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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Arthropod-Plant Interactions
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.839
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Foreword
    • PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • The influence of leaf ontogenetic stage and plant reproductive phenology
           on trichome density and constitutive resistance in six tomato varieties
    • Abstract: Among other functions, trichomes defend plants against herbivores. Based on resource allocation theory, we hypothesized that foliar trichome density is determined by the balance between the fitness benefits and costs of trichome production, including possible resource allocation trade-offs with other functions, all of which may change with ontogeny and reproductive phenology. To assess the benefits and possible allocation trade-offs of trichome production, we examined the degree to which trichomes confer resistance against herbivores, and tested whether trichome density and resistance change with leaf ontogeny and with fruit production. Using six tomato varieties, we determined trichome density and tested for constitutive resistance of unexpanded and expanded leaves sampled from plants at their vegetative and reproductive stages by means of choice bioassays with a generalist caterpillar. We found a positive association between trichome density and resistance, albeit the relation was saturating rather than simple linear. Unexpanded leaves had greater trichome density and resistance than expanded leaves in vegetative plants. No such ontogenetic pattern was seen in reproductive plants. Trichome density of expanded leaves of reproductive plants did not differ significantly from that of unexpanded leaves of either vegetative or reproductive plants. Lastly, varieties with greater seed production had lower resistance. Such a clear trade-off suggests a high cost of resistance, which may have important implications for crop improvement programs.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Interactions between oil-collecting bees and Krameria grandiflora
           (Krameriaceae) with emphasis on the role of specialized floral traits in
           the mutual fit
    • Abstract: Oil-producing flowers have evolved specialized traits along with the ability to secrete oil as reward, leading to the expectation of a narrow relationship between floral architecture and oil-collecting behaviours of pollinators. Krameriaceae flowers have a showy calyx and a less conspicuous dimorphic corolla modified into a pair of elaiophores that secrete the oil, and a group of petaloid petals that, among oil-collecting bees, are used by only Centris (Centridini) during the oil gathering. A manipulative experiment consisted of excising these floral parts to test the prediction that these structures contribute to successful oil gathering by the bees and plant reproduction. We surveyed the oil-collecting bees associated with the Krameria grandiflora A. St.-Hil. across its distribution range and performed the experiment in populations associated with two different oil-collecting bee taxa—Caenonomada (Tapinotaspidini) and Centris, the main pollinators. Although predicted to mediate the floral mechanical fit with Centris, the absence of the petaloid petals had a neutral effect on both oil-gathering behaviour and seed set, when comparing Caenonomada and Centris. A negative effect on these responses was found when the elaiophores were excised, indicating that these glands have greater importance than the petals related to the mutual fit between flowers and pollinators. However, the petaloid petals seemed to function jointly with the sepals in pollinator attraction. When the sepals were excised, only Centris behaviour was affected, but not that of Caenonomada, indicating potentially divergent selective pressures on the calyx. In addition, we provide a novel oil host plant for several oil-collecting bees.
      PubDate: 2019-03-17
  • Foliar behaviour of biogenic semi-volatiles: potential applications in
           sustainable pest management
    • Abstract: Plants emit an extremely diverse bouquet of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from their above-ground and below-ground parts. Emissions are constitutive or induced, e.g. by herbivores. VOCs can be classified as highly volatile, volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Sesquiterpenes (SQTs) are typical semi-volatile organic compounds (sVOCs) released by plants. Similarly, herbivore-induced homoterpenes and methyl salicylate also have relatively low volatility. SVOCs have a high boiling point (> 240 °C) and a vapour pressure below 0.005 kPa at 25 °C. Glandular trichomes on plant surfaces can store SQTs in mixtures with more volatile VOCs, which are released into the air by diffusion or after gland rupture. The sVOCs stored in glandular trichomes often have repellent effects on herbivores, while herbivore-induced sVOCs are known for their attractiveness to natural enemies of herbivores, i.e. they act in indirect chemical defence of plants. Due to their low volatility, sVOCs produced by plants may easily adhere to the surfaces of emitter and neighbouring plants during the colder temperatures that plants face, e.g. at night. On the foliage of neighbouring receiver plants, sVOCs may act in direct and indirect defence of that plant species. When the temperature rises again, sVOCs are released into the atmosphere. The semi-volatile reaction products of highly volatile plant monoterpenes and photochemical pollutants such as ozone could constitute further sVOCs on plant leaf surfaces. Here, we review recent literature of the plant surface–environment interaction of biogenic sVOCs and particularly evaluate potential crop protection strategies such as intercropping and companion planting using sVOC-emitting species. Foliage typically forms the widest surfaces on crop plants, and foliar herbivory is a major type of pest damage during the vegetative stage of crop plants. Foliage is also a major source of herbivore-induced VOC emissions. Consequently, we focus on foliage-mediated sVOCs and their potential in pest management.
