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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Arthropod-Plant Interactions
  [SJR: 0.797]   [H-I: 17]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Application of methyl jasmonate to grey willow ( Salix cinerea ) attracts
           insectivorous birds in nature
    • Authors: Anna Mrazova; Katerina Sam
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: It has been suggested that insectivorous birds may be guided by herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to herbivore-rich trees with herbivorous damage. The HIPV production in plants is partly mediated by jasmonic acid signalling pathway. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was proved to be a suitable agent for induction of HIPVs similar to those induced by herbivorous insects in many plant species. We studied the effects of methyl jasmonate on volatile emission and natural enemy attraction using mature grey willow (Salix cinerea) under natural conditions in Czech Republic. We treated 12 experimental shrubs with 30 mM MeJA and completed the experiment with 12 control shrubs. We monitored attacks by natural predators with artificial plasticine caterpillars which were checked daily. Birds most often pecked the caterpillars exposed on MeJA-treated shrubs and this attractiveness differed significantly from control. Attractiveness of MeJA-treated shrubs did not differ significantly from control shrubs for arthropod predators. Spraying MeJA on grey willows resulted in significantly higher production of α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and β-ocimene. There was a marginally significant positive correlation between the predation rate by birds and relative change in α-pinene emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9558-9
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Responses of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera:
           Curculionidea: Scolytinae) to volatile constituents of its symbiotic
           fungus Fusarium solani (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae)
    • Authors: James Peter Egonyu; Baldwyn Torto
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Xylosandrus compactus is a polyphagus pest that cultivates a symbiotic fungus Fusarium solani in tunnels of host plants for food and is a major threat to coffee production in East Africa. We hypothesized that the female X. compactus, which is the only sex capable of flying to attack its hosts, is attracted to volatiles from F. solani. We investigated responses of females to volatiles released by fungal cultures and bioactive components identified in the fungal volatiles. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, ~68% of females were attracted to volatiles emitted from F. solani over clean air. Bioactive compounds were identified in the fungal volatiles by coupled gas chromatography (GC)/electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC/mass spectrometric analyses as methyl isovalerate and 2,3-butanediol. We also identified ethanol, a known attractant of X. compactus, using solid phase microextraction captured fungal volatiles analyzed by GC/MS. In field trapping trials, we compared captures of females in plastic bottle traps baited with a range of doses of methyl isovalerate, 2,3-butanediol, and blends of the two compounds, with similar traps baited with solvent only and ethanol. Females were caught by all the baited traps at all the concentrations tested except traps baited with solvent only. Trap captures were however 14–37-fold lower in traps baited with single components and the blends than those baited with ethanol. The possible use of these components as a tool for kairomonal monitoring of populations of X. compactus is discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9552-2
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Behavioral responses of Frankliniella occidentalis to floral volatiles
           combined with different background visual cues
    • Authors: Yu Cao; Junrui Zhi; Can Li; Runzhi Zhang; Chun Wang; Baozhen Shang; Yulin Gao
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is one of the most destructive sucking pests of flowering plants. We examined behavioral responses of F. occidentalis adults to the floral volatiles of Rosa chinensis, Gardenia jasminoides, and Tagetes erecta in a Y-tube olfactometer with background visual cues (green, red, white, yellow, and blue backgrounds). The results show that F. occidentalis adults had similar responses under all the different background colors, but the responses by sex varied significantly when offered floral volatile or clean air. In pairings of floral volatiles, female F. occidentalis adults presented significant preferences (R. chinensis > G. jasminoides > T. erecta) in each treatment, while male F. occidentalis adults had no significant preference. Furthermore, the responses of female F. occidentalis adults to the three different floral volatiles compared with each other were greater under green and blue backgrounds than red, white, or yellow backgrounds. However, the responses of male F. occidentalis adults to floral volatiles were similar to all five backgrounds. These results indicate that female thrips could discriminate different floral volatiles, while male thrips could not. Both male and female thrips performed steady preferences of floral volatiles under all the five visual backgrounds, and the behavioral responses of female thrips to the floral volatiles could be enhanced under the green and blue backgrounds. These findings could hopefully aid in the development of effective trapping and monitoring strategies for this pest.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9549-x
