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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Osteoporosis
  [SJR: 1.092]   [H-I: 13]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1862-3514 - ISSN (Online) 1862-3522
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Association between alcohol consumption and bone mineral density in
           elderly Korean men and women
    • Authors: Yoosun Cho; Seulggie Choi; Kyuwoong Kim; Gyeongsil Lee; Sang Min Park
      Abstract: Summary In this cross-sectional study based on Korean elderly men and women, heavy alcohol intake for men was related to low whole-body BMD and light alcohol intake for women was associated with high whole-body, lumbar, and total femur BMD. Purpose Alcohol is a risk factor of osteoporosis but previous studies on its effect on bone health has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol intake and bone mineral density in Korean elderly men and women. Methods Based on the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), 2657 men and 2080 women 50 to 79 years of age were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Alcohol consumption was determined by self-administered questionnaires and classified into four groups according to sex: non-drinkers (0 g/day), light drinking (1–19 g/day men, 1–9 g/day women), moderate drinking (20–39 g/day men, 10–29 g/day women), and heavy drinking (≥ 40 g/day men, ≥ 20 g/day women). The adjusted mean values calculated by linear regression analysis for BMD were determined according to the amount of alcohol consumed. Results Light drinkers had the highest whole-body BMD for both men (mean 1.164, SD 0.047–1.281) and women (mean 1.046, SD 0.912–1.180). Among men, mean whole-body BMD for heavy drinkers was significantly lower than that among light drinkers (P = 0.031). Among women, BMD for light drinkers was significantly higher in the whole body, lumbar, and total femur than that for non-drinkers (P < 0.001, P = 0.026, P = 0.040, respectively). Conclusions Heavy alcohol intake may be associated with lower BMD in men while light alcohol intake may associate with higher BMD among women. Future longitudinal studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density are needed to validate the findings of this study.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0462-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Treatment costs and cost drivers among osteoporotic fracture patients in
           Japan: a retrospective database analysis
    • Authors: Yurie Taguchi; Yuta Inoue; Taichi Kido; Nobuhiro Arai
      Abstract: Summary This study estimated the direct medical costs of osteoporotic fractures from a large claim database in Japan. We further identified several comorbidities which drove the treatment costs. The results would contribute to health economic analysis as well as understanding of individual financial burden in Japan. Introduction The purposes of this study were to estimate treatment costs of osteoporotic fractures and to investigate the cost drivers. Methods Male and female patients aged 50 years and older with a hip, vertebral, or non-hip/non-vert (NHNV) fracture between April 2008 and December 2016 were analyzed from claim database. Two types of costs were estimated. The incremental yearly costs of fractures and comorbidity treatments (total medical costs) were calculated by subtracting pre-fracture costs from post-fracture costs. The costs exclusive for fracture treatments (fracture treatment costs) were estimated by summing up the costs of fracture treatments within 1 year after fracture. The associations between comorbidities and costs were examined with a generalized linear model. Results Total 12,898 patients were identified (83% was female). The total medical costs of fractures were $14,592 for male-hip, $15,691 for female-hip, $4268 for male-vertebral, $3819 for female-vertebral, $3790 for male-NHNV, and $4259 for female-NHNV. The fracture treatment costs were $4506 for male-hip, $5427 for female-hip, $1022 for male-vertebral, $1044 for female-vertebral, $1035 for male-NHNV, and $1408 for female NHNV. Three comorbidities were associated with increasing fracture treatment costs whereas four comorbidities were associated with decreasing fracture treatment costs. Five comorbidities were associated with increasing total medical costs whereas one comorbidity was associated with decreasing total medical costs. Conclusions Yearly treatment costs were increased considerably after fracture. Several comorbidities were considered to be cost drivers for osteoporotic fracture treatment. The cost estimates with different patient profile would support conducting health economic analysis in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0456-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poor physical function but
           not bone structure or density in late adulthood: findings from the
           Hertfordshire cohort study
    • Authors: A. Patel; K. A. Jameson; M. H. Edwards; K. Ward; C. R. Gale; C. Cooper; Elaine M. Dennison
      Abstract: Summary This study investigated the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical function and bone health in older adults. MCI was associated with poor physical performance but not bone mineral density or bone microarchitecture. Purpose Cross-sectional study to investigate the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical performance, and bone health, in a community-dwelling cohort of older adults. Methods Cognitive function of 222 men and 221 women (mean age 75.5 and 75.8 years in men and women, respectively) was assessed by the Strawbridge questionnaire and Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral-quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and high-resolution peripheral-quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans to assess their bone density, strength and microarchitecture. Their physical function was assessed and a physical performance (PP) score was recorded. Results In the study, 11.8% of women and 8.1% of men were cognitively impaired on the MMSE (score < 24). On the Strawbridge questionnaire, 24% of women were deemed cognitively impaired compared to 22.3% of men. Cognitive impairment on the Strawbridge questionnaire was associated with poorer physical performance score in men but not in women in the unadjusted analysis. MMSE < 24 was strongly associated with the risk of low physical performance in men (OR 12.9, 95% CI 1.67, 99.8, p = 0.01). Higher MMSE score was associated with better physical performance in both sexes. Poorer cognitive function, whether assessed by the Strawbridge questionnaire, or by MMSE score, was not associated with bone density, shape or microarchitecture, in either sex. Conclusion MCI in older adults was associated with poor physical performance, but not bone density, shape or microarchitecture.
