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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Arthropod-Plant Interactions
  [SJR: 0.797]   [H-I: 17]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Betraying its presence: identification of the chemical signal released by
           Tuta absoluta -infested tomato plants that guide generalist predators
           toward their prey
    • Authors: Lara De Backer; Thomas Bawin; Matthias Schott; Laurent Gillard; István E. Markó; Frédéric Francis; François Verheggen
      Pages: 111 - 120
      Abstract: Plants modify their volatile chemical signature under pest infestation, which might directly or indirectly improve their defence against threats. These chemical signals have potential in integrated pest management strategies. Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) [Heteroptera: Miridae] is a generalist predatory insect widely used to control the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae]. Based on a previous study demonstrating the ability of this mirid species to discriminate non-infested versus T. absoluta-infested tomato plants, our objective was to identify plant volatile chemicals (herbivore-induced plant volatiles—HIPVs) guiding the behaviour of such a generalist predator towards its prey. First, we used coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-electroantennographic detection analysis to screen for active antenna components from the volatile blend released by T. absoluta-infested tomato plants. Dose responses associated with each isolated HIPV were also performed using an electroantennograph. Subsequently, behavioural assays were conducted in a double-choice olfactometer to analyse and identify the behaviourally active chemicals eliciting olfactory responses. Twenty-one total compounds induced antennal responses and six of the 21 evoked positive attractions in M. pygmaeus: (E)hex-2-enal, 2-carene, α-pinene, β-phellandrene, hexanal, and linalool. A synthetic blend of active HIPVs induced olfactory responses as well as attraction in the bioassays. Our results provided evidence the generalist mirid predator M. pygmaeus uses chemical cues from infested tomato plants to identify plants infested by prey. We discussed how these results can be used to improve existing biological approaches to control the tomato leaf miner, T. absoluta.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9471-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Olfactory response of the zoophytophagous mirid Nesidiocoris tenuis to
           tomato and alternative host plants
    • Authors: Mario Naselli; Lucia Zappalà; Antonio Gugliuzzo; Giovanna Tropea Garzia; Antonio Biondi; Carmelo Rapisarda; Fabrizio Cincotta; Concetta Condurso; Antonella Verzera; Gaetano Siscaro
      Pages: 121 - 131
      Abstract: It has been proved that the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) is attracted to and can develop successfully on sesame (Sesamum indicum). In this study, the potential of this plant, compared with Dittrichia viscosa and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), to attract the mirid bug was assessed. A Y-tube olfactometer was used to test the olfactory preference of the mirid in dual-choice bioassays comparing healthy tomato, S. indicum, and D. viscosa plants, and tomato plants infested by eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). To understand the biochemical basis of the attraction of the omnivorous predator toward the alternative plants, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was performed, with the aim of identifying potential volatiles responsible for mirid attraction. S. indicum was the most attractive plant; T. absoluta infestation did not significantly increase N. tenuis attraction. We identified 57 volatiles belonging to the classes of hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, aliphatic aldehydes, esters, alcohols, and hydrocarbons. Sesame plants emitted the lowest amount of hydrocarbon monoterpenes but a higher rate of oxygenated terpenes. Green leaf volatiles, known for attracting mirids, were emitted at higher levels by sesame plants, whereas tomato plants infested by T. absoluta larvae showed the highest levels of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The potential applications of plant volatiles in integrated management of tomato pests are discussed in the framework of mirid ecology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9481-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Variety mixtures of wheat influence aphid populations and attract an aphid
    • Authors: Ian M. Grettenberger; John F. Tooker
      Pages: 133 - 146
      Abstract: In crop fields, increasing plant species diversity can help manage insect pests, but using plant intraspecific diversity has received less attention as an insect pest management strategy. To explore the potential of crop genotypic diversity for managing insect pests, we used a wheat-aphid-lady beetle model system. We performed greenhouse and laboratory experiments comparing six monocultures and four-variety mixtures. We found that genotypic diversity did not strongly influence aphid populations at the stand level, but did stabilize populations. At the individual plant level, populations on certain varieties differed in mixtures from what would be expected based on populations on the variety in monocultures, including one that consistently hosted lower aphid populations when it was grown in mixtures. When we then tested five of the most promising mixtures, we found none decreased aphid populations compared to monocultures. Diversity of the surrounding neighborhood significantly influenced aphid populations on individual plants of certain varieties. Wheat mixtures did not overyield relative to monocultures, as other studies have found, but all measures of productivity were stabilized by mixtures. In behavioral experiments, aphids did not prefer mixtures or monocultures, but lady beetles were significantly attracted to mixtures. In the field, bottom-up effects on aphids and effects on natural enemies could create pest-management benefits. Based on the work we present here, increasing diversity per se may not improve aphid management aside from stabilizing populations; rather, specific types of mixtures that include influential varieties appear to be crucial for fostering beneficial interactions that can benefit insect pest management.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9477-1
