each tumor which was used to train the final layer of the neural network model. Training was performed over 4000 iterations. In each iteration, 90% of the data were designated as training data and the remaining 10% served as validation data and a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme was implemented. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values, and CIs were calculated for the classification of the thirteen processing modes. Results We analyzed 179 consecutive patients with 179 lesions (128 ccRCC and 51 ONC). The ccRCC cohort had a mean size of 3.8 cm (range 0.8–14.6 cm) and the ONC cohort had a mean lesion size of 3.9 cm (range 1.0–13.1 cm). The highest specificity and PPV (52.9% and 80.3%, respectively) were achieved in the EX phase when we analyzed the single mid-slice of the tumor in the axial, coronal and sagittal plane, and when we increased the number of mid-slices of the tumor to three, with an accuracy of 75.4%, which also increased the sensitivity to 88.3% and the PPV to 79.6%. Using the entire tumor volume also showed that classification performance was best in the EX phase with an accuracy of 74.4%, a sensitivity of 85.8% and a PPV of 80.1%. When the entire tumor volume, plus mid-slices from all phases and all planes presented as tiled images, were submitted to the final layer of the neural network we achieved a PPV of 82.5%. Conclusions The best classification result was obtained in the EX phase among the thirteen classification methods tested. Our proof of concept study is the first step towards understanding the utility of machine learning in the differentiation of ccRCC from ONC on routine CT images. We hope this could lead to future investigation into the development of a multivariate machine learning model which may augment our ability to accurately predict renal lesion histology on imaging.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Perianal sepsis: surgical perspective and practical MRI reporting for
    • Authors: Edwin Ho; Matthew J. F. X. Rickard; Michael Suen; Anil Keshava; Charlotte Kwik; Yang-Yi Ong; Jessica Yang
      Abstract: This article describes the development of a structured MRI reporting template and diagrammatic worksheet for perianal sepsis through collaboration between radiologists and colorectal surgeons at our institution, and the rationale behind each component of the worksheet. Benefits of this reporting worksheet include optimizing communication of key imaging findings that have a real impact on patient management, less time spent on reporting the study, and easier comparison between studies. We illustrate the utility of the report template with case studies. We summarize the current surgical approaches to perianal sepsis to help radiologists focus on reporting the findings relevant to surgical planning.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01920-9
  • Morphological predictors for lymph node metastases on computed tomography
           in colon cancer
    • Authors: Erik Rollvén; Lennart Blomqvist; Emma Öistämö; Fredrik Hjern; György Csanaky; Mirna Abraham-Nordling
      Abstract: Introduction/Background The aim of the study was to assess morphological predictors for lymph node metastases (Stage III disease) in colon cancer on computed tomography. Methods and materials Ninety-four patients with histology-proven colon cancer (adenocarcinoma) who underwent elective primary curative resection between the years 2012 and 2014 were included. Contrast-enhanced CT examinations were independently reviewed by two blinded observers regarding tumor location, depth of tumor invasion, and presence of lymph node metastases. Ocular presence of internal heterogeneity and presence of irregular outer border were used as morphological criteria for lymph node involvement. Protocol-based histopathology after curative surgery served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, and accuracy for each morphological criterion for prediction of stage III disease were calculated. Inter-observer agreement was compared using Kappa statistics. Results According to histopathology, 59 patients were staged as I–II disease and 35 patients were staged as stage III disease. The presence of internal heterogeneity in a lymph node on CT resulted in moderate sensitivity (66–77%) but high specificity (95–95%) for prediction of Stage III disease by both observers. The presence of irregular outer border also resulted in poor sensitivity (49–54%) but high specificity (97–97%). The combination of either internal heterogeneity and/or irregular outer border per patient resulted in a moderate sensitivity (67–77%) and high specificity (95–95%), PPV (89–96%), and NPV (84–88%). Inter-observer agreement (Cohens Kappa) was 0.72. Consensus reading for the combined criteria resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Using morphological criteria for lymph node metastases on CT examination in patients with colon cancer results in high specificity but moderate sensitivity in predicting stage III disease.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01900-z
  • A case of human pancreatic eurytremiasis
    • Authors: Hiroshi Ogawa; Yasuo Takehara; Shinji Naganawa; Junpei Yamaguchi; Masato Nakaguro