      PubDate: 2019-03-17
  • The ethological significance and olfactory detection of herbivore-induced
           plant volatiles in interactions of plants, herbivorous insects, and
    • Abstract: Tritrophic interactions play a pivotal role in maintaining a functional agroecosystem. After damaged by phytophagous insects, host plants release a blend of odorants called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that are attractive to natural enemies including arthropod predators and, in particular, parasitoids. In the last three decades, the identities of HIPVs have been meticulously characterized in a variety of tritrophic systems by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. A plethora of HIPV components have been physiologically screened by gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and single sensillum recording (SSR). The effects of induced odorants on behavior of herbivores and parasitoids have been investigated using Y-tube olfactometer assays and wind tunnels in the laboratory and bait trap tests in the field. Given the potential utility of parasitic wasps for pest control, the understanding of olfactory mechanisms of how HIPVs are detected by herbivores and parasitic wasps could facilitate the exploitation of parasitoids as bio-control agents. As the advent of the genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis, a large repertoire of chemosensory protein genes including odorant receptors and odorant binding proteins has been identified in herbivores and parasitic wasps, providing an unprecedented opportunity to debunk the molecular basis of olfaction-based interactions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progresses in characterization of HIPVs, the studies of olfactory mechanisms underlying tritrophic interactions with a focus on parasitoids, Lepidopteran pests, and related host plants.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • Insects allocate eggs adaptively across their native host plants
    • Abstract: Finding plants for their eggs is the only parental care shown by many winged insects. Hatched juveniles often feed on one individual plant until gaining the power of flight as adults. Females are therefore predicted to lay more eggs on plants supporting high offspring survival. Many experiments comparing egg-laying and offspring survival across plant species refute this, leading to alternative concepts including ‘enemy free space’, ‘optimal bad motherhood’ and ‘neural constraints’. Whether tested plants have the same geographic origin as the insect is often overlooked. Using 178 oviposition–performance studies, we found when insects and plants share a native range, 83% of insect species associated their eggs with plants conferring highest offspring survival. This was broadly true across insect taxa and for generalists and specialists. Only 57% did so with non-native plants. That females are attracted to hosts with high offspring survival is a well-supported theory that does not necessarily apply to exotic host plants.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
  • Affect of food provisioning on survival and reproductive success of the
           olive fruit fly parasitoid, Psyttalia lounsburyi , in the field
    • Abstract: Conservation biological control offers approaches that can be integrated into classical biological control programs to enhance pest suppression. Food subsidies, such as nectar and honeydew, can increase a parasitoid’s fecundity either by extension of the reproductive lifespan, increasing the rate of egg maturation, or both. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is a major pest of olives in California, where a classical biological control program is currently underway using an exotic parasitoid, Psyttalia lounsburyi. We conducted a field study where female–male pairs of P. lounsburyi wasps were caged with B. oleae-infested olives, and provisioned either with or without food. Our study showed that adult feeding is crucial to P. lounsburyi survival and fecundity under field-cage conditions. Food provision increased P. lounsburyi survival and several components of the wasp’s reproductive success; nevertheless, parasitism rates and offspring production were relatively low. This was probably due, at least in part, to location of host larvae in enemy-free space ‘beyond the reach’ of the wasp’s ovipositor. Sex ratio of offspring was male-biased, perhaps due to inbreeding in the laboratory colony from which P. lounsburyi was sourced. Female wasps carried ca. 25–35 eggs at their time of death, suggesting that they were time limited rather than egg limited. Integration of conservation biological control (e.g., food provisioning) and classical biological control (release of an exotic natural enemy) have promise to suppress olive fruit fly populations. Evaluation of the effect of food provisioning on P. lounsburyi reproductive success under open field conditions is warranted.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
  • Metabolic fingerprints reveal how an insect metabolome is affected by
           different larval host plant species
