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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
  [SJR: 1.2]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1661-4917 - ISSN (Online) 0004-069X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Role of TGF-β in Self-Peptide Regulation of Autoimmunity
    • Authors: Bhagirath Singh; Michael D. Krawetz; Rachel M. De Lima; Rinee Mukherjee; Pratibha Chaturvedi; Edwin Lee-Chan; Edward H. Leiter; Kelly L. Summers
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been implicated in regulation of the immune system, including autoimmunity. We have found that TGF-β is readily produced by T cells following immunization with self-peptide epitopes that downregulate autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes (T1D) prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These include multiple peptide epitopes derived from the islet β-cell antigens GAD65 (GAD65 p202-221, GAD65 p217-236), GAD67 (GAD67 p210-229, GAD67 p225-244), IGRP (IGRP p123-145, IGRP p195-214) and insulin B-chain (Ins. B:9-23) that protected NOD mice from T1D. Immunization of NOD mice with the self-MHC class II I-Ag7 β-chain-derived peptide, I-Aβg7 p54-76 also induced large amounts of TGF-β and also protected these mice from diabetes development. These results indicate that peptides derived from disease related self-antigens and MHC class II molecules primarily induce TGF-β producing regulatory Th3 and Tr1-like cells. TGF-β produced by these cells could enhance the differentiation of induced regulatory iTreg and iTreg17 cells to prevent induction and progression of autoimmune diseases. We therefore suggest that peripheral immune tolerance could be induced and maintained by immunization with self-peptides that induce TGF-β producing T cells.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0482-6
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
  • Heterogeneity Among Neutrophils
    • Authors: Marzena Garley; Ewa Jabłońska
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Neutrophils (PMNs) play a key role in innate defence mechanisms. Generally, PMNs were considered to have a homogeneous population of mature and diversified cells. It seems, however, that their pleiotropic action results from the existence of different subpopulations in this group of cells. There are data that confirm the involvement of PMNs in the direct activation of other cells in non-specific response, as well as specialised cells in specific response. For example, there have been observations of PMNs with different levels of activity in relation to lymphocytes, and a population was identified which had characteristics similar to those of cells which are capable of presenting antigens. There are also reports of PMNs which demonstrate different survival time or capacity for chemotaxis. Other studies suggest that the neutrophil response to Staphylococcus aureus is diverse (not identical among all neutrophil). There are also reports of PMNs with varying activity during inflammation, which might explain many as yet unknown pathophysiological aspects of their hyperreactivity. The functional dualism of PMNs in the course of neoplastic disorders raises a lot of controversy. This paper presents the current state of knowledge of the heterogeneity of PMNs and their potential roles in different stages of disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0476-4
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
  • Natural Agents-Mediated Targeting of Histone Deacetylases
    • Authors: Ammad Ahmad Farooqi; Syed Kamran-ul-Hassan Naqvi; Aliye Aras Perk; Onur Yanar; Sobia Tabassum; Muhammad Sheeraz Ahmad; Qaisar Mansoor; Mohamed S. Ashry; Muhammad Ismail; George E. Naoum; Waleed O. Arafat
      Pages: 31 - 44
      Abstract: In the past few years, basic and clinical scientists have witnessed landmark achievements in many research projects, such as those conducted by the US National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Mapping Consortium, the International Human Epigenome Consortium, The Cancer Genome Atlas Network and the International Cancer Genome Consortium, which have provided near-complete resolution of epigenetic landscape in different diseases. Furthermore, genome sequencing of tumors has provided compelling evidence related to frequent existence of mutations in readers, erasers and writers of epigenome in different cancers. Histone acetylation is an intricate mechanism modulated by two opposing sets of enzymes and deeply studied as a key biological phenomenon in 1964 by Vincent Allfrey and colleagues. The research group suggested that this protein modification contributed substantially in transcriptional regulation. Subsequently, histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone acetyltransferases and acetyl-Lys-binding proteins were identified as transcriptional mediators, which further deepened our comprehension regarding biochemical modifications. Overwhelmingly increasing high-impact research is improving our understanding of this molecularly controlled mechanism; moreover, quantification and identification of lysine acetylation by mass spectrometry has added new layers of information. We partition this multi-component review into how both activity and expression of HDAC are targeted using natural agents. We also set spotlight on how oncogenic fusion proteins tactfully utilize HDAC-associated nano-machinery to modulate expression of different genes and how HDAC inhibitors regulate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. HDAC inhibitors have been reported to upregulate expression of TRAIL receptors and protect TRAIL from proteasomal degradation. Deeper understanding of HDAC biology will be useful for stratification and selection of patients who are responders, non-responders and poor-responders for HDACi therapy, and for the rational design of combination studies using HDACi.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0488-0