      Abstract: This study provides the first comprehensive imaging report of human pancreatic eurytremiasis. A 43-year-old man with obstructive jaundice and a pancreatic tumor was referred for diagnosis and treatment. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were elevated. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a multilocular cystic lesion with delayed enhanced area in the pancreas head. On magnetic resonance imaging, the tumor was hyperintense on diffusion-weighted image, and the apparent diffusion coefficient value of the tumor was lower than that of the normal pancreatic parenchyma. Positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-d-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) revealed abnormally increased uptake of 18F-FDG in the tumor. A subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed on the preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma accompanied by branch duct-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Multifocal granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas including many parasite eggs were seen on the histology. The final diagnosis was pancreatic eurytremiasis.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01925-4
  • Acquired diverticular disease of the jejunum and ileum: imaging features
           and pitfalls
    • Authors: P. Lebert; O. Ernst; M. Zins
      Abstract: Purpose To present radiological aspects of jejunoileal diverticulosis and its complications. Results Jejunoileal diverticulosis is a relatively rare and underestimated condition, which mostly affects the elderly. It is frequently asymptomatic but it can lead to significant complications requiring surgical treatment. Jejunoileal diverticulosis is far less common than colonic diverticulosis. Acquired small bowel diverticula are often numerous but the complication rate is low. Acute diverticulitis is the most frequent complication; its classic presentation involves the jejunum and is often non-severe. Diverticular hemorrhage is the second most common complication; CT scan examination is essential to determine the accurate topography of the pathological diverticula. Small bowel obstruction can occur through several mechanisms: adhesions, enterolith, and intussusception. Extra-intestinal gas without perforation and “pseudo-ischemic” appearance are non-pathological conditions that are important to diagnose in order to avoid surgery. Conclusion Jejunoileal diverticulosis usually does not show any symptoms but can lead to diagnostic challenges requiring evaluation by CT. CT scan signs of these complications and some pitfalls must be known.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01928-1
  • Analyzing the post-contrast attenuation of the esophageal wall on routine
           contrast-enhanced MDCT examination can improve the diagnostic accuracy in
           response evaluation of the squamous cell esophageal carcinoma to
           neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in comparison with the esophageal wall
    • Authors: Aleksandra Djuric-Stefanovic; Aleksandra Jankovic; Dusan Saponjski; Marjan Micev; Suzana Stojanovic-Rundic; Milena Cosic-Micev; Predrag Pesko
      Abstract: Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the response evaluation of the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) by analyzing the thickness and post-contrast attenuation of the esophageal wall after the nCRT. Methods Contrast-enhanced (CE)-MDCT examinations in portal venous phase of one hundred patients with locally advanced ESCC who received nCRT and underwent esophageal resection and histopathology assessment of tumor regression grade (TRG) were retrospectively analyzed by measuring the maximal thickness and mean density of the esophageal wall in the segment involved by tumor and visually searching for hyperdense foci within it. Diagnostic performance was evaluated using the ROC analysis. Results Average attenuation of the esophageal wall had stronger diagnostic performance for predicting pathologic complete regression (pCR) (AUC = 0.994; p < 0.001) in relation to maximal esophageal wall thickness (AUC = 0.731; p < 0.001). Maximal esophageal wall thickness ≤ 9 mm and average attenuation of the esophageal wall ≤ 64 HU predicted pCR with the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 62.5%, 77.9%, and 73%, and 96.9%, 98.5%, and 98%, respectively. Combination of both cutoff values enabled correct assessment of pCR with the 100% accuracy. Visual detection of the hyperdense focus within the esophageal wall predicted pCR with the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy values of 100%, 94.1%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion Visual analysis and measurement of post-contrast attenuation of the esophageal wall after the nCRT can improve diagnostic accuracy of MDCT in the response evaluation of the ESCC to nCRT in comparison with measuring the esophageal wall thickness.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01911-w
  • Transnasal stent-assisted targeting technique for percutaneous jejunostomy
           placement in patients with hiatal hernias
    • Authors: Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick; Neil Jairath; Joseph J. Gemmete; Anthony N. Hage; Jacob J. Bundy; Nishant A. Patel; Evan J. Johnson; Mamdouh Khayat; Ravi N. Srinivasa