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0455-3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Sports participation and fracture in older Australian men
    • Authors: Kara L. Holloway-Kew; David J. Moloney; Gosia Bucki-Smith; Natalie K. Hyde; Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen; Elizabeth N. Timney; Amelia G. Dobbins; Julie A. Pasco
      Abstract: Summary Older men who participated in a sporting activity were less likely to sustain any fracture or major osteoporotic fracture over a 6-year follow-up period. Purpose Regular weight-bearing physical activity can reduce fracture risk through an increase in bone strength, as well as reducing falls risk by improving muscle strength and balance. In this study, we aimed to determine whether a specific type of physical activity, sports participation, reduces fracture risk in older Australian men. Methods Participation in sporting activities was documented for men aged 60 years and over enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study situated in south-eastern Australia. Fractures at any skeletal site (excluding skull, face, fingers and toes) and major osteoporotic fracture sites (MOF; wrist, proximal humerus, spine and hip) were ascertained through examination of radiological reports (median follow-up 6.63 years, IQR 5.58–7.29). Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between sports participation (either binary or continuous) and any fracture or MOF. Other clinical measures and lifestyle variables (such as comorbidity, falls and mobility) were included as potential confounders. Results During follow-up, 82 of 656 men (12.5%) sustained at least one fracture at any site and 58 sustained at least one MOF (8.8%). Of those who did and did not fracture (any site), 17 (20.7%) and 204 (35.5%) participated in at least one sporting activity. For MOF, the values were 11 (19.0%) and 210 (35.1%), respectively. Participation in any sporting activity was associated with a reduction in the likelihood of any fracture during follow-up (unadjusted: OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.27–0.83), which persisted after adjusting for other factors (adjusted: OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.29–0.91). The results for MOF were similar (unadjusted: OR 0.43, 0.22–0.85; adjusted 0.48, 0.24–0.95). When considering sports participation as a continuous variable, a trend was observed (adjusted: p = 0.051 and p = 0.059 for any and MOF, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed similar results when excluding men who reported using a walking aid. Conclusions In this group of older men, participation in sporting activity was associated with a reduced risk of fracture during the subsequent follow-up period.
      PubDate: 2018-04-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0459-z
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Epidemiology of hip fracture in Belarus: development of a country-specific
           FRAX model and its comparison to neighboring country models
    • Authors: H. Ramanau; I. Chernyanin; E. Rudenka; O. Lesnyak; A. Zakroyeva; J. P. Bilezikian; H. Johansson; N. C. Harvey; E. V. McCloskey; J. A. Kanis
      Abstract: Summary Fracture probabilities resulting from the newly generated FRAX model for Belarus based on regional estimates of the hip fracture incidence were compared with FRAX models of neighboring countries. Differences between the country-specific FRAX patterns and the rank orders of fracture probabilities were modest. Objective This paper describes the epidemiology of hip fractures in Belarus that was used to develop the country-specific fracture prediction FRAX® tool and illustrates its features compared to models for the neighboring countries of Poland, Russia, and Lithuania. Methods We carried out a population-based study in a region of Belarus (the city of Mozyr) representing approximately 1.2% of the country’s population. We aimed to identify all hip fractures in 2011–2012 from hospital registers and primary care sources. Age- and sex-specific incidence and national mortality rates were incorporated into a FRAX model for Belarus. Fracture probabilities were compared with those derived from FRAX models in neighboring countries. Results The estimated number of hip fractures nationwide in persons over the age of 50 years for 2015 was 8250 in 2015 and is predicted to increase to 12,918 in 2050. The annual incidence of fragility hip fractures in individuals aged 50 years or more was 24.6/10,000 for women and 14.6/10,000 for men, standardized to the world population. The comparison with FRAX models in neighboring countries showed that hip fracture probabilities in men and women in Belarus were similar to those in Poland, Russia, and Lithuania. The difference in incidence rates between the surveys including or excluding data from primary care suggested that 29.1% of patients sustaining a hip fracture were not hospitalized and, therefore, did not receive specialized medical care. Conclusion A substantial proportion of hip fractures in Belarus does not come to hospital attention. The FRAX model should enhance accuracy of determining fracture probability among the Belarus population and help guide decisions about treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0454-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Do reductions in out-of-pocket expenses for dual energy X-ray
           absorptiometry scans translate to reduced fracture incidence amongst older
           Australians' A population-based study
    • Authors: Amanda L. Stuart; Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen; Julie A. Pasco; Amelia G. Betson; Kara L. Holloway-Kew; Sarah M. Hosking; Lana J. Williams