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
  • Skin Immunity
    • Authors: Agata Matejuk
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: Skin is the largest organ of the body with a complex network of multitude of cell types that perform plastic and dynamic cellular communication to maintain several vital processes such as inflammation, immune response including induction of tolerance and disease prevention, wound healing, and angiogenesis. Of paramount importance are immunological functions of the skin that protect from harmful exposure coming from external and internal environments. Awareness of skin immunity can provide a better comprehension of inflammation, autoimmunity, cancer, graft-versus-host disease, vaccination, and immunotherapy approaches. This paper will update on what we currently know about immune sentinels contributing to skin immunity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0477-3
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
  • Comparative Assessment of Induced Immune Responses Following Intramuscular
           Immunization with Fusion and Cocktail of LeIF, LACK and TSA Genes Against
           Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice
    • Authors: Nahid Maspi; Fatemeh Ghaffarifar; Zohreh Sharifi; Abdolhossein Dalimi; Mohammad Saaid Dayer
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated induced immune responses following DNA vaccine containing cocktail or fusion of LeIF, LACK and TSA genes or each gene alone. Mice were injected with 100 µg of each plasmid containing the gene of insert, plasmid DNA alone as the first control group or phosphate buffer saline as the second control group. Then, cellular and humoral responses, lesion size were measured for all groups. All vaccinated mice induced Th1 immune responses against Leishmania characterized by higher IFN-γ and IgG2a levels compared with control groups (p < 0.05). In addition, IFN-γ levels increased in groups immunized with fusion and cocktail vaccines in comparison with LACK (p < 0.001) and LeIF (p < 0.01) groups after challenge. In addition, fusion and cocktail groups produced higher IgG2a values than groups vaccinated with a gene alone (p < 0.05). Lesion progression delayed for all immunized groups compared with control groups from 5th week post-infection (p < 0.05). Mean lesion size decreased in immunized mice with fusion DNA than three groups vaccinated with one gene alone (p < 0.05). While, lesion size decreased significantly in cocktail recipient group than LeIF recipient group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in lesion size between fusion and cocktail groups. Overall, immunized mice with cocktail and fusion vaccines showed stronger Th1 response by production of higher IFN-γ and IgG2a and showed smaller mean lesion size. Therefore, use of multiple antigens can improve induced immune responses by DNA vaccination.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0484-4
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
  • Ficolin-2 Gene rs7851696 Polymorphism is Associated with Delayed Graft
           Function and Acute Rejection in Kidney Allograft Recipients
    • Authors: Ewa Dabrowska-Zamojcin; Michal Czerewaty; Damian Malinowski; Maciej Tarnowski; Sylwia Słuczanowska-Głabowska; Leszek Domanski; Krzysztof Safranow; Andrzej Pawlik
      Pages: 65 - 72
      Abstract: Ficolin-2 is an activator of the complement system that acts via the lectin pathway. Complement activation plays a substantial role in the renal injury inherent to kidney transplantation. In this study, we examined the associations between ficolin-2 gene polymorphisms in exon 8 and kidney allograft function. This study comprised 270 Caucasian deceased-donor renal transplant recipients. The following parameters were recorded in each case: delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR), and chronic allograft dysfunction. Among patients with DGF, we observed a significantly increased frequency of rs7851696 GT and TT genotypes as well as T allele (TT + GT vs GG OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.12–3.48, p = 0.02; T vs G OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.27–3.41, p = 0.005). There was also an increased frequency of rs4521835 GG and TG genotypes as well as G alleles; however, these differences were on the borderline of statistical significance (GG + TG vs TT, OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.98–3.12, p = 0.07; G vs T OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00–2.09, p = 0.050). In addition, we observed an increased frequency of acute allograft rejection in carriers of ficolin-2 rs7851696 T alleles on the borderline of statistical significance (TT + GT vs GG OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.97–3.16, p = 0.08), but the frequency of T allele was significantly higher in patients with AR (T vs G OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02–2.87, p = 0.048). The results of our study suggest that ficolin-2 rs7851696 gene polymorphism influences kidney allograft functions, with T allele increasing the risk of DGF and AR.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0475-5