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Sugar beet wireworm Limonius californicus damage to wheat and barley:
           evaluations of plant damage with respect to soil media, seeding depth, and
           diatomaceous earth application
    • Authors: Arash Rashed; Christopher W. Rogers; Mahnaz Rashidi; Juliet M. Marshall
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), continue to be one of the major concerns of cereal producers, primarily due to the lack of effective pesticides and species-specific management options. To have a better understanding of species-specific interactions of one of the most damaging wireworms in the Pacific Northwest and intermountain regions of the USA, a greenhouse study was set to evaluate the damage from the sugar beet wireworm Limonius californicus to wheat and barley planted at different depths and in soil media with varying levels of organic content and texture. Overall, the evaluated wheat appeared to be more susceptible than the barley, showing greater reductions in emergence success and foliar biomass. The greatest loss of foliar biomass was observed in peatmoss-dominated medium, as indicated by a significant host plant-by-soil media interaction. Percentage of plants fed upon by L. californicus was significantly higher in the sand-dominated medium than peatmoss-dominated and 1:1 mix media. Moreover, manipulation of soil media by the addition of diatomaceous earth showed no consistent effect in protecting the planted wheat. Our findings indicated that in addition to quantifying wireworm species-specific interactions, host plant interactions with the environment in the presence of wireworm infestation should also be further studied. These relationships could influence the outcome of integrated management approaches and future risk assessment models and recovery plans.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9474-4
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Parasitoid abundance on plants: effects of host abundance, plant species,
           and plant flowering state
    • Authors: Miriam Kishinevsky; Tamar Keasar; Avi Bar-Massada
      Pages: 155 - 161
      Abstract: The abundance of parasitoids on plants that harbor their monophagous herbivorous host often correlates with host numbers. However, when hosts are polyphagous, the species-specific characteristics of the plants can affect parasitoid abundance as well. We asked whether parasitoids that attack a polyphagous host aggregate on individual plants with high host densities, and whether plant-related factors (plant species and flowering state) also account for the parasitoids’ abundance on the plants. We sampled Encarsia (Förster) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitoids and their host Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from three plant species, six times during the summer of 2013. We analyzed the effects of host abundance, plant species, and flowering state on parasitoid abundances. The abundances of three parasitoid species were significantly and positively affected by the abundance of B. tabaci on plants, regardless of plant species. In contrast, the abundance of the fourth species was not affected by host numbers, but rather by plant species identity as well as by flowering state: parasitoid numbers were lower on flowering plants than on non-flowering plants. Although previous field studies have shown correlations between parasitoid and host abundance, our research demonstrates additional, plant-related variables that can influence this relationship when hosts are polyphagous. We also show that although having the same host, different parasitoid species respond differently to host- versus plant-related variables.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9476-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Differences in leaf nutrients and developmental instability in relation to
           induced resistance to a gall midge
    • Authors: Jean Carlos Santos; Estevão Alves-Silva; Tatiana G. Cornelissen; Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: The hypersensitive response is an important form of plant-induced defence against galling insects and can imply changes in leaf nutrients, especially nitrogen and carbon, which are important for both gall survivorship and leaf development. We hypothesised that the hypersensitive response also causes leaf stress, which can be measured using leaf fluctuating asymmetry. This method evaluates deviations from leaf symmetry and is used to assess the health of plant populations, given that stressful conditions are positively related to levels of fluctuating asymmetry. In the current study, we investigated whether the hypersensitive response of Bauhinia brevipes (Fabaceae) to gall induction by Schizomyia macrocapillata (Cecidomyiidae) was related to differences in leaf nutrients (nitrogen and organic carbon) and/or levels of fluctuating asymmetry. More than 85 % of gall midges perished due to hypersensitive reactions. Fluctuating asymmetry was positively related to the hypersensitive response, and, consequently, this provides evidence that an induced response against herbivores increases plant stress. The concentration of nitrogen was negatively related to the hypersensitive response, indicating that leaves with increased induced defence tend to have low nitrogen levels, which could affect gall development and survival. Organic carbon was related neither to the hypersensitive response nor to fluctuating asymmetry. Galls are known to affect negatively plant development, and here we show that an induced defence against galls is related to differences in plant nitrogen and developmental stability.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9472-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Attachment of honeybees and greenbottle flies to petal surfaces