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Induced responses of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae) against
           Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
           attack: preliminary results
    • Authors: C. Abbate; S. Toscano; R. Arcidiacono; D. Romano; A. Russo; G. Mazzeo
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Plants respond to herbivorous attack through a defence system that includes structural barriers, release of toxic chemicals, and attraction of natural enemies of the target pests, etc. In this study, plants of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae) were artificially infested with the obligate phloem-feeding insect pest Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and compared with control uninfested plants. Leaf samples were collected at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h after infestation to monitor the plant response. Proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll (Chla, Chlb, and Chla+b), and total carotenoid (Car) contents, as well as the activities of catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) antioxidant enzymes, were measured at each sampling time to better understand the mechanism of plant defences. Proline content was the highest at 2 h after infestation and remained high throughout the experiment, while MDA content differed significantly only at 12 h after infestation. The value of chlorophyll was higher in the control plants, indicating that insect attack seriously compromised the photosynthetic activity of infected plants. Enzymatic activities showed significant increases, CAT of about 50% after 24 h and PAL of about 43% after 6 h. This study will be useful for understanding Bougainvillea plant defence against mealybugs and for showing that this ornamental species is able to activate enzymatic and molecular mechanisms in response to insect attack.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9550-4
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • MeJA is more effective than JA in inducing defense responses in Larix
    • Authors: Dun Jiang; Shanchun Yan
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: The roles of jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in improving the inducible resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stimuli/stresses have been well investigated. However, the differences in inducing effects between exogenous applications of JA and MeJA are poorly understood. In this study, we compared the inducing effects of exogenous spray applications of 0.1 mmol/L JA and MeJA onto four un-bagged lateral branches on defense response of Larix olgensis seedlings against the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The bio-activities of three major defense enzymes (SOD, PAL, and PPO) plus two protease inhibitors (TI and CI) of the unsprayed larch seedling needles, and the growth, development and reproductive capacity of the gypsy moth were examined. The results show that partial spray of JA or MeJA on L. olgensis seedlings significantly increased the bio-activities of SOD, PAL, PPO, TI, and CI (P < 0.05), and strongly decreased the larval/pupal weights and survivals, as well as the fecundity of L. dispar that fed on the seedlings relative to the control. However, the MeJA treatment showed quicker inductive effects on SOD and PAL activities; longer and more significant effects on PPO, TI, and CI activities; better inhibitory effects on the larval/pupal weights and survivals, as well as the fecundity of L. dispar than did the JA treatment. Comparatively, MeJA in the current study showed stronger effects on inducing systemic resistance to the defoliator (L. dispar) in L. olgensis than did JA.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9551-3
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • The immunological dependence of plant-feeding animals on their host’s
           medical properties may explain part of honey bee colony losses
    • Authors: Erik Tihelka