      Abstract: Summary This study aimed to compare fracture incidence in the elderly pre- and post-revision of bone density scan reimbursement guidelines, which changed in 2007. Fracture incidence by age group was calculated using population-specific data. Guideline changes did not appear to reduce fracture incidence in the study region located in south-eastern Australia. Purpose In 2007, Medicare Australia revised reimbursement guidelines whereby individuals aged 70 years and over received reduced out-of-pocket expenses for dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. The current study aims to determine whether fracture incidence in the elderly has changed since the revision of reimbursement guidelines. Method Keyword searches of the two major radiological centres servicing the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) were used to identify incident fractures for residents aged 75 years and over for 2006 and 2012. Pathological fractures were excluded. Fracture incidence by age strata (75–79 years, 80–84 years and 85+ years) were calculated using population-specific data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006 and 2012). Standardised fracture ratios were calculated for men and women. Results In total, 996 fracture events were identified for BSD residents during 2006 and 1260 identified in 2012. The standardised fracture ratios between 2006 and 2012 were 1.12 (95%CI 1.11, 1.25) for men and 1.08 (95%CI 1.11, 1.16) for women. Conclusion The change in reimbursement guidelines appears to have had little impact on reducing fracture incidence during this time frame for elderly men and women, in fact, fracture rates increased. Future research should investigate osteoporosis management following DXA over a longer time frame.
      PubDate: 2018-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0449-1
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Decreased bone turnover in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy
    • Authors: Stephanie Shiau; Michael T. Yin; Renate Strehlau; Faeezah Patel; Ndileka Mbete; Louise Kuhn; Ashraf Coovadia; Stephen M. Arpadi
      Abstract: Summary In this study, we evaluated the relationships between immune activation, bone turnover, and bone mass in virally suppressed HIV-infected children and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. We found that decreased bone mass may occur or persist independent of immune activation and altered bone turnover. Purpose HIV-infected children and adolescents have deficits in skeletal growth which include decreases in bone mass and alterations in bone microarchitecture. However, the mechanism by which HIV infection compromises bone accrual in children and adolescents is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between immune activation, bone turnover, and bone mass in a group of pre-pubertal HIV-infected children randomized to remain on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) or switch to efavirenz-based ART in South Africa virally suppressed at the time of this study. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 219 HIV-infected and 180 HIV-uninfected children enrolled in the CHANGES Bone Study conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa. Whole body (WB) bone mineral content (BMC) was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry and WB BMC Z-scores adjusted for sex, age, and height were generated. Bone turnover markers, including C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), were analyzed. Markers of immune activation were also measured, including cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as well as soluble CD14 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Compared to uninfected controls, HIV-infected children had lower WB BMC Z-scores, similar IL-6 and TNF-alpha, higher soluble CD14 and high-sensitivity CRP, and lower markers of bone resorption (CTX) and bone formation (P1NP). Bone turnover markers were not different in those remaining on LPV/r or switched to efavirenz. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in HIV-infected children with viral suppression, decreased bone accrual may occur or persist independent of immune activation and altered bone turnover.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0452-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • A low phase angle measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis is
           associated with osteoporosis and is a risk factor for osteoporosis in
           community-dwelling people: the Yakumo study
    • Authors: Satoshi Tanaka; Kei Ando; Kazuyoshi Kobayashi; Tetsuro Hida; Kenyu Ito; Mikito Tsushima; Masayoshi Morozumi; Masaaki Machino; Kyotaro Ota; Taisuke Seki; Naoki Ishiguro; Yukiharu Hasegawa; Shiro Imagama
