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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Arthropod-Plant Interactions
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.839
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Multitrophic interactions among fungal endophytes, bees, and Baccharis
           dracunculifolia : resin tapering for propolis production leads to
           endophyte infection
    • Authors: G. Wilson Fernandes; Yumi Oki; Michel Stórquio Belmiro; Fernando M. Resende; Ary Corrêa Junior; João Lucio de Azevedo
      Pages: 329 - 337
      Abstract: The tropics are known for their high diversity of plants, animals, and biotic interactions, but the role of the speciose endophytic fungi in these interactions has been mostly neglected. We report a unique interaction among plant sex, bees, and endophytes on the dioecious shrub, Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae). We assessed whether there was an association between resin collection by bees and fungal endophytes considering the host plant sex. We hypothesized that resin collection by the Africanized honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) could favor the entry of endophytes in B. dracunculifolia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) bees damage the leaf buds of female and male plant at different proportions; (2) damage on leaf buds increases the richness of endophytic fungi; (3) endophyte richness differs between female and male plants; and (4) in vitro growth of endophytes depends on the sex of the plant individual from which the resin was extracted. Endophyte richness and proportion of leaf bud damage did not vary between the plant sexes. However, species similarity of endophytes between female and male plants was 0.33. Undamaged leaf buds did not show culturable endophytes, with all fungi exclusively found in damaged leaf buds. Endophyte composition changed with the plant sex. The endophytes exclusively found in female plants did not develop in the presence of male resin extract. These findings highlight that resin collection by A. mellifera for propolis production favors the entry of endophytic fungi in B. dracunculifolia. Additionally, endophyte composition and growth are influenced by plant sex.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9597-x
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Influence of pollinator abundance and flower visitation on seed yield in
           red clover
    • Authors: Adinda Vanommeslaeghe; Ivan Meeus; Gerda Cnops; Tim Vleugels; Martine Merchiers; Barbara Duquenne; Isabel Roldán-Ruiz; Guy Smagghe
      Pages: 339 - 349
      Abstract: Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is an important forage crop in temperate regions. However, the seed yield in red clover, especially in tetraploid cultivars, constrains the commercial success of this crop. The relationship between seed yield and several flower and inflorescence characteristics has been investigated previously, but up to now no clear link has been identified. The central questions in this article are as follows: (1) Whether nectar production and composition are correlated with seed yield' (2) Which is the main pollinator found on red clover in Flanders' (3) Whether pollinator preferences can explain differences between high and low seed-yielding cultivars and genotypes' We found that Bombus pascuorum was the most abundant pollinator on red clover in the region considered. Nectar volume, nectar composition or pollinator preference did not explain the variation in seed yield between genotypes, nor between diploid and tetraploid cultivars. To explain seed yield differences among red clover genotypes and ploidy levels better, we believe that plant-related characteristics like problems with meiosis, low pollen or seed viability or embryo abortion need to be investigated.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9593-6
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Multiple invasions in urbanized landscapes: interactions between the
           invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus and Japanese knotweeds ( Fallopia
    • Authors: Jérôme M. W. Gippet; Florence Piola; Soraya Rouifed; Marie-Rose Viricel; Sara Puijalon; Christophe J. Douady; Bernard Kaufmann
      Pages: 351 - 360
      Abstract: Urbanized landscapes are the theater of multiple simultaneous biological invasions likely to affect spread dynamics when co-occurring introduced species interact with each other. Interactions between widespread invaders call for particular attention because they are likely to be common and because non-additive outcomes of such associations might induce negative consequences (e.g., enhanced population growth increasing impacts or resistance to control). We explored the invasions of two widespread invasive taxa: the Japanese knotweed species complex Fallopia spp. and the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus, in the urban area of Lyon (France). First, we investigated landscape habitat preferences as well as co-occurrence rates of the two species. We showed that Fallopia spp. and L. neglectus had broadly overlapping environmental preferences (measured by seven landscape variables), but