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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Arthropod-Plant Interactions
  [SJR: 0.797]   [H-I: 17]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • A dual function for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde in Petasites fragrans'
           Pollinator-attractant and ant-repellent
    • Authors: Jonathan G. Pattrick; Tom Shepherd; Will Hoppitt; Nichola S. Plowman; Pat Willmer
      Pages: 623 - 627
      Abstract: Abstract Ant-repellent floral volatiles offer one method through which plants can mediate the detrimental effects of ants on flowers. Although the repellence itself is well documented, the volatiles involved are less well explored. Here, we investigated the floral bouquet of ant-repellent male flowers of Petasites fragrans, identifying 4-methoxybenzaldehyde as the main component. 4-methoxybenzaldehyde significantly repelled ants when presented in isolation in an olfactometer and thus is the likely source of the repellent effect. As 4-methoxybenzaldehyde has previously been shown to attract pollinators, it may therefore have a dual function in P. fragrans, pollinator-attractant and ant-repellent. Additionally, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde is particularly interesting as an ant-repellent as it has been observed in the bouquets of other plant species with specific ant interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9519-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Ants visiting extrafloral nectaries and pyrrolizidine alkaloids may shape
           how a specialist herbivore feeds on its host plants
    • Authors: Alexandre Eduardo Magalhães; Carlos Henrique Zanini Martins; Diomar Verçosa; Kamila Ferreira Massuda; José Roberto Trigo
      Pages: 629 - 639
      Abstract: Abstract The presence of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) attracts predators and parasitoids, and protects the plant against herbivorous insects. By improving plant defences, EFNs reduce the fitness of herbivores. The use of similar host plants with no EFNs or adaptations in response to predators and parasitoids may enhance herbivore fitness. In this context, we studied the feeding habit (on leaves or on unripe seeds inside the pods) of larvae of the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix in two Crotalaria host plant species in which EFNs are present (C. micans) or absent (C. paulina). We hypothesized that the moths’ feeding habit was influenced by its natural enemies via their presence on EFNs. In C. micans, we found more larvae feeding inside the pods rather than on the leaves, while in C. paulina, larvae were found in both parts of the plant. There was greater activity of natural enemies in C. micans than in C. paulina. The moth sequesters enough pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs) to defend against predators in the leaves and seeds of C. paulina, but only in seeds of C. micans. Therefore, a change in the feeding habit in U. ornatrix larvae is a plastic response that depends on whether EFNs are present or not, or whether PA concentrations are low or high. This change does not affect overall moth performance. However, other factors, such as pod hardness, predation by organisms other than those visiting EFNs or even parasitoids cannot be ruled out as being responsible for the change in feeding habit. To date, both the EFNs and PAs in Crotalaria species are a parsimonious explanation of how larvae of U. ornatrix use different species of Crotalaria for feeding.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9510-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Altitudinal variation in ant–aphid mutualism in nitrogen transfer of oak
           ( Quercus liaotungensis )
    • Authors: Limin Zhang; Yuxin Zhang; Naiqing Fan; Shuang Zhang; Keming Ma; Shukui Niu
      Pages: 641 - 647
      Abstract: Abstract Ant–plant relationship is a model for the study of the ecology and evolution of interspecific interactions. In direct ant–plant mutualism (i.e., plants providing food or nesting places for ants, and ants protecting the plants in return) ants provide nutrients to plants. However, whether a similar mechanism exists in indirect ant–plant mutualism (i.e., an ant–aphid–plant system) remains unknown. In this work, we used the 15N stable isotope method to study altitudinal variations in the roles of ants in the nutrient transfer of oak (Quercus liaotungensis). Our work shows that ants deliver nitrogen in indirect ant–plant interactions, and that the effect of nutrient transfer differed significantly with altitude. Ants’ trophic level at high altitudes was significantly lower than that at low altitudes, indicating that the degree of ant–aphid mutualism was greater at high altitudes, which may be beneficial in nitrogen transfer. Our work suggests that ant–aphid mutualism might be context dependent, such that it affects nutrient transfer in the food web, and that this context dependency is an important factor that influences altitudinal variation in nutrient transfer.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9517-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Impact of the invasive painted bug Bagrada hilaris on physiological traits
