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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Arthropod-Plant Interactions
  [SJR: 0.797]   [H-I: 17]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • A meta-analysis of the effects of galling insects on host plant secondary
    • Authors: Casey R. Hall; Anthony R. Carroll; Roger L. Kitching
      Pages: 463 - 473
      Abstract: Abstract The idea that galling insects actively manipulate host plant chemistry has been previously documented but has not been quantified across a range of galler and host plant taxa. We present the first quantitative review of the relationship between insect galling and levels of secondary metabolites in host plants. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined this relationship across 40 galler and host plant species combinations. We found that galling insects are associated with significantly higher levels of tannins and phenolics; however, no difference was found for volatiles. Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera were associated with higher levels of secondary metabolites; however, only Hymenoptera was significant. The climatic zone of the study area did not explain significant differences in gall-induced secondary metabolites. Overall the results show that the ability of galling insects to manipulate host plant secondary chemistry is widespread across insect and plant taxa. The evolutionary success of galling insects may be in part due to this unique ability.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9486-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Are microbial symbionts involved in the speciation of the gall-inducing
           aphid, Slavum wertheimae '
    • Authors: Lihi Amit; Rachel Ben-Shlomo; Elad Chiel
      Pages: 475 - 484
      Abstract: Abstract Microbial symbionts have come to be recognized as agents in the speciation of their eukaryote hosts. In this study, we asked if bacterial symbionts are, or were in the past, involved in the speciation of the gall-inducing aphid Slavum wertheimae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). This aphid is specific to the tree Pistacia atlantica, which has a fragmented distribution among mesic and xeric habitats, leading to corresponding fragmentation of the aphid population. Previous studies revealed genetic differentiation among populations of the gall-inducing aphid, suggesting cryptic allopatric speciation. Pistacia atlantica trees show no such variation. By means of diagnostic PCR, we screened several populations of S. wertheimae from mesic and xeric sites in Israel for the presence of nine known aphid symbionts: Arsenophonus, Hamiltonella, Regiella, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella, Serratia, Spiroplasma, Wolbachia, and X-type, as well as Cardinium, known to be a reproductive manipulator. Only one symbiont, Wolbachia, was detected in S. wertheimae. Wolbachia was found in all the aphids of the mesic populations, compared to 26% in the aphids from the xeric populations. Multilocus Sequence typing of Wolbachia revealed new haplotypes in the fbpA and coxA genes in both the mesic and xeric populations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Wolbachia of S. wertheimae is closely related to Wolbachia strains from assorted hosts, mostly lepidopterans, but only distantly related to Wolbachia strains from other aphid species. We conclude that the cryptic speciation of mesic and xeric populations of S. wertheimae was likely driven by geographical isolation rather than by Wolbachia.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9495-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Differences in meristems between monocots and dicots and susceptibility to
           attack by gall-inducing insects
    • Authors: Megan S. Silvia; Edward F. Connor
      Pages: 485 - 494
      Abstract: Abstract We used comparative methods that account for the phylogenetic correlations among species to test hypotheses about the community of gall-inducing insects on dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants and woody and herbaceous angiosperms in the UK. We found that the species richness of gall-inducing insects on dicots was greater than on monocots and that the odds of a dicot having an associated gall-inducing insect is 42% higher than for a monocot. Woody angiosperms have higher species richness of associated gall-inducing insects than do herbaceous angiosperms. Furthermore, using a Monte Carlo analysis we found that attacks by gall-inducing insects on monocot families were phylogenetically clustered in the order Poales, particularly within the grass family Poaceae. We suggest that the higher risk of attack on dicots and higher species richness of gall-inducing insects on woody angiosperms, which are exclusively dicots, arises because of differences in the abundance or susceptibility of dicot meristems to attack by gall-inducing insects. Architectural and anatomical differences between monocots and dicots that give rise to differences in meristem abundance and anatomy appear to play an important role in determining the occurrence and richness of associated gall-inducing insects on host plants.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9502-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Resin exudation and resinicolous communities on Araucaria humboldtensis in
