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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Women's Mental Health
  [SJR: 1.264]   [H-I: 50]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-1102 - ISSN (Online) 1434-1816
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Obstetric patients’ perspectives on functional magnetic neuroimaging
           research in pregnant women
    • Authors: Rebecca L. Newmark; Michelle L. Zaydlin; Amy Yang; Kelcie Kuchenrither; Katherine L. Wisner; Suena H. Massey
      Abstract: Magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) studies of healthy pregnant women could identify key mechanisms of spontaneous health behavior changes observed in expectant mothers as novel intervention targets, but are currently unprecedented. As balancing potential benefits of research with unknown risks, including participant perceptions of risk, is foundational to ethical conduct, we surveyed a convenience obstetric sample to understand pregnant women’s perspectives on this issue. Respondents were 76 pregnant women (modal age of 30–39 years; 64% multiparous) presenting for obstetric care from April to June 2016 at privately and publicly funded clinics at an urban academic medical center in the Midwestern USA. Following a written description about functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI) and its known and unknown risks, women were queried on their willingness to participate in a hypothetical study involving fMRI during pregnancy, and specific concerns about doing so, if hesitant or unwilling. Willingness to participate was “yes” (28.4%, n = 21), “maybe” (28.4%, n = 21), and “no” (43.2%, n = 32). Among those responding “maybe” or “no” (n = 53, 73.6%), 11 women (20.7%) articulated concern about the fetus. Other concerns expressed were time commitment (n = 11, 20.7%) and discomfort being in an MRI machine (n = 4; 7.5%). Pregnant women may be open to participating in research involving MRI provided concerns about fetal health, time, and personal comfort are addressed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0846-x
       
  • The association of serum C-reactive protein with the occurrence and course
           of postpartum depression
    • Authors: Emily S. Miller; Denada Hoxha; Emily Pinheiro; William A. Grobman; Katherine L. Wisner
      Abstract: CRP has been positively correlated with depressive symptomatology but this has received less study in postpartum depression (PPD). In this secondary analysis of a trial of PPD treatment, depressive symptoms (Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale—Atypical Depression Symptoms (SIGH-ADS29)) and serum CRP levels were assessed and associations between CRP and SIGH-ADS29 scores evaluated. The associations between baseline log CRP and depression response and remission were also assessed. Of the 35 women included, neither baseline log CRP nor exit log CRP was significantly associated with SIGH-ADS29 score. Baseline CRP was not associated with response or remission. In this sample of women with PPD, CRP was not associated with depressive symptoms nor response to treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0841-2
       
  • Latent trajectory groups of perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms from
           pregnancy to early postpartum and their antenatal risk factors
    • Authors: Asma Ahmed; Cindy Feng; Angela Bowen; Nazeem Muhajarine
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of women who exhibit distinct trajectory patterns of depressive and anxiety disorders from pregnancy to early postpartum and the risk factors associated with the latent trajectory group memberships. Women (n = 615) from the Feelings in Pregnancy and Motherhood (FIP) longitudinal study were followed from early pregnancy to early postpartum for a 7-month period in 2006–2007. The semi-parametric group-based trajectory modeling approach was used to identify the latent trajectory groups. Multinomial logit models were then used to explore the association between latent trajectory group membership and antenatal characteristics. We identified four latent trajectory groups of perinatal depressive symptoms: “low-stable” (49.6%), “moderate-stable” (42.3%), “postpartum” (3.6%), and “antepartum” (4.6%). Significant risk factors associated with these trajectory group memberships were past depression, stress level, ethnicity, the mother’s age, and relationship satisfaction. Three latent trajectory groups of perinatal anxiety symptoms were identified: “very low-stable” (8.9%); “low-stable” (60.7%); and “moderate-stable” (30.4%). Significant risk factor associated with these trajectories were past depression, stress level, and income level. Latent trajectory groups of perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms were identified to uncover potential heterogeneity in populations. Our findings support the need for multiple assessments starting from early pregnancy to the postpartum, which can give some important insights on the characteristics of the women at high symptom burden trajectories for early interventions that may alter the progress of their mental symptoms.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0845-y
       