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an important pollinator of agricultural and horticultural crops, but also of wild flowers. The species has been facing declines in many areas of the world, the causes being identified as multifactorial. Recently, it has been theorised that some plant-dwelling animals may develop a dependence on the medicinal properties of their hots plant’s secondary metabolites. Here, the question of honey bee self-medication using organic materials, namely propolis, nectar, honey, honeydew, pollen, wood, and algae for self-medication is addressed. Self-medication in honey bees is a largely unexplored area and thus a comprehensive overview of the field is provided. Prior studies suggest that recent honey bee colony declines are driven by decreased forage plant availability. The problem is expanded and it is suggested, that if honey bees developed a dependence on medical properties of some disappearing plants or materials, this could explain a part of the colony losses observed around the world. To date, convincing evidence points towards self-medication with honey and propolis. Bees also contact plant secondary metabolites, fatty acids, essential oils, and microorganisms that are active against the causative agents of American foulbrood, European foulbrood, nosemosis, chalkbrood, stonebrood, and varroasis. In the future, selected taxa of plants with medicinal properties may be planted to boost honey bee health without chemotherapy. Future directions of research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9553-1
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Physiological and biochemical responses of Camellia sinensis to stress
           associated with Empoasca vitis feeding
    • Authors: Jian-yu Li; Meng-zhu Shi; Jian-wei Fu; Yue-chao He; David J. Perović; Ting Wang
      Pages: 65 - 75
      Abstract: The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis, is the most serious pest in plantations of tea, Camellia sinensis. Beyond physical damage to the leaves, tea yields may be affected if feeding stress causes physiological and biochemical changes in the tea plant, which affected the quality and flavor of the tea. Yet the effect of feeding stress, induced by E. vitis, is largely unknown. We measured the injury index and the physiological and biochemical responses of C. sinensis to stress by E. vitis feeding in a series of laboratory trials. Using 2-year-old C. sinensis plants, we tested the effects of leafhopper feeding at different densities—0, 5, 10, and 20 leafhoppers—and different durations of exposure—1, 4, 7, and 10 days—on potential changes in chlorophyll, tea polyphenols, nutrient content, activities of protective enzymes (peroxidase, POD; superoxide dismutase, SOD; and catalase, CAT), and the lipid peroxidation (MDA). We found that the injury indices for tea leaves increased continuously as the density of E. vitis increased in the same day, and simultaneously, as the time of leafhoppers damage increased, the injury indices for tea leaves also increased. Our results also indicated that feeding by E. vitis caused a considerable decline in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll in tea leaves and soluble carbohydrate content, and an increase in tea polyphenols. Soluble protein content showed a direct increasing relationship with the increasing leafhopper density and the duration of exposure. Throughout the period of E. vitis exposure, there was highly significant difference in the activities of protective enzymes and MDA content. Additionally, POD, SOD, and CAT activities in tea leaves were elevated significantly with the increase of leafhopper density. Lipid peroxidation (MDA) content also increased after the exposure to leafhopper feeding. Overall, our results indicate that although C. sinensis displays a certain level of tolerance to E. vitis feeding stress, higher density of leafhoppers, and longer exposure duration, can cause severe damage to tea leaves and also a decline in plant defense of tea, so as to affect the tea quality.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9554-0
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Does the scion or rootstock of Citrus sp. affect the feeding and biology
           of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)'
    • Authors: Gustavo Rodrigues Alves; Vitor Hugo Beloti; Kenya Martins Faggioni-Floriano; Sérgio Alves de Carvalho; Rafael de Andrade Moral; Clarice Garcia Borges Demétrio; José Roberto Postali Parra; Pedro Takao Yamamoto
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri is the main vector of the bacteria associated with Huanglongbing, and can exploit more than 50 species of the family Rutaceae as hosts. The number of possible hosts is even higher if plant varieties are included. This study evaluated the influence of different combinations of scion and rootstock citrus varieties on the development and feeding of ACP. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on the Valencia and Sicilian varieties, both grafted on Sunki mandarin, with means of 87.99 and 87.98%, respectively; and lowest (67.63%) on Hamlin × Rangpur lime. The lowest levels of both nymphal and total viability (egg-adult) were obtained on Hamlin, regardless of the rootstock used. The total development time (egg-adult) ranged from 17.92 to 19.33 days for the Pêra × Sunki and Hamlin × Swingle combinations, respectively. Cluster analysis separated the hosts into two groups, the first consisting of the combinations of the Hamlin variety, and the second group formed by the other varieties. The highest food value (assessed by the area of honeydew produced) was observed for the orange scion varieties, and among these, the highest value was observed on Valencia (0.902 cm2); the smallest honeydew area was obtained on Ponkan (0.269 cm2). The rootstocks did not affect the feeding behavior of D. citri. The results of this study could aid in the development of management techniques, mainly in providing information for the installation of new citrus groves and assistance in crop-improvement research.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9555-z