           New Caledonia
    • Authors: Christina Beimforde; Leyla J. Seyfullah; Vincent Perrichot; Kerstin Schmidt; Jouko Rikkinen; Alexander R. Schmidt
      Pages: 495 - 505
      Abstract: Abstract Conifers of the endemic species Araucaria humboldtensis on Mont Humboldt in New Caledonia exhibit extensive resin exudation. The resin flows of these threatened trees are here shown to be induced by two beetle species, which bore into branches and branchlets, leading to abundant outpouring of resin, which gradually solidifies into often drop-shaped resin bodies. The exudate is colonized by a resinicolous and likely insect-vectored ascomycete, Resinogalea humboldtensis, which is only known from Mont Humboldt. The fungus grows into fresh resin and eventually develops ascomata on the surface of solidifying resin. The solidified resin is also colonized by another fungus, a dematiaceous hyphomycete. Based on protein coding (CO1, CAD, ArgK) and ribosomal (LSU) genes, the larger branch-boring beetle is a weevil of the tribe Araucariini, which represents the sister group of all other cossonine weevils. The smaller beetle species belongs to the longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae). The strong host specificity of the Araucariini, along with the occurrence of two unique fungi, suggests that the resin-associated community is native and has evolved on the endemic conifer host. The formation of large amber deposits indicates massive resin production in the past, but the environmental triggers of exudation in Mesozoic and Cenozoic ecosystems remain unclear. Our observations from Mont Humboldt support the notion that the occurrences of small drop-shaped amber pieces in Triassic to Miocene amber deposits were linked to ancient insect infestations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9475-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Parasitaxus parasitized: novel infestation of Parasitaxus usta
    • Authors: Leyla J. Seyfullah; Christina Beimforde; Vincent Perrichot; Jouko Rikkinen; Alexander R. Schmidt
      Pages: 507 - 514
      Abstract: Abstract The world’s sole ‘parasitic’ gymnosperm Parasitaxus usta (Podocarpaceae) is endemic to the island of Grande Terre, New Caledonia. It is a threatened species because of its limited geographic range and progressing habitat fragmentation. Here, we report a novel scale insect outbreak on a Parasitaxus sub-population from Monts Dzumac in the southern part of Grande Terre. The identity of the scale insect was determined through combining morphological and molecular methods. The field collection of scale insects and their secretions from infested Parasitaxus specimens allowed morphological identification of the superfamily Coccoidea. Subsequent genetic sequencing using CO1 markers allowed phylogenetic placement of the wax scale insects to the genus Ceroplastes (Coccoidea, Coccidae), a widespread pest genus. The identified species, C. pseudoceriferus, has not been previously recorded from New Caledonia. As Parasitaxus is already vulnerable to extinction, this new threat to its long-term survival needs to be monitored. Other New Caledonian endemic plant species are potentially at risk of this new species, although it was not observed on Falcatifolium taxoides, the host of Parasitaxus.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9494-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Does large-scale N fertilization have time-delayed effects on insects
           community structure by changing oak quantity and quality'
    • Authors: Jin Lee; Masahiro Nakamura; Tsutom Hiura
      Pages: 515 - 523
      Abstract: Abstract The increased atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) may indirectly affect herbivorous insects by deposition-induced changes in host quantity and quality. To avoid the “lamp effect” that can occur in small-scale N fertilizations, large-scale N fertilization (ca. 9 ha, 100 kg N ha−1 year−1) experiments were performed in a deciduous, broad-leaved, cool temperate forest. The initial responses of mature oak canopy trees (Quercus crispula) and their herbivorous insects to N fertilization were evaluated by measuring the growth and leaf qualities of the trees. The feeding guilds and community structures of the herbivorous insects at control and fertilized sites before (2012) and after (2013–2014) N fertilization were then determined. In 