their landscape co-occurrence pattern was random, indicating independent spread and non-obligatory association. Second, as Fallopia spp. produce extra-floral nectar, we estimated the amount of nectar L. neglectus used under field conditions without ant competitors. We estimated that L. neglectus collected 150–321 kg of nectar in the month of April (when nectar production is peaking) in a 1162 m2 knotweed patch, an amount likely to boost ant population growth. Finally, at six patches of Fallopia spp. surveyed, herbivory levels were low (1–6% loss of leaf surface area) but no relationship between ant abundance (native and invasive) and loss of leaf surface was found. Co-occurrences of Fallopia spp. and L. neglectus are likely to become more common as both taxa colonize landscapes, which could favor the spread and invasion success of the invasive ant.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9589-2
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Virola sebifera Aubl. (Myristicaceae) leaf chemical composition and
           implications on leaf-cutter ant foraging choice
    • Authors: Amanda Aparecida Carlos; Karla da Silva Malaquias; Rafael Camargo Consolmagno; André Lucio Franceschini Sarria; João Batista Fernandes; Odair Correa Bueno
      Pages: 361 - 368
      Abstract: Leaf-cutter ant plant material choice is essential for colony maintenance and growth. Plant material is used as a substrate for cultivating symbiotic fungus, and the ants’ preference for particular leaves, tends to be determined by vegetal age-related physicochemical factors. The plant species Virola sebifera Aubl. (Myristicaceae), for example, shows a large number of leaf surface trichomes. Although non-glandular, V. sebifera trichomes may gradually retain an increasing amount of chemical compounds over the lifetime of the leaf. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the role of plant chemical compounds on Atta sexdens rubropilosa preference for V. sebifera leaves of different ages. For this purpose, the chemical composition of trichomes on young and senescent leaves was analyzed, and ants’ preference tested. The chemical compositions differ between V. sebifera young and senescent leaves, with triacontane (C30) predominance in young leaves and tetratriacontane (C34) predominance in senescent leaves. Ants’ preference choice was tested by randomly offering leaves of different ages to A. sexdens rubropilosa workers, following six different treatments: (1) young leaf fragments; (2) young leaf fragments with few trichomes removed; (3) loose trichomes from young leaves; (4) senescent leaf fragments; (5) senescent leaf fragments with few trichomes removed, and (6) loose trichomes from senescent leaves. Ants’ preference was observed for young leaves fragments with a few trichomes removed and also for young leaves loose trichomes. Ants’ preference might be due to specific volatile compounds (GLV) preset in V. sebifera young leaves. Results suggest occurrence of ants’ selectivity resulting from changes on trichomes chemical composition between V. sebifera leaves different age stages.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9582-9
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Ant–aphid relations in the south of Western Siberia (Hymenoptera:
           Formicidae; Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    • Authors: Tatiana A. Novgorodova; Artem S. Ryabinin
      Pages: 369 - 376
      Abstract: Aphids, the main suppliers of energy-rich honeydew, play an important role in the life of ants. However, the data on the trophobiotic ant–aphid associations in the majority of regions are still limited. We present the first data on the ant–aphid relations in the south of Western Siberia. Investigations were carried out in the most typical biotopes of forest-steppe and steppe zones in the territory of Novosibirsk and Kurgan regions (Russia) during 1993–2014. There were revealed 35 species of ants and 198 species of aphids. Detected 456 ant–aphid associations involved 28 ant species and 134 myrmecophilous aphids. Seven ant species were found to consume honeydew of 9 non-myrmecophilous aphids, scraping it from the plant. This behaviour is typical of subdominant and subordinate ants which do not protect their foraging areas. Ants associate with various numbers of aphid species. About 36% of ants attended aphid colonies of less than 5 species. The largest number of myrmecophilous aphids is associated with L. niger (Linnaeus, 1758) (103 species), Formica pratensis Retzius, 1783 (50), Formica rufa group (25–33), F. (Serviformica) fusca Linnaeus, 1758 (26) and F. (S.) cunicularia Latreille, 1798 (27). Different ants play unequal roles in the formation of trophobiotic interactions with aphids. Due to complex territorial and foraging behaviour, including high functional specialization among honeydew collectors, dominant ants of Formica s. str. are one of the leaders in this process. The role of L. niger and Formica ants of the subgenus Serviformica requires further detailed investigation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9584-7
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Ant-partners play a minor role on occurrence of the myrmecophilous