  • Comparative effects of antidepressant medications and untreated major
           depression on pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review
    • Authors: Jentina Mitchell; Janice Goodman
      Abstract: Psychopharmacological treatment of pregnant women is an area of continued controversy; extensive observational research on the use of antidepressant medications in pregnancy has found these medications to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. However, depression itself has also been associated with increased risk of those same outcomes, and only recently have researchers begun trying to compare treated with untreated depression. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to integrate those comparative studies and compare risks and benefits. PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINAHL searches; study selection; and data extraction were carried out using PRISMA guidelines. Eleven prospective observational and case-control studies were selected for final inclusion. Risk of low birth weight and related outcomes do not differ between antidepressant-treated pregnant women and untreated depressed women. Average gestational lengths tend to be slightly shorter with antidepressant use but it is unclear whether these differences are clinically meaningful or extend to preterm delivery. Very limited research on spontaneous abortion did not allow conclusions to be drawn regarding that outcome. The low number of studies meeting criteria highlights the need for further research to aid in risk-benefit analysis for women considering antidepressant use in pregnancy. While further research is necessary, discontinuing antidepressant treatment of major depression in pregnancy due to concerns about length of gestation, birth weight, or spontaneous abortion is not supported by the evidence available at this time.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0844-z
       
  • Long-acting olanzapine injection during pregnancy and breastfeeding: a
           case report
    • Authors: Irina Manouilenko; Inger Öhman; Jeanette Georgieva
      Abstract: We present one case of a woman treated with the intramuscular depot formulation of the atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine pamoate (ZypAdhera®), during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Data on olanzapine distribution in breast milk as well as on plasma concentration in the nursed infant are provided. The present case report demonstrates that olanzapine was excreted in the breast milk, but the breast-fed infant had very low olanzapine concentrations, which did not result in any adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0840-3
       
  • Does medical students’ personality have an impact on their intention to
           show empathic behavior'
    • Authors: Tamara Seitz; Angelika S. Längle; Charles Seidman; Henriette Löffler-Stastka
      Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between specific personal traits and empathy. However, it is not clear if persons with certain personality traits lack the intent to show empathic behavior or if other factors independent of their intent are affecting their empathic behavior. To answer this question, we asked 132 medical students to fill out questionnaires evaluating the General Intention to Show Empathic Behavior (GISEB) and the five personality traits measured by NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Additionally, we evaluated the influence of other factors, such as age, gender, curricular progress (second versus fourth year), and preferred specialization after graduation. We performed a Pearson’s correlation and a regression analysis. Results indicate that the five personality traits and gender have little influence on the General Intention (GISEB), only extraversion (r = .221, 95% CI [.013–.394], p = .027), and agreeableness (r = .229, 95% CI [.021–.428], p = .022) correlated with the intention. The only predictor for General Intention (GISEB) was curricular progress (β = − .27, p < .05), showing a decrease of General Intention to Show Empathic Behavior from second to fourth year of university (U = 1203.5, p = .002). A further finding indicates that gender and personality influence the students’ wish of specialization after graduation: Agreeableness (F(12, 53) = 2.376, p = .016) impacted the preferred specialization. Our study demonstrated that medical students’ personality might not notably impact the intention to show empathic behavior. Further research is needed to investigate moderating effects.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0837-y
       
  • Both melatonin and meloxicam improved sleep and pain in females with
           primary dysmenorrhea—results from a double-blind cross-over intervention
           pilot study
    • Abstract: Up to 25% of ovulating women suffer from primary dysmenorrhea, a condition associated with pain and transient-reduced quality of life, along with greater irritability and impaired sleep. In the present study, we asked whether and if so to what extent melatonin and meloxicam can improve subjective and objective sleep and reduce pain among women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). To this end, we conducted a double-blind cross-over clinical trial lasting for three menstrual cycles. A total of 14 women (mean age M = 27.5 years) with primary dysmenorrhea took part in the study. At baseline, that is, during the first menstruation, they completed a visual analogue scale to rate pain; sleep continuity was assessed via actigraphs, and overall sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Next, participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions, either melatonin during the second, and meloxicam during the third menstruation, or meloxicam during the second, and melatonin during the third menstruation. Neither participants nor investigators were aware of participants’ study assignment. During the second and third menstruations, the assessments described above were repeated. At baseline, sleep assessed both objectively and subjectively was impaired, and pain was high. Subjective sleep improved and pain decreased during the second and third menstruations irrespective of whether melatonin or meloxicam was administered first or second. Likewise, objective sleep efficiency increased and objective sleep latency shortened. The efficacy of melatonin was superior to that of meloxicam. The present pattern of results suggests that both melatonin and meloxicam are suitable to treat pain and PD-related sleep complaints among women with primary dysmenorrhea.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0838-x
       