      Abstract: Summary Although the phase angle has been reported to be related to predictive factors and therapeutic effects in various diseases, its relation with osteoporosis is unclear. In our large prospective survey of community-dwelling people, a low phase angle was related with osteoporosis, and it could be a predictor of osteoporosis. Purpose The phase angle measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is one of the clinically important impedance parameters, and it is a predictor of prognosis and mortality for several diseases. The present cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate the association between osteoporosis and variables measured with BIA, including the phase angle. Methods The study included 307 participants from an annual health checkup. All participants underwent measurement of bone status by quantitative ultrasound and body composition by BIA. Osteoporosis was diagnosed according to the WHO classification, and statistical comparisons were conducted between normal individuals and osteoporosis patients. Results Age, proteins, minerals, and the phase angle were significantly different between normal individuals and osteoporosis patients (p < 0.001). Furthermore, after controlling for age and sex, proteins, minerals, and the phase angle were significantly lower in osteoporosis patients than those in normal individuals (p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age and a low phase angle were risk factors for osteoporosis. Additionally, multiple regression analysis showed that age, sex, proteins, minerals, and the appendicular skeletal muscle index were significantly related to the phase angle. Conclusions The phase angle is a predictor of osteoporosis, which is unaffected by age and sex, and a lower phase angle is associated with greater probability of osteoporosis. The phase angle can be easily measured, and osteoporosis can be confirmed even at home. This may facilitate early diagnosis and treatment, which may be useful for preventing diseases related to osteoporosis.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0450-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Fracture risk prediction using FRAX in patients following hematopoietic
           stem cell transplantation
    • Authors: Xerxes Pundole; William A. Murphy; Chidinma C. Ebede; Erfan Karim; Srishti Manocha; Data Don-Pedro; Gabriela Rondon; Cheuk Hong Leung; Suyu Liu; Xianglin L. Du; Richard E. Champlin; Huifang Lu
      Abstract: Summary We aimed to study the utility of the FRAX tool in predicting fractures in patient’s receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our results indicate that the FRAX tool has modest fracture predictive ability in patients greater than 50 years of age at the time of HSCT. Purpose Identifying patients at high risk of osteoporotic fractures following HSCT is challenging. We aimed to evaluate the utility of the FRAX tool at the time of HSCT in predicting fractures following transplant. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of adults (> 18 years) who underwent HSCT at MD Anderson Cancer Center from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010, and were followed until December 31, 2013, to identify osteoporotic fractures. Multivariate Cox regression models were built using FRAX score thresholds of low risk < 10%, medium risk 10 to 20%, and high risk > 20% probability of osteoporotic fracture. Results We identified 5170 patients who had undergone HSCT, 10% of whom developed an osteoporotic fracture during a median follow-up of 3.2 years. In patients > 65 years of age, those with medium risk (hazard ratio (HR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–4.47) and high risk (HR 3.41, 95% CI 1.73–6.75) had a greater probability of developing an osteoporotic fracture compared to those at low risk. Similar trends were seen in patients 50 to 65 years of age. Conclusions In patients greater than 50 years, the FRAX tool has modest predictive ability and could be used to aid in preventive treatment decision-making at the time of transplant.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0453-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Assessment of dietary calcium intake of university students: a pilot study
           in Turkey
    • Authors: Semra Navruz-Varlı; Süleyman Köse; Tuğba Tatar; Sabriye Arslan; Eda Köksal
      Abstract: Summary The aim of this study was to adapt the rapid assessment method (RAM) and International Osteoporosis Foundation Food Frequency Questionnaire (IOF FFQ) tools, used for the assessment of daily calcium intake in university students, and to compare the data obtained using 24-h recall (24-HR) data. There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF. Purpose/introduction Calcium is an essential mineral that plays vital roles in metabolism and it is very important to accurately assess the amount of calcium intake on the diet. It was aimed to assess the daily calcium intake of university students by two different food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed specifically for evaluating calcium intake, and 24-h recall method. Method The study was conducted with a total of 183 female university students aged 18–31. In the study, a questionnaire including sociodemographic information, a calcium calculator, IOF FFQ, prepared in seven different languages, and RAM was applied. In addition, 1-day food consumption records were obtained using 24-HR method. Results The daily average calcium intakes of individuals according to two different food frequency questionnaires (RAM FFQ and IOF FFQ) and 24-h food consumption records are respectively 1594.2 ± 810.9, 897.9 ± 368.4, and 605.6 ± 278.3 mg. When the daily average calcium intake was compared with the other two methods, RAM was found to be statistically higher (p < 0.001). There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF FFQ methods (Pearson r = 0.528, p < 0.01) and the intra-class correlation coefficient between these two methods was found to be significant and moderate (ICC r = 0.452, p < 0.01). Conclusion In terms of protecting and improving health, it is important to make suggestions using fast and short tools to ensure adequate calcium intake from young age. It is thought that FFQs are the most appropriate methods in assessing daily calcium intake for this study group because it is observed that the list of foods and the amount of portions in FFQs reduce the problem of remembering at 24-h method to a great extent.