    • Authors: Patrick Bräuer; Christoph Neinhuis; Dagmar Voigt
      Pages: 171 - 192
      Abstract: Flower surfaces play a key role in the interaction with pollinators acting as signals and landing sites to attach to. To test attachment, Carniolan honeybees and greenbottle flies were used. Both species represent pollinators equipped with smooth or hairy tarsal attachment devices, respectively. A combination of microscopic methods and traction force measurements was applied in order to understand and evaluate the efficiency of pollinator attachment to a variety of petal surfaces. Although the petal surface texture influenced the attachment, coevolutionary relationships or adaptations between flower surfaces and pollinator tarsi could not be confirmed. Since pollinators appear to be opportunistic, they are expected to attach to a variety of flower surfaces. Rougher surfaces, including conical and papillate epidermal cells, significantly increased the foothold of flies and honeybees, while flat, tabular epidermal cells covered with microstructures like cuticular folds and epicuticular wax crystals impaired attachment. Carniolan honeybees generated larger forces than greenbottle flies, but the latter showed higher safety factors. However, tendencies in attachment ability toward sufficient and insufficient substrates are similar in flies and bees.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9478-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Defensive responses in Capsicum annuum (L) plants, induced due to the
           feeding by different larval instars of Spodoptera litura (F)
    • Authors: Movva Vijaya; Pathipati Usha Rani
      Pages: 193 - 202
      Abstract: A study was conducted to demonstrate the induced defence responses of chilli plants against herbivory by different larval instars of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F) at different intervals of time (0, 24, 48 and 72 h) after feeding. The rate of various antioxidative enzymes such as peroxidase, catalase (CAT), superoxide and polyphenol oxidases generated in chilli, Capsicum annuum (L) plant leaves due to damage caused by different larval stages of S. litura, and the primary and secondary metabolite contents were quantified. Also, lipid peroxidation content in plant leaves was measured by a malondialdehyde method, while the photosynthetic pigment concentrations were estimated spectrophotometrically. Early instar larval feeding caused an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with the older instars. Not much variation occurred in the primary metabolite content of plants fed upon by herbivores, and normal chilly plants. However, a considerable increase in the activities of CAT and superoxide dismutase was recorded after 24 h of insect feeding. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation was higher in plants fed by 2nd instar larvae when estimated after 0 h (immediately after 2 h of feeding was completed), whereas no hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed due to the feeding by 5th instar larvae using the 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining method. Nitro blue tetrazolium staining for the location of superoxide ions revealed the immediate accumulation of superoxide ions at the damaged site due to the feeding by all the tested instar larvae of S. litura. Among the different larval stages tested, 2nd and 3rd instar feeding led to more superoxide radical accumulation as an indication of ROS generated as a counteraction to herbivory.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9479-z
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Chemical composition of Illicium verum fruit extract and its bioactivity
           against the peach–potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)
    • Authors: Shi-Guang Li; Ben-Guo Zhou; Mao-Ye Li; Su Liu; Ri-Mao Hua; Hua-Feng Lin
      Pages: 203 - 212
      Abstract: The chemical components of Illicium verum fruit extracts in methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) were determined through GC–MS analysis. The bioactivity of the extracts against Myzus persicae was also investigated to assess their roles in the control of aphids. Forty-four compounds with more than 0.20% mass percentage were identified. Trans-anethole was the most abundant component and comprised 41.14, 52.54, and 72.25% of the MA, EA, and PE extracts, respectively. The biological activity assays on M. persicae showed that increasing the concentration and prolonging the exposure to the extracts enhanced contact toxicity. After 72 h of treatment, 1.000 mg/L MA, EA, and PE extracts caused 68.93, 89.95, and 74.46% mortality, respectively. The LC50 values of MA, EA, and PE extracts against M. persicae were 0.31, 0.14, and 0.27 mg/L, respectively. The deterrent effect of 1.0 mg/L EA extract was the highest. The average antifeedant rate reached 76.88% at 48 h. The development period of M. persicae nymphs was prolonged to more than 2 days when sprayed with 0.1 mg/L MA extract at 25 °C. Hence, I. verum fruit extracts exhibit considerable potential for M. persicae control programs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9480-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Inoculation of ophiostomatoid fungi in loblolly pine trees increases the