2014, N fertilization enhanced plant growth. In 2013 but not 2014, N fertilization increased N content and decreased the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio in leaves. Despite these changes in plant traits in 2013, N fertilization had no effect on either feeding guilds (chewing herbivory, galler density, and miner density) or community structures (species richness, diversity index, and relative abundance) of herbivorous insects in the same year. However, in 2014, the diversity index decreased significantly, whereas species richness and abundance were unchanged. This suggests that species-specific responses to changes in leaf qualities following N fertilization, in the form of altered insect fecundity, impact the diversity index of herbivorous insects, albeit with a 1-year lag time. Thus, our large-scale N fertilization experiment show the time-delayed bottom-up effects of N fertilization on insect community structure.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9485-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Insights into a novel three-partner interaction between ants, coreids
           (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and extrafloral nectaries: implications for the
           study of protective mutualisms
    • Authors: Adriana Aranda-Rickert; Sebastián Fracchia; Natalia Yela; Brigitte Marazzi
      Pages: 525 - 536
      Abstract: Abstract Extrafloral nectar of plants and honeydew of hemipterans are the common mediators of facultative interactions that involve ants as a mobile strategy of defence. The outcome of these interactions can vary from mutualistic to commensalistic or even antagonistic, depending on the ecological context and the interacting species. Here, we explore a novel, three-partner interaction involving ants, the coreid Dersagrena subfoveolata (Hemiptera) and the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) bearing plant Senna aphylla (Fabaceae) in semi-arid Northwest Argentina. We surveyed natural areas and conducted ant exclusion experiments, to understand how each pairwise interaction influences the overall outcome among the three interacting parts. The outcome of the interactions was assessed for experimental plants as the reproductive output and herbivore abundances and for coreids as predator abundances. We found that the coreids occurred exclusively on S. aphylla plants and that at least nine ant species interacted with the EFNs as well as with the coreids. Coreid occurrence and abundance depended on ant densities, which in turn, was determined by the presence of actively secreting EFNs. Coreid and ant presence did not influence plant reproductive success, and ants provided to coreids some biotic defence, mainly against vespid wasp predators, but had no effect on non-coreid herbivores. We conclude that the interaction outcome is commensalistic between ants and plants (assuming that EF nectar is not costly for the plant), antagonistic between coreids and plants, and mutualistic between coreids and ants. The sum of all outcomes is net positive effect for ants and coreids, and net slightly negative to neutral for plants.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9487-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Amino acid profiling of Sorghum bicolor vis-à-vis Chilo partellus
           (Swinhoe) for biochemical interactions and plant resistance
    • Authors: Mukesh K. Dhillon; Sandeep Kumar
      Pages: 537 - 550
      Abstract: Abstract Amount of certain amino acids required by herbivores, and their availability in host plants are of crucial importance for insect growth, development, and life processes. Therefore, we carried out profiling and quantification of 17 amino acids in diverse sorghum genotypes, and on the Chilo partellus larvae reared on them, to understand the association and contribution of different amino acids in plant resistance to insects. Sorghum germplasm lines IS 2205 and IS 2123 had severe detrimental effects on the development and survival of C. partellus followed by varieties ICSV 700 and ICSV 708 in comparison to susceptible check, Swarna. Profiling of sorghum seedlings, seeds, and the C. partellus larvae fed on these genotypes for 17 amino acids revealed that Arginine, Glycine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Proline, and Valine in sorghum seedlings and the C. partellus larvae had significant and positive association, suggesting their role in the development and survival, while negative association of Cystine indicated its contribution in plant defense. Furthermore, C. partellus acquired less of cyclic and aliphatic amino acids per unit amount from the test resistant genotypes, while more from the susceptible check, than their presence in the seedlings. Present studies suggest that Alanine, Cystine, Glycine, and Proline contents in C. partellus larvae; Cystine and Proline contents in sorghum seedlings; and Methionine content in sorghum seeds, have significant and negative association, and contribute to explain >93% and >96%, respectively, of the variability in antibiosis mechanism and overall resistance to C. partellus. These studies have implications for antibiosis and nutritional mechanism of host plant–insect interactions in sorghum against C. partellus.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9491-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Physical and biochemical aspects of host plant resistance to mustard
           aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) in rapeseed-mustard
    • Authors: Sandeep Kumar; Y. P. Singh; S. P. Singh; Ram Singh
      Pages: 551 - 559
      Abstract: Abstract Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) is a major constraint in increasing the yield of rapeseed-mustard crops in India. Resistance to mustard aphid infestation and its correlation to some physiological and biochemical traits in selected varieties of different Brassica species were studied. Yield and oil content losses of up to 29.4% and 2.84%, respectively, were observed due to aphid infestation. Eruca sativa var. T-27 and Brassica carinata var. DLSC-2 were less susceptible to aphid infestation and had minimal yield losses. Surface wax, total glucosinolate, and phenol contents were found to correlate negatively with the aphid infestation, whereas the opposite relationship was obtained for the sugar content. The study suggests that physical and chemical barriers potentially play an important role in resistance against aphid infestation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9492-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Volatility of network indices due to undersampling of intraspecific
           variation in plant–insect interactions
    • Authors: Jonas Kuppler; Tobias Grasegger; Birte Peters; Susanne Popp; Martin Schlager; Robert R. Junker
      Pages: 561 - 566
      Abstract: Abstract Appropriate sampling effort of interaction networks is necessary to extract robust indices describing the structure of species interactions. Here we show that time-invariant variation in the composition and diversity of interaction partners of plant individuals of the same species explains volatility in aggregate network statistics due to undersampling. Within a multi-species pollinator–plant interaction matrix, we replaced the interactions observed on multiple individuals of a single plant species (Sinapis arvensis, pooled interactions) with the plant–insect interactions observed on a single plant individual. In the resampling approach, we considered the interactions of 1 to 84 S. arvensis individuals in different combinations. For each resampled network, several commonly applied aggregated statistics were calculated to test how intraspecific variation affects the properties of a multi-species network. Our results showed that aggregate statistics are sensitive towards qualitative and quantitative intraspecific variation of flower–visitor interactions within a multi-species network, which may affect the ecological interpretation about the properties of a community. These findings challenge the robustness of commonly applied network indices, confirm the urge for a sufficient and representative sampling of interactions, and emphasize the significance of intraspecific variation in the context of communities and networks.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9493-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Flight behavior and oviposition of Tuta absoluta on susceptible and
           resistant genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum
    • Authors: Livia Maria Silva Ataide; Carla Cristina Marques Arce; Juliana Novelli Curtinhas; Derly José Henriques da Silva; Og DeSouza; Eraldo Lima
      Pages: 567 - 575
      Abstract: Abstract Plants produce volatile chemical compounds that can negatively affect the preference (antixenosis) or the performance (antibiosis) of herbivorous insects. It is thought that these volatile compounds are used as cues by herbivorous insects to determine the suitability of the plant for egg deposition and, hence, offspring performance. Here, we investigated whether volatiles produced by tomato plants play a role in modulating the flight and oviposition behavior of mated Tuta absoluta females. We found that the behavioral steps displayed by mated females did not differ when they flew toward resistant or susceptible tomato genotypes, but they reached the susceptible genotypes faster than the resistant ones. Moreover, females landed more often and laid more eggs on the most susceptible genotype, the Santa Clara variety. Because this variety is known to be of high quality for the development of T. absoluta larvae, the female’s decision to land and lay more eggs on this genotype seems to be mainly to maximize offspring performance. However, this is not so straightforward because the proportion of landings and eggs laid by T. absoluta on another susceptible genotype tested in this study was not significantly higher than on the resistant genotypes. Finally, although future studies are still needed, considering the antixenotic and antibiotic traits of the resistant genotypes studied here, they are likely to succeed if used in integrated pest management.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9500-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Susceptibility of germinating cruciferous seeds to Bagrada hilaris