           butterfly Leptotes cassius in its host plant
    • Authors: Alexandra Bächtold; Kleber Del-Claro
      Pages: 377 - 384
      Abstract: Ant-related oviposition in facultatively myrmecophilous lycaenid butterflies is common, but not universal. In fact, our knowledge of ant-related oviposition in lycaenids is based on some common species (e.g., Rekoa marius, Allosmaitia strophius, Parrhasius polibetes), which limits generalizations about these systems. In this study, we experimentally investigated whether the oviposition pattern of the florivorous lycaenid Leptotes cassius was influenced by the presence of Camponotus ants and whether larvae were attended, rather than attacked, by ants. This might be evidence of myrmecophily. Both L. cassius and Camponotus ants occur on Bionia coriacea, an extrafloral nectaried legume shrub that grows in the Brazilian cerrado. Plants were randomly assigned to ant-present and ant-excluded treatments and were observed twice throughout the short reproductive season. Larvae of L. cassius were tended by ants, whose attendance was characterized by active antennation on the last body segments of the caterpillars. Therefore, Camponotus can be considered a partner of L. cassius. Lycaenid abundance was on average 1.9- and 1.21-fold higher in plants with ants in each sampling period, respectively, indicating a tendency of L. cassius to occur in plants with ants. Nonetheless, results were not statistically significant, suggesting that in this case ants are not a major cue for lycaenid oviposition. In many ant–lycaenid mutualisms, butterfly immatures benefit from reduced parasitism rates. However, no L. cassius immature, regardless of ant presence or absence, was parasitized. Furthermore, larvae may occur inside flower buds that may provide protection from natural enemies; thus, ants may not be required for immature protection.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9586-5
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • The notoriously destructive potato stalk borer ( Trichobaris trinotata )
           has negligible impact on its native host, Solanum carolinense
    • Authors: Michael J. Wise
      Pages: 385 - 394
      Abstract: While herbivores can have a wide range of impacts on their host plants, instances in which herbivore damage is truly beneficial are rare. Thus, it was surprising that damage by the potato stalk borer (PSB) was associated with increased fitness of its native host plant (horsenettle) in a recent field study, particularly because this insect can have such severe negative effects on potato crops. A controlled experiment with potted horsenettle was conducted to investigate the impact of damage by PSB to see if it has any negative impacts on the plants, or whether horsenettle truly overcompensates for its damage. Damage by PSB had negligible impact on sexual reproduction and potential future vegetative propagation through root production in this experiment. Additionally, PSB damage did not exacerbate the negative fitness impact of heavy leaf damage by the eggplant lace bug. The lack of positive impacts in the potted horsenettle study suggests that selection for decreased resistance to PSB in the field study was due to correlated selection for increased plant vigor, rather than to overcompensation. That is, when given options, PSB females may preferentially oviposit on larger, healthier plants that are likely to be better hosts for their larvae. An important implication of these results is that a wild weed’s high tolerance of a natural herbivore can compound the weed’s potential to serve as a reservoir from which the herbivore can switch to closely related agricultural plants that are not tolerant of its damage.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9587-4
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Oenothera speciosa versus Macroglossum stellatarum : killing beauty
    • Authors: Boyan Zlatkov; Stoyan Beshkov; Tsveta Ganeva
      Pages: 395 - 400
      Abstract: Hovering and dead individuals of the diurnal hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) were found with proboscides got stuck into flowers of the ornamental plant Oenothera speciosa Nutt (Onagraceae). The phenomenon was observed in several locations in Bulgaria where the plant has been introduced. Microscopic examination revealed that the reason for this unusual interaction is pubescence of thick-walled basiscopically oriented trichomes in the basal part of the hypanthium and style of the plant. When a foraging moth inserts its proboscis into this area, the tips of the trichomes are inserted into the transverse grooves of proboscis and hamper its back movement. As a result the moths are suspended for a long time, sometimes until death. Other trapped moth species were also observed but they always effected self-release. This plant–insect interaction is also a conservation issue as an estimation of its impact on wild insect populations is lacking.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9588-3
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Interactive effects of aphid feeding and virus infection on host gene
           expression and volatile compounds in salt-stressed soybean, Glycine max
           (L.) Merr.