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Soybean defense induction to Spodoptera cosmioides herbivory is dependent
           on plant genotype and leaf position
    • Authors: Marcelo Mueller de Freitas; Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza; Luciano Nogueira; Mirella Marconato Di Bello; Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior
      Pages: 85 - 96
      Abstract: Plants have evolved a diverse array of defensive mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, which can be either constitutive or inducible. Variation in plant-intrinsic factors such as the genotype and the leaf position coupled with insect herbivory can affect the expression of resistance to insects. We investigated if soybean defense induction triggered by Spodoptera cosmioides herbivory varies in function of the genotype and leaf position. This hypothesis was tested in two bioassays using leaf discs or entire leaflets collected from the upper and lower trifoliates of S. cosmioides-injured and uninjured V3-V4 soybean plants. We used one genotype that was constitutively resistant and one that was constitutively susceptible to S. cosmioides based on previous screening. Third-instar larvae were fed one of the treatments and assayed for leaf consumption, larval growth, and efficiency of conversion of ingested food. Genotype and leaf position significantly interacted with herbivory and affected soybean-induced resistance to S. cosmioides. Negative responses on S. cosmioides larvae consumption and growth rates were only observed when leaf material was originated from the upper soybean trifoliate. The susceptible soybean genotype did not exhibit induced resistance characteristics. Food offered as leaf disc was better at demonstrating induced resistance in previously injured soybean, whereas offering entire leaflet the induced effects were less pronounced. Here we provide new findings on soybean resistance by demonstrating that resistance induction to S. cosmioides herbivory is dependent on the plant genotype and leaf position where injury took place, with negative effects better evinced in bioassays using leaf discs than entire leaflets.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9556-y
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Struggle to survive: aphid—plant relationships under low-light stress. A
           case of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and Pisum sativum L.
    • Authors: Katarzyna Dancewicz; Marlena Paprocka; Iwona Morkunas; Beata Gabryś
      Pages: 97 - 111
      Abstract: Light is primary source of energy and also plays signaling and regulatory roles in developmental processes and defense responses of plants. The aim of the study was to determine the performance, settling preferences, probing, and feeding behavior of Acyrthosiphon pisum on Pisum sativum grown in complete darkness (NL), with light at minimum level required for photoperiodic reaction (LL) and under full-light (FL) conditions. The effect of A. pisum infestation on metabolic status and defense responses of peas under FL, LL, and NL conditions was also determined. The population growth rate was limited on LL and NL pea plants as compared to FL plants. The reproductive period of aphids on LL and NL plants was eight times shorter than on plants growing in FL. In contrast to aphids on FL plants, the majority of A. pisum rejected LL and NL plants during settling. Aphid probing activities were not impeded on LL and NL plants but the probes were significantly shorter than on FL plants and consisted mainly of non-phloem activities. The analysis of tolerance of P. sativum to A. pisum showed that on FL plants, the number of aphids was nearly five times higher than on plants growing in low light (LL) at the end of the 2-week experiment but the tolerance index of FL plants was higher than that of LL plants. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, saccharides, and phenolics and the activity of β-d-glucosidase were notably lower in LL and NL plants than in FL plants. The increase in light intensity from complete darkness to the minimum level required for photoperiodic reaction did not stimulate evident changes in the measured plant biochemical parameters. These trends occurred in aphid-free (AF) and aphid-infested (AI) plants. However, under FL conditions, β-d-glucosidase activity and the content of saccharides were lower in AI plants than in AF plants. No differences in the measured plant biochemical parameters between AI and AF plants occurred under LL and NL conditions. The low β-d-glucosidase activity and low content of phenolics in the light-deprived plants that have reduced ability to photosynthesize show that under the biotic stress of aphid infestation plants invest in supporting basic metabolism rather than in defense against herbivores.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9557-x
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Plant host relationships of three lineages of the gall-inducing fly
           Fergusonina Malloch (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) on Eucalyptus L’Hérit.
