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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.946
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1661-4917 - ISSN (Online) 0004-069X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Allergen-Specific T Cells in IgE-Mediated Food Allergy
    • Authors: Aziza Saidova; Ahuva Magder Hershkop; Marta Ponce; Thomas Eiwegger
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Food allergy is the major reason for severe anaphylaxis in childhood and adolescence. Currently, effective and safe treatments for food allergy are unavailable. Allergen-specific CD4+ T cells have a pivotal role in causing and maintaining the allergic response to food allergens. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the role of allergen-specific T cells in food allergy during allergic sensitization, natural tolerance development and allergen immunotherapy. Allergen-specific T cells in the context of food allergy are predominantly of a Th2 type with slightly different surface marker expression patterns in different food allergies. During the process of reverting food allergy to a status of tolerance or sustained unresponsiveness there is a loss of this Th2 committed compartment with an asymptotic approximation to a regulatory and Th0/Th1 dominated compartment seen in non-allergic individuals. This process is accompanied by a significant reduction of absolute frequencies of allergen-specific T cells. Particularly, regulatory T cells may provide significant help to achieve sustained control of the effector cell populations via suppression of effector cell function and possibly induction of blocking antibodies.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0501-7
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Atopic Dermatitis
    • Authors: Katarzyna Osinka; Karolina Dumycz; Bartłomiej Kwiek; Wojciech Feleszko
      Pages: 171 - 181
      Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. The number of people affected by AD is relatively high and seems to be rising. Although mild and moderate forms of the disease can be well controlled by the use of emollients, topical corticosteroids, and topical calcineurin inhibitors, treatment of severe is still a huge challenge. The new hope is biologic drugs, magic bullets in allergy, targeted at different points of the complex pathomechanism of inflammation in AD. In this review, novel biologic therapies are discussed, including recombinant monoclonal antibodies directed against various interleukin pathways (such as IL-4, IL-13, TSLP, IL-31, and IL-12/23), on immunoglobulin E, molecules acting as T cells, B cells, etc. Of biological drugs, the most promising seems to be anti-IL-4/IL-13 therapy (dupilumab—the biological agent) and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (crisaborole—a small molecule). A deep understanding of the AD pathomechanism provides a new perspective for tailor-made treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0487-1
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The Impact of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on Cancer Progression
    • Authors: Chon-Kit Chou; Ya-Ting Yang; Ho-Chun Yang; Shih-Shin Liang; Tsu-Nai Wang; Po-Lin Kuo; Hui-Min David Wang; Eing-Mei Tsai; Chien-Chih Chiu
      Pages: 183 - 197
      Abstract: Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, mainly serves as an additive to render polyvinyl chloride (PVC) soft and flexible. PVC plastics have become ubiquitous in our modern society. Yet, the leaching of DEHP from PVC-based consumables ultimately results in the deposition in certain tissues via inadvertent applications. Health risks for human populations exposed to DEHP has been assumed by studies on rodents and other species, including the DEHP-induced developmental dysregulation, reproductive impairments, tumorigenesis, and diseases in a transgenerational manner. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the accumulated literature regarding the multifaceted roles of DEHP in the activation of the nuclear receptors, the alteration of the redox homeostasis, epigenetic modifications and the acquisition of chemoresistance.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0494-2
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive Immune Cell Dysregulation and Role in Acute Pancreatitis Disease
           Progression and Treatment
    • Authors: Pascaline Fonteh; Martin Smith; Martin Brand
      Pages: 199 - 209
      Abstract: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammation of the pancreas caused by various stimuli including excessive alcohol consumption, gallstone disease and certain viral infections. Managing specifically the severe form of AP is limited due to lack of an understanding of the complex immune events that occur during AP involving immune cells and inflammatory molecules such as cytokines. The relative abundance of various immune cells resulting from the immune dysregulation drives disease progression. In this review, we examine the literature on the adaptive immune cells in AP, the prognostic value of these cells in stratifying patients into appropriate care and treatment strategies based on cell frequency in different AP severities are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0495-1