           (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding injury
    • Authors: Shimat V. Joseph; Ian M. Grettenberger; Larry D. Godfrey; Noel Zavala
      Pages: 577 - 590
      Abstract: Abstract Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest that attacks both germinating and seedling stages of a variety of cruciferous crops grown in the Central Coast of California. B. hilaris feeding on germinating seeds can cause severe stunting and plant mortality, and little is known about the feeding preference of B. hilaris for germinating seeds of major cruciferous hosts and varieties of hosts. No-choice and choice experiments were conducted in which germinating seeds in soilless and soil settings were exposed to B. hilaris adults for 7 days. Susceptibility scores were developed using B. hilaris feeding injury sites, distorted leaves, and deformed and dead plants to determine the overall B. hilaris preference for germinating host seeds. Based on the scores, the order of preference was arugula (Eruca sativa L.) > turnip (B. rapa L. var. rapa) > mizuna (B. rapa L. nipposinica) > kale (B. oleracea L. acephala) > choi (Brassica rapa L. var. chinensis) > broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica Plenck) > cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis) > lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) > sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima [L.] Desv.). The lowest feeding injury was recorded on germinating lettuce and sweet alyssum seeds. Furthermore, no-choice and choice experiments were conducted with four varieties each of arugula and mizuna, twelve varieties each of kale and choi, and nine varieties/types of leafy Asian greens. The arugula varieties ‘Wild Rocket’ and ‘Spirit’ were more damaged by B. hilaris than other varieties tested. Among mizuna varieties, ‘Beira F1’ was more attractive to B. hilaris than ‘Scarlet’ or ‘Starbor F1.’ The choi varieties ‘Tokyo Bekana,’ ‘Feng Qing Choi F1,’ ‘Joi Choi F1,’ and ‘Win-Win Choi F1’ were more attractive than ‘Rosie F1.’ The leafy Asian greens variety ‘Carlton F1’ was more attractive to B. hilaris than ‘Yukina Savon,’ ‘Tatsoi OG,’ ‘Komatsuna Summerfest F1,’ ‘Red Rain F1,’ and ‘Shungiku.’ Therefore, the results suggest that not all varieties were equally susceptible to B. hilaris feeding and possibly be utilized for further field evaluation as a trap crop or developing more resistant varieties to B. hilaris.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9501-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • cis -Jasmone primes defense pathways in tomato via emission of volatile
           organic compounds and regulation of genes with consequences for Spodoptera
           exigua oviposition
    • Authors: Joseph O. Disi; Simon Zebelo; Esther Ngumbi; Henry Y. Fadamiro
      Pages: 591 - 602
      Abstract: Abstract The role of cis-Jasmone (CJ) in priming plant defense against insect feeding is well documented in the literature. However, little is known about the role of CJ in mediating oviposition behavior of insects via changes in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we hypothesized that foliar application of CJ will prime induction of plant defense in tomato via enhanced emission of VOCs with consequences for oviposition by Spodoptera exigua, an important pest of tomato. First, we quantified VOCs and the transcript levels of key genes that encode VOC biosynthesis in CJ-treated plants with S. exigua caterpillar infestation (CJI), untreated plants with S. exigua caterpillar infestation (UI), CJ-treated plants without S. exigua caterpillar infestation (CJ), and untreated plants without S. exigua caterpillar infestation (U). Next, oviposition preference of S. exigua was compared between CJI and UI, and between CJ and U. Gas chromatograph coupled-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that several key plant VOCs, including green leaf volatiles, monoterpenes, and a sesquiterpene, were emitted in significantly higher amounts in CJI compared to UI, CJ, or U. Consistent with the GC-MS results, the transcript levels of certain terpene synthase genes involved in the biosynthesis of many VOCs were higher in CJI plants. Consequently, S. exigua laid fewer numbers of eggs on CJI than UI. Moreover, in an in vitro oviposition choice test using filter paper, S. exigua laid significantly fewer eggs on filter papers containing VOCs from CJI compared to UI. These results indicate that CJ treatment followed by caterpillar infestation can prime tomato plant defense with potential ramifications for insect oviposition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9503-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • The nocturnal larvae of a specialist folivore prefer Chromolaena odorata