  • Effectiveness of self-help psychological interventions for treating and
           preventing postpartum depression: a meta-analysis
    • Authors: Ping-Zhen Lin; Jiao-Mei Xue; Bei Yang; Meng Li; Feng-Lin Cao
      Abstract: Previous studies have reported different effect sizes for self-help interventions designed to reduce postpartum depression symptoms; therefore, a comprehensive quantitative review of the research was required. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of self-help interventions designed to treat and prevent postpartum depression, and identified nine relevant randomized controlled trials. Differences in depressive symptoms between self-help interventions and control conditions, changes in depressive symptoms following self-help interventions, and differences in postintervention recovery and improvement rates between self-help interventions and control conditions were assessed in separate analyses. In treatment trials, depression scores continued to decrease from baseline to posttreatment and follow-up assessment in treatment subgroups. Changes in treatment subgroups’ depression scores from baseline to postintervention assessment were greater relative to those observed in prevention subgroups. Self-help interventions produced larger overall effects on postpartum depression, relative to those observed in control conditions, in posttreatment (Hedges’ g = 0.51) and follow-up (Hedges’ g = 0.32) assessments; and self-help interventions were significantly more effective, relative to control conditions, in promoting recovery from postpartum depression. Effectiveness in preventing depression did not differ significantly between self-help interventions and control conditions.The findings suggested that self-help interventions designed to treat postpartum depression reduced levels of depressive symptoms effectively and decreased the risk of postpartum depression.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0835-0
       
  • Relationship of bipolar disorder with psychiatric comorbidity in the
           postpartum period—a scoping review
    • Authors: Verinder Sharma
      Abstract: Childbirth can trigger a variety of psychiatric disorders; however, no disorder is as profoundly affected by childbirth as bipolar disorder. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity especially anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance use disorders are quite high in individuals with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this scoping review is to ascertain the effect of childbirth on the relationship between the onset of bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. On June 27, 2017, a search of the Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and ISI-Web of Science (WOS) databases was performed using the terms mental disorders, mental disease, major depressive disorder, major depression, depression, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, comorbidity, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, reactive attachment disorder, childbirth, parturition, puerperium, postpartum, postpartum period and postnatal period. Reference lists of identified papers were manually searched, and all relevant papers published in English were included. A total of eight relevant articles were identified and included in the review. There is some evidence to suggest that occurrence of certain psychiatric disorders in the postpartum period may predict later onset of bipolar disorder. It is unknown whether childbirth raises the risk of postpartum recurrence of comorbid disorders. Whether patients who have past histories of psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for onset of bipolar disorder in the postpartum period also remains unclear. Additional research is needed to increase our understanding of the impact of childbirth on bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of this issue could lead to more accurate and timely detection, improved treatment planning, and optimal delivery of care for these disorders.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0782-1
       
  • Letter from the Editor-in-Chief
    • Authors: Anita Riecher-Rössler
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0813-6
       
  • A population-based study of the relationship between perinatal depressive
           symptoms and breastfeeding: a cross-lagged panel study
    • Authors: Silje Marie Haga; Carina Lisøy; Filip Drozd; Lisbeth Valla; Kari Slinning
      Abstract: Studies suggest that perinatal depression and breastfeeding co-vary, but determining the relationship between breastfeeding and perinatal depression has proved challenging. A bidirectional association has been suggested, implying that depression may impact on breastfeeding and that breastfeeding might influence depressive symptoms. The present study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between perinatal depression and breastfeeding in a population-based sample where we used structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to investigate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects as well as concurrent associations. The present study was part of a large-scale Norwegian prospective study. Nurses and midwives at nine well-baby clinics recruited participants. All the well-baby clinics had implemented the Edinburgh method, which combines the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with an immediate follow-up conversation. Completed EPDS forms were recorded, as well as the mothers’ reports of breastfeeding behaviors. Depressive symptoms measured prenatally during the last trimester, at 4 and 6 months postpartum did not predict breastfeeding behavior at 4, 6, or 12 months postpartum, respectively. Furthermore, breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months postpartum did not predict depressive symptomatology at 6 or 12 months postpartum. There were no significant concurrent associations between breastfeeding and depressive symptoms at 4, 6, or 12 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms predicted subsequent depressive symptoms and breastfeeding predicted subsequent breastfeeding. There was no evidence of a relationship between depressive symptoms and breastfeeding. Potential explanations and implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0792-z
       