           of its host Brassica oleracea var botrytis
    • Authors: Salvatore Guarino; Ezio Peri; Stefano Colazza; Nicola Luchi; Marco Michelozzi; Francesco Loreto
      Pages: 649 - 658
      Abstract: Abstract Bagrada hilaris is a herbivorous insect native of Asia and Africa, which has invaded southern Europe and North America where it causes major damage to cole crops. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess how the infestation of this invasive species damages the host Brassica oleracea var botrytis, and to evaluate the interaction between plant emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and B. hilaris adults. Plant responses to insect feeding were evaluated through changes in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, VOC emission, and visual damage on leaves. The impact of B. hilaris was compared with that of Nezara viridula, a polyphagous species distributed worldwide. Plant VOC role in host plant detection was tested with electroantennography bioassays on B. hilaris antenna. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were consistently reduced in plants infested with 40 B. hilaris adults for 24 h. The feeding activity of a single B. hilaris caused larger discolored spots on host leaves in comparison with N. viridula. VOC emitted by B. oleracea changed significantly in response to B. hilaris and N. viridula infestation. In particular, production of limonene was strongly reduced by the infestation of the two pentatomids, while an increase in the emission of acetic acid and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol was observed. EAG dose–response tests using the main plant VOC showed B. hilaris antennal responses to benzaldehyde, octanal, nonanal, and acetic acid, which indicates a role of these compounds in host location.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9516-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Phenolic compounds induced by Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum
           in Nicotiana tabacum L. and their relationship with the salicylic acid
           signaling pathway
    • Authors: Xiao Zhang; Xia Sun; Haipeng Zhao; Ming Xue; Dong Wang
      Pages: 659 - 667
      Abstract: Abstract Changes in the levels of secondary compounds can trigger plant defenses. To identify phenolic compounds induced by Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) in tobacco (Nicotiana tobacco L.), the content changes of 11 phenolic compounds in plants infested by B. tabaci MEAM1 or Trialeurodes vaporariorum were compared. The chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, and ferulic acid contents in B. tabaci MEAM1-infested tobacco plants increased significantly, having temporal and spatial effects, compared with uninfested control and T. vaporariorum infested plants. The contents were 4.10, 2.84, 2.25, 3.81, 1.46, and 1.91 times higher, respectively, than those in the control. However, a T. vaporariorum nymphal infestation just caused smaller chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and rutin contents increase, which were 2.33, 2.13, 1.59, and 3.19 times higher, respectively, than those in the control. In B. tabaci MEAM1 third-instar nymph-infested plants, chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and rutin increased more significantly in systemic than in local leaves. Salicylate-deficient plants inhibited the induction of the content of 10 phenolic compounds, but not caffeic acid, after a B. tabaci MEAM1 nymphal infestation. Thus, the elevated levels of phenolic compounds induced by B. tabaci MEAM1 were correlated with the salicylic acid signaling pathway and induced the responses of defense-related phenolic compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9508-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Capacity assessment of Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii and Aphis spiraecola
           (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to acquire and retain PVY NTN in Tunisia
    • Authors: Sonia Boukhris-Bouhachem; Ibtissem Ben Fekih; Sabrine Nahdi; Rebha Souissi
      Pages: 669 - 674
      Abstract: Abstract The study was carried out to investigate the ability of three aphids, Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii and Aphis spiraecola, to acquire and retain the Potato Virus Y (PVY) isolate, PVYNTN. Tobacco plants, Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi, were used as test plant for the virus inoculation and aphid acquisition. The serological test double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied for virus detection on the test plants and aphids. Furthermore, virus retention by aphids was also assessed using a monoclonal anti-PVYN. Although a duration of 2 min was enough for the virus acquisition, the three tested aphids showed different capacities to retain PVYNTN. The retention of PVYNTN was 3 h for M. persicae and A. spiraecola, and 2 h for A. gossypii. This study provides basic information of the virus retention by potato-colonizing aphid species, which may increase our understanding of PVY epidemiology in Tunisia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9518-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Dimorphism in trichome production of Persicaria lapathifolia var.