           (L.) foliage from a sunny environment, but does it matter'
    • Authors: Osariyekemwen O. Uyi; Bridget I. Uwagiahanor; Afure J. Ejomah
      Pages: 603 - 611
      Abstract: Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that the responses of insect herbivores to environment-mediated changes in the phenotypic and phytochemical traits of their host plants are more complex than previously thought. Here, we examined the effects of habitat conditions (shaded versus full-sun habitats) on plant traits and leaf characteristics of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata (L.) (Asteraceae). We also determined neonate larval preference of the specialist herbivore, Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata Rego Barros (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) (a biological control agent) for shaded versus full-sun leaves. The study further evaluated the performance of the moth on C. odorata leaves obtained from both shaded and full-sun habitats. Leaves of C. odorata plants growing in the shaded habitat had higher water and nitrogen contents compared with full-sun leaves. Plants growing in shade had longer leaves but full-sun plants were taller and had greater aboveground biomass compared with shaded plants. Although neonate larvae of P. pseudoinsulata preferred to feed on full-sun foliage, development was faster when reared on shaded foliage. However, survival, pupal mass, growth rate, and Maw’s host suitability index of the moth did not significantly differ between full-sun and shaded foliage. Our inability to demonstrate significant differences in key insect performance metrics in P. pseudoinsulata between shaded and full-sun foliage, despite neonate larval preference for one of the foliage types, suggests that neither of the foliage types can be considered a superior host, and reiterate the fact that relationships between host plant quality (modulated by light intensity) and phytophagous insect performance are not simple.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9504-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Statistical modeling of insect behavioral response to changes in weather
           conditions in Brassica napus L.
    • Authors: Emerson Dechechi Chambó; Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira; Regina Conceição Garcia; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki; Vagner Alencar Arnaut de Toledo
      Pages: 613 - 621
      Abstract: Abstract Understanding specific meteorological factors that affect the foraging activity of pollinator insects can provide valuable information to ensure appropriate levels of pollination of crops. This research was carried out to verify the spectrum of pollinating insects and their foraging behavior in relation to specific meteorological variables in the Brassica napus (rapeseed) crop. Data collected consisted of the following observations: number of visits by each pollinator, floral resources collected by Africanized honeybee Apis mellifera L., number of flowers visited by Africanized honeybees in 1 min, number of flowers visited by Africanized honeybees in one specific plant during the timed observation of 1 min, and the time taken by the honeybees to visit each flower. In this study the analyses were made through different generalized linear models. The Africanized honeybees were the most abundant pollinating insects (88%) and most visitors were observed collecting nectar (90%). The Africanized honeybees visited a total of 12.9 ± 1.40 flowers in 1 min and 2.96 ± 1.09 flowers of a single plant in 1 min. The time the honeybees spent on the rapeseed flowers was 4.2 ± 1.6 s. The number of floral visitors correlated closely to the variation of abiotic factors, especially temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation. Africanized honeybees were more active at different times of the day as compared to the other floral visitors and they foraged more intensely on the Hyola 433 hybrid than on the Hyola 61 hybrid. The Hyola 61 hybrid was more attractive to Diabrotica speciosa and Lepidoptera.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9506-8
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2017)
  • Struggle to survive: aphid—plant relationships under low-light stress. A
           case of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and Pisum sativum L.