      PubDate: 2018-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0447-3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Estimated expenditures for hip fractures using merged healthcare insurance
           data for individuals aged ≥ 75 years and long-term care insurance
           claims data in Japan
    • Authors: Takahiro Mori; Nanako Tamiya; Xueying Jin; Boyoung Jeon; Satoru Yoshie; Katsuya Iijima; Tatsuro Ishizaki
      Abstract: Summary Little is known about hip fracture expenditure in Japan. Using claims data obtained from a core city near Tokyo, we estimated the mean healthcare expenditure and monthly long-term care expenditure post-hip fracture to be ¥2,600,000 (US$29,500) and ¥113,000 (US$1290), respectively. Purpose We aimed to estimate healthcare and long-term care expenditures post-hip fracture in Japan. Methods Healthcare insurance claims data for adults aged ≥ 75 years were merged with long-term care insurance claims data. We analyzed the data of hip fracture patients who were admitted to non-diagnosis procedure combination/per-diem payment system (DPC/PDPS) hospitals in a core city near Tokyo between April 2012 and September 2013. We estimated healthcare expenditure, namely, the difference between total payments 6 months pre- and 6 months post-hip fracture, and monthly long-term care expenditure for those who did not use long-term care insurance pre-hip fracture, but who commenced long-term care insurance post-hip fracture. We also performed multiple linear regressions to examine the associations of healthcare or long-term care expenditure with various factors. Results The estimated mean healthcare (n = 78) and monthly long-term care (n = 42) expenditures post-hip fracture were ¥2,600,000 (US$29,500) and ¥113,000 (US$1290), respectively. In multiple linear regressions, healthcare expenditure was positively associated with longer duration of hospital stay (p = 0.036), and negatively associated with higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (p = 0.015). Monthly long-term care expenditure was positively associated with higher care-needs level post-hip fracture (p = 0.022), and usage of institutional care services (p < 0.001). Conclusions This is the first study to estimate healthcare and long-term care expenditures post-hip fracture using claims data in Japan. Further studies are needed that include healthcare claims data at both DPC/PDPS and non-DPC/PDPS hospitals to capture the lifelong course of long-term care required post-hip fracture.
      PubDate: 2018-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0448-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Scientific output quality of 40 globally top-ranked medical researchers in
           the field of osteoporosis
    • Authors: W. Pluskiewicz; B. Drozdzowska; P. Adamczyk; K. Noga
      Abstract: Summary The study presents the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors, publishing in the field of osteoporosis. Their h-index is compared with the Scientific Quality Index (SQI), a novel indicator. Using SQI, 92.5% of the authors changed their initial positions in the general ranking. SQI partially depends on bibliometric measures different from those influencing h-index and may be considered as an assessment tool, reflecting more objective, qualitative, rather than quantitative, features of individual scientific output. Purpose The study approaches the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors in the field of osteoporosis. Methods The assessed authors were identified in the Scopus database, using the key word “osteoporosis” and the h-index data, collected during the last decade (2008–2017). The data, concerning the scientific output, expressed by the h-index, were compared with a novel indicator of scientific quality—called the Scientific Quality Index (SQI). SQI is calculated according to the following formula: Parameter No. 1 + Parameter No. 2, where: Parameter No. 1 (the percent of papers cited ≥ 10 times) the number of papers cited ≥ 10 times (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) is divided by the number of all the published papers (including the papers with no citation) × 100%, Parameter No. 2 (the mean number of citations per paper) the total number of citations (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) divided by the number of all published papers (including papers with no citation). Results The following research output values were obtained: the citation index, 2483.6 ± 1348.7; the total number of papers, 75.1 ± 23.2; the total number of cited papers, 69.3 ± 22.0; the number of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 45.4 ± 17.2; the percent of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 59.9 ± 10.0; and the mean citations per paper, 32.8 ± 15.0. The mean value of Hirsch index was 24.2 ± 6.2 and SQI 92.7 ± 22.3. Using SQI, only three authors did not change their initial ranking position, established according to the h-index; 18 authors noted a decrease, while other 19 improved their initial ranking position. The h-index correlated with SQI; r = 0.72; p < 0.0001. Conclusion Qualitative features of scientific output, reflected by SQI, have changed the classification of 92.5% of authors. SQI may be considered as an assessment tool which is more strongly determined by qualitative than quantitative features of individual scientific output.