           lapathifolia and Its multiple effects on a leaf beetle
    • Authors: S. Shirahama; A. Yamawo; M. Tokuda
      Pages: 683 - 690
      Abstract: Abstract Polymorphisms in plants are main factors that determine the diversity of associated animal communities and their population dynamics. Typically, Persicaria lapathifolia var. lapathifolia (Polygonaceae) has no trichomes on leaf surfaces (glabrous type), but a hairy type does sometimes occur. Based on a cultivation experiment, the presence or absence of trichomes is clarified to be under genetic control. To reveal the defensive function of trichomes against herbivores, laboratory experiments were conducted using a major herbivore, Galerucella grisescens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). In both choice and no-choice feeding tests, the glabrous type was significantly more consumed by G. grisescens adults, while the hairy type was not consumed. In the hairy leaf treatment, larval duration tended to become longer, the adult body weight became significantly lower, and adults laid significantly more eggs than in the glabrous leaf treatment. Hairy leaves contained significantly more total phenolics and condensed tannins than glabrous leaves, suggesting that the hairy type allocates more resources for physical and chemical defence. Because no significant differences in leaf consumption were detected in the feeding experiment using powdered host leaves, G. grisescens seems to have adapted to the chemical defences of P. lapathifolia var. lapathifolia. These results clearly indicate that leaf trichomes of P. lapathifolia var. lapathifolia effectively act as a physical defence against G. grisescens.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9520-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Native arthropods on exotic sand dune flowers: consideration of sample
           size and number for investigating rare species and sparse communities
    • Authors: S. Hodge; N. Curtis; C. J. Vink; J. Marris; S. D. J. Brown
      Pages: 691 - 701
      Abstract: Abstract When studying arthropod visitors of flowers, the sampling unit (individual flowers, groups of flowers, areas of plants, timed visits, etc.) depends upon the aim of the study and the sampling method employed. In this study, arthropods using flowers of the ice plant, Carpobrotus edulis, were recorded on the sand dunes at New Brighton in the south island of New Zealand. Of 3600 flowers, only 10% contained invertebrates and only 478 specimens were recorded in total. Of 32 arthropod species observed on this exotic plant, we consider at least 20 to be native to New Zealand and five species are probably New Zealand endemics. Based on an occupation rate of individual flowers of 10%, a binomial model indicated that a sample of 100 flowers would have <0.003% chance of containing no specimens, and 96% chance that 5–16 flowers would contain some animals. Species accumulation models (e.g. bootstrap, Chao and rarefaction) and models examining the likelihood of recording rare species indicated that after examining 2000 flowers, 80% of arthropod species would be recorded, and that only the rarest species in our study would fall below an 80% statistical power of detection. The results suggest that for this flower–invertebrate system, a scheme that involved 20 independent samples, each consisting of 100 flowers, would provide a good chance of (1) avoiding totally empty samples (2) collecting a high proportion of the total species present and (3) recording all but the very rarest species that occur in this system.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9521-9
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Farnesol, a synomone component between lantana (Lamiales: Verbenaceae) and
           the omnivorous predator, Campylomma chinensis Schuh (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    • Authors: Feng-Mei Ma; Li-Xia Zheng; Ze-Zheng Gao; Wei-Jian Wu
      Pages: 703 - 708
      Abstract: Abstract Flower scents are known as synomones between flowering plants and pollinators, but very little is known about the synomone involving omnivorous predator. Campylomma chinensis Schuh (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an omnivorous predator that feeds on both small soft-bodied arthropods and plant hosts including purple trailing lantana Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (Lamiales: Verbenaceae). In laboratory experiments, we examined the effect of fresh inflorescences and volatiles of L. montevidensis on the behavior of adult C. chinensis. In a Y-tube olfactometer, we found that the fresh inflorescences of L. montevidensis significantly attracted adult C. chinensis. Then, the volatile compounds from the fresh inflorescences of L. montevidensis were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The results showed that there were seventeen compounds detected in the inflorescences, and the main components were terpenoids including monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. Moreover, the adults were significantly attracted to the concentration of 5 µl/ml farnesol. The results of the present work implied that the omnivorous mirid C. chinensis used farnesol, a sesquiterpenoid alcohol derivative, to identify and locate its plant hosts. The role of farnesol as a potential synomone for C. chinensis is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9523-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Curry leaf smells better than citrus to females of Diaphorina citri
           (Hemiptera: Liviidae)
    • Authors: V. H. Beloti; F. Santos; G. R. Alves; J. M. S. Bento; P. T. Yamamoto
      Pages: 709 - 716