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
  • Possible Immunomodulating Effect of Retinol on Cytokines Secretion in
           Patients with Recurrent Furunculosis
    • Authors: Danuta Nowicka; Ewelina Grywalska; Anna Hymos; Michał Mielnik; Jacek Roliński
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: Recurrent furunculosis is an infection of hair follicles which results in formation of abscesses. Previous studies showed that the pathogenesis of the disease may include an immune-mediated component as the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to staphylococcal antigen is depressed. The aim of our study was to evaluate cytokines concentration in the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis and to determine whether retinol affects the secretion of those cytokines in patients with recurrent furunculosis and healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from 15 patients with recurrent furunculosis and 15 age-matched healthy subjects. A quantitative determination of selected cytokines (IL-17, 13, 2, 10, 4, IFN-γ, TNF-α) was performed in the plasma at baseline and after 72-h culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with and without retinol in both groups. In the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis, concentration of IL-10, 2, and TNF-α was significantly higher, whereas IL-13 significantly lower when compared with healthy subjects. After retinol stimulation, the concentration of IL-17 and IFN-γ increased significantly in both groups. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-10 (p < 0.002) and 13 (p < 0.01), achieved lower levels in recurrent furunculosis samples than in those of healthy controls. Network of cytokines differs in patients with recurrent furunculosis from healthy subjects. Retinol stimulation affects secretion of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are recommended for better understanding the pathomechanism of recurrent furunculosis and potential clinical use of retinol in patients affected by recurrent furunculosis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0483-5
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
  • Intestinal Barrier Impairment and Immune Activation in HIV-Infected
           Advanced Late Presenters are Not Dependent on CD4 Recovery
    • Authors: Kamila Wójcik-Cichy; Anna Piekarska; Elżbieta Jabłonowska
      Abstract: Damage of the mucosal barrier in HIV infection, microbial translocation, and immune activation can persist even in patients on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) especially advanced late presenters. The aim of this study was to find factors that determine immune activation and bacterial translocation in HIV-infected advanced late presenters on suppressive ART. Forty-three late presenters (CD4 < 200 cells/µl prior to ART) on successful ART (more than 2 years of ART) with optimal and suboptimal CD4 recovery were enrolled into this study. The serum concentrations of intestinal fatty acid-binding peptide (I-FABP), zonulin-1, programmed cell death-1 protein (PCDP-1), and soluble (s)CD14 were measured using the ELISA test. We found higher serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14 in successfully antiretroviral-treated advanced late presenters compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0004). The serum concentration of PCDP-1 and zonulin-1 in HIV-infected patients did not differ from healthy controls. The levels of microbial translocation and immune activation markers were not associated with the degree of CD4 recovery. A serum concentration of I-FABP above 2.03 ng/ml was independently associated with a shorter ART (OR 0.78; p = 0.03). Older age was related to serum levels of sCD14 above 2.35 µg/ml (OR 1.1; p = 0.01). Higher serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14 in successfully antiretroviral-treated advanced late presenters compared to healthy subjects suggest an incomplete reconstruction of the intestinal barrier and sustained immune activation despite good CD4 recovery. It was not the CD4 level, but the length of the suppressive ART that was found to be associated with the restoration of the intestinal barrier.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0508-8
  • Adverse Effects Associated with Clinical Applications of CAR Engineered T
    • Authors: Zohreh Sadat Badieyan; Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini
      Abstract: Cancer has been ranked as the second leading cause of death in the United States. To reduce cancer mortality, immunotherapy is gaining momentum among other therapeutic modalities, due to its impressive results in clinical trials. The genetically engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are emerging as a new approach in cancer immunotherapy, with the most successful outcomes in the refractory/relapse hematologic malignancies. However, the widespread clinical applications are limited by adverse effects some of which are life-threatening. Strategies to reduce the chance of side effects as well as close monitoring, rapid diagnosis and proper treatment of side effects are necessary to take the most advantages of this valuable therapy. Here we review the reported toxicities associated with CAR engineered T cells, the strategies to ameliorate the toxicity, and further techniques and designs leading to a safer CAR T-cell therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0507-9