    • Authors: Alma G. Laney; Pengyin Chen; Kenneth L. Korth
      Pages: 401 - 413
      Abstract: Saline soils are becoming an important limiting factor in production agriculture. Soybean cultivars [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] differ in their ability to tolerate salt stress with those that cannot limit ion uptake into leaves being salt sensitive. Those that can partially limit ion uptake into leaves are generally more salt tolerant. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is an important viral pathogen of soybean worldwide and is commonly transmitted by the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. In this study, we investigate the interaction of salt stress in soybean with SMV infection and infestation by the soybean aphid by measuring aphid populations in a no-choice assay, gene expression levels, and the induction of volatile organic compounds using static headspace GC–MS analysis. Salt stress and SMV infection both reduced total aphid populations, though SMV did not reduce the total number of aphids per gram of fresh weight. Aphid suppression of a calcium EF hand gene and OPR1 was lost when salt-sensitive soybean plants were salt stressed and when salt-tolerant plants were subjected to all three stressors. The relative levels of SMV in aphid-infested soybeans were increased by salt stress in the salt-sensitive cultivar, whereas SMV levels decreased in the salt-tolerant cultivar. Static headspace collection of volatile organic compounds revealed that salt stress and SMV infection had suppressive activities on aphid-induced terpenes. These results suggest that although salt stress has a negative impact on aphid population size, the changes in volatiles and SMV levels could alter the incidence of SMV in salt-stressed fields.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9590-9
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Attachment ability of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.),
           on plant surfaces
    • Authors: Dagmar Voigt; Pablo Perez Goodwyn; Kenji Fujisaki
      Pages: 415 - 421
      Abstract: Traction forces of male and female southern green stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) were measured on adaxial leaves of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. ‘Nagauzura’), peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. ‘Hakuryu’), rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. ‘Mac hin sung’), and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. ‘Enrei’), as well as on glass as a control surface. Bugs attached well on three-dimensionally structured surfaces covered with anti-adhesive epicuticular wax crystals. Strongest pulls were generated on adaxial green bean leaves, corresponding to safety factors (traction force/body weight) of 11.1 and 11.6 in males and females, respectively. These values were slightly lower on soybean (males: 7.4, females: 8.0) and rice leaves (males: 8.9, females: 10.6). Trichomes and papillae are assumed to promote pentatomid bug’s attachment. On tabular, wax-covered pea leaves, safety factors decreased significantly to 1.7 and 1.6, in males and females, respectively. Differently, on non-structured glass, safety factors resembled those on rice and soybean leaves (males: 9.6, females: 8.0). No statistical differences in traction force and safety factor between sexes were detected on any substrate. Surface wettability did not significantly affect the results. Both robust claws and tough adhesive pads enable the N. viridula bugs to grasp and adhere to a wide range of various plant substrates, including such ones covered with anti-adhesive wax crystals. However, tabular, pruinose pea leaves were detected to prevent the foothold of the southern green stink bugs, although pea is known as one of their common host plants.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9591-8
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Invasive Spiraea tomentosa : a new host for monophagous Earias clorana
    • Authors: Blanka Wiatrowska; Adrian Łukowski; Piotr Karolewski; Władysław Danielewicz
      Pages: 423 - 434
      Abstract: The introduction of alien species can have a significant impact on the food preferences of native phytophagous insects. The moth Earias clorana L. has previously been considered to be monophagous, ingesting only plants in the genus Salix. In recent years, we have observed larval E. clorana feeding on Spiraea tomentosa L., an invasive shrub species in Central Europe that is native to North America. We hypothesised that this insect can feed on Spiraea tomentosa leaves with no negative effects on its growth and development, and that the leaves of Spiraea tomentosa as a source of food for E. clorana are equally as good as leaves of Salix viminalis L. Our results showed that despite significant differences in the chemical composition of the studied species’ leaves, including a much higher concentration of defence compounds (total soluble phenols and condensed tannins) in Spiraea tomentosa leaves than in those of Salix viminalis, feeding on a new host plant did not significantly affect the survival of larvae. The change in host plant had an unfavourable effect, however, on several parameters of growth and development for the larvae (masses of larvae and pupae, relative growth rates, and efficiency of conversion of ingested food). We conclude that, in comparison to Salix viminalis, Spiraea tomentosa is not a particularly favourable food for larval development. Perhaps, even without direct improvements in adult foraging efficiency, however, the costs of switching hosts may be minimised in larvae that develop on very abundant, invasive species, such as Spiraea tomentosa in Central Europe.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9592-7