      Abstract: Abstract The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama has a host range of about 20 species of the family Rutaceae, including Citrus spp. However, few studies have reported on its host preference. This study evaluated the host-choice behavior of ACP in curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L.), through free-choice test and bioassays with a type ‘Y’ olfactometer, and also characterized the volatiles involved in attracting the ACP. In the free-choice test, the number of adults per plant on curry leaf was higher than the number on citrus plants. When the ACP was tested in the olfactometer, the females showed preference for curry leaf over citrus plants. Sixteen volatile compounds were identified in citrus and curry leaves. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the compounds released by citrus and curry leaves were determined. The volatiles present in these hosts may play an important role in the attraction of D. citri. With this information, further studies should be done to develop new management strategies for the ACP.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9524-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Pollination of the cycad Zamia incognita A. Lindstr. & Idárraga by
           Pharaxonotha beetles in the Magdalena Medio Valley, Colombia: a mutualism
           dependent on a specific pollinator and its significance for conservation
    • Authors: Wendy A. Valencia-Montoya; Dino Tuberquia; Pablo Andrés Guzmán; Juliana Cardona-Duque
      Pages: 717 - 729
      Abstract: Abstract The genus Zamia (Zamiaceae: Cycadales) exhibits its greatest diversity in Colombia and is highly threatened by habitat loss, extraction for ornamental plant trade, and mining, among other factors. One of the most important considerations for the effective conservation of Zamia is its highly specialized reproductive biology. Despite the importance of pollination for the populations’ viability, no studies have examined the pollination process of cycads in Colombia. Herein, we describe the pollination process of Zamia incognita A. Lindstr. & Idárraga, in a natural population. Exclusion experiments were performed by selectively excluding wind, beetles, both, or neither, which demonstrated that Pharaxonotha beetles are effective pollinators of Zamia incognita and that wind does not play any role as pollen vector. By following beetles marked with fluorescent dyes and directly observing beetle movements on and into female cones and micropyles, we confirmed that Pharaxonotha sp. is the effective pollinator of Z. incognita. The beetles traveled a maximum dispersal distance from a male to female cone of nearly 22 m and a minimum distance of 5 m. We found Pharaxonotha beetles in male cones, where they complete their life cycle. Cones produce heat in a circadian pattern associated with the elongation of the cones and pollen shedding. The increase in cones’ temperature appears to play an important role in beetle attraction. We suggest that pollination droplets on the micropyles would be a reward to pollinators. We also discuss the relationship of this Zamia species with other insects, which have important consequences for the conservation of web interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9511-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Plant–floral visitor network structure in a smallholder Cucurbitaceae
           agricultural system in the tropics: implications for the extinction of
           main floral visitors
    • Authors: Víctor Parra-Tabla; María José Campos-Navarrete; Gerardo Arceo-Gómez
      Pages: 731 - 740
      Abstract: Abstract Animal pollination is responsible for the majority of the human food supply. Understanding pollination dynamics in agricultural systems is thus essential to help maintain this ecosystem service in the face of human disturbances. Surprisingly, our understanding of plant–pollinator interactions in widely distributed smallholder agricultural systems is still limited. Knowledge of pollination dynamics in these agricultural systems is necessary to fully assess how human disturbances may affect pollination services worldwide. In this study, we describe the structure of a plant–floral visitor network in a smallholder Cucurbitaceae agricultural system. We further identify the main floral visitors of these crops and tested their importance by simulating how their extinction affected network structure and robustness. The observed network was highly connected and generalized but it was neither nested nor compartmentalized. Our results suggest that the structure of agricultural plant–pollinator networks could be inherently different from those in natural communities. These differences in network structure may reflect differences in spatial distribution of floral resources between agricultural and natural systems. We identified Augochlora nigrocyanea and Peponapis limitaris as the two most frequent floral visitors. However, removal of these species did not affect network structure or its robustness, suggesting high levels of interaction rewiring. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to describe the structure of a plant–floral visitor network in diverse agricultural systems in the tropics. We emphasize the need for more studies that evaluate network structure in agricultural systems if we want to fully elucidate the impact of human disturbances on this key ecosystem service.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9529-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2017)
  • Semiochemical-based alternatives to synthetic toxicant insecticides for
           pollen beetle management
    • Authors: Alice L. Mauchline; Maxime R. Hervé; Samantha M. Cook