  • Humanized Mice as Unique Tools for Human-Specific Studies
    • Authors: Kylie Su Mei Yong; Zhisheng Her; Qingfeng Chen
      Abstract: With an increasing human population, medical research is pushed to progress into an era of precision therapy. Humanized mice are at the very heart of this new forefront where it is acutely required to decipher human-specific disease pathogenesis and test an array of novel therapeutics. In this review, “humanized” mice are defined as immunodeficient mouse engrafted with functional human biological systems. Over the past decade, researchers have been conscientiously making improvements on the development of humanized mice as a model to closely recapitulate disease pathogenesis and drug mechanisms in humans. Currently, literature is rife with descriptions of novel and innovative humanized mouse models that hold a significant promise to become a panacea for drug innovations to treat and control conditions such as infectious disease and cancer. This review will focus on the background of humanized mice, diseases, and human-specific therapeutics tested on this platform as well as solutions to improve humanized mice for future clinical use.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0506-x
  • The Phenomenon of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Vascular Diseases
    • Authors: Dorota Dąbrowska; Ewa Jabłońska; Marzena Garley; Jolanta Sawicka-Powierza; Karolina Nowak
      Abstract: Vascular diseases constitute a global health issue due to the increasing number of cases of patients with these diseases. The pathogenesis of the majority of these diseases, including atherosclerosis and thrombosis, is complex and not yet fully understood. One of the major causes for their occurrence can be immune disorders resulting in the development of a chronic inflammation within the vessels. In recent years, studies have placed emphasis on the role of neutrophils in the development of these diseases, i.e., the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) demonstrated that the structures released by the cells may contribute to the enhancement of inflammatory reactions and cell damage. This article summarizes current knowledge on the role of NETs during atherosclerosis, thrombosis and small-vessel vasculitis, especially in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel vasculitis (AAV).
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0505-y
  • Application of Genome Editing Techniques in Immunology
    • Authors: Agata O. Zych; Malgorzata Bajor; Radoslaw Zagozdzon
      Abstract: The idea of using the effector immune cells to specifically fight cancer has recently evolved into an exciting concept of adoptive cell therapies. Indeed, genetically engineered T cells expressing on their surface recombinant, cancer-targeted receptors have been shown to induce promising response in oncological patients. However, in addition to exogenous expression of such receptors, there is also a need for disruption of certain genes in the immune cells to achieve more potent disease-targeted actions, to produce universal chimeric antigen receptor-based therapies or to study the signaling pathways in detail. In this review, we present novel genetic engineering methods, mainly TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 systems, that can be used for such purposes. These unique techniques may contribute to creating more successful immune therapies against cancer or prospectively other diseases as well.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0504-z
  • Biomedical Research in Wrocław: A Combined Density-Equalizing Mapping and
           Scientometric Analysis
    • Authors: David A. Groneberg
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of biomedical scientific activities of Wrocław scientists in the post-war time when this field of academics was rebuilt by the works of Ludwik Hirszfeld and colleagues. Using the NewQIS platform and the Web of Science database, novel procedures such as density-equalizing mapping were combined to bibliometric tools to visualize scientific progression. In total, 10,366 biomedical research articles originating from Wrocław were identified. Since 1972, there is a steady increase in research activity with the year 2015 holding the largest number of published items (895). A total of 2934 published research cooperations with 104 different countries is present. This is a percentage of 28.3% of all publications. In total, 101 research areas are present in Wrocław biomedical research with the highest number of articles being published in the area of biochemistry/molecular biology (2140). Research in this field was cited 27,360 times. The field of immunology has 1186 articles with 9247 citations. Density-equalizing mapping and network techniques revealed a distinct global pattern of research collaborations with German, US and UK affiliations as the primary cooperating partners of Wrocław. In summary, the present study supplies the first density-equalizing mapping approach that visualizes research activity in Wrocław over the past decades.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0502-6