    • Authors: Katarzyna Dancewicz; Marlena Paprocka; Iwona Morkunas; Beata Gabryś
      Abstract: Abstract Light is primary source of energy and also plays signaling and regulatory roles in developmental processes and defense responses of plants. The aim of the study was to determine the performance, settling preferences, probing, and feeding behavior of Acyrthosiphon pisum on Pisum sativum grown in complete darkness (NL), with light at minimum level required for photoperiodic reaction (LL) and under full-light (FL) conditions. The effect of A. pisum infestation on metabolic status and defense responses of peas under FL, LL, and NL conditions was also determined. The population growth rate was limited on LL and NL pea plants as compared to FL plants. The reproductive period of aphids on LL and NL plants was eight times shorter than on plants growing in FL. In contrast to aphids on FL plants, the majority of A. pisum rejected LL and NL plants during settling. Aphid probing activities were not impeded on LL and NL plants but the probes were significantly shorter than on FL plants and consisted mainly of non-phloem activities. The analysis of tolerance of P. sativum to A. pisum showed that on FL plants, the number of aphids was nearly five times higher than on plants growing in low light (LL) at the end of the 2-week experiment but the tolerance index of FL plants was higher than that of LL plants. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, saccharides, and phenolics and the activity of β-d-glucosidase were notably lower in LL and NL plants than in FL plants. The increase in light intensity from complete darkness to the minimum level required for photoperiodic reaction did not stimulate evident changes in the measured plant biochemical parameters. These trends occurred in aphid-free (AF) and aphid-infested (AI) plants. However, under FL conditions, β-d-glucosidase activity and the content of saccharides were lower in AI plants than in AF plants. No differences in the measured plant biochemical parameters between AI and AF plants occurred under LL and NL conditions. The low β-d-glucosidase activity and low content of phenolics in the light-deprived plants that have reduced ability to photosynthesize show that under the biotic stress of aphid infestation plants invest in supporting basic metabolism rather than in defense against herbivores.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9557-x
  • Induced responses of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae) against
           Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
           attack: preliminary results
    • Authors: C. Abbate; S. Toscano; R. Arcidiacono; D. Romano; A. Russo; G. Mazzeo
      Abstract: Abstract Plants respond to herbivorous attack through a defence system that includes structural barriers, release of toxic chemicals, and attraction of natural enemies of the target pests, etc. In this study, plants of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae) were artificially infested with the obligate phloem-feeding insect pest Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and compared with control uninfested plants. Leaf samples were collected at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h after infestation to monitor the plant response. Proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll (Chla, Chlb, and Chla+b), and total carotenoid (Car) contents, as well as the activities of catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) antioxidant enzymes, were measured at each sampling time to better understand the mechanism of plant defences. Proline content was the highest at 2 h after infestation and remained high throughout the experiment, while MDA content differed significantly only at 12 h after infestation. The value of chlorophyll was higher in the control plants, indicating that insect attack seriously compromised the photosynthetic activity of infected plants. Enzymatic activities showed significant increases, CAT of about 50% after 24 h and PAL of about 43% after 6 h. This study will be useful for understanding Bougainvillea plant defence against mealybugs and for showing that this ornamental species is able to activate enzymatic and molecular mechanisms in response to insect attack.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9550-4
  • Does the scion or rootstock of Citrus sp. affect the feeding and biology
           of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)'
    • Authors: Gustavo Rodrigues Alves; Vitor Hugo Beloti; Kenya Martins Faggioni-Floriano; Sérgio Alves de Carvalho; Rafael de Andrade Moral; Clarice Garcia Borges Demétrio; José Roberto Postali Parra; Pedro Takao Yamamoto