      Abstract: Abstract There is an urgent need to develop sustainable pest management systems to protect arable crops in order to replace the current over-reliance on synthetic insecticides. Semiochemicals are insect- or plant-derived chemicals that are used by organisms as information signals. Integrated pest management tools are currently in development that utilise semiochemicals to manipulate the behaviour of pest insects and their natural enemies to provide effective control of pests within the crop. These innovative tools usually require fewer inputs and can involve multiple elements, therefore reducing the likelihood of resistance developing compared with use of synthetic toxicants. We review here the life cycle of the pollen beetle Brassicogethes aeneus (previously known as Meligethes aeneus) which is a pest insect of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and describe the current knowledge of any behaviour mediated by semiochemicals in this species. We discuss the behavioural processes where semiochemical-based control approaches may be appropriate and consider how these approaches could be incorporated into an integrated pest management strategy for this important arable crop.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9569-6
  • Interactions between wood-inhabiting fungi and termites: a meta-analytical
    • Authors: Arleu Barbosa Viana-Junior; Mariana Osório Côrtes; Tatiana Garabini Cornelissen; Frederico de Siqueira Neves
      Abstract: Abstract The foraging behavior and survivorship of termites are modified by the presence of wood-inhabiting fungi. Nonetheless, it is not clear if these interactions are beneficial, negative, or neutral for termites. We conducted a meta-analytical review to determine if the presence of wood-inhabiting fungi affects the foraging behavior and survivorship of termites. Overall, the presence of wood-inhabiting fungi in a resource used by termites was positive, increasing resource consumption by 120%, and aggregation behavior by 81%. The presence of fungi also increased termite trail-following by approximately 200% and increased survival by 136%. The results varied, however, according to the type of fungi evaluated. Decay fungi and sap-stain fungi elicited positive responses in termites, whereas molds did not affect the consumption of cellulose by termites. Amongst the decay fungi group, white-rot fungi caused the strongest and most positive response in all termite behaviors evaluated, although brown-rot fungi is known to be preferred by termites. The results of our study, therefore, suggest that wood-inhabiting fungi are potential facilitators of the foraging behavior and survivorship of termites. These results have great implications for termite biocontrol, as well as for knowledge of the ecological aspects of termite–fungi interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9570-0
  • Biochemical properties of Turkish common beans and their resistance
           against bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
    • Authors: Ugur Azizoglu
      Abstract: Abstract Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with highly nutritional values are cultivated worldwide. Bean seeds are commonly exposed to bruchid attacks throughout the storage. Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), also known as the bean weevil, is one of the most important insect pests and causes significant economic losses each year in warehouses. Chemical and alternative methods are commonly used to control A. obtectus. However, alternative control methods are getting popular because of negative impacts of chemicals on environment and human health. Identification and development of natural resistant bean genotypes may constitute a good alternative in fighting against bruchid pests. In this study, seed testa thickness and biochemical properties of 13 commonly grown Turkish bean genotypes were investigated, their resistance against damage caused by A. obtectus was determined, and finally the correlations among all these parameters were investigated. The highest ash and oil content was observed in Yakutiye-98 genotype while the highest protein and fiber ratio was observed in Noyanbey-98 and Zülbiye genotypes, respectively. The highest moisture ratio was observed in Karacaşehir-90 genotype. Akdağ, Akman-98, Noyanbey-98 and Kırıkkale genotypes were found to be more resistant against A. obtectus than the other genotypes and the lowest infection rates were detected in these genotypes. Consequently, Akdağ, Akman-98, Noyanbey-98 and Kırıkkale genotypes which were resistant to A. obtectus can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in Turkey.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9574-9
  • Fluctuating asymmetry, leaf thickness and herbivory in Tibouchina
           granulosa : an altitudinal gradient analysis
    • Authors: Gabriel Lobregat; Miriam Lúcia Lages Perilli; Frederico de Siqueira Neves; Ricardo Ildefonso Campos
      Abstract: Abstract Gradient of stressful conditions affect plant physiological and morphological traits. Previous studies have shown that plants located at higher altitudes might exhibit higher levels of both fluctuating asymmetry and leaf thickness. Although it is expected that higher fluctuating asymmetry levels should be accompanied by higher leaf consumption by herbivores, lower herbivory could be expected for elevated leaf thickness. Aiming to investigate this contradiction our objective was to determine the effects of altitude on fluctuating asymmetry and leaf thickness, and evaluate the importance of these two morphological traits on herbivory levels of Tibouchina granulosa Cogn. (Melastomatecea) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, along a continuous altitudinal gradient raging from 1275 to 1950 m, where we measured fluctuating asymmetry, leaf thickness and herbivory from leaves of 29 individuals of T. granulosa. There was a positive effect of altitude on both fluctuating asymmetry and leaf thickness but only fluctuating asymmetry was related to herbivore. Our results suggest that as altitude increases plants face more stressful conditions, leading to higher fluctuating asymmetry. This may lead to a higher nutritional quality of leaves and herbivores may use leaf asymmetry as a cue for plant quality. The lack of a relationship between leaf thickness and herbivory gives us evidence that, in the studied location, leaf thickness is not primarily used as plant defense and probably has other functions related, for example, to water, solar radiation, and nutrient stresses. These results may be considered a baseline for the understanding on how altitudinal stress and potential herbivory pressure influence plant populations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9568-7