      PubDate: 2018-03-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0446-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Treatment patterns in patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture
           in Japan: retrospective chart review
    • Authors: Saeko Fujiwara; Akimitsu Miyauchi; Etsuro Hamaya; Rebecca Jayne Nicholls; Adele Weston; Santwona Baidya; Lionel Pinto; Rich Barron; Junichi Takada
      Abstract: Summary Osteoporosis (OP) causes reduced bone strength and increases risk of fractures. Medical records from specialist clinics in Japan of postmenopausal women with OP and high risk of fracture were analysed. Majority of patients were treated for OP as recommended and were prescribed OP medications soon after high-risk OP diagnosis. Purpose The incidence of osteoporosis (OP) in Japan is predicted to increase significantly in coming decades. Resultant osteoporotic fractures are a significant contributor of economic and social burden among elderly osteoporosis patients. This retrospective chart review was conducted as a response to the current evidence gap in the treatment patterns for OP patients with high risk of fracture in Japan. Methods This was a multi-centre retrospective chart review that analysed data extracted from the medical records of postmenopausal OP patients at high risk for fracture who received care at 11 specialist clinics and medical centers in Japan for at least 18 to 24 months. Main outcome was OP treatment patterns. Results The study included 709 eligible patients of whom 623 (87.9%) were prescribed OP medication during the study period. The most common reason for not taking OP medication was patient unwillingness to take medication. The most common OP medications prescribed initially were minodronic acid (20.1%), alendronate (19.9%), raloxifene (14.1%), weekly teriparatide acetate (12.4%) and eldecalcitol (11.4%). Majority of patients (62.1%) were still taking their initial medication at the end of the 18–24 month follow-up. Conclusions A high percentage of patients (87.9%) in Japan received OP medications soon after their high-risk diagnosis, with bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators and teriparatide being the predominant treatment options.
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0443-7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies for fracture reduction
           in post-menopausal women
    • Authors: Akeem A. Yusuf; Steven R. Cummings; Nelson B. Watts; Maurille Tepie Feudjo; J. Michael Sprafka; Jincheng Zhou; Haifeng Guo; Akhila Balasubramanian; Cyrus Cooper
      Abstract: Summary Studies examining real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies are beset by limitations due to confounding by indication. By evaluating longitudinal changes in fracture incidence, we demonstrated that osteoporosis therapies are effective in reducing fracture risk in real-world practice settings. Introduction Osteoporosis therapies have been shown to reduce incidence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. However, information on the real-world effectiveness of these therapies is limited. Methods We examined fracture risk reduction in older, post-menopausal women treated with osteoporosis therapies. Using Medicare claims, we identified 1,278,296 women age ≥ 65 years treated with zoledronic acid, oral bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, or raloxifene. Fracture incidence rates before and after treatment initiation were described to understand patients’ fracture risk profile, and fracture reduction effectiveness of each therapy was evaluated as a longitudinal change in incidence rates. Results Fracture incidence rates increased during the period leading up to treatment initiation and were highest in the 3-month period most proximal to treatment initiation. Fracture incidence rates following treatment initiation were significantly lower than before treatment initiation. Compared with the 12-month pre-index period, there were reductions in clinical vertebral fractures for denosumab (45%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 39–51%), zoledronic acid (50%; 95% CI 47–52%), oral bisphosphonates (24%; 95% CI 22–26%), and teriparatide (72%; 95% CI 69–75%) during the subsequent 12 months. Relative to the first 3 months after initiation, clinical vertebral fractures were reduced for denosumab (51%; 95% CI 42–59%), zoledronic acid (25%; 95% CI 17–32%), oral bisphosphonates (23%; 95% CI 20–26%), and teriparatide (64%; 95% CI 58–69%) during the subsequent 12 months. Conclusion In summary, reductions in fracture incidence over time were observed in cohorts of patients treated with osteoporosis therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0439-3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Physical activity, but not sedentary time, influences bone strength in