    • Abstract: Oligophagous insects can consume a wide range of different host plant species, but how these host plants vary in their metabolite compositions and the extent to which this variation affects the biochemistry of the insect herbivores is largely unknown. An understanding of how defensive metabolites from plants are processed by insects may help us develop more effective pesticides. We studied the interactions between the oligophagous insect herbivore Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and five species of its larval host plants (family Brassicaceae and Cleomaceae) by examining untargeted metabolic fingerprints of the plants and the larval herbivores feeding on them. Visualisation of the metabolic fingerprints of the different host plant species showed highly distinctive clusters in the PCA-X score plots. Larvae could also be distinguished based on the species of host plant they fed on but clusters overlapped to a greater extent. The fingerprints of larvae feeding on Cleome spinosa plants were most distinctive due to a large group of abundant metabolites also found in high abundance in C. spinosa, but not in the other host plants examined. We conclude that host plants influence the biochemistry of their larval herbivores, and that some metabolites are conserved from one trophic level to the next.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
  • Temporal distribution in a tri-trophic system associated with Piper
           amalago L. in a tropical seasonal forest
    • Abstract: Insect seasonality is a known pattern that has intrigued ecologists for over 30 years. However, despite being well understood in general, for several taxa such as Lepidopteran caterpillars its underlying causes and mechanisms are still not fully understood. This is especially critical for Brazilian tropical forests where caterpillars have previously been shown to have a puzzling pattern of peaking in abundance only in the first months of the dry season; however, this pattern still lacks an explanation. Here, to advance our understanding of the factors underlying seasonal changes in caterpillar abundance in tropical forests, we addressed how the lepidopteran caterpillar community that feeds on Piper amalago L. plants, their host plants leaf numbers, the herbivory levels, and the parasitoid pressure all change throughout the dry and wet seasons in a Brazilian tropical semideciduous forest. We found that immature abundance and herbivory peak in the first 2 months of the dry season and then rapidly decrease and remain low throughout the remaining of the dry season and the entire wet season at the study site. However, although the proportion of parasitized immatures increased alongside caterpillar abundance, it peaked in the month that followed a drastic decrease in caterpillar abundance. These results suggest that parasitoids play a major role in the observed caterpillar abundance pattern and thus, we propose the hypothesis that high parasitoid predation pressure causes early eclosion and emergence of caterpillars and primarily drives caterpillar abundance seasonality in Brazilian tropical forests.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
  • Tripartite interactions between jasmonic/salicylic acid pathways, western
           flower thrips, and thrips-transmitted tomato zonate spot virus infection
           in Capsicuum annuum
    • Abstract: The disease caused by Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a circulative-propagative manner, results in significant loss in production and quality in ornamentals and vegetable crops. Related to this recently found tospovirus (TZSV), knowledge involving the interaction between virus, vector, and host plants remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TZSV infection on the changes in concentration of the plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), and the transcriptional regulation of JA- and SA-associated genes. Additionally, we verified that JA and SA inhibit the fitness of the vector F. occidentalis. This work brings to a new perspective on plant—virus–vector interactions is proposed, which could be applied to control the TZSV infection.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
  • Resistance to greenbugs in the sorghum nested association mapping
    • Abstract: The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum, is a serious pest of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). For the past several decades, resistant sorghum hybrids have been used to control greenbug populations. However, the durability of plant resistance is frequently challenged by evolution of new greenbug biotypes, and there is a continuous need for screening of resistant germplasm for its effective management in the field. Natural variation in sorghum plants/populations provides distinct approaches to identify novel sources of resistance against greenbugs. In this study, we used the recently developed sorghum nested association mapping (NAM) population parental lines to understand sources of sorghum resistance to greenbugs. Using choice and no-choice assays, we have identified SC265 and Segaolane as the resistant and susceptible lines, respectively, to greenbugs compared to the wild-type plants. The Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) analysis revealed that the greenbugs spent