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Oxidative Stress in Kidney Diseases: The Cause or the Consequence'
    • Authors: Natalia Krata; Radosław Zagożdżon; Bartosz Foroncewicz; Krzysztof Mucha
      Pages: 211 - 220
      Abstract: Exaggerated oxidative stress (OS) is usually considered as a disturbance in regular function of an organism. The excessive levels of OS mediators may lead to major damage within the organism’s cells and tissues. Therefore, the OS-associated biomarkers may be considered as new diagnostic tools of various diseases. In nephrology, researchers are looking for alternative methods replacing the renal biopsy in patients with suspicion of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, CKD is a frequent health problem in world population, which can lead to progressive loss of kidney function and eventually to end-stage renal disease. The course of CKD depends on the primary disease. It is assumed that one of the factors influencing the course of CKD might be OS. In the current work, we review whether monitoring the OS-associated biomarkers in nephrology patients can support the decision-making process regarding diagnosis, prognostication and treatment initiation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0496-0
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Bindarit Attenuates Pain and Cancer-Related Inflammation by Influencing
           Myeloid Cells in a Model of Bone Cancer
    • Authors: Shenghou Liu; Hongwei Gao; Chunzheng Gao; Wenguang Liu; Deguo Xing
      Pages: 221 - 229
      Abstract: C–C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small cytokine that functions in inflammation and cancer development. Bindarit, a CCL2 inhibitor, is a small anti-inflammatory molecule proven safe by phase II trials in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients. As cancer-related inflammation is a cause of pain, we investigated whether Bindarit suppresses cancer-related inflammation and pain. We established a bone-cancer mouse model by inoculating cancer cells. After applying Bindarit, we preformed pain sensitivity tests and checked cancer development by X-ray. Using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR assays, we assessed the effect of Bindarit on peripheral blood monocyte mobilization and M2 macrophage polarization. We also investigated the targets of Bindarit using western blotting and luciferase assay. Bindarit-treated mice performed better in pain sensitivity tests compare to control mice. X-ray imaging showed that Bindarit-treated mice had fewer cancer cell colonies and smaller overall tumor burden. Bindarit reduced the number of monocytes in peripheral blood and down-regulated the expression of M2 macrophage polarization makers. Bindarit also inhibited IKKβ phosphorylation. Bindarit efficiently relieves cancer-related pain and suppresses cancer development. Bindarit inhibits monocyte mobilization in peripheral blood as well as M2 macrophage polarization. IKKβ is identified as a target of Bindarit.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0497-z
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The Effects of Intestinal Nematode L4 Stage on Mouse Experimental
           Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
    • Authors: Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska; Katarzyna Krawczak; Katarzyna Bocian; Maria Doligalska
      Pages: 231 - 243
      Abstract: Helminths use various immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies to evade immune attack by the host. During pathological conditions, these strategies alter the course of disease by reducing immune-mediated pathology. The study examines the therapeutic effect of the nematode L4 stage based on an in vivo model of multiple sclerosis, monophasic encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced by sensitization with MOG35–55 peptide in C57BL/6 female mice infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The EAE remission was correlated with altered leukocyte number identified in the central nervous system (CNS), and temporary permeability of the blood–brain barrier at the histotrophic phase of infection. At 6 days post-infection, when the L4 stage had almost completely attenuated the clinical severity and pathological signs of EAE, CD25+ cell numbers expanded significantly, with parallel growth of CD8+ and CD4+, both CD25+Foxp3+ and CD25+Foxp3− subsets and alternatively activated macrophages. The phenotypic changes in distinct subsets of cerebrospinal fluid cells were correlated with an inhibited proliferative response of encephalitogenic T cells and elevated levels of nerve growth factor and TGF-β. These results enhance our understanding of mechanisms involved in the inhibition of immune responses in the CNS during nematode infection.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0489-z