           presence of subterranean termites in fungal lesions
    • Authors: Natalie A. Clay; Nathan Little; John J. Riggins
      Pages: 213 - 219
      Abstract: Many bluestain (ophiostomatoid) fungi are inoculated into trees via bark beetle activity, but their ecological roles are not fully understood, particularly for interactions with invertebrates outside bark beetle and phoretic mite associations. Recently, correlational field studies and small-scale laboratory feeding trials have demonstrated subterranean termites have increased presence on and preferential feeding of bluestain-infected wood, but experimental field evidence is lacking. To test the hypothesis that bluestain fungi increase termite presence in infected trees, we inoculated 72 loblolly pine trees in the southeastern USA with one of four bluestain fungi (Ophiostoma minus, O. ips, Leptographium terebrantis, L. procerum), a combination (O. minus + L. terebrantis), or H2O as a control. Over four years, all fungi-inoculated trees formed lesions around injection sites, while control trees formed no lesions except for two contaminated control trees that were excluded from analyses. Bluestain-inoculated trees had increased termite presence in and around fungal lesions, whereas control trees had no termites present. Specifically, termites were present on 35 % of fungi-inoculated trees, presence was consistent over time, and there was no difference among fungal species. This study experimentally demonstrates a link between bluestain fungi and subterranean termites in forests, which could impact tree dynamics post-bluestain infection.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9473-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Volatile organic compounds emitted by Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and its
           relationship with saproxylic beetle assemblages
    • Authors: P. Ramilo; J. R. Guerrero; E. Micó; E. Galante
      Pages: 221 - 234
      Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants play a critical role in the structure of the faunal communities that are associated with them. The aim of this work was to provide a detailed list of VOCs emitted by the oak species Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and to analyse the spatio-temporal variation in the emission rates of these compounds and in the diversity of saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with this tree species. VOCs sample collection was carried out by a dynamic flow-through enclosure technique with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Statistical differences in the emission rates of VOCs and in the diversity of saproxylic beetles were found between seasons. Temperature and relative humidity seemed to be related to these variations. Spatially, neither qualitative nor quantitative statistical differences in the emission of VOCs were found. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated a trend such that larger trees emitted VOCs with higher intensity and hosted a greater diversity of saproxylic beetles. Our hypothesis that beetles responded to certain blends of VOCs emitted at different rates by potential host tress and not so much to the absence or presence of a particular compound was reinforced by the absence of qualitative differences in the VOCs emitted by trees of different sizes. These results open a new field of study, and it will be necessary to become more involved with the subject to evaluate the real influence of these VOCs released by trees in saproxylic beetle assemblages.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9483-3
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Oviposition of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella females is affected by
           herbivore-induced plant volatiles that attract the larval parasitoid
           Cotesia vestalis
    • Authors: Masayoshi Uefune; Kaori Shiojiri; Junji Takabayashi
      Pages: 235 - 239
      Abstract: A mixture of four volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, α-pinene, sabinene and n-heptanal, emitted from cabbage plants infested by diamondback moth [DBM; Plutella xylostella (L.)] larvae attracts Cotesia vestalis (Haliday), a major parasitoid of DBM larvae. The volatiles may affect other organisms, such as DBM conspecifics, other herbivores and carnivores. Here, we studied whether the volatiles affect the oviposition behavior of DBM females. In a climate-controlled room, five pots of komatsuna plants (Brassica rapa var. perviridis L. cv. Rakuten; leaf vegetable) were placed in an acrylic box. For the treatment, we placed a bottle-type dispenser of the volatiles (0.01% in a triethyl citrate solution) next to the center pot. For the control experiment, we used a container with plants and triethyl citrate only. The presence of the volatiles did not affect the number of eggs per plant. Interestingly, DBM females laid more eggs on the adaxial leaf surfaces in the treatment compared with the control. This is the first study showing that plant volatiles affect the oviposition site preference of herbivores on leaves. The results are discussed in relation to the application of attractants for DBM control in commercial greenhouses.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9484-2
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
  • Phenolic compounds induced by Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum
           in Nicotiana tabacum L. and their relationship with the salicylic acid
           signaling pathway
    • Authors: Xiao Zhang; Xia Sun; Haipeng Zhao; Ming Xue; Dong Wang
      Abstract: Changes in the levels of secondary compounds can trigger plant defenses. To identify phenolic compounds induced by Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) in tobacco (Nicotiana tobacco L.), the content changes of 11 phenolic compounds in plants infested by B. tabaci MEAM1 or Trialeurodes vaporariorum were compared. The chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, and ferulic acid contents in B. tabaci MEAM1-infested tobacco plants increased significantly, having temporal and spatial effects, compared with uninfested control and T. vaporariorum infested plants. The contents were 4.10, 2.84, 2.25, 3.81, 1.46, and 1.91 times higher, respectively, than those in the control. However, a T. vaporariorum nymphal infestation just caused smaller chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and rutin contents increase, which were 2.33, 2.13, 1.59, and 3.19 times higher, respectively, than those in the control. In B. tabaci MEAM1 third-instar nymph-infested plants, chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and rutin increased more significantly in systemic than in local leaves. Salicylate-deficient plants inhibited the induction of the content of 10 phenolic compounds, but not caffeic acid, after a B. tabaci MEAM1 nymphal infestation. Thus, the elevated levels of phenolic compounds induced by B. tabaci MEAM1 were correlated with the salicylic acid signaling pathway and induced the responses of defense-related phenolic compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9508-6
  • Parasitaxus parasitized: novel infestation of Parasitaxus usta
    • Authors: Leyla J. Seyfullah; Christina Beimforde; Vincent Perrichot; Jouko Rikkinen; Alexander R. Schmidt
      Abstract: The world’s sole ‘parasitic’ gymnosperm Parasitaxus usta (Podocarpaceae) is endemic to the island of Grande Terre, New Caledonia. It is a threatened species because of its limited geographic range and progressing habitat fragmentation. Here, we report a novel scale insect outbreak on a Parasitaxus sub-population from Monts Dzumac in the southern part of Grande Terre. The identity of the scale insect was determined through combining morphological and molecular methods. The field collection of scale insects and their secretions from infested Parasitaxus specimens allowed morphological identification of the superfamily Coccoidea. Subsequent genetic sequencing using CO1 markers allowed phylogenetic placement of the wax scale insects to the genus Ceroplastes (Coccoidea, Coccidae), a widespread pest genus. The identified species, C. pseudoceriferus, has not been previously recorded from New Caledonia. As Parasitaxus is already vulnerable to extinction, this new threat to its long-term survival needs to be monitored. Other New Caledonian endemic plant species are potentially at risk of this new species, although it was not observed on Falcatifolium taxoides, the host of Parasitaxus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9494-0
  • Does hardness make flower love less promiscuous? Effect of biomechanical
           floral traits on visitation rates and pollination assemblages
    • Authors: Silvina A. Córdoba; Andrea A. Cocucci
      Abstract: Visitation rates and assemblage composition of pollinators have often been related to environmental, ecological and phenotypic variables. However, the interaction between flowers and pollinators has not been evaluated in a biomechanical context. Floral rewards in keel flowers (Fabaceae, Faboideae) are concealed behind four joined petals, the keel-wing unit, and are accessible only if pollinators open this unit by exerting force on it. Force needed to open the flower is expected to affect the interaction with pollinators because pollinators must invest time and energy to open the keels. Consequently, plants with stiff flowers should be expected to experience diminished visitation frequency, particularly by weak visitors. To test this expectation of diminished visitation rates and of assemblage composition biased by pollinator strength, we measured the force needed to open the keel flowers of five co-occurring legume species and, using a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we tested their association with pollinator visitation rates and assemblage composition. We additionally included a size flag variable in CCA to test the effect of attractiveness on pollinator visits. There was no association between flower stiffness and visitation frequency. According to the CCA, pollinator assemblage compositions were associated with the force needed to open the keel and not flag size. As a general pattern, weak flowers are pollinated by an uneven assemblage of weak bees while the stiffest flowers are pollinated by an even assemblage of large and strong bees. These results supports the idea that force has an effect in controlling pollinator assemblage composition.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9505-9
  • ICE2020Helsinki: it is time to prepare
    • Authors: Ingeborg Menzler-Hokkanen
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9507-7
  • Ants visiting extrafloral nectaries and pyrrolizidine alkaloids may shape
           how a specialist herbivore feeds on its host plants
    • Authors: Alexandre Eduardo Magalhães; Carlos Henrique Zanini Martins; Diomar Verçosa; Kamila Ferreira Massuda; José Roberto Trigo