  • Acknowledgement to reviewers 2017
    • PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0814-5
       
  • Postpartum-specific anxiety as a predictor of infant-feeding outcomes and
           perceptions of infant-feeding behaviours: new evidence for childbearing
           specific measures of mood
    • Authors: Victoria Fallon; Jason Christian Grovenor Halford; Kate Mary Bennett; Joanne Allison Harrold
      Abstract: Studies of pregnancy-specific anxiety suggest that it is a distinct construct which predicts perinatal outcomes more effectively than other general measures of anxiety. In response, a novel measure of postpartum-specific anxiety (PSAS) has been developed and validated, but it is not yet clear whether it possesses the same predictive power as its pregnancy-specific counterparts. The aim of this short-term prospective study was to (a) test the predictive validity of the PSAS in the context of one specific perinatal outcome, infant-feeding, and (b) examine whether the PSAS may be more efficacious at predicting infant-feeding outcomes and behaviours than the more commonly used general measures. Eight hundred mothers of infants aged between 0 and 6 months completed the PSAS alongside general measures of anxiety and depression at baseline. A subsample (n = 261) returned to complete a follow-up questionnaire examining infant-feeding outcomes and behaviours two weeks later. Hierarchical regression models revealed that the PSAS was associated with lower odds of breastfeeding exclusively, and breastfeeding in any quantity in the first 6 months postpartum. PSAS scores were also significantly associated with infant-feeding behaviours including a lower perceived enjoyment of food, and greater perceived food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in the infant. As hypothesised, the PSAS was a stronger predictor of infant-feeding outcomes and behaviours than general anxiety and depression. The findings provide evidence for the predictive validity of the PSAS and call for the use of childbearing specific measures of mood when attempting to predict perinatal outcomes. Replication of these findings across other indices of maternal and infant health is now necessary.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0775-0
       
  • The parental bonds of adolescent girls and next-generation
           maternal–infant bonding: findings from the Victorian Intergenerational
           Health Cohort Study
    • Authors: Jacqui A. Macdonald; George J. Youssef; Lisa Phillips; Elizabeth Spry; Yvette Alway; George C. Patton; Craig A. Olsson
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which adolescent bonding problems with parents predict next-generation maternal–infant bonding problems at 2 and 12 months postpartum. Data were from a two-generation prospective cohort study of 1026 offspring (3 perinatal waves) born to participants of a two-decade (10-wave) study of 1943 adolescents. Dyads in this analysis were 395 mothers (29–36 years) of 606 offspring (305 female). At 16 years, we assessed adolescents’ perceptions of their mother’s and father’s care and control, separately and in combination. Subsequently, when participants were adult mothers of infants 2 and 12 months postpartum, we assessed impaired maternal–infant bonding, infant-directed rejection-anger, and caregiving anxiety. Adolescent–parent bonding problems were strongly predictive of women’s subsequent bonding problems with infants. In particular, impaired postpartum maternal bonding was predicted by adolescent reports of low paternal care (12 months: OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.6) and high maternal control (12 months: OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4–9.7). In combination, high maternal control and low paternal control also predicted impaired postpartum bonding (2 months: OR=5.0, 95% CI 1.3–20; 12 months: OR=12, 2.6–56), caregiving anxiety (2 months: OR=4, 95% CI 1.5–11; 12 months: OR=8.8, 95% CI 1.8–43), and rejection/anger (12 months: OR=4.1, 95% CI 1.0–16). Further combinations of care and overprotection that significantly predicted postpartum bonding problems are presented. Our results indicate that adolescent girls who experience high maternal control and low paternal care are at higher risk for subsequent maternal-infant bonding problems. The strength of associations suggests that interventions should begin well before pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0778-x
       