           late adolescence
    • Authors: Vina PS. Tan; Heather M. Macdonald; Leigh Gabel; Heather A. McKay
      Abstract: Summary Physical activity is essential for optimal bone strength accrual, but we know little about interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and bone outcomes in older adolescents. Physical activity (by accelerometer and self-report) positively predicted bone strength and the distal and midshaft tibia in 15-year-old boys and girls. Lean body mass mediated the relationship between physical activity and bone strength in adolescents. Purpose To examine the influence of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time on bone strength, structure, and density in older adolescents. Methods We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to estimate bone strength at the distal tibia (8% site; bone strength index, BSI) and tibial midshaft (50% site; polar strength strain index, SSIp) in adolescent boys (n = 86; 15.3 ± 0.4 years) and girls (n = 106; 15.3 ± 0.4 years). Using accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph), we measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPAAccel), vigorous PA (VPAAccel), and sedentary time in addition to self-reported MVPA (MVPAPAQ-A) and impact PA (ImpactPAPAQ-A). We examined relations between PA and sedentary time and bone outcomes, adjusting for ethnicity, maturity, tibial length, and total body lean mass. Results At the distal tibia, MVPAAccel and VPAAccel positively predicted BSI (explained 6–7% of the variance, p < 0.05). After adjusting for lean mass, only VPAAccel explained residual variance in BSI. At the tibial midshaft, MVPAAccel, but not VPAAccel, positively predicted SSIp (explained 3% of the variance, p = 0.01). Lean mass attenuated this association. MVPAPAQ-A and ImpactPAPAQ-A also positively predicted BSI and SSIp (explained 2–4% of the variance, p < 0.05), but only ImpactPAPAQ-A explained residual variance in BSI after accounting for lean mass. Sedentary time did not independently predict bone strength at either site. Conclusion Greater tibial bone strength in active adolescents is mediated, in part, by lean mass. Despite spending most of their day in sedentary pursuits, adolescents’ bone strength was not negatively influenced by sedentary time.
      PubDate: 2018-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0441-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Risk factors predicting subsequent falls and osteoporotic fractures at
           4 years after distal radius fracture—a prospective cohort study
    • Authors: Neha Dewan; Joy C. MacDermid; Ruby Grewal; Karen Beattie
      Abstract: Summary In a prospective cohort of 113 patients followed 4 years after distal radius fracture (DRF), 24% of patients experienced a subsequent fall and 19% experienced a subsequent fracture. People with poor balance, greater fracture-specific pain/disability, low bone density, and prior falls had nearly a three times higher risk of subsequent falls. Purpose To determine the extent to which modifiable risk factors alone or in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) and non-modifiable risk factors predict subsequent falls and osteoporotic (OP) fractures after distal radius fracture (DRF). Methods We assessed a cohort of patients (n = 191; mean age = 62 ± 8 years; female = 88%) shortly after DRF (baseline) and again at 4 years to identify subsequent falls or OP fractures. Baseline predictors included age, sex, prior falls, and modifiable risk factors such as balance, muscle strength, physical activity, fear of falling, BMD, fracture-specific pain/disability, and general health status. Univariate, multivariate, and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI to determine the extent of association between the risk factors and outcomes. Results Among the 113 patients, who completed 4-year follow-up, 24% reported ≥ 1 subsequent fall and 19% reported ≥ 1 subsequent fracture. Significant predictors of subsequent falls included poor balance (OR = 3.3), low total hip BMD (OR = 3.3), high patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) score (OR = 3.0), and prior falls (OR = 3.4). When adjusted for BMD, age, and sex; only prior falls (OR = 4.1) remained a significant independent predictor of future falls. None of the modifiable or non-modifiable risk factors were significantly associated with subsequent fractures. Conclusion Prior falls (≥ 2) is an independent predictor of subsequent falls in patients with DRF. In clinical practice, screening of patients for prior falls, balance, fracture-specific pain/disability, and BMD may identify those who might be at risk of subsequent falls after their first DRF.