  • Thymus Colonization: Who, How, How Many'
    • Authors: Andreas Krueger
      Abstract: De novo generation of T cells depends on continual colonization of the thymus by bone marrow-derived progenitors. Thymus seeding progenitors (TSPs) constitute a heterogeneous population comprising multipotent and lineage-restricted cell types. Entry into the thymic microenvironment is tightly controlled and recent quantitative studies have revealed that the adult murine thymus only contains approximately 160 niches to accommodate TSPs. Of these niches only about 6% are open for seeding on average at steady-state. Here, I review the state of understanding of colonization of the adult murine thymus with a particular focus on past and current controversies in the field. Improving thymus colonization and/or maintaining intact TSP niches during the course of pre-conditioning regimens are likely to be critical for efficient T-cell regeneration after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0503-5
  • Soluble TREM-1 Serum Level can Early Predict Mortality of Patients with
           Sepsis, Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock
    • Authors: Monika Jedynak; Andrzej Siemiatkowski; Barbara Mroczko; Magdalena Groblewska; Robert Milewski; Maciej Szmitkowski
      Abstract: Early prognostic prediction of sepsis is essential in adjusting therapeutic protocols to prevent deterioration and reduce mortality. We compared the predictive value of the serum concentration of the soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) for 28-day mortality and for the development of severe sepsis or septic shock on the third day with the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). The study was conducted on 85 patients with sepsis. sTREM-1, CRP, PCT and IL-6 concentrations were measured upon study inclusion (day 0) and on days 1, 2, 3 and 5. APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA scores were analyzed. The sTREM-1 levels (pg/ml) were higher in non-survivors than in survivors at admission (773 vs. 391, p < 0.001) and on days 1, 2, 3 and 5. In predicting the development of severe sepsis, the highest AUCs were found for PCT (0.744, 95% CI 0.638–0.85) and sTREM-1 (0.664, 95% CI 0.55–0.778); and in septic shock prediction, for PCT (0.766, 95% CI 0.665–0.867) and IL-6 (0.707, 95% CI 0.595–0.819). sTREM-1 positively correlated with APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA scores. At inclusion, significant AUC for predicting 28-day mortality was 0.772 for the sTREM-1 (95% CI 0.672–0.871), 0.858 for APACHE II (95% CI 0.768–0.948), 0.847 for SAPS II (95% CI 0.733–0.96), 0.806 for SOFA score (95% CI 0.698–0.915). sTREM-1 can early predict the 28-day sepsis mortality, although its effectiveness is lower in comparison with clinical severity scores.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0499-x
  • Variation of Regulatory T Lymphocytes in the Peripheral Blood of Children
           with Allergic Rhinitis
    • Authors: Khaled Saad; Asmaa M. Zahran; Khalid I. Elsayh; Abobakr Abdelmoghny; Mohamed Diab Aboul-Khair
      Abstract: The studies of T-regulatory (Treg) cells in the pediatric allergic disorders, especially allergic rhinitis (AR), are very few and still far from being elucidated. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (CD4+Tregs) and CD8+CD25+highFoxp3+ (CD8+Tregs) regulatory T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of children with AR. In fresh whole blood of 60 children with AR and 40 healthy controls, the frequencies of CD4+Tregs and CD8+Tregs were examined by flow cytometry. The total IgE concentration in the serum was measured. In AR children, the frequencies of CD4+Tregs and CD8+Tregs were significantly reduced when compared to control group (p = 0.041, p = 0.011, respectively). Moreover, the expressions of Foxp3+ in CD4+CD25+high and CD8+CD25+high cells were significantly lower in patient group than controls. We found a significant negative correlation between the frequencies of CD4+Tregs and the total IgE concentration (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the percentages of CD8+Tregs and CD4+Tregs T cells were significantly decreased in children with AR. This suggests that decreased Treg cells might represent a defect in the compartment of T-cell population in children with AR. Further studies are warranted to fully appreciate the clinical relevance of Tregs in children with AR.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0498-y
  • Allergen-Specific T Cells in IgE-Mediated Food Allergy
    • Authors: Aziza Saidova; Ahuva Magder Hershkop; Marta Ponce; Thomas Eiwegger
      Abstract: Food allergy is the major reason for severe anaphylaxis in childhood and adolescence. Currently, effective and safe treatments for food allergy are unavailable. Allergen-specific CD4+ T cells have a pivotal role in causing and maintaining the allergic response to food allergens. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the role of allergen-specific T cells in food allergy during allergic sensitization, natural tolerance development and allergen immunotherapy. Allergen-specific T cells in the context of food allergy are predominantly of a Th2 type with slightly different surface marker expression patterns in different food allergies. During the process of reverting food allergy to a status of tolerance or sustained unresponsiveness there is a loss of this Th2 committed compartment with an asymptotic approximation to a regulatory and Th0/Th1 dominated compartment seen in non-allergic individuals. This process is accompanied by a significant reduction of absolute frequencies of allergen-specific T cells. Particularly, regulatory T cells may provide significant help to achieve sustained control of the effector cell populations via suppression of effector cell function and possibly induction of blocking antibodies.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0501-7