  • A systematic review of maternal antidepressant use in pregnancy and short-
           and long-term offspring’s outcomes
    • Authors: Stephanie L. Prady; Inna Hanlon; Lorna K. Fraser; Antonina Mikocka-Walus
      Abstract: The relative safety of antidepressants during pregnancy has received substantial attention, but most syntheses fail to account for mental illness effects. We aimed to evaluate the literature comparing low birth weight (LBW) and neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural outcomes for children whose mothers took antidepressants in pregnancy compared to those whose mothers had common mental disorders, or symptoms, but who did not take antidepressants during pregnancy. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase in January 2015. A modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Eleven cohort studies were included: four reporting a LBW outcome (all with higher risk of bias) and seven reporting a neurodevelopmental outcome (five with higher risk of bias). We found only limited evidence of gestational age-adjusted LBW in exposed children in two studies which had a higher risk of bias and did not control for depressive symptom severity. Only five (7.5%) neurodevelopmental outcomes and one (12.5%) neurobehavioural outcome showed evidence of a statistically significant effect, three out of four were from studies with a higher risk of bias. There is little robust evidence indicating a detrimental effect of antidepressant use during pregnancy on LBW and neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural outcomes. More rigorous study designs are needed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0780-3
       
  • The association of exercise during pregnancy with trimester-specific and
           postpartum quality of life and depressive symptoms in a cohort of healthy
           pregnant women
    • Authors: Kelsey Campolong; Sarah Jenkins; Matthew M. Clark; Kristi Borowski; Nancy Nelson; Katherine M. Moore; William V. Bobo
      Abstract: Few published studies have examined the relationship between exercise during pregnancy, quality of life (QOL), and postpartum depressive symptoms in healthy pregnant women. A prospective cohort of 578 healthy pregnant women were followed during their pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Levels of self-reported exercise and QOL before, during, and following pregnancy were assessed using standardized questionnaires during each trimester of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 28 weeks gestation and 6 weeks postpartum. Participants were classified as having “sufficient exercise” if they achieved at least 150 min of exercise per week. Sufficient exercisers reported significantly higher ratings on most domains of QOL during each trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum follow-up, compared with insufficient exercisers. There were no significant between-group differences in depressive symptoms. In examining the impact of exercise during each trimester, active women who became sedentary during their third trimester demonstrated a decline in their QOL. Achieving recommended levels of exercise during pregnancy was associated with higher QOL during pregnancy and the postpartum in healthy pregnant women. Decreasing the amount of exercise during pregnancy was associated with reduced QOL. These results suggest that it may be important for health care professionals to counsel healthy pregnant women about both the benefits of being physically active during pregnancy, and to provide guidance on how to remain physically active during a healthy pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0783-0
       
  • Caste matters: perceived discrimination among women in rural India
    • Authors: Jasmine Khubchandani; Apurv Soni; Nisha Fahey; Nitin Raithatha; Anusha Prabhakaran; Nancy Byatt; Tiffany A. Moore Simas; Ajay Phatak; Milagros Rosal; Somashekhar Nimbalkar; Jeroan J. Allison
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of caste and class with perceived discrimination among pregnant women from rural western India. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 170 pregnant women in rural Gujarat, India, who were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study. The Everyday Discrimination Scale and the Experiences of Discrimination questionnaires were used to assess perceived discrimination and response to discrimination. Based on self-report caste, women were classified into three categories with increasing historical disadvantage: General, Other Backward Castes (OBC), and Scheduled Caste or Tribes (SC/ST). Socioeconomic class was determined using the standardized Kuppuswamy scale. Regression models for count and binomial data were used to examine association of caste and class with experience of discrimination and response to discrimination. Sixty-eight percent of women experienced discrimination. After adjusting for confounders, there was a consistent trend and association of discrimination with caste but not class. In comparison to General Caste, lower caste (OBC, SC/ST) women were more likely to (1) experience discrimination (OBC OR: 2.2, SC/ST: 4.1; p trend: 0.01); (2) have a greater perceived discrimination score (OBC IRR: 1.3, SC/ST: 1.5; p trend: 0.07); (3) accept discrimination (OBC OR: 6.4, SC/ST: 7.6; p trend: < 0.01); and (4) keep to herself about discrimination (OBC OR: 2.7, SC/ST: 3.6; p trend: 0.04). The differential experience of discrimination by lower caste pregnant women in comparison to upper caste pregnant women and their response to such experiences highlight the importance of studying discrimination to understand the root causes of existing caste-based disparities.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0790-1
       
  • Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in a cohort of pregnant
           Peruvian women
    • Authors: Elizabeth J. Levey; Bizu Gelaye; Karestan Koenen; Qiu-Yue Zhong; Archana Basu; Marta B. Rondon; Sixto Sanchez; David C. Henderson; Michelle A. Williams
      Abstract: Women have a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men, with a peak during the reproductive years. PTSD during pregnancy adversely impacts maternal and infant health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antepartum PTSD symptoms in a population of pregnant Peruvian women and to examine the impact of number of traumatic events and type of trauma experienced. The Traumatic Events Questionnaire was used to collect data about traumatic exposures. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to assess PTSD. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Three thousand three hundred seventy-two pregnant women were interviewed. Of the 2920 who reported experiencing one or more traumatic events, 41.8% met criteria for PTSD (PCL-C score ≥ 26). A quarter of participants had experienced four or more traumas, and 60.5% of those women had PTSD. Interpersonal trauma was most strongly associated with PTSD (aOR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.74–3.74), followed by unspeakable trauma (aOR, 2.87; 95% CI, 2.35–3.50), and structural trauma (aOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15–1.67). These findings indicate the high prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy in the Peruvian population, which is relevant to other countries suffering from terrorism, war, or high rates of violence. This underscores the importance of screening for PTSD in pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0776-z
       
  • Continuity of midwifery carer moderates the effects of prenatal maternal
           stress on postnatal maternal wellbeing: the Queensland flood study
    • Authors: Sue Kildea; Gabrielle Simcock; Aihua Liu; Guillaume Elgbeili; David P. Laplante; Adele Kahler; Marie-Paule Austin; Sally Tracy; Sue Kruske; Mark Tracy; Michael W. O’Hara; Suzanne King
      Abstract: Poor postnatal mental health is a major public health issue, and risk factors include experiencing adverse life events during pregnancy. We assessed whether midwifery group practice, compared to standard hospital care, would protect women from the negative impact of a sudden-onset flood on postnatal depression and anxiety. Women either received midwifery group practice care in pregnancy, in which they were allocated a primary midwife who provided continuity of care, or they received standard hospital care provided by various on-call and rostered medical staff. Women were pregnant when a sudden-onset flood severely affected Queensland, Australia, in January 2011. Women completed questionnaires on their flood-related hardship (objective stress), emotional reactions (subjective stress), and cognitive appraisal of the impact of the flood. Self-report assessments of the women’s depression and anxiety were obtained during pregnancy, at 6 weeks and 6 months postnatally. Controlling for all main effects, regression analyses at 6 weeks postpartum showed a significant interaction between maternity care type and objective flood-related hardship and subjective stress, such that depression scores increased with increasing objective and subjective stress with standard care, but not with midwifery group practice (continuity), indicating a buffering effect of continuity of midwifery carer. Similar results were found for anxiety scores at 6 weeks, but only with subjective stress. The benefits of midwifery continuity of carer in pregnancy extend beyond a more positive birth experience and better birthing and infant outcomes, to mitigating the effects of high levels of stress experienced by women in the context of a natural disaster on postnatal mental health.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0781-2
       
  • A systematic review of cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and
           prolactin in peripartum women with major depression
    • Authors: Mercedes J. Szpunar; Barbara L. Parry
      Abstract: Pregnancy and postpartum are periods of high susceptibility to major depression (MD) and other mood disorders. The peripartum period is also a time of considerable changes in the levels of hormones, including cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, gonadotropins, and gonadal steroids. To investigate the relationship between mood and hormonal changes during and after pregnancy, we reviewed published reports of hormonal measures during this time frame, searched via PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were included if women in the antepartum or postpartum periods were clinically diagnosed with MD, and if there were repeated measures of cortisol, TSH, or prolactin. For these three hormones, the numbers of human studies that met these criteria were 15, 7, and 3, respectively. Convergent findings suggest that morning cortisol is reduced in pregnant and postpartum women with MD. Evidence did not support changes in TSH as a marker of MD during the peripartum period, and evidence for changes in prolactin in peripartum MD was equivocal. Aside from reduced morning cortisol in peripartum women with MD, definitive evidence for an association between specific hormonal fluctuations and mood disorders in the peripartum period remains elusive.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0787-9
       
 
 
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