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Showing 1 - 200 of 2345 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)

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Journal Cover Arthropod-Plant Interactions
  [SJR: 0.797]   [H-I: 17]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Charles D. Michener (1918–2015): a life among the bees
    • Authors: Michael S. Engel
      Pages: 243 - 247
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9509-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Stefan Vogel (1925–2015): Reflections on his work and life
    • Authors: Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
      Pages: 249 - 255
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9496-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal
           drumming ( Osmia ) or tapping ( Melissodes , Svastra )
    • Authors: James H. Cane
      Pages: 257 - 261
      Abstract: Four species of western US Osmia (3 Cephalosmia) that are Asteraceae specialists (mesoleges) were observed using a stereotypical means of collecting pollen—abdominal drumming—to gather pollen from 21 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdominal drumming is a rapid dorso-ventral motion of the female’s abdomen (467 pats/min) used to directly collect and place pollen in the bee’s ventral scopa. A co-occurring generalist, O. lignaria, never drummed Asteraceae flowers for pollen, but instead used its legs to harvest pollen. Observed drumming by several other osmiines is noted. A different pollen-harvesting behavior, abdominal tapping, is described for two eucerine bees (Melissodes agilis and Svastra obliqua), both oligolectic for the Asteraceae. The behavior also involves a dorso-ventral motion, but they tap their distal abdominal venter against disk flowers at a slower tempo (304 taps/min). These females’ distal sternites have distinctly dense and long hair brushes for acquiring pollen by this behavior. Brief accounts of similar abdominal pollen gathering behaviors by other megachilids are summarized.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9482-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Bee pollination and evidence of substitutive nectary in Anadenanthera
           colubrina (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)
    • Authors: Laís Angélica Borges; Isabel Cristina Machado; Ariadna Valentina Lopes
      Pages: 263 - 271
      Abstract: Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) is a widely-distributed tree in seasonally dry tropical forests of South America that was classified previously as lacking nectaries. However, some studies have stated that its flowers produce nectar, while others analyzed the composition of unifloral honey produced from A. colubrina flowers, raising the question about nectar production in the species. We studied the pollination and reproductive biology of A. colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul in a natural population in the Caatinga, northeastern Brazil. Reproductive phenology, sexual system, floral biology, resource, and pollinators were investigated. We analyzed the breeding system through controlled pollinations for addressing its dependence on pollen vectors for reproduction. Anadenanthera colubrina flowered in the dry season, flower heads are heteromorphic, with staminate flowers at the base and perfect flowers at the apex of the inflorescence, characterizing andromonoecy. Anthesis is diurnal. We observed small drops of nectar at the apex of the petals of some flowers per inflorescence. Together with observations on flower visitor behavior and histochemical tests, we propose that A. colubrina produces floral nectar at the apex of the corolla, characterizing a substitutive nectary (sensu Vogel). This is the first record of substitutive nectary in the Mimosoideae and the first record of andromonoecy in the genus. Bees were the main pollinators (higher frequency), although other insects such as wasps, butterflies, and small beetles were also observed collecting nectar and/or pollen. The species is self-incompatible, thus depending on insect pollen vectors, mainly bees, for reproduction.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9514-8
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Comparing the efficiency of pollination mechanisms in Papilionoideae
    • Authors: Trinidad Figueroa Fleming; Ángela Virginia Etcheverry
      Pages: 273 - 283