  • Ecostacking: maximising the benefits of ecosystem services
    • Authors: Heikki MT Hokkanen
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9575-8
  • Increase in ant density promotes dual effects on bee behaviour and plant
           reproductive performance
    • Authors: Gudryan J. Barônio; Kleber Del-Claro
      Abstract: Abstract Floral rewards do not only attract pollinators, but also herbivores and their predators. Ants are attracted by extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), situated near flowers, and may interfere with the efficiency and behaviour of pollinators. We tested the hypothesis that the impacts of ant–pollinator interactions in plant–pollinator systems are dependent on (1) the seasonal activity of EFNs, which increase ant abundance closer to flowers; (2) consequently, an ant effect, where ants decrease the temporal niche overlap of bees due to predator avoidance; and (3) ant density, where higher densities may negatively affect plant–pollinator interactions and plant performance. We studied two ant–plant–pollinator systems based on Banisteriopsis campestris and Banisteriopsis malifolia plant species. The periods of high ant abundance coincided with plant species blooming. The presence of ants around flowers reduced the visitation rates of the smaller bees and the temporal niche overlap between bee species was not higher than randomly expected when ants had free access. Additionally, we observed variable ant effects on fruit set and duration of bee visits to both Malpighiaceae species when ant density was experimentally kept constant on branches, especially on B. campestris. Our goal was to show the dual role of ant density effects, especially because the different outcomes are not commonly observed in the same plant species. We believe that reduced temporal niche overlap between floral visitors due to ant presence provides an opportunity for smaller bees to improve compatible pollination behaviour. Additionally, we concluded that ant density had variable effects on floral visitor behaviours and plant reproductive performance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9573-x
  • Climate changes affecting biotic interactions, phenology, and reproductive
           success in a savanna community over a 10-year period
    • Authors: Andréa Andrade Vilela; Vergilio Torezan Silingardi Del Claro; Helena Maura Torezan-Silingardi; Kleber Del-Claro
      Abstract: Abstract Climatic parameters are able to influence the timing of phenological events affecting the degree of synchrony among plant species, their interactions, and reproductive success. Shrubs of Malpighiaceae family in the Brazilian Tropical Savanna present sequential flowering phenology. We verified variations in climatic factors (temperature and precipitation) over a period of 10 years (2005–2014) and correlated them with the onset of flowering of four of these Malpighiaceae species. Furthermore, we tested whether the phenological synchronization among species has changed over time affecting the herbivory and fruit set. Herbivory and fruit production were recorded during three reproductive seasons (2008/2009, 2011/2012, 2013/2014). We developed a mathematical model to estimate the flower and fruit production in response to phenological changes for the next 5 years. Results show that climatic factors changed, influencing the onset of species flowering. The degree of overlap among species also changed and the effects on species interactions were species specific. The mathematical model successfully presented a tendency on flower and fruit production contributing to the predictions of the outcomes in response to phenological changes. We confirm the effects of climate changes on plant phenological events and the importance of feature plasticity for better performance of species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9572-y
  • Effect of flower traits and hosts on the abundance of parasitoids in
           perennial multiple species wildflower strips sown within oilseed rape (
           Brassica napus ) crops
    • Authors: Séverin Hatt; Roel Uyttenbroeck; Thomas Lopes; Ju Lian Chen; Julien Piqueray; Arnaud Monty; Frédéric Francis
      Abstract: Abstract Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations in agricultural landscapes and, thus, enhance conservation biological control. However, it is important to sow appropriate flower species that attract natural enemies efficiently. The presence of prey and hosts may also guide natural enemies to wildflower strips, potentially preventing them from migrating into adjacent crops. Here, we assessed how seven flower traits, along with the abundance of pollen beetles (Meligethes spp., Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and true weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae), affect the density of parasitoids of these two coleopterans in wildflower strips sown in an oilseed rape field in Gembloux (Belgium). Only flower traits, not host (i.e. pollen beetles and true weevils) abundance, significantly affected the density of parasitoids. Flower colour, ultraviolet reflectance and nectar availability were the main drivers affecting parasitoids. These results demonstrate how parasitoids of oilseed rape pests react to flower cues under field conditions. Similar analyses on the pests and natural enemies of other crops are expected to help to develop perennial flower mixtures able to enhance biological control throughout a rotation system.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9567-8
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