  • NK and NKT-Like Cells in Patients with Recurrent Furunculosis
    • Authors: Danuta Nowicka; Ewelina Grywalska; Elżbieta Fitas; Michał Mielnik; Jacek Roliński
      Abstract: To analyze changes in the number and percentage of NK and NKT-like cells in relation to other immune cells as well as to examine associations between increased susceptibility to infections and NK and NKT-like status in patients with recurrent furunculosis (RF) and healthy controls. Thirty patients with RF and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were recruited. Blood samples were examined. Lymphocyte count and cytometric analyses were conducted. For statistical analysis, the Student’s t test, F test, and Brown–Forsythe test were used for comparison between groups of variables. Associations were assessed with Pearson coefficient. Patients with RF had lower lymphocyte count than controls. Additionally, they presented with the following changes in the blood picture: a significant increase in the number of NK cells with a CD3+CD16+CD56+ phenotype; a proportional increase in the number and percentage of NKT-like cells with a CD3+CD16+CD56+ phenotype; a significant decrease in the number and percentage of T CD3+ cells. The number of NK cells was strongly positively correlated with the number of CD3 cells (r = 0.6162). The number of NKT cells was strongly positively correlated with CD3 cells (r = 0.6885) and CD3CD8 cells (r = 0.5465). Periodic exacerbations in RF are associated with the development of furuncles, which are a result of many already discovered as well as just being examined mechanisms. One of them is a significant increase in the number and most likely activation of NK and NKT-like cells during the formation of the inflammatory process and furuncles.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0500-8
  • Bindarit Attenuates Pain and Cancer-Related Inflammation by Influencing
           Myeloid Cells in a Model of Bone Cancer
    • Authors: Shenghou Liu; Hongwei Gao; Chunzheng Gao; Wenguang Liu; Deguo Xing
      Abstract: C–C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small cytokine that functions in inflammation and cancer development. Bindarit, a CCL2 inhibitor, is a small anti-inflammatory molecule proven safe by phase II trials in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients. As cancer-related inflammation is a cause of pain, we investigated whether Bindarit suppresses cancer-related inflammation and pain. We established a bone-cancer mouse model by inoculating cancer cells. After applying Bindarit, we preformed pain sensitivity tests and checked cancer development by X-ray. Using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR assays, we assessed the effect of Bindarit on peripheral blood monocyte mobilization and M2 macrophage polarization. We also investigated the targets of Bindarit using western blotting and luciferase assay. Bindarit-treated mice performed better in pain sensitivity tests compare to control mice. X-ray imaging showed that Bindarit-treated mice had fewer cancer cell colonies and smaller overall tumor burden. Bindarit reduced the number of monocytes in peripheral blood and down-regulated the expression of M2 macrophage polarization makers. Bindarit also inhibited IKKβ phosphorylation. Bindarit efficiently relieves cancer-related pain and suppresses cancer development. Bindarit inhibits monocyte mobilization in peripheral blood as well as M2 macrophage polarization. IKKβ is identified as a target of Bindarit.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0497-z
  • Oxidative Stress in Kidney Diseases: The Cause or the Consequence'
    • Authors: Natalia Krata; Radosław Zagożdżon; Bartosz Foroncewicz; Krzysztof Mucha
      Abstract: Exaggerated oxidative stress (OS) is usually considered as a disturbance in regular function of an organism. The excessive levels of OS mediators may lead to major damage within the organism’s cells and tissues. Therefore, the OS-associated biomarkers may be considered as new diagnostic tools of various diseases. In nephrology, researchers are looking for alternative methods replacing the renal biopsy in patients with suspicion of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, CKD is a frequent health problem in world population, which can lead to progressive loss of kidney function and eventually to end-stage renal disease. The course of CKD depends on the primary disease. It is assumed that one of the factors influencing the course of CKD might be OS. In the current work, we review whether monitoring the OS-associated biomarkers in nephrology patients can support the decision-making process regarding diagnosis, prognostication and treatment initiation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0496-0
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