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Identification of active components from volatiles of Chinese bayberry,
           Myrica rubra attractive to Drosophila suzukii
    • Authors: Yan Liu; Wenxia Dong; Feng Zhang; Marc Kenis; Frans Griepink; Jinping Zhang; Li Chen; Chun Xiao
      Pages: 435 - 442
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is native to Southeast Asia and now has become a severe pest of several soft fruits in Europe and the Americas. It causes considerable damage to Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra, in China. In the present study, we employed gas chromatograph–electroantennographic detection (GC–EAD) together with behavioural bioassays and trapping experiments to identify volatile semiochemicals emitted by Chinese bayberry attracting D. suzukii. Electrophysiological experiments revealed the presence of six EAD-active compounds from ripe bayberry fruits, including methyl (E)-3-hexenoate, methyl (E)-2-hexenoate, ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate, α-ylangene, α-humulene and an unidentified compound that elicited consistent antennal response. In two-choice bioassays, bayberry fruits attracted all responding flies, and significantly more flies responded to the volatile extract of bayberry fruits. Four EAD-active compounds were attractive to mated female D. suzukii at lower doses (0.01 and 0.1 µg), but showed repellency at higher doses (10 and 100 µg). Mixtures of these four compounds at different ratios attracted D. suzukii flies at all test doses (0.1, 1 and 10 µg). Both male and female flies were trapped by a mixture of synthetic methyl (E)-3-hexenoate, methyl (E)-2-hexenoate, ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate and α-humulene in a ratio of 1:1.3:1:6.4 in the field trapping experiment. Significantly more males than females were captured in the trap baited with the synthetic blend, and the percentages of D. suzukii captured out of all flies by the traps baited with lure were higher than that baited with blank control. Our findings may provide insights into the olfactory responses of D. suzukii to specific host plant volatiles, and contribute to further development of an effective lure for monitoring D. suzukii in the field.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9595-z
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Use of Micro-Tom cultivar in a Bemisia tabaci biotype B interaction study
    • Authors: Andrezo Adenilton Santos; Anderson Barcelos de Amorim; Roseane Cristina Predes Trindade; Gildemberg Amorim Leal Junior
      Pages: 443 - 451
      Abstract: Tomatoes of the Micro-Tom cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), are small, have a short life cycle, high-density growth, high-efficiency protocols for genetic transformation, and hormonal and morphological mutants. These characteristics make this cultivar a good candidate as a helpful tool in resistance studies against the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The insect behavior in the Micro-Tom cultivar was observed through free-choice and no-choice oviposition preference tests and life cycle in lab conditions, having as reference the Santa Clara cultivar. In these tests, behavioral and biological insect parameters were obtained and the purpose was used to assess the trichome absence effect on oviposition with the hairless mutant. In the studies for oviposition preference, no difference was observed among the three material obtained. A nymphal stage prolongation and a low nymph viability with an adult longevity reduction were observed in relation to the Santa Clara in the Micro-Tom cultivar and hairless mutant. The Micro-Tom cultivar and hairless mutant do not present antixenotic effects to the oviposition. Mutation present in the hairless mutant does not alter the results observed in the ‘Micro-Tom.’ In general, the absence of the trichome did not reduce the Micro-Tom susceptibility to the oviposition. Antibiosis was observed in the Micro-Tom and it was discussed considering its association with salicylic and jasmonic acids, and brassinosteroid levels. These results show that this cultivar is a pest host and suitable for greenhouse and lab tests, in addition to being able to be used as a susceptibility standard for antixenosis.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9596-y
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Plant–insect interactions: gentians, seed predators and parasitoid
    • Authors: Ekaterina Kozuharova; Albena Lapeva-Gjonova; Maria Shishiniova
      Pages: 453 - 463
      Abstract: While studying breeding systems and pollination ecology of nine Gentiana species (G. lutea, G. punctata, G. asclepiadea, G. pneumonanthe, G. cruciata, G. pyrenaica, G. verna, G. utriculosa, and G. nivalis) in the Bulgarian mountains, we recorded number of insects that feed on their maturing seeds. In addition, parasitoid wasps in connection to these seed predators were detected. Insects are identified and the impact on the seed set of afore mentioned Gentiana species is estimated. Fruit capsules of Gentiana spp. from different populations in the mountains in Bulgaria were investigated for the presence or absence of damage by larvae during the period of 16 years. The seed destruction varies among the nine investigated Gentiana species. The insects whose larvae damaged the seed/fruit set belonged mainly to Coleoptera and Diptera. The larvae of lycaenid butterflies, Maculinea spp. (Lepidoptera), were recorded only in seeds of G. asclepiadea, G. pneumonanthe and G. cruciata. Parasitoid wasps from the families Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, and Pteromalidae were identified, some of them new for the fauna of Bulgaria.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9600-6