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Immunotherapy as an Option for Cancer Treatment
    • Authors: Tillmann Rusch; Jagadeesh Bayry; Jens Werner; Ivan Shevchenko; Alexandr V. Bazhin
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: The progress in melanoma immunotherapy highlights the importance of immunotherapy for cancer treatment. Although the concept of immunotherapy emerged in the beginning of the twentieth century, the end of the century signaled the start of modern immunotherapy, which has recently allowed a staggering progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Currently, there is a wide variety of immunotherapeutic approaches and critical improvements are continually being made. Among different immunotherapeutic strategies, therapies based on the blockade of immune checkpoint molecules have shown unparalleled efficacy in late-stage cancer patients. Pre-clinical research using ex vivo and in vivo approaches demonstrates the promise of numerous novel strategies for the immunotherapy of cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0491-5
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Target for Antitumor Therapy
    • Authors: Katarzyna Sawa-Wejksza; Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń
      Pages: 97 - 111
      Abstract: It is well known that the microenvironment of solid tumors is rich in inflammatory cells that influence tumor growth and development. Macrophages, called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are the most abundant immune cell population present in tumor tissue. Several studies have demonstrated that the density of TAMs is associated with a poor prognosis and positively correlates with tumor growth. Several studies have proved that TAMs may activate and protect tumor stem cells, stimulate their proliferation as well as promote angiogenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, TAMs-derived cytokines and other proteins, such as CCL-17, CCL-22, TGF-β, IL-10, arginase 1, and galectin-3, make a significant contribution to immunosuppression. Since TAMs influence various aspects of cancer progression, there are many attempts to use them as a target for immunotherapy. The numerous studies have shown that the primary tumor growth and the number of metastatic sites can be significantly decreased by decreasing the population of macrophages in tumor tissue, for example, by blocking recruitment of monocytes or eliminating TAMs already present in the tumor tissue. Moreover, there are attempts at reprogramming TAMs into proinflammatory M1 macrophages or neutralizing the protumoral products of TAMs. Another approach uses TAMs for anticancer drug delivery into the tumor environment. In this review, we would like to summarize the clinical and preclinical trials that were focused on macrophages as a target for anticancer therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0480-8
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: Current
           Knowledge and Future Perspectives
    • Authors: Maria Ibáñez-Vea; Miren Zuazo; Maria Gato; Hugo Arasanz; Gonzalo Fernández-Hinojal; David Escors; Grazyna Kochan
      Pages: 113 - 123
      Abstract: The current knowledge on tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is based mainly on the extensive work performed in murine models. Data obtained for human counterparts are generated on the basis of tumor analysis from patient samples. Both sources of information led to determination of the main suppressive mechanisms used by these cell subsets in tumor-bearing hosts. As a result of the identification of protein targets responsible for MDSCs suppressive activity, different therapeutics agents have been used to eliminate/reduce their adverse effect. In the present work, we review the current knowledge on suppressive mechanisms of MDSCs and therapeutic treatments that interfere with their differentiation, expansion or activity. Based on the accumulation of new evidences supporting their importance for tumor progression and metastasis, the interest in these cell types is increasing. We revise the methods of MDSC generation/differentiation ex vivo that may help in overcoming problems associated with limited numbers of cells available from animals and patients for their study.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0492-4
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • STING Signaling in Cancer Cells: Important or Not'
    • Authors: Olga Sokolowska; Dominika Nowis
      Pages: 125 - 132