      Abstract: Purpose To report the transnasal stent-assisted targeting technique for percutaneous jejunostomy placement in patients with hiatal hernias. Materials and methods Four patients, including three (75%) females and one (25%) male, with mean age of 77.5 years (range 73–78 years), and with a hiatal hernia and intrathoracic stomach precluding gastrostomy placement and loop snare placement into the mid-jejunum underwent the transnasal stent-assisted targeting technique for percutaneous jejunostomy placement. In all patients, a duodenal stent was inserted into the jejunum in a transnasal fashion. The stent was partially unsheathed in an anterior loop of jejunum and percutaneously targeted using an 18-gauge needle through which a guidewire was advanced, trapped within the stent, and removed through the nose. The tract was serially dilated and a jejunostomy was placed. Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, radiation exposure, complications, time to enteral feeding, and follow-up were recorded. Results Technical success was 100% (4/4) with all four patients requiring only one needle pass before successful jejunal cannulation. Mean procedure time was 108 min. Mean fluoroscopy time was 44 min. Mean dose area product was 3969.3 μGym2. No minor or major complications occurred. All four patients received enteral feeding one day after the procedure. Mean follow-up was 366 days. Conclusion The transnasal stent-assisted targeting technique is a novel method for primary jejunostomy placement in patients with hiatal hernias.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01905-8
  • Ultrasound versus computed tomography for the detection of ureteral
           calculi in the pediatric population: a clinical effectiveness study
    • Authors: Nathaniel P. Roberson; Jonathan R. Dillman; Pramod O. Reddy; William DeFoor; Andrew T. Trout
      Abstract: Objective To determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasound for diagnosing ureteral calculi in children using a clinical effectiveness approach. Methods Billing records and imaging reports were used to identify children (≤ 18 years old) evaluated for suspected urolithiasis using ultrasound between March 2012 and March 2017. Patients without unenhanced CT within 24 h (reference standard) were excluded. Imaging (ultrasound and CT) reports were reviewed for presence, number, size, and location of calculi. Diagnostic performance of ultrasound (versus CT) was calculated on an individual ureter basis both by direct calculus visualization as well as direct visualization combined with suspected presence of ureteral stone based on indirect ultrasound findings. Results 41 ureteral calculi were present in 38 of 69 (55.1%) patients. Mean patient age was 14.7 ± 3.6 years, and 35 of 69 (51%) patients were boys. Based on direct calculus visualization, ultrasound had a sensitivity of 12.8% (95% CI 5.6–26.7%), specificity of 100% (95% CI 96.3–100%), positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% (95% CI 56.6–100%), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 74.4% (95% CI 66.4–81.1%). When ultrasound examinations reported as suspicious for ureteral calculi based on indirect findings also were considered positive, ultrasound had a sensitivity of 41.0% (95% CI 27.1–56.6%), specificity of 95.0% (95% CI 88.7–97.8%), PPV of 76.2% (95% CI 54.9–89.4%), and NPV of 80.3% (95% CI 72.2–86.5%). Conclusions In clinical practice, ultrasound has low sensitivity for directly visualizing ureteral calculi subsequently identified by CT, although sensitivity improves when considering suspicious examinations as positive.
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01927-2
  • Imaging-guided percutaneous thrombin injection for the treatment of
           iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms
    • Authors: Wendy L. Ehieli; Erol Bozdogan; Gemini Janas; Tracy A. Jaffe; Chad M. Miller; Mustafa R. Bashir; Brian C. Allen
      Abstract: Purpose To evaluate factors that may affect successful ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (PSA). Materials and methods This was an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study of 326 consecutive subjects (138 males, 188 females; mean age 68 years, range 18–95) who underwent thrombin injection for treatment of femoral PSA; follow-up ultrasound was available in 145 subjects. The number of PSA lobes and dimensions, pre-procedure laboratory values (international normalized ratio [INR], activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], platelet count), and concomitant anticoagulation therapy were recorded. Results Technical success was achieved in 98.2% (320/326) of subjects. Primary effectiveness (complete thrombosis at 24 h) was achieved in 74.5% (108/145). Twenty-five subjects underwent repeat thrombin injection, successful in 21 subjects, for a total effectiveness rate of 97.0% (129/133). No imaging factor was associated with technique failure, including number of lobes (p = 0.898), largest dimension (p = 0.344), or volume (p = 0.697). No statistically significant difference in pre-procedure INR, aPTT, or platelet count was found between subjects with CT and those with IT (p > 0.138). Anticoagulation therapy was associated with incomplete thrombosis (35.5% [38/107] for CT vs. 63.9% [23/26] for IT; p = 0.002). Conclusion Imaging-guided percutaneous thrombin injection has high technical success and effectiveness rates for the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery PSA. Anticoagulation therapy was the only factor associated with incomplete thrombosis.