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • Impacts of granivorous and frugivorous arthropods on pre-dispersal seed
           production of western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis )
    • Authors: Lindsay A. Dimitri; William S. Longland; Kirk C. Tonkel; Brian G. Rector; Veronica S. Kirchoff
      Pages: 465 - 476
      Abstract: Arthropods impact seed production in various juniper species, but effects of pre-dispersal seed predation are generally unknown for arthropods that feed on western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis). From 2009 to 2013, we quantified impacts of three arthropod granivores and a frugivorous insect on western juniper seed production at two N. California field sites—Madeline and Shinn Peak. Insect larvae were genetically identified using the COI barcode region. Seed damage by all arthropod taxa varied both spatially and temporally. Juniper berry mites (Trisetacus quadricetus) had the greatest effect on reducing seed production at Madeline, and granivorous moths (Periploca spp. and Argyresthia spp.) had the greatest effect at Shinn Peak. Three findings supported the predator satiation hypothesis, which suggests that unpredictable masting events overwhelm responses of seed predators. First, estimated berry production had significant negative effects on the proportion of seeds damaged across sites by a chalcidoid wasp (Eurytoma juniperina) and by granivorous moths at Shinn Peak. Second, seed damage by granivorous moths was significantly reduced in a mast year of juniper berry production. Third, number of seeds per berry positively affected seed damage across sites by granivorous moths in all years except the mast year as well as damage by a frugivorous tortricid moth (Henricus infernalis) at Madeline. Distance to neighboring trees had positive, site-specific effects on damage by granivorous moths and Henricus, perhaps due to limited movement of parasitoids that attack these insects. Our results suggest that arthropod damage can significantly impact seed production of western juniper.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9603-3
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2018)
  • The phytopathogen powdery mildew affects food-searching behavior and
           survival of Coccinella septempunctata
    • Authors: Andja Radonjic; Olle Terenius; Velemir Ninkovic
      Abstract: The diet of entomophagous coccinellids is mainly based on aphids and other food sources such as pollen, nectar, or fungal spores. Knowledge of their foraging behavior on plants infected by powdery mildew and their survival on fungal spores is currently limited. In this study, we investigated the olfactory response of Coccinella septempunctata to odor emission of barley plants infected by powdery mildew and their survival on fungal spores in the presence or absence of aphids. Odors released by powdery-mildew infected plants were more attractive for ladybirds compared to those of uninfected controls. After 3 days, the survival rate of ladybirds feeding only on powdery-mildew spores was less than 50%, while for ladybirds feeding exclusively on Rhopalosiphum padi aphids, the survival rate was close to 90%. After 15 days, the highest survival rate (almost 80%) was observed for ladybirds feeding on plants with both aphids and powdery mildew. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of fungal spores in ladybird guts when feeding either on powdery mildew or on a mixed diet. Our results provide new insights into foraging behavior of entomophagous coccinellids revealing the potential of powdery mildew to be utilized as important non-essential food in a mixed diet, but also its lethal effect if consumed alone.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9617-x
  • Ant pollination of Syzygium occidentale , an endemic tree species of
           tropical rain forests of the Western Ghats, India
    • Authors: Giby Kuriakose; Palatty Allesh Sinu; K. R. Shivanna
      Abstract: Although mutualism between ants and flowering plants is wide spread, ant pollination has not evolved as a major pollination syndrome. So far ant pollination has been reported largely in herbaceous species, growing in warm and dry habitats. While studying pollination ecology of Syzygium species (Myrtaceae), growing in tropical forests of the Western Ghats, India, we observed one of the ant species, Technomyrmex albipes, to be the dominant floral visitor in S. occidentale (Bourd.) Chithra among a range of other insect (species of Xylocopa and Trigona, and Apis cerana) and bird visitors. We studied the role of ant species in pollination when compared to other floral visitors. The fruit set in flowers exclusively visited by T. albipes was significantly higher than those visited by any other visitor. The day and night exclusive pollination experiments allowing only T. albipes indicated diel pollination by T. albipes, which was the only active flower visitor during the night. The breeding system of the species was studied through controlled pollinations. The species is partially self-compatible and exhibits considerable autogamy.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9613-1
  • Impact of insecticides on oilseed rape bud infestation with eggs and
           larvae of pollen beetle ( Brassicogethes aeneus (Fabricius))
    • Authors: Meike Brandes; Udo Heimbach; Bernd Ulber