      Abstract: Abstract The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri is the main vector of the bacteria associated with Huanglongbing, and can exploit more than 50 species of the family Rutaceae as hosts. The number of possible hosts is even higher if plant varieties are included. This study evaluated the influence of different combinations of scion and rootstock citrus varieties on the development and feeding of ACP. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on the Valencia and Sicilian varieties, both grafted on Sunki mandarin, with means of 87.99 and 87.98%, respectively; and lowest (67.63%) on Hamlin × Rangpur lime. The lowest levels of both nymphal and total viability (egg-adult) were obtained on Hamlin, regardless of the rootstock used. The total development time (egg-adult) ranged from 17.92 to 19.33 days for the Pêra × Sunki and Hamlin × Swingle combinations, respectively. Cluster analysis separated the hosts into two groups, the first consisting of the combinations of the Hamlin variety, and the second group formed by the other varieties. The highest food value (assessed by the area of honeydew produced) was observed for the orange scion varieties, and among these, the highest value was observed on Valencia (0.902 cm2); the smallest honeydew area was obtained on Ponkan (0.269 cm2). The rootstocks did not affect the feeding behavior of D. citri. The results of this study could aid in the development of management techniques, mainly in providing information for the installation of new citrus groves and assistance in crop-improvement research.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9555-z
  • The immunological dependence of plant-feeding animals on their host’s
           medical properties may explain part of honey bee colony losses
    • Authors: Erik Tihelka
      Abstract: Abstract The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an important pollinator of agricultural and horticultural crops, but also of wild flowers. The species has been facing declines in many areas of the world, the causes being identified as multifactorial. Recently, it has been theorised that some plant-dwelling animals may develop a dependence on the medicinal properties of their hots plant’s secondary metabolites. Here, the question of honey bee self-medication using organic materials, namely propolis, nectar, honey, honeydew, pollen, wood, and algae for self-medication is addressed. Self-medication in honey bees is a largely unexplored area and thus a comprehensive overview of the field is provided. Prior studies suggest that recent honey bee colony declines are driven by decreased forage plant availability. The problem is expanded and it is suggested, that if honey bees developed a dependence on medical properties of some disappearing plants or materials, this could explain a part of the colony losses observed around the world. To date, convincing evidence points towards self-medication with honey and propolis. Bees also contact plant secondary metabolites, fatty acids, essential oils, and microorganisms that are active against the causative agents of American foulbrood, European foulbrood, nosemosis, chalkbrood, stonebrood, and varroasis. In the future, selected taxa of plants with medicinal properties may be planted to boost honey bee health without chemotherapy. Future directions of research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9553-1
  • Behavioral responses of Frankliniella occidentalis to floral volatiles
           combined with different background visual cues
    • Authors: Yu Cao; Junrui Zhi; Can Li; Runzhi Zhang; Chun Wang; Baozhen Shang; Yulin Gao
      Abstract: Abstract The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is one of the most destructive sucking pests of flowering plants. We examined behavioral responses of F. occidentalis adults to the floral volatiles of Rosa chinensis, Gardenia jasminoides, and Tagetes erecta in a Y-tube olfactometer with background visual cues (green, red, white, yellow, and blue backgrounds). The results show that F. occidentalis adults had similar responses under all the different background colors, but the responses by sex varied significantly when offered floral volatile or clean air. In pairings of floral volatiles, female F. occidentalis adults presented significant preferences (R. chinensis > G. jasminoides > T. erecta) in each treatment, while male F. occidentalis adults had no significant preference. Furthermore, the responses of female F. occidentalis adults to the three different floral volatiles compared with each other were greater under green and blue backgrounds than red, white, or yellow backgrounds. However, the responses of male F. occidentalis adults to floral volatiles were similar to all five backgrounds. These results indicate that female thrips could discriminate different floral volatiles, while male thrips could not. Both male and female thrips performed steady preferences of floral volatiles under all the five visual backgrounds, and the behavioral responses of female thrips to the floral volatiles could be enhanced under the green and blue backgrounds. These findings could hopefully aid in the development of effective trapping and monitoring strategies for this pest.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9549-x
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