    • Authors: Michaela F. Purcell; Andrew H. Thornhill; Thomas C. Wallenius; David K. Yeates; David M. Rowell
      Pages: 133 - 145
      Abstract: The gall-inducing fly family Fergusoninidae, in association with a mutualist nematode, induces galls on Myrtaceae. Each fly species typically targets a particular site on its host plant, giving rise to a range of gall types, and one plant species may host at least four fly species. While incongruent fly–host evolutionary time scales preclude early cospeciation, it is possible that Fergusoninidae have been diverging with their host plants more recently at correspondingly finer taxonomic levels, such as within host subgenera. To test this possibility, we reduced the scale of our analysis and focussed on a clade of ten Eucalyptus species, sampling intensively and using a phylogenetic approach to compare the relationships between these plant hosts and their associated flies. We also took advantage of the fact that three different gall types, each with its own clade of Fergusonina flies, could be sampled on this focal host clade, in effect giving us three different host/fly association tests on the one set of hosts. The phylogenies of flies from the three different gall types were estimated using Bayesian analysis of mtCOI sequences and compared with an existing phylogeny of the eucalypt host clade. While each gall type showed a different pattern of host relationships, heuristic and quantitative analyses showed that there was little correspondence between plant and fly phylogenies and we conclude that host switching is prevalent in this system. There was more host fidelity in the flower bud gallers on this group of eucalypts, and there was least in the leaf blade gallers, with the shoot bud gallers demonstrating an intermediate level of host fidelity. We discuss the possible factors which may have led to their patterns of host association. This is the first study of Fergusonina to focus on one clade of Eucalyptus L’Hérit. (Myrtaceae) with intensive sampling and shows that each host plant species is commonly used by multiple fergusoninid species. This has provided us with the opportunity to study in detail the host relationships of three separate clades of Fergusonina from different plant tissue types, and has revealed many previously unrecorded host plant/gall site associations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9561-1
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Protein networks reveal organ-specific defense strategies in maize in
           response to an aboveground herbivore
    • Authors: Lina Castano-Duque; Dawn S. Luthe
      Pages: 147 - 175
      Abstract: Many of the proteins and defense pathways in maize that are activated in an organ-specific manner in leaves and roots during aboveground caterpillar attack have not yet been identified. In this study, we examined systemic and organ-specific defenses in the insect-resistant maize genotype, Mp708, when infested aboveground with fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda). We used proteomic and network biology analyses and then integrated these data with known FAW resistance QTL to create a protein abundance QTL (pQTL) subnetwork. Using 10-plex tandem mass spectrometry tags (TMT) proteomics technique, we identified a total of 4675 proteins in leaves and roots of control and FAW-infested plants. Among the identified proteins, 794 had significant differences in abundance in response to FAW herbivory. Proteins that were upregulated in leaves during FAW infestation included jasmonic acid biosynthetic enzymes, cysteine proteases, protease inhibitors, REDOX-related proteins, and peroxidases. In roots, highly abundant proteins were involved in ET biosynthesis, DNA expression regulation, and pyruvate biosynthesis. We found many proteins that possibly contribute different defense functions to FAW resistance in Mp708. One potential resistance mechanism identified was that trade-offs between growth and defense responses were reduced in Mp708. Some of the proteins involved in this trade-off that were found within the pQTL subnetwork were the Kinesin-like protein (GRMZM2G046186_P01) and Pi starvation-induced protein (GRMZM2G118037_P01). We proposed other mechanisms contributing to resistance that suggest that jasmonic acid and ethylene control the local accumulation of insecticidal cysteine protease (MIR1-CP) in leaves, while ethylene controlled the systemic accumulation of MIR1-CP in roots. Finally, we hypothesized that receptor kinases such as receptor protein kinase 1 (GRMZM2G055678) could be involved in the activation of root-specific defense responses during aboveground insect infestation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9562-0
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
  • Multitrophic interactions among fungal endophytes, bees, and Baccharis
           dracunculifolia : resin tapering for propolis production leads to
           endophyte infection
    • Authors: G. Wilson Fernandes; Yumi Oki; Michel Stórquio Belmiro; Fernando M. Resende; Ary Corrêa Junior; João Lucio de Azevedo