      PubDate: 2019-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01923-6
  • False positives in PIRADS (V2) 3, 4, and 5 lesions: relationship with
           reader experience and zonal location
    • Authors: Tineke T. Stolk; Igle Jan de Jong; Thomas C. Kwee; Henk B. Luiting; Shekar V. K. Mahesh; Benjamin H. J. Doornweerd; Peter-Paul M. Willemse; Derya Yakar
      Abstract: Purpose To investigate the effect of reader experience and zonal location on the occurrence of false positives (FPs) in PIRADS (V2) 3, 4, and 5 lesions on multiparametric (MP)-MRI of the prostate. Materials and methods This retrospective study included 139 patients who had consecutively undergone an MP-MRI of the prostate in combination with a transrectal ultrasound MRI fusion-guided biopsy between 2014 and 2017. MRI exams were prospectively read by a group of inexperienced radiologists (cohort 1; 54 patients) and an experienced radiologist (cohort 2; 85 patients). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association of experience of the radiologist and zonal location with a FP reading. FP rates were compared between readings by inexperienced and experienced radiologists according to zonal location, using Chi-square (χ2) tests. Results A total of 168 lesions in 139 patients were detected. Median patient age was 68 years (Interquartile range (IQR) 62.5–73), and median PSA was 10.9 ng/mL (IQR 7.6–15.9) for the entire patient cohort. According to multivariable logistic regression, inexperience of the radiologist was significantly (P = 0.044, odds ratio 1.927, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.017–3.651) and independently associated with a FP reading, while zonal location was not (P = 0.202, odds ratio 1.444, 95% CI 0.820–2.539). In the transition zone (TZ), the FP rate of the inexperienced radiologists 59% (17/29) was significantly higher (χ2P = 0.033) than that of the experienced radiologist 33% (13/40). Conclusion Inexperience of the radiologist is significantly and independently associated with a FP reading, while zonal location is not. Inexperienced radiologists have a significantly higher FP rate in the TZ.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01919-2
  • Intra-individual comparison of conventional and simultaneous
           multislice-accelerated diffusion-weighted imaging in upper abdominal solid
           organs: value of ADC normalization using the spleen as a reference organ
    • Authors: Weon Jang; Ji Soo Song; Hyo Sung Kwak; Seung Bae Hwang; Mun Young Paek
      Abstract: Purpose To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (cDWI) to simultaneous multislice-accelerated DWI (sDWI) and to evaluate the possibility of ADC normalization using the spleen as a reference organ. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 92 patients (68 men, 24 women; mean age 60.0 years) who underwent liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including both cDWI and sDWI. sDWI was obtained with an acceleration factor of 2. ADC values were measured from the right liver lobe, left liver lobe, spleen, pancreas, right kidney, and left kidney. ADC values of the spleen were used for normalization. Paired sample t test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and Bland–Altman method were used for statistical analysis. Results ADC values of cDWI were significantly lower than sDWI in all six anatomic regions (p < 0.001). The mean difference in ADC value between cDWI and sDWI ranged from 0.048 to 0.125 × 10−3 mm2/s. ADC values from cDWI and sDWI showed a moderate to very high positive correlation (p < 0.001). After ADC normalization using the spleen as a reference organ, there was no significant difference between normalized ADC of cDWI and sDWI in all 5 anatomic regions (p = 0.11 − 0.74). Conclusions Normalization of ADC using the spleen could be useful for comparing upper abdominal organs acquired with either cDWI or sDWI in longitudinal and follow-up studies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01924-5
  • Cardiovascular findings on cross-sectional imaging: spectrum of incidental
           and critical findings and clinical relevance for the abdominal radiologist
    • Authors: Kevin Kalisz; Michael Enzerra; Kianoush Ansari-Gilani
      Abstract: Although not the primary focus of the exams, cardiovascular structures are included to some extent on all abdominal or whole-body cross-sectional studies. Cardiovascular findings often present incidentally and may range from chronic to acute and emergent pathologies. Among the most common cardiovascular findings are the presence of cardiac calcifications, most commonly coronary, which correlate with the presence of coronary artery and valvular disease. Signs of myocardial ischemia, both acute and chronic, and its complications may also be visualized. Cardiac filling defects most commonly represent thrombus and are associated with systemic arterial embolic complications. Pericardial findings often manifest as effusion or thickening, which may lead to hemodynamic consequences visible at imaging. Incidental pulmonary emboli and systemic venous thrombi may be incidentally detected, particularly in hospitalized and oncologic patients, and warrant immediate attention. This review will highlight the appearance of common and important incidental cardiovascular findings and related pitfalls and discuss reporting and follow-up recommendations relevant to the abdominal radiologist.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01922-7
  • Sentinel clot sign in hemoperitoneum
    • Authors: Mohd Ilyas; Muiez Bashir; Irfan Robbani; Sheikh Riaz Rasool; Faiz Altaf Shera; Imran Hamid
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01926-3
  • The “trumpeting elephant” sign
    • Authors: Joseph Wilson; Raymond B. Dyer
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00261-019-01921-8
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Heriot-Watt University
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