      Abstract: Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an adaptor protein that plays an important role in the activation of type I interferons in response to cytosolic nucleic acid ligands. Recent evidence indicates involvement of the STING pathway in the induction of antitumor immune response. Therefore, STING agonists are now being extensively developed as a new class of cancer therapeutics. However, little is known about the consequences of activated STING-mediated signaling in cancer cells on the efficacy of the antitumor treatment. It has been shown that activation of the STING-dependent pathway in cancer cells can result in tumor infiltration with immune cells and modulation of the anticancer immune response. Understanding the function of STING pathway in cancer cells might provide important insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on the role of STING pathway in cancer cells, the largely unknown topic that has recently emerged to be important in the context of STING-mediated antitumor responses.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0481-7
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitory Pathway is Altered in Primary
           Glomerulonephritides
    • Authors: Ewelina Grywalska; Iwona Smarz-Widelska; Ewelina Krasowska-Zajac; Izabela Korona-Glowniak; Karolina Zaluska-Patel; Michal Mielnik; Martyna Podgajna; Anna Malm; Jacek Rolinski; Wojciech Zaluska
      Pages: 133 - 143
      Abstract: The pathogenesis of primary proliferative and non-proliferative glomerulonephritides (PGN and NPGN) is still not fully understood, however, current evidence suggests that most cases of PGN and NPGN are the results of immunologic response to different etiologic agents that activates various biological processes leading to glomerular inflammation and injury. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is the major inhibitory receptor regulating T cell exhaustion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive T and B lymphocytes in patients with NPGN and PGN in relation to clinical parameters for the first time. The study included peripheral blood (PB) samples from 20 newly diagnosed PGN and NPGN patients. The control group comprised of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The viable PB lymphocytes underwent labelling with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, and were analyzed using a flow cytometer. The frequencies of CD4+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, CD8+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, and CD19+/PD-1+ B lymphocytes in the PGN group exceeded values obtained both in the NPGN group, and the control group. Alteration of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be involved in poorer prognosis, as patients with PGN are characterized by higher frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-L1-positive T and B lymphocytes than patients with NPGN. Our results suggest that deregulation of PD-1/PD-L1 axis may contribute to the PGN and NPGN pathogenesis. High percentages of lymphocytes with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression may be related to the continuous T-cell activation and development of glomerular inflammation and injury.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0485-3
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Biological and Pro-Angiogenic Properties of Genetically Modified Human
           Primary Myoblasts Overexpressing Placental Growth Factor in In Vitro and
           In Vivo Studies
    • Authors: Agnieszka Zimna; Bartosz Wiernicki; Tomasz Kolanowski; Natalia Rozwadowska; Agnieszka Malcher; Wojciech Labedz; Tomasz Trzeciak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Katarzyna Bednarek-Rajewska; Przemyslaw Majewski; Maciej Kurpisz
      Pages: 145 - 159
      Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen. This study focused on the genetic modification of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs). We chose myoblast cells due to their close biological resemblance to cardiomyocytes and the placental growth factor (PlGF) gene due to its pro-angiogenic potential. In our in vitro studies, we transfected SkMCs with the PlGF gene using electroporation, which has previously been proven to be efficient and generate robust overexpression of the PlGF gene and elevate PlGF protein secretion. Moreover, the functionality of the secreted pro-angiogenic proteins was confirmed using an in vitro capillary development assay. We have also examined the influence of PlGF overexpression on VEGF-A and VEGF-B, which are well-known factors described in the literature as the most potent activators of blood vessel formation. We were able to confirm the overexpression of VEGF-A in myoblasts transfected with the PlGF gene. The results obtained in this study were further verified in an animal model. These data were able to confirm the potential therapeutic effects of the applied treatments.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0486-2
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Differences in the Expression of TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB in Placenta
           Between Twins
    • Authors: Łukasz Szylberg; Magdalena Bodnar; Anna Lebioda; Patrycja Krepska; Adam Kowalewski; Grzegorz Bręborowicz; Andrzej Marszałek