significantly lesser time in the xylem and sieve element phases while feeding on the resistant NAM parental line, SC265, compared to the susceptible (Segaolane) and wild-type (RTx430) sorghum lines. In addition, the EPG results indicated that there is no significant difference in the time to first probe, time to reach first sieve element, pathway phase, and non-probing phase among the three sorghum plants, which suggests that the resistance factors present in the vascular tissues of the resistant line (SC265) potentially contribute to the resistance mechanisms against greenbugs. Overall, SC265 NAM parental line showed a combination of antixenotic and antibiotic-mediated resistance mechanisms against greenbugs, whereas the susceptible line Segaolane displayed the least resistance to greenbugs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • The effects of rainfall on plant–pollinator interactions
    • Abstract: As global surface temperatures rise, global precipitation rates are predicted to increase. These localised increases in rainfall patterns may significantly affect plant–pollinator interactions in multiple ways. Detrimental effects to plant–pollinator interactions could have significant ecological and economic consequences, and so it is important to understand the effects that rain has on these mutualisms. Increased rainfall has the potential for population-level effects but there also wide scope for individual-level effects, which have received surprisingly little attention. Changes in rainfall patterns could alter the timings of phenological phases while also increasing the likelihood of pollen degradation and nectar dilution, each having detrimental effects to the fitness of the plant, the pollinator or both parties. Pollinators could also be affected through mechanical and energetic constraints, along with disruption of foraging patterns and disruption to sensory signals. In this review, we demonstrate that there are clear gaps in our knowledge of these events, the exploration of which should open new areas of debate surrounding the effects of climate change on biological systems.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • Feeding on glandular and non-glandular leaf trichomes negatively affect
    • Abstract: Trichomes, the hair-like projections on plant leaves, have been well studied as an herbivore defense. However, whether variation in trichome type can have negative effects through the different stages of caterpillar life cycle is poorly understood. Using Solanum elaeagnifolium that produce non-glandular stellate trichomes, and Solanum lycopersicum that predominantly produce glandular, non-branched trichomes, we examined how trichomes affect choice and growth of Manduca sexta, a specialist herbivore of plant species belonging to the Solanaceae. To accomplish this, we removed leaf trichomes and added them into artificial diet for caterpillars, and allowed the caterpillars to grow and develop. Our results show that trichomes negatively affected caterpillar body mass and mass gain, although there was no preference or aversion for them in choice assays. Non-glandular trichomes were particularly damaging, as the consumption of non-glandular trichomes resulted in suppressed mass gain and increased time to pupation. While the consumption of glandular trichomes also affected growth, the effects were significantly lower compared to the consumption of non-glandular ones. Taken together, our results show that feeding on solanaceous trichomes can have negative effects on herbivore larval growth and development, and should be examined further.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • Volatiles composition and timing of emissions in a moth-pollinated orchid
           in relation to hawkmoth (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) activity
    • Abstract: In the family Orchidaceae, many species have highly specialised floral structures and floral fragrances resulting from interactions with specific pollinators. Olfactory cues are important for the moths to locate orchids at a distance, whereas visual cues are important at a closer range. In this study, we combined a portable air entrainment kit with an automated video monitoring system for collecting volatiles and observing behaviour directly around-the-clock (24 h) in the natural habitat of our target plant–arthropod system, the orchid Platanthera chlorantha and the hawkmoth Sphinx pinastri. We found that P. chlorantha was visited almost exclusively by S. pinastri. All the visits occurred after sunset, principally between sunset and midnight. Soon after midnight, visits dropped to levels recorded at sunset, then declined further towards sunrise. The period with most visits matched the peak production of the terpenoids (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene. In contrast, linalool, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate emission continued to increase beyond the period of peak visits up to sunrise. Methyl benzoate emissions declined throughout the night from a sunset peak. As temporal emission of the two volatile ocimenes from P. chlorantha flowers matches S. pinastri foraging visits to the flowers, we propose that they play a vital role in assisting hawkmoths locate their hosts. This is the first study to show correspondence in the timing of specific scent emissions in orchids and moth activity on the scale of hours.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