      Abstract: The presence of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) attracts predators and parasitoids, and protects the plant against herbivorous insects. By improving plant defences, EFNs reduce the fitness of herbivores. The use of similar host plants with no EFNs or adaptations in response to predators and parasitoids may enhance herbivore fitness. In this context, we studied the feeding habit (on leaves or on unripe seeds inside the pods) of larvae of the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix in two Crotalaria host plant species in which EFNs are present (C. micans) or absent (C. paulina). We hypothesized that the moths’ feeding habit was influenced by its natural enemies via their presence on EFNs. In C. micans, we found more larvae feeding inside the pods rather than on the leaves, while in C. paulina, larvae were found in both parts of the plant. There was greater activity of natural enemies in C. micans than in C. paulina. The moth sequesters enough pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs) to defend against predators in the leaves and seeds of C. paulina, but only in seeds of C. micans. Therefore, a change in the feeding habit in U. ornatrix larvae is a plastic response that depends on whether EFNs are present or not, or whether PA concentrations are low or high. This change does not affect overall moth performance. However, other factors, such as pod hardness, predation by organisms other than those visiting EFNs or even parasitoids cannot be ruled out as being responsible for the change in feeding habit. To date, both the EFNs and PAs in Crotalaria species are a parsimonious explanation of how larvae of U. ornatrix use different species of Crotalaria for feeding.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9510-z
  • cis -Jasmone primes defense pathways in tomato via emission of volatile
           organic compounds and regulation of genes with consequences for Spodoptera
           exigua oviposition
    • Authors: Joseph O. Disi; Simon Zebelo; Esther Ngumbi; Henry Y. Fadamiro
      Abstract: The role of cis-Jasmone (CJ) in priming plant defense against insect feeding is well documented in the literature. However, little is known about the role of CJ in mediating oviposition behavior of insects via changes in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we hypothesized that foliar application of CJ will prime induction of plant defense in tomato via enhanced emission of VOCs with consequences for oviposition by Spodoptera exigua, an important pest of tomato. First, we quantified VOCs and the transcript levels of key genes that encode VOC biosynthesis in CJ-treated plants with S. exigua caterpillar infestation (CJI), untreated plants with S. exigua caterpillar infestation (UI), CJ-treated plants without S. exigua caterpillar infestation (CJ), and untreated plants without S. exigua caterpillar infestation (U). Next, oviposition preference of S. exigua was compared between CJI and UI, and between CJ and U. Gas chromatograph coupled-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that several key plant VOCs, including green leaf volatiles, monoterpenes, and a sesquiterpene, were emitted in significantly higher amounts in CJI compared to UI, CJ, or U. Consistent with the GC-MS results, the transcript levels of certain terpene synthase genes involved in the biosynthesis of many VOCs were higher in CJI plants. Consequently, S. exigua laid fewer numbers of eggs on CJI than UI. Moreover, in an in vitro oviposition choice test using filter paper, S. exigua laid significantly fewer eggs on filter papers containing VOCs from CJI compared to UI. These results indicate that CJ treatment followed by caterpillar infestation can prime tomato plant defense with potential ramifications for insect oviposition.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9503-y
  • Floral divergence and temporal pollinator partitioning in two
           synchronopatric species of Vigna (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae)
    • Authors: Jana Magaly Tesserolli de Souza; Cristiane Snak; Isabela Galarda Varassin
      Abstract: Exclusivity of pollinators, temporal partitioning of shared pollinators and divergence in pollen placement on the shared pollinators’ bodies are mechanisms that prevent interspecific pollen flow and minimize competitive interactions in synchronopatric plant species. We investigated the floral biology, flower visitors, pollinator effectiveness and seasonal flower availability of two syntopic legume species of the genus Vigna, V. longifolia and V. luteola, in ‘restinga’ vegetation of an island in southern Brazil. Our goal was to identify the strategies that might mitigate negative consequences of their synchronous flowering. Vigna longifolia and V. luteola were self-compatible, but depended on pollinators to set seeds. Only medium to large bees were able to trigger the ‘brush type’ pollination mechanism. Vigna longifolia, with its asymmetrical corolla and hugging mechanism, showed a more restrictive pollination system, with precise sites of pollen deposition/removal on the bee’s body, compared to V. luteola, with its zygomorphic corolla and cymbiform keel. There was a daily temporal substitution in flower visitation by the main pollinators. Vigna longifolia and V. luteola had overlapping flowering phenology but the densities of their flowers fluctuated, resulting in a seasonal partitioning of flower visitation. The differences in corolla symmetry and mainly the temporal partitioning among pollinators throughout the day and the flowering season proved to be important factors in maintaining the synchronopatry of V. longifolia and V. luteola.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9498-4
  • Charles D. Michener (1918–2015): a life among the bees
    • Authors: Michael S. Engel
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11829-017-9509-5
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