      Abstract: One of the main insect pests in oilseed rape is the pollen beetle (Brassicogethes aeneus (Fabricius), syn. Meligethes aeneus). To maximize efficiency of control of this pest, insecticides are required that ideally, not just prevent yield losses by bud feeding of overwintered pollen beetles, but simultaneously minimize the reproduction of the pest, thereby reducing the size of the following generation infesting next year’s oilseed rape. The neonicotinoid active substance thiacloprid is known to reduce bud infestation with eggs and larvae. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs as well as the effects of other active substances are not known. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide Biscaya (a.i. thiacloprid) and the pyrethroids Mavrik (tau-fluvalinate) and Karate Zeon (lambda-cyhalothrin) applied at the bud stage of winter oilseed rape with recommended field rates on infestation of buds with eggs and larvae of pollen beetles were tested in field trials in Germany in 2013–2015. In additional greenhouse experiments, it was investigated whether effects on bud infestation were caused by lethal effects on pollen beetle or by insecticidal residues on plants causing sublethal effects. In the field trials, application of Biscaya and Mavrik significantly reduced the percentage of buds containing eggs and larvae in contrast to Karate Zeon. In 2014 and 2015, 14 days after application, bud infestation on the main raceme was reduced by 86 and 82%, respectively, in Biscaya-treated plots and by 51 and 71%, respectively, in Mavrik-treated plots compared to the untreated plots. In the greenhouse experiments, the lowest percentage of bud infestation with eggs and larvae was recorded on Biscaya-treated plants whereas on Mavrik-treated plants, there was no significant difference compared with the control. The results of the field trials show that Biscaya and Mavrik reduced oilseed rape bud infestation with eggs and larvae of pollen beetles primarily by lethal effects on overwintered pollen beetles or by repellency. However, Biscaya had additional effects on egg laying, which was supported by the greenhouse experiments.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9616-y
  • An omnivorous arthropod, Nesidiocoris tenuis , induces gender-specific
           plant volatiles to which conspecific males and females respond differently
    • Authors: Hojun Rim; Masayoshi Uefune; Rika Ozawa; Junji Takabayashi
      Abstract: Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an omnivorous mirid bug that preys on diverse generalist herbivorous arthropods. N. tenuis adults are attracted to volatiles from plants induced by their prey, such as tobacco cutworms (CCW) (Spodoptera litura larvae) and two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae). N. tenuis adults also induce volatiles when they infest plants. In this study, we focused on olfactory responses of N. tenuis males and females to volatiles from eggplants and sesame plants induced by conspecifics of the same or different gender by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Males were attracted to volatiles from plants of both species induced by either males or females. The male preference was biased to volatiles from plants of both species induced by females, probably because the biased response would facilitate their mate-finding. Females were attracted only to volatiles from plants of both species induced by females. Mating occurs multiple times in this species. Thus, the responses would indirectly affect mating of males and females. Slight but significant qualitative and quantitative differences were detected between the volatiles of plants of both species induced by N. tenuis females and those of the plants induced by conspecific males. N. tenuis might use such differences in their gender-specific responses.
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9612-2
  • RiHSPRO2, a nematode resistance protein-like homolog from a wild crucifer
           Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern, is a promising candidate to control mustard
           aphid Lipaphis erysimi
    • Authors: Sourav Bose; Gaurab Gangopadhyay; Samir Ranjan Sikdar
      Abstract: Nematode resistance protein HSPRO2 of Arabidopsis thaliana has important roles in defence response to the bacterium (Pseudomonas syringae) and shows response against oxidative stress and salicylic acid. We have explored the gene encoding it from Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern, a wild relative of cultivated crucifers experimentally challenged with mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi. The gene seems to be a strong candidate for aphid tolerance in cultivated mustards. Presently we are reporting the results of a time-course quantitative relative expression analysis of HSPRO2 of R. indica where we have observed ~ tenfold increase in its expression in R. indica at 12 hours post infestation with L. erysimi. We have also isolated the full-length gene (1314 bp) by both 5′ and 3′ RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). Genome walking experiment identified the promoter sequence. Expression, purification and characterisation of RiHSPRO2 showed that it encodes for a 437 amino acid peptide. The 66 kDa recombinant RiHSPRO2 protein was purified for studying its efficacy against L. erysimi in an artificial diet-based insect bioassay that revealed LC50 (Lethal Concentration 50) values of RiHSPRO2 significantly within limits against L. erysimi. The present study might have a significant implication in future towards aphid management program of Brassica juncea through the development of aphid-tolerant transgenic plants.
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9615-z
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