  • Frequency of plant visits by the generalist ant Lasius niger depends on
           the surface microstructure of plant stems
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the visiting frequency of generalist ants to plants with different surface textures of their stems. We performed an experiment in which Lasius niger ants were attracted by sweet drops to flower stems of five plant species bearing different surface structures: Alchemilla mollis (wax projections and long tread-shaped trichomes), Lilium lancifolium (without wax, with ribbon-shaped trichomes and cuticular folds), Salvia nemorosa (without wax, with trichomes of various lengths and cuticular folds), Tulipa gesneriana (wax projections, no trichomes), and Paeonia lactiflora (neither of above surface features). As control samples, dry, smooth bamboo sticks were placed in the vicinity of experimental plant stems. Using cryo scanning electron microscopy, the micromorphology of stem surfaces was examined. The present study demonstrates that, on the one hand, ants avoid climbing wax-covered stems, if trichomes are lacking. On the other hand, some trichome-bearing stems having specific trichome micromorphologies were also ignored by ants. The strongest attractiveness was revealed in glossy stems and stems covered with soft/floppy trichomes. This experiment supports the hypothesis that when exposed to a diversity of plant stems in the field, generalist ants choose substrates where their locomotion is less hampered by obstacles or slipperiness of surface. Presumably, additional locomotory efforts needed to master climbing on “greasy” or “spiny” stems lead to an increase of costs-to-benefits ratio. However, since every type of stem surface was visited at least once during the experiment, it does not automatically mean that ants are not capable of walking on such challenging surfaces.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Responses of ground-dwelling spider assemblages to changes in vegetation
           from wet oligotrophic habitats of Western France
    • Abstract: While many arthropod species are known to depend, directly or indirectly, on certain plant species or communities, it remains unclear to what extent vegetation shapes spider assemblages. In this study, we tested whether the activity-density, composition, and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders were driven by changes in vegetation structure. Field sampling was conducted using pitfall traps in bogs, heathlands, and grasslands of Brittany (Western France) in 2013. A total of 8576 spider individuals were identified up to the species level (for a total of 141 species), as well as all plant species in more than 300 phytosociological relevés. A generalised linear model showed that spider activity-density was negatively influenced by mean vegetation height and mean Ellenberg value for moisture. Indices of diversity (ɑ, β, and functional diversities) increased with increasing vegetation height and shrub cover. Variables driving spider composition were mean vegetation height, dwarf shrub cover, and low shrub cover (results from a redundancy analysis). Spiders, some of the most abundant arthropod predators, are thus strongly influenced by vegetation structure, including ground-dwelling species. Although later successional states are usually seen as detrimental to local biodiversity in Europe, our results suggest that allowing controlled development of the shrub layer could have a positive impact on the diversity of ground-dwelling spiders.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Anchoring of greenhouse whitefly eggs on different rose cultivars
    • Abstract: Whiteflies attach their eggs to plants by implanting the egg pedicel into the epidermis of the underside of leaves. This pedicel works like a wall plug embedded in sealing cement, presenting a smart interconnection, which was exemplarily studied in Trialeurodes vaporariorum eggs on two stages of abaxial leaflets of four cut rose cultivars using a combination of microscopic and biomechanical techniques. The penetration force obtained by piercing single epidermal cells with an insect minuten pin did not significantly correlate with the force which was applied to pull off the greenhouse whitefly eggs from abaxial leaves. A maximum pull-off force of 5.4 mN was measured on young leaves of the rose cultivar ‘Schloss Ippenburg®’, corresponding to maximum 941 times the egg weight. Egg pull-off force significantly differed between cut rose cultivars and leaf ages. On greenhouse whitefly-susceptible cultivars ‘Poesie®’ and ‘Reggae®’, eggs detached, applying less force compared to that on resistant cultivars. Leaf structural features had no significant impact on greenhouse whitefly egg pull-off forces. A major effect of leaf turgor pressure and swelling of colleterial gland secretion (cement) surrounding the whitefly egg is assumed to facilitate the firm interconnection between egg and plant epidermis by a combination of form closure, friction locking, and adhesive bond forming a composite material in the contact region. This bond exhibits a maximum adhesive strength of 12.2 MPa, which is much higher than those in beetle and moth eggs glued to oviposition substrates.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Arthropod infestation sites and induced defence can be traced by emission
           from single spruce needles
    • Abstract: Emissions of defence chemicals from Norway spruce seedlings can be induced by feeding arthropods or by exogenous hormonal application. Some defence chemicals may attract or repel associated arthropods. The aim of this study was to show that it is possible to detect and collect stress-induced volatiles from micro sites, such as at the scale of a single needle, in vivo by using SPME. Methyl jasmonate application on the stem of Norway spruce seedlings induced emission of (E)-β-farnesene only from the needles closest to the application site. Emissions of (E)-β-farnesene, (E,E)-α-farnesene and (E)-α-bisabolene were only detected from needles infested by the spider mite Oligonychus ununguis. The total volatile amount detected by SPME-GC-MS reached a considerable mass of 14 ng/needle/24 h, suggesting that emission from damaged and stressed conifers might have a larger impact on the macro climate than previously estimated.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Trade-offs between defenses against herbivores in goldenrod ( Solidago
           altissima )
    • Abstract: In the goldenrod Solidago altissima, most stems are erect, but “ducking” genotypes bend the tip of the apical stem downward for much of the growing season, and this morphology protects against at least two gall-forming herbivore species. Despite this advantage to defense, ducking remains a rare strategy in goldenrod, yet the costs that prevent ducking genotypes from outcompeting erect genotypes remain unclear. We tested whether ducking (an architectural defense) trades off with chemical defense against aphids (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum). We hypothesized that signaling related to the ducking defense might interfere with investment in chemical defenses, making ducking plants more susceptible to some herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we compared aphid survival and preference on ducking and erect genotypes. We also measured terpenoid concentration in S. altissima leaf tissue to determine whether plant investment in these compounds correlated with either ducking or aphid performance. Aphids had higher survival on all three ducking genotypes than their erect counterparts and preferred ducking to erect plants in two of three genotype pairings. However, terpenoid concentrations did not track with either ducking or aphid performance and cannot therefore explain the differences between ducking and erect host-plants. Although the mechanism remains unknown, the data supported the predicted trade-off in defenses against different herbivores, which may contribute to the distribution and abundance of these two defensive strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
  • The March fly and the ant: the unusual pollination system of Eustegia
           minuta (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae)
    • Abstract: Pollination studies of South African Asclepiadeae (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) have mostly examined species in the moist summer-rainfall grasslands, with limited studies of the early-diverging groups occurring in the drier winter-rainfall habitats. This study examined the pollination and floral traits of Eustegia minuta, an unusual species endemic to the winter-rainfall Greater Cape Floristic Region and representing an early-diverging clade within the Asclepiadeae. Observations of floral visitors in Jonkershoek Nature Reserve showed that this species is visited primarily by a species of March fly, Bibio turneri (Bibionidae). These flies moved actively between plants and carried pollinaria on their mouthparts. In addition, an ant species, Camponotus vestitus (Formicidae), and a single honey bee Apis mellifera capensis (Apidae) individual carried pollinaria and may contribute to pollination. Bagging experiments confirmed that flowers require pollinators for reproduction. Flowers produced small amounts (1.2 µl per flower) of concentrated (32.5% sugar) nectar. Pollination success was low (14.5% of flowers were pollinated and 3.4% of flowers developed fruits). Pollen transfer efficiency (PTE) was 5.2%. The corolla reflectance was similar to that of green leaves, but the gynostegium exhibited a relatively bright human-white spectral curve. Floral scent comprised over 50 compounds, but was dominated by various aromatics along with 2,3-heptandione, (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and several unidentified compounds. We conclude that E. minuta is pollinated primarily by the March fly B. turneri, although ants and possibly honey bees may make a lesser contribution. Pollination by bibionid flies has not previously been reported in asclepiads and is extremely uncommon amongst angiosperms.
      PubDate: 2019-02-02
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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