      Abstract: Dizygotic twins share the same type of genetic relationship as non-twin siblings. Whereas monozygotic (MZ) twins are considered to have identical genetic material, they still differ. There is a number of reasons for early MZ twin discordance, including differences in the in utero environment, stochasticity, genetic mosaicism, and epigenetic factors. During gestation, the efficient innate immune system is of utmost importance. Our study was based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the differences in innate immune protein expression (TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB) in the 95 placentas between twins. Our study revealed statistical significant differences between diamniotic–dichorionic and monoamniotic–dichorionic twins. Monoamniotic–monochorionic twins exhibited no significant differences in protein expressions. To identify epigenetic factors causing the differences between twins, we made a series of comparisons with clinical data. The study revealed more cases with infections, miscarriages, in vitro fertilization, and premature rupture of membranes within the group with higher differences level of NF-κB, NOD2 and TLR-2 between twins. In case of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, there were no significant differences in innate immune protein expressions between twins. These results show that dissimilar genetic material and separate in utero environment promote discordance in innate immune protein expressions between twins. Moreover, additional blood flow between twins may be favorable in life-threatening conditions ensuring similar microenvironment.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0514-x
       
  • Changes in MiRNA-5196 Expression as a Potential Biomarker of Anti-TNF-α
           Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients
    • Authors: Marzena Ciechomska; Krzysztof Bonek; Michal Merdas; Patryk Zarecki; Jerzy Swierkot; Piotr Gluszko; Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik; Wlodzimierz Maslinski
      Abstract: In this study, we analysed the expression level of sera circulating miRNA-5196 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients before and after tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy as biomarkers predicting positive treatment outcome. We enrolled 10 RA patients, 13 AS patients, and 12 healthy individuals in the study. The expression of miRNA-5196 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction before and after anti-TNF-α therapy. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed using disease activity score 28 (DAS28), whereas ankylosing spondylitis DAS (ASDAS) was used in AS patients. MiRNA-5196 expression was significantly higher in patients with RA and AS before TNF-α therapy than in those following anti-TNF-α therapy and healthy controls. Changes in miRNA-5196 expression positively correlated with delta DAS28 or delta ASDAS, respectively, following TNF-α therapy. In contrast, changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in RA and AS patients did not positively correlate with DAS28 or ASDAS changes. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed better diagnostic accuracy of miRNA-5196 expression both in RA (area under curve (AUC) = 0.87, p = 0.055) and AS patients (AUC = 0.90, p = 0.050) compared to CRP levels in RA (AUC = 0.75, p = 0.201) and AS patients (AUC = 0.85, p = 0.086) upon biologic therapy treatment. Finding novel biomarkers, including miRNA-5196 which allow to predict and monitor anti-TNF-α response, would be of clinical value especially during the early phase of RA or AS development.
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0513-y
       
  • Detection of 16α-Hydroxyestrone-histone 1 Adduct as High-Affinity Antigen
           for Rheumatoid Arthritis Autoantibodies
    • Authors: Wahid Ali Khan; Gaffar Sarwar Zaman
      Abstract: Increased concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the underlying mechanism of this remains elusive. Here we aimed to identify the role played by 16α-OHE1 in RA. In 40 RA patients, the specificities of antibodies from the sera of these patients were checked by direct binding, inhibition ELISA, and quantitative precipitation titration. Competition ELISA was also used for the estimation of 16α-OHE1 in the serum of different RA patients. RA IgG from a patient’s sera showed strong recognition to 16α-OHE1-H1 (histone 1) adduct in comparison to control subjects (p < 0.001), as the formation of this adduct brings out various biochemical changes that might generate neo-epitopes, which have been well-recognized by these antibodies. The affinity of RA antibodies for 16α-OHE1-H1 (1.10 × 10− 7 M) was high, as detected by the Langmuir plot. Comparing RA patients to the controls, no significant differences were detected in the level of 16α-OHE1 or 2-hydroxyestrone/16α-OHE1 ratio. 16α-OHE1-H1 might have an antigenic role and function as a high-affinity antigen for RA autoantibodies and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker for this disease.