      Abstract: The tropics are known for their high diversity of plants, animals, and biotic interactions, but the role of the speciose endophytic fungi in these interactions has been mostly neglected. We report a unique interaction among plant sex, bees, and endophytes on the dioecious shrub, Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae). We assessed whether there was an association between resin collection by bees and fungal endophytes considering the host plant sex. We hypothesized that resin collection by the Africanized honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) could favor the entry of endophytes in B. dracunculifolia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) bees damage the leaf buds of female and male plant at different proportions; (2) damage on leaf buds increases the richness of endophytic fungi; (3) endophyte richness differs between female and male plants; and (4) in vitro growth of endophytes depends on the sex of the plant individual from which the resin was extracted. Endophyte richness and proportion of leaf bud damage did not vary between the plant sexes. However, species similarity of endophytes between female and male plants was 0.33. Undamaged leaf buds did not show culturable endophytes, with all fungi exclusively found in damaged leaf buds. Endophyte composition changed with the plant sex. The endophytes exclusively found in female plants did not develop in the presence of male resin extract. These findings highlight that resin collection by A. mellifera for propolis production favors the entry of endophytic fungi in B. dracunculifolia. Additionally, endophyte composition and growth are influenced by plant sex.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9597-x
  • Dynamic changes in energy metabolism and electron transport of photosystem
           II in Nicotiana tabacum infested by nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Middle
           East-Asia Minor 1)
    • Authors: Qingliang Li; Wei Tan; Ming Xue; Haipeng Zhao
      Abstract: Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) infestation adversely affected photosynthesis of host plants. In the current study, chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured to determine the effects of MEAM1 nymph infestation of tobacco local and systemic leaves on energy metabolism and electron transport of photosystemII(PSII). The results showed that the density of PSII reaction centres per excited cross section (CS) (RC/CS) of infested and systemic leaves was reduced at 14 and 20 days. In systemic leaves, the number of PSII closed reaction centres (1-qP) increased significantly at 14 and 20 days. Absorption flux per QA− reducing PSII reaction centre (RC) (ABS/RC), trapped energy flux per RC (TRo/RC), and electron transport per RC (ETo/RC) of infested and systemic leaves increased with MEAM1 nymph infestation. The most obvious increase in absorption flux per CS (ABS/CSo) and trapped energy flux per CS (TRo/CSo) of infested and systemic leaves occurred at 14 days. MEAM1 nymph infestation significantly reduced the energy required for PSII QA to be completely reduced (Sm) in tobacco leaves. These results suggested that MEAM1 nymph infestation caused changes in light-harvesting antenna system and deactivation of the reaction centre, resulting in the reduction of photons absorbed by reaction centres per unit area. MEAM1 nymph infestation, particularly the 3rd instar nymphs, decreased light utilization ability and increased excess excitation energy in tobacco leaves. With MEAM1 nymph infestation, the relative electron transport capacity of the entire electron transport chain decreased, and more light energy was used to reduce Q A .
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9594-0
  • Stink bug nezara viridula sustains late MAPKs phosphorylation status and
           induces expression of genes related with cell wall rearrangement in
           developing soybean seeds
    • Authors: Romina Giacometti; Natalia Ilina; Pagano A. Eduardo; Jorge A. Zavala
      Abstract: The southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula) is a serious invasive pest in United States and South America that decreases the quantity and quality of soybean seeds. Plants respond to insect attack recognizing cell injury and oral secretions, triggering mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway and inducing defenses against herbivores. Our field studies were conducted to evaluate late MAPKs involvement in defense modulation and the transcriptional response of soybean genes implicated in cell wall modification after stink bugs fed on developing seeds. We observed an induction in MPK3 and MPK6 transcription at 24 and 72 h after insects attacked soybean pods, while MPK6 was the only gene up-regulated after mechanically damaging the seeds. Exposure to JA and SA stimuli increased MPK3 and MPK6 levels. While SA triggered MPK4 activation, MPK3 and MPK6 were phosphorylated after both JA and SA treatments. Stink bugs feeding and SA treatment specifically increased the expression of expansine (EXP), xyloglucan endo-transferase (EXT), pectate lyase (PL), and polygalacturonase (PG) genes, all involved in the relaxation and restructuration of the cell wall. Moreover, examination of safranin-stained seed sections revealed that stink bug damage resulted in thickening of cell walls even on distal undamaged areas of cotyledons. Our study shows that stink bug damage elicits activation of MAPK signal in soybean seeds and induced SA that may induce genes related with cell wall restructuration, and could increase resistance to new insect attack by hardening cell walls.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9599-8
  • Multitrophic web of insects associated with Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.)