      Abstract: The pump pollination mechanism is typical of basal clades within Papilionoideae and might be associated with less efficient pollen transfer systems, while the explosive tripping mechanism is considered more advanced and might represent the highest expression of the trend in pollen economy. Crotalaria pumila, C. stipularia, Desmodium incanum and D. subsericeum present secondary pollen presentation with pump and explosive pollination mechanisms, respectively. In the present study, we evaluate and compare (1) pollen removal, (2) pollen deposition and (3) pollen transfer efficiency of both mechanisms, considering single visits by Megachile spp., common pollinators of the four plant species in Salta Province, Argentina. Comparisons of visit durations are made in relation to the type of mechanism and rewards offered. We detected significant differences between both mechanisms in the proportion of pollen grains removed and deposited in a flower after a single visit of Megachile. We found that efficiency in pollen transfer was significantly higher for explosive mechanism (2.13 ± 0.42 pollen grains deposited per 100 removed) than for pump mechanism (0.33 ± 0.17 pollen grains deposited per 100 removed). This is the first study that compares efficiency between pollination mechanisms in this group of plants.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9515-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Floral divergence and temporal pollinator partitioning in two
           synchronopatric species of Vigna (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae)
    • Authors: Jana Magaly Tesserolli de Souza; Cristiane Snak; Isabela Galarda Varassin
      Pages: 285 - 297
      Abstract: Exclusivity of pollinators, temporal partitioning of shared pollinators and divergence in pollen placement on the shared pollinators’ bodies are mechanisms that prevent interspecific pollen flow and minimize competitive interactions in synchronopatric plant species. We investigated the floral biology, flower visitors, pollinator effectiveness and seasonal flower availability of two syntopic legume species of the genus Vigna, V. longifolia and V. luteola, in ‘restinga’ vegetation of an island in southern Brazil. Our goal was to identify the strategies that might mitigate negative consequences of their synchronous flowering. Vigna longifolia and V. luteola were self-compatible, but depended on pollinators to set seeds. Only medium to large bees were able to trigger the ‘brush type’ pollination mechanism. Vigna longifolia, with its asymmetrical corolla and hugging mechanism, showed a more restrictive pollination system, with precise sites of pollen deposition/removal on the bee’s body, compared to V. luteola, with its zygomorphic corolla and cymbiform keel. There was a daily temporal substitution in flower visitation by the main pollinators. Vigna longifolia and V. luteola had overlapping flowering phenology but the densities of their flowers fluctuated, resulting in a seasonal partitioning of flower visitation. The differences in corolla symmetry and mainly the temporal partitioning among pollinators throughout the day and the flowering season proved to be important factors in maintaining the synchronopatry of V. longifolia and V. luteola.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9498-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Does hardness make flower love less promiscuous? Effect of biomechanical
           floral traits on visitation rates and pollination assemblages
    • Authors: Silvina A. Córdoba; Andrea A. Cocucci
      Pages: 299 - 305
      Abstract: Visitation rates and assemblage composition of pollinators have often been related to environmental, ecological and phenotypic variables. However, the interaction between flowers and pollinators has not been evaluated in a biomechanical context. Floral rewards in keel flowers (Fabaceae, Faboideae) are concealed behind four joined petals, the keel-wing unit, and are accessible only if pollinators open this unit by exerting force on it. Force needed to open the flower is expected to affect the interaction with pollinators because pollinators must invest time and energy to open the keels. Consequently, plants with stiff flowers should be expected to experience diminished visitation frequency, particularly by weak visitors. To test this expectation of diminished visitation rates and of assemblage composition biased by pollinator strength, we measured the force needed to open the keel flowers of five co-occurring legume species and, using a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we tested their association with pollinator visitation rates and assemblage composition. We additionally included a size flag variable in CCA to test the effect of attractiveness on pollinator visits. There was no association between flower stiffness and visitation frequency. According to the CCA, pollinator assemblage compositions were associated with the force needed to open the keel and not flag size. As a general pattern, weak flowers are pollinated by an uneven assemblage of weak bees while the stiffest flowers are pollinated by an even assemblage of large and strong bees. These results supports the idea that force has an effect in controlling pollinator assemblage composition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9505-9
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Division of labor of anthers in heterantherous plants: flexibility of bee
           pollen collection behavior may serve to keep plants honest
    • Authors: Daniel R. Papaj; Stephen L. Buchmann; Avery L. Russell
      Pages: 307 - 315
      Abstract: Heteranthery is thought to reflect a division of labor, with some anthers serving a pollinator-feeding function and others serving a pollinating function. Mutualism theory predicts that each participant should try to maximize the benefit it receives from its partner: plants should allocate more pollen to pollination, and pollinators should collect more pollen. Accordingly, plant and pollinator may engage in a ‘tug of war’ with respect to pollen from each anther type, resulting in incomplete division of labor. Here, we explored this idea by conducting a fully factorial manipulation of the availability of pollen in long and short anthers of staminate flowers of Solanum houstonii. We found the following: (1) Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) preferred to sonicate (collect pollen from) short anthers over long anthers, consistent with a role as feeding and pollinating anthers, respectively; (2) Blocking short anther pores alone increased sonication of long anthers and resulted in collection of pollen from long anthers; (3) Blocking long anther pores alone did not influence sonication of short anthers; (4) The increase in sonication of long anthers, when short anther pores are blocked, was greater when pollen was available in long anthers; (5) Despite shifting sonication effort to long anthers, bees do not move their bodies closer to long anther pores where pollen could be collected more effectively; and (6) analysis of the growth of corbicular loads over time spent buzzing indicates that significant amounts of pollen are collected from long anthers as well as short anthers. We conclude that bees can flexibly increase pollen collection from pollinating anthers, but are constrained from fully exploiting this pollen. This results in checks and balances between plant and bee that may help maintain heteranthery.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9497-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Sex and breeding behaviour of the Sicilian snail-shell bee ( Rhodanthidium
           siculum Spinola, 1838; Apoidea–Megachilidae): preliminary results
    • Authors: Claudia Erbar; Peter Leins
      Pages: 317 - 328
      Abstract: In spring 2014 and 2016, we studied Rhodanthidium siculum in dunes south of Syracuse (Sicily). The females search for one of the frequently empty snail shells (mostly of Theba pisana), checking their size. In a suitable snail shell, a mixture of sand and saliva is deposited in the navel. A severe struggle among several males gets started. At every opportunity, the males try to copulate with the females. Large males occupy the snail shell that is used by the female to bring in pollen and nectar (preferably from Galactites tomentosus, Centaurea sphaerocephala, Glebionis coronaria and Lotus creticus). The procedure of harvesting lasts about 2–3 h, sometimes several hours. During this period, the female is visited for copulation every 2 min (initially even more frequently), preferentially by one large male, but small males occasionally mate as well. After laying one or two eggs, the female closes the snail shell with pieces of seashells or snail shells, aggregated with sand and saliva. The female transports the closed snail shell to a safe site. Depending on weather conditions, this may take several days. The maximum distance of movement observed was about 10 m. Finally, the completed snail shell will be buried, most often beneath a plant. The burial follows a certain pattern of movement. Females ensure higher pollination efficiency than the males due to their higher flower constancy.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9489-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Complex flowers and rare pollinators: Does ant pollination in Ditassa show
           a stable system in Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae)?
    • Authors: Arthur Domingos-Melo; Tarcila de Lima Nadia; Isabel Cristina Machado
      Pages: 339 - 349
      Abstract: If on one hand, ant pollination is rare, on the other Asclepiadoideae flowers are the most complex among Eudicots. Both themes are exciting in pollination biology. Although there are records of ants with the ability to remove the pollinarium on this subfamily, the role of these insects as pollinators is not yet known. Therefore, we investigated the interaction between flowers and ants, as well as the associated features in two species of Asclepiadoideae, Ditassa capillaris and D. hastata. The studied species were both visited by Cephalotes inaequalis and Dorymyrmex thoracicus. We analyzed the common traits of ant pollination of the plant species, recorded the number of visit by ants, and carried out experiments of selective pollination, developing an effectivity index. Both Ditassa species have common traits of ant pollination, such as small bright flowers with exposed floral resource. The pollinarium is clip-shaped and resistant to the metapleural gland, which ensures effective pollination. Dorymyrmex thoracicus is a very frequent but not very efficient pollinator, whereas Cephalotes inaequalis is more efficient though at a lower frequency. Therefore, the total contributions of both ants to the pollination of both Ditassa species are similar. The features of both Ditassa species which favor ant pollination, include some synapomorphies within Asclepiadoideae. Furthermore, the efficiency of the ants as pollinators to the reproductive success of the plants was similar despite the different behaviors observed in both ant species. Hence, we suggest that the role of ants in pollination within this subfamily has been neglected.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9499-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Do 120,000 years of plant–pollinator interactions predict floral
           phenotype divergence in Calceolaria polyrhiza ? A reconstruction using
           species distribution models
    • Authors: M. Sosa-Pivatto; A. Cosacov; M. C. Baranzelli; M. R. Iglesias; A. Espíndola; A. N. Sérsic
      Pages: 351 - 361
      Abstract: Quaternary climatic changes impacted species’ demography and distribution worldwide. Although response to climate change could have been modulated by mutualistic interactions with other species, studies exploring the dynamics of these interactions and their role facilitating species persistence during past climatic variations are scarce. In this work, we attempt to explore the spatial dynamic of Calceolaria polyrhiza and its oil-collecting bee pollinators during the last 120,000 years, identifying stable areas of persistence and statistically determining whether the distribution of pollinator-related floral ecotypes is associated with these shared areas of persistence. To do this, we used 395 presence records of the interacting species and constructed species palaeodistribution models. Additionally, we gathered phenotypic measures of the plant and used decision tree and multiple regression analyses to link the plant phenotypic divergence with the distribution of stable areas. Our species distribution models suggest that past climatic changes affected the interaction between C. polyrhiza and both bee species in time and space. While the interaction between the plant and C. caeruleus predominated in the Andean-Patagonian forest and was relatively stable in space and time, that was not the case for the pollinator C. cineraria in the Patagonian steppe. This, along with our analyses of spatial phenotypic divergence, indicates that current floral phenotypes are the result of two historical different pollination regimes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9490-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Interpopulation variation in pollinators and floral scent of the
           lady’s-slipper orchid Cypripedium calceolus L.
    • Authors: Herbert Braunschmid; Bernadette Mükisch; Thomas Rupp; Irmgard Schäffler; Pietro Zito; Daniele Birtele; Stefan Dötterl
      Pages: 363 - 379
      Abstract: Floral scent is a key mediator in many plant–pollinator interactions. It is known to vary not only among plant species, but also within species among populations. However, there is a big gap in our knowledge of whether such variability is the result of divergent selective pressures exerted by a variable pollinator climate or alternative scenarios (e.g., genetic drift). Cypripedium calceolus is a Eurasian deceptive lady’s-slipper orchid pollinated by bees. It is found from near sea level to altitudes of 2500 m. We asked whether pollinator climate and floral scents vary in a concerted manner among different altitudes. Floral scents of four populations in the Limestone Alps were collected by dynamic headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Flower visitors and pollinators (the subset of visitors with pollen loads) were collected and identified. Preliminary coupled gas chromatographic and electroantennographic measurements with floral scents and pollinators revealed biologically active components. More than 70 compounds were detected in the scent samples, mainly aliphatics, terpenoids, and aromatics. Although several compounds were found in all samples, and all samples were dominated by linalool and octyl acetate, scents differed among populations. Similarly, there were strong differences in flower visitor spectra among populations with most abundant flower visitors being bees and syrphid flies at low and high altitudes, respectively. Pollinator climate differed also among populations; however, independent of altitude, most pollinators were bees of Lasioglossum, Andrena, and Nomada. Only few syrphids acted as pollinators and this is the first record of flies as pollinators in C. calceolus. The electrophysiological tests showed that bees and syrphid flies sensed many of the compounds released by the flowers, among them linalool and octyl acetate. Overall, we found that both floral scent and visitor/pollinator climate differ among populations. We discuss whether interpopulation variation in scent is a result of pollinator-mediated selection.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9512-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Flower scent bouquet variation and bee pollinator visits in Stevia
           rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae), a source of natural sweeteners
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Angelo Canale; Donato Romano; Guido Flamini; Silvia Tavarini; Andrea Martini; Roberta Ascrizzi; Giuseppe Conte; Marcello Mele; Luciana G. Angelini
      Pages: 381 - 388
      Abstract: Pollinators provide a key service to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Little is reported on the pollination chemoecology of Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae), a hermaphroditic species producing self-incompatible florets in small corymbs. We investigated the chemistry of volatiles potentially involved in its pollination system. The VOCs emitted by the corymbs of 27 F1 open-pollinated genotypes were collected by solid-phase micro-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), as well as morphometric data of the genotypes were recorded. Finally, we quantified the abundance of pollinators for each genotype. S. rebaudiana flowers were mainly visited by bees (Apidae and Halictidae), followed by hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). GC–MS indicated that S. rebaudiana was characterized by a complex scent profile with large variability among F1 plants. Discriminant analysis showed that limonene, δ-elemene and bicyclogermacrene were the compounds explaining most of the scent bouquet difference between high attractive (>40 pollinators/plant) from low attractive pollinator power (<40 pollinators/plant). Limonene was the most representative VOC among plants that are more attractive to pollinators, while high emissions of δ-elemene and bicyclogermacrene were linked to plants that are less attractive to pollinators. S. rebaudiana morphometric data highlighted that, besides floral VOCs, corymb abundance and size, as well as plant height, may route pollinator visits. Overall, this study adds knowledge on floral phenology and pollinator ecological traits of S. rebaudiana, allowing a deeper understanding of its chemical ecology and pollination.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9488-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
  • Flowers as sleeping places for male bees: somehow the males know which
           flowers their females prefer
    • Authors: Mardiore Pinheiro; Isabel Alves-dos-Santos; Marlies Sazima
      Abstract: Males of solitary bees usually spend the night out of the nests. In the middle or late afternoon, they stop the patrolling behavior and move on to their sleeping places. Usually, they hang with the mandibles on small branches of the vegetation or stay inside flowers until the next day. We report the sleeping places of males of four Tapinotaspidini species on flowers of six plant species of four families. Flowers of three Iridaceae species were the most sought by males, especially flowers of Sisyrinchium scariosum which show high synchrony between anthesis and activity period of Lanthanomelissa discrepans males. Moreover, S. scariosum flowers are the most visited by females of L. discrepans which are the main pollinators; however, the role of the males as pollinators is unclear. Similar situation is evident for the interaction between males of Arhysoceble picta and Cuphea glutinosa (Lythraceae), where the males take nectar and may act as pollinators, like their females. We believe the plants are indirectly benefited by these interactions through the maintenance of the male populations of the pollinator bee species.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9532-6
  • Insights from measuring pollen deposition: quantifying the pre-eminence of
           bees as flower visitors and effective pollinators
    • Authors: P. G. Willmer; H. Cunnold; G. Ballantyne
      Abstract: Using our accumulated datasets from Kenyan savanna, Mediterranean garigue, UK gardens and heathland, involving 76 plants from 30 families, we present detailed data to quantify the superiority of bees as pollinators of most flowering plants when compared with other flower visitors. Bees provided the majority of visits to study species at all sites, and 33 of the 76 plants received more than 90% of their visits from bees. Furthermore, pollen deposition onto stigmas from single-visit events (SVD, a measure of pollination effectiveness) was significantly higher for bees than non-bees at all the four sites where a major proportion of the flora was sampled. Solitary bees, and also bumblebees in temperate habitats, were the best potential pollinators for most plants in this respect, and significantly out-performed honeybees. Only a few plants were well served by bombyliid flies, and fewer again by larger hoverflies, butterflies, or solitary wasps. Bees also achieved better matches of their visit timing to peak pollen availability (measured indirectly as peak SVD), and made much shorter visits to flowers than did non-bees, permitting a substantially greater visit frequency. Additionally, they deposited significantly lower levels of potentially deleterious heterospecific pollen on stigmas in heathland and Mediterranean garigue, though not in the UK garden with densely clustered high-diversity flowering, or in the Kenyan savanna site with particularly dispersed flowering patches and some specialist non-bee flowers. Our data provide a novel and quantified characterisation of the specific advantages of bees as flower visitors, and underline the need to conserve diverse bee communities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9528-2
  • Bees and flowers, an old love story
    • Authors: Isabel Alves-dos-Santos; Isabel Cristina Machado
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9531-7
  • Long-term yield trends of insect-pollinated crops vary regionally and are
           linked to neonicotinoid use, landscape complexity, and availability of
    • Authors: Heikki M. T. Hokkanen; Ingeborg Menzler-Hokkanen; Maaria Keva
      Abstract: Time series data on crop yields for two main wind-pollinated crops (barley and wheat) and for three crops benefitting from insect pollination (turnip rapeseed, caraway, and black currant), were compiled from official agricultural statistics. In Finland, these statistics are available at aggregate national level, and at the level of each of the 15 provinces of the country. Yields of wind-pollinated crops have steadily increased in Finland, while yields of insect-pollinated crops have been highly variable. The largest crop benefitting from insect pollination is turnip rapeseed, which shows first a clear tendency to increased yields from 1980 to 1993, after which there has been a continuous decline in yields at the national average level. Regionally, the trends in turnip rapeseed yield show large variation, so that in six provinces of Finland, the trend has been significantly decreasing; in five provinces, there has been no significant trend; and in two provinces, there has been a significant linear increase in yields. Yield trends in the two other insect-pollinated crops, caraway and black currants, show similar trend variations. However, at the national average level, caraway yields show no significant trend, while black currant yields have increased during the past 6 years. The possible impact on the trends of insect-pollinated crops of three explanatory variables was analyzed. Significant linear correlation was found between the yield trends (slope of the trends) in rapeseed, and the extent of using neonicotinoid seed dressing in the provinces; the magnitude of yield decline in turnip rapeseed increased, as the use of neonicotinoid seed dressing increased. Similar significant linear correlation was found for the magnitude of yield decline in turnip rapeseed and the complexity of the agricultural landscape in each province; yield trend changed from negative to positive as the proportion of agricultural land of the total terrestrial land area declined from 28% to below 10%. The availability of honey bee colonies with respect to the growing area of crops benefitting from insect pollination also had a linear, significant impact on turnip rapeseed yield trends: yields tended to decline in provinces, where the supply of managed pollinators with respect to demand was low, but tended to increase in provinces, where the number of honey bee colonies were over 30% of the estimated demand. As neither the landscape complexity (proportion of arable land of total terrestrial land area), nor the number of honey bee colonies for pollination have changed significantly over the past 10–20 years, these factors cannot explain the observed differences in the yield trends of the examined insect-pollinated crops. It appears that only the uptake of neonicotinoid insecticide seed dressing about 15 years ago can explain the crop yield declines in several provinces, and at the national level for turnip rapeseed, most likely via disruption of pollination services by wild pollinators.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9527-3
  • Is the maximum reproductive rate of Centris analis (Hymenoptera, Apidae,
           Centridini) associated with floral resource availability?
    • Authors: Cláudia Inês da Silva; Carolina Mayumi Hirotsu; Alípio José de Suza Pacheco Filho; Elisa Pereira Queiroz; Carlos Alberto Garófalo
      Abstract: Spatiotemporal variation in the availability of food resources may be a determining factor for reproductive success and maintenance of bees, but the extent of these variations is poorly understood. For management and conservation of bees, the first step is to know the behavior and the food resources used. Currently, urban areas are considered refuge zones for bees, and understanding the availability of floral resources and the influence on reproductive processes is very important for management of bees. We used the protocols applied in phenological studies with bees and plant species to evaluate both throughout the year in an urbanized area. At the same time, we used palynology protocols to analyze the pollen material collected from brood cells (food and feces) of immature Centris analis. These protocols allowed to evaluate the availability of floral resources in the studied area and the plant species effectively used by C. analis females to feed immature larvae during the reproductive period. The maximum reproductive period of C. analis was not associated with the highest floral resources availability. However, there was a strong selectivity of pollen in flowers of Malpighia emarginata (Malpighiaceae), which represented more than 59% of all the pollen grains provisioned throughout the year. This means that in the case of more specialized bees like C. analis, the availability of the preferred plants is more important than the overall floral resource availability in the area. Thus, to keep C. analis in the city, it is necessary to maintain or introduce Malpighiaceae species in the urban planning. On the other hand, at least 27% of the plant species found in the study area are pollinated by C. analis, emphasizing the importance of preserving this bee.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9513-9
  • Bee visitors of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) in an urban
           environment in northwestern Turkey
    • Authors: Victor H. Gonzalez; Alena Olsen; Maija Mallula; Aycan Tosunoglu; Ibrahim Çakmak; John Hranitz; John Barthell
      Abstract: Information on the pollination ecology and floral visitors of the noxious weed Centaurea solstitialis is available for several populations in its invasive range, but limited information is available in its native range, with most studies conducted on the Greek island of Lesvos. Herein, we document the visitation pattern of bees and explore the relationship of bee body size and nectar availability in weedy populations of C. solstitialis from an urban environment within its native range in northwestern Turkey. Studies were conducted at patches of C. solstitialis in abandoned lots at the Uludağ University near the city of Bursa. A total of 41 species, including honey bees, belonging to five families and 19 genera were recorded. Small megachilid and halictid bee species were the most common visitors. Average nectar standing crop volume per floret was low (0.003–0.117 μL) and did not significantly vary throughout the day. Average bee head width significantly correlated with average nectar standing crop volume but did not significantly change throughout the day. Analyses of pollen loads as well as direct observations of bee foraging behavior indicate that a large number of bees visit C. solstitialis, primarily in search of nectar while carrying a large percentage of pollen grains of this plant species on their bodies. These results are similar to previous observations on a non-weedy population of C. solstitialis from the island of Lesvos.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9526-4
  • Pollen and stamen mimicry: the alpine flora as a case study
    • Authors: Klaus Lunau; Sabine Konzmann; Lena Winter; Vanessa Kamphausen; Zong-Xin Ren
      Abstract: Many melittophilous flowers display yellow and UV-absorbing floral guides that resemble the most common colour of pollen and anthers. The yellow coloured anthers and pollen and the similarly coloured flower guides are described as key features of a pollen and stamen mimicry system. In this study, we investigated the entire angiosperm flora of the Alps with regard to visually displayed pollen and floral guides. All species were checked for the presence of pollen- and stamen-imitating structures using colour photographs. Most flowering plants of the Alps display yellow pollen and at least 28% of the species display pollen- or stamen-imitating structures. The most frequent types of pollen and stamen imitations were (mostly yellow and UV-absorbing) colour patches on petals (65% of species displaying imitations), patterns of inflorescences (18%), stamen-like pistils (10%), and staminodes (6%), as well as three-dimensional structures such as convex lower lips and filamental hairs (<5%). Dichogamous and diclinous species display pollen- and stamen-imitating structures more often than non-dichogamous and non-diclinous species, respectively. The visual similarity between the androecium and other floral organs is attributed to mimicry, i.e. deception caused by the flower visitor’s inability to discriminate between model and mimic, sensory exploitation, and signal standardisation among floral morphs, flowering phases, and co-flowering species. We critically discuss deviant pollen and stamen mimicry concepts and evaluate the frequent evolution of pollen-imitating structures in view of the conflicting use of pollen for pollination in flowering plants and provision of pollen for offspring in bees.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9525-5
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