      PubDate: 2018-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0512-z
       
  • Role of Chicoric Acid and 13- Cis Retinoic Acid in Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis Infection Control by Human U937 Macrophage
    • Authors: Bahareh Abd-Nikfarjam; Marjan Nassiri-Asl; Mehri Hajiaghayi; Taghi Naserpour Farivar
      Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives and proliferates within the main cells of the innate immune system, macrophages. The goal of our study was to investigate the immunostimulatory effects of 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) and chicoric acid (CA) in human U937 macrophages against H37Ra Mtb infection by evaluating its potential role in the cell surface expression of HLA-DR, CD14 molecules as well as nitric oxide (NO) production and prevention of the Mtb growth within macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects of 13-cis RA and CA on Mtb-infected macrophages using flowcytometry and Griess methods, respectively. Moreover, inhibitory effect of 13-cis RA and CA on Mtb growth within macrophages were assessed using colony-forming unit. 13-Cis RA and CA enhanced the cell surface expression of HLA-DR and CD14 molecules on U937 macrophages and prevented the growth of Mtb within macrophages. In addition, 13-cis RA and CA, have increased NO generation compared to untreated control macrophages, significantly (p < 0.001). Both drugs have a significant inhibitory effect on Mtb growth but CA at the highest concentration was more potent than 13-cis RA (p < 0.05). The results of our study showed that infected U937 macrophages treated with 13-cis RA and CA represented significant increases in NO production, CD14 and HLA-DR expression and also prevents intracellular survival of Mtb. Therefore, 13-cis RA and CA may have a significant therapeutic approach in the control of Mtb infection.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0511-0
       
  • The Microbial Endocrinology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa : Inflammatory and
           Immune Perspectives
    • Authors: Valerie F. L. Yong; Min Min Soh; Tavleen Kaur Jaggi; Micheál Mac Aogáin; Sanjay H. Chotirmall
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous “quorum sensing” (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to utilise interconnected QS systems to coordinate its virulence and evade various aspects of the host immune system activated in response to infection. Several human hormones demonstrate an influence on P. aeruginosa growth and virulence. This inter-kingdom signalling, termed “microbial endocrinology” has important implications for host–microbe interaction during infection and, potentially opens up novel avenues for therapeutic intervention. This phenomenon, supported by the existence of sexual dichotomies in both microbial infection and chronic lung diseases such as CF is potentially explained by sex hormones and their influence on the infective process. This review summarises our current understanding of the microbial endocrinology of P. aeruginosa, including its endogenous QS systems and their intersection with human endocrinology, pathogenesis of infection and the host immune system.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0510-1
       
  • Muscle Stem/Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Bone Marrow
           Origin for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Muscular Dystrophies
    • Authors: Aleksandra Klimczak; Urszula Kozlowska; Maciej Kurpisz
      Abstract: Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Skeletal muscle comprises different types of stem/progenitor cells such as satellite cells and non-satellite stem cells including MSCs, interstitial stem cells positive for stress mediator PW1 expression and negative for PAX7 called PICs (PW1+/PAX7− interstitial cells), fibro/adipogenic progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells, muscle side population cells and muscle resident pericytes, and all of them actively participate in the muscle regeneration process. In this review, we present biological properties of MSCs of bone marrow origin and a heterogeneous population of muscle-resident stem/progenitor cells, their interaction with the inflammatory environment of dystrophic muscle and potential implications for cellular therapies for muscle regeneration. Subsequently, we propose—based on current research results, conclusions, and our own experience—hypothetical mechanisms for modulation of the complete muscle regeneration process to treat muscular dystrophies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0509-7
       
  • Thymus Colonization: Who, How, How Many'
    • Authors: Andreas Krueger
      Abstract: De novo generation of T cells depends on continual colonization of the thymus by bone marrow-derived progenitors. Thymus seeding progenitors (TSPs) constitute a heterogeneous population comprising multipotent and lineage-restricted cell types. Entry into the thymic microenvironment is tightly controlled and recent quantitative studies have revealed that the adult murine thymus only contains approximately 160 niches to accommodate TSPs. Of these niches only about 6% are open for seeding on average at steady-state. Here, I review the state of understanding of colonization of the adult murine thymus with a particular focus on past and current controversies in the field. Improving thymus colonization and/or maintaining intact TSP niches during the course of pre-conditioning regimens are likely to be critical for efficient T-cell regeneration after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0503-5
       
 
 
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