           Macbr. (Fabaceae) and their relationship with resource traits
    • Authors: Tiago Morales-Silva; Angelo Monteiro; Lucas Del Bianco Faria
      Abstract: We describe for the first time the food web of insects associated with fruits and seed of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae), and analyze their relationships with resource traits, such as biomass and fruit area. A total of 440 fruits of P. Gonoacantha were sampled in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We found twenty-one species of insects distributed in three trophic levels. The most widely sampled species was Acanthoscelides clitellarius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), the main consumer species of seeds. It was also verified the presence of Lepidoptera larvae consuming both seeds and the internal fruit tissue. Other species of herbivorous insects were found in low numbers. The food web was subdivided into one sub-web of 10 parasitoid species and one hyperparasitoid species associated to A. clitellarius and another one sub-web of four parasitoid species associated with Lepidoptera. For the parasitism rates, we obtained the following: 19.11% for the total food web, 17.93% for the A. clitellarius parasitism, and 36% for the Lepidoptera parasitism. The resource traits had influence on the oviposition behavior of A. clitellarius, where fruits with larger area showed more eggs of this species. Fruits with higher biomass showed greater abundance and richness of insects as well as more interactions. Seeds with higher biomass were more often used by herbivorous insects. The larval forms of Lepidoptera caused the greatest damage in seed biomass among herbivores. Seeds with parasitoids did not show a significant difference in biomass when compared to predated seeds.
      PubDate: 2018-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9602-4
  • Effects of induced plant resistance on soybean looper (Lepidoptera:
           Noctuidae) in soybean
    • Authors: Xuan Chen; Arthur R. Richter; Michael J. Stout; Jeffrey A. Davis
      Abstract: Soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), is one of the most destructive pests of soybean in the southern U.S. Soybean looper defoliation exceeding 20% from R3 (pod initiation) to R5 (pod fill) can result in significant yield loss. In addition, soybean looper is highly resistant to many insecticides. An alternative to insecticide control is induced host plant resistance. In this study, a total of four experiments over 2 years were conducted in which three different elicitors of SAR (systemic acquired resistance), Actigard 50WG (acibenzolar-S-methyl), Regalia (extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were applied to soybean at different plant stages to determine if these chemicals could induce plant resistance and lower soybean looper fitness. None of the elicitors of SAR significantly affected soybean looper mortality. However, Actigard 50WG, MeJA, and Regalia had adverse effects on developmental time, defoliation, and pupal weight of soybean looper. Induced effects by Regalia on soybean looper were very limited compared to Actigard 50WG and MeJA. A single application of MeJA reduced pupal weight by 6.8% and delayed larval development by 14.3%. Soybean seed production was not affected by application of elicitors. In conclusion, the results suggest that exogenous elicitors applied in the field can trigger plant resistance against herbivores and this low level of host plant resistance may effectively lessen pest pressure by favoring natural enemy population regulation without reducing seed production.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9601-5
  • Identification of active components from volatiles of Chinese bayberry,
           Myrica rubra attractive to Drosophila suzukii
    • Authors: Yan Liu; Wenxia Dong; Feng Zhang; Marc Kenis; Frans Griepink; Jinping Zhang; Li Chen; Chun Xiao
      Abstract: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is native to Southeast Asia and now has become a severe pest of several soft fruits in Europe and the Americas. It causes considerable damage to Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra, in China. In the present study, we employed gas chromatograph–electroantennographic detection (GC–EAD) together with behavioural bioassays and trapping experiments to identify volatile semiochemicals emitted by Chinese bayberry attracting D. suzukii. Electrophysiological experiments revealed the presence of six EAD-active compounds from ripe bayberry fruits, including methyl (E)-3-hexenoate, methyl (E)-2-hexenoate, ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate, α-ylangene, α-humulene and an unidentified compound that elicited consistent antennal response. In two-choice bioassays, bayberry fruits attracted all responding flies, and significantly more flies responded to the volatile extract of bayberry fruits. Four EAD-active compounds were attractive to mated female D. suzukii at lower doses (0.01 and 0.1 µg), but showed repellency at higher doses (10 and 100 µg). Mixtures of these four compounds at different ratios attracted D. suzukii flies at all test doses (0.1, 1 and 10 µg). Both male and female flies were trapped by a mixture of synthetic methyl (E)-3-hexenoate, methyl (E)-2-hexenoate, ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate and α-humulene in a ratio of 1:1.3:1:6.4 in the field trapping experiment. Significantly more males than females were captured in the trap baited with the synthetic blend, and the percentages of D. suzukii captured out of all flies by the traps baited with lure were higher than that baited with blank control. Our findings may provide insights into the olfactory responses of D. suzukii to specific host plant volatiles, and contribute to further development of an effective lure for monitoring D. suzukii in the field.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9595-z
  • Use of Micro-Tom cultivar in a Bemisia tabaci biotype B interaction study
    • Authors: Andrezo Adenilton Santos; Anderson Barcelos de Amorim; Roseane Cristina Predes Trindade; Gildemberg Amorim Leal Junior
      Abstract: Tomatoes of the Micro-Tom cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), are small, have a short life cycle, high-density growth, high-efficiency protocols for genetic transformation, and hormonal and morphological mutants. These characteristics make this cultivar a good candidate as a helpful tool in resistance studies against the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The insect behavior in the Micro-Tom cultivar was observed through free-choice and no-choice oviposition preference tests and life cycle in lab conditions, having as reference the Santa Clara cultivar. In these tests, behavioral and biological insect parameters were obtained and the purpose was used to assess the trichome absence effect on oviposition with the hairless mutant. In the studies for oviposition preference, no difference was observed among the three material obtained. A nymphal stage prolongation and a low nymph viability with an adult longevity reduction were observed in relation to the Santa Clara in the Micro-Tom cultivar and hairless mutant. The Micro-Tom cultivar and hairless mutant do not present antixenotic effects to the oviposition. Mutation present in the hairless mutant does not alter the results observed in the ‘Micro-Tom.’ In general, the absence of the trichome did not reduce the Micro-Tom susceptibility to the oviposition. Antibiosis was observed in the Micro-Tom and it was discussed considering its association with salicylic and jasmonic acids, and brassinosteroid levels. These results show that this cultivar is a pest host and suitable for greenhouse and lab tests, in addition to being able to be used as a susceptibility standard for antixenosis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9596-y
  • Plant–insect interactions: gentians, seed predators and parasitoid
    • Authors: Ekaterina Kozuharova; Albena Lapeva-Gjonova; Maria Shishiniova
      Abstract: While studying breeding systems and pollination ecology of nine Gentiana species (G. lutea, G. punctata, G. asclepiadea, G. pneumonanthe, G. cruciata, G. pyrenaica, G. verna, G. utriculosa, and G. nivalis) in the Bulgarian mountains, we recorded number of insects that feed on their maturing seeds. In addition, parasitoid wasps in connection to these seed predators were detected. Insects are identified and the impact on the seed set of afore mentioned Gentiana species is estimated. Fruit capsules of Gentiana spp. from different populations in the mountains in Bulgaria were investigated for the presence or absence of damage by larvae during the period of 16 years. The seed destruction varies among the nine investigated Gentiana species. The insects whose larvae damaged the seed/fruit set belonged mainly to Coleoptera and Diptera. The larvae of lycaenid butterflies, Maculinea spp. (Lepidoptera), were recorded only in seeds of G. asclepiadea, G. pneumonanthe and G. cruciata. Parasitoid wasps from the families Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, and Pteromalidae were identified, some of them new for the fauna of Bulgaria.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-018-9600-6
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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