      PubDate: 2018-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0445-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Impact of cumulative exposure to high-dose oral glucocorticoids on
           fracture risk in Denmark: a population-based case-control study
    • Authors: M. Amine Amiche; Shahab Abtahi; Johanna H. M. Driessen; Peter Vestergaard; Frank de Vries; Suzanne M. Cadarette; Andrea M. Burden
      Abstract: Summary We examined the effect of cumulative exposure to high doses of oral glucocorticoids on fracture risk. Compared to short-course users (daily dose ≥ 15 mg + cumulative < 1 g), heavy users (daily dose ≥ 15 mg + cumulative dose ≥ 1 g) had the highest risk of fracture. These patients should be monitored for fracture management strategies. Purpose The effect of cumulative exposure to high daily doses of oral glucocorticoids on fracture risk remains debated. We therefore aimed to examine the hip fracture risk associated with short courses and heavy use of high-dosed oral glucocorticoids. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study using the Danish National Health Service data, 1996–2011. Cases were those aged ≥ 18 years who sustained a hip (primary outcome) fracture (n = 81,342). Vertebral and forearm fractures were considered in secondary analyses. Controls (matched 1:1) were those without a fracture. Average daily dose (DD) and total cumulative dose (CD) were calculated among current oral glucocorticoid users. Among patients with a high daily dose (DD ≥ 15 mg), we identified short-course users as those with a CD < 1 g and heavy users as those with a CD ≥ 1 g. We estimated adjusted odds ratio (adj.OR) of fracture with current glucocorticoid use compared to never-use, using conditional logistic regression. Results A high DD (≥ 15 mg) and high CD (≥ 1 g) were independently associated with an increased hip fracture risk (adj.OR 2.5; 95% CI 2.2–2.9; adj.OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.5–1.8, respectively). However, the risk was substantially increased among heavy users (DD ≥ 15 mg and CD ≥ 1 g: adj.OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.5–3.4) as compared to short-course users (DD ≥ 15 mg and CD < 1 g: adj.OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.9). Associations were stronger for vertebral fractures, yet little association was identified for forearm fractures. Conclusion Among patients receiving a high DD (≥ 15 mg), heavy users (≥ 1 g CD) showed the most substantial increase in hip fracture risk. Among those receiving high DD, a threshold of 1 g CD may identify heavy users that are candidates for focused fracture management services.
      PubDate: 2018-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0424-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • The burden of inpatient care for diabetic and non-diabetic patients with
           osteoporotic hip fractures—does it differ' An analysis of patients
           recruited into a fracture liaison service in Southeast Asia
    • Authors: M. Chandran; D. Tay; X. F. Huang; Y. Hao
      Abstract: Summary Hospital care and mortality of diabetic and non-diabetic osteoporotic Asian patients undergoing hip fracture surgery were explored with no difference in length of hospitalization, incidence of post-operative complications, or mortality between diabetics and non-diabetics seen. Time to operation correlated with post-operative complications occurrence and therefore surgery should be expeditiously done. Introduction Whether burden of inpatient care, problems after admission, and mortality rates differ between diabetics and non-diabetics undergoing surgery for osteoporotic hip fractures has not been explored in Asian populations. Method Three hundred eighty-nine multi-ethnic diabetic and non-diabetic patients recruited into a FLS at a large Asian hospital with new osteoporotic hip fractures requiring operative repair were analyzed. Results 87.9% were Chinese, 6.4% Malay, and 3.6% Indians. BMI and age did not significantly differ between diabetics and non-diabetics. Median (IQR) length of hospitalization (LOHS) in days was 12 (9, 17) in diabetics and 11 (8, 14) in non-diabetics (p = 0.011). Median time from admission to operation (TTO) was 3 (2, 5) in diabetics versus 2 (1, 4.5) in the non-diabetics (p = 0.003). Occurrence of aggregate post-operative complications did not differ between diabetics and non-diabetics. No in-hospital mortalities occurred in either group. Thirty-day and 1-year mortality rates did not differ between the two groups. One-year mortality was 2.8% in the entire cohort. On multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age and race, only TTO (β; 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.0, p < 0.001) and occurrence of post-operative complications (β; 6.3, 95% CI 3.7–7.9, p < 0.001) correlated with LOHS. TTO and age-adjusted Charlson’s Comorbidity Index (CCI) correlated significantly with the development of post-operative complications. Conclusions Diabetes was not independently associated with LOHS in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Aggregate post-operative complications did not differ between diabetics and non-diabetics. TTO and occurrence of post-operative complications significantly affected LOHS. TTO correlated with post-complications development. Surgery should be expeditiously done in both diabetics and non-diabetics to avoid the development of post-operative complications and to prevent prolonged hospital stay.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0440-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Bone: best papers of the year 2017
    • Abstract: Summary An overview of selected papers related to bone published in 2017 is provided. Purpose This paper accompanies a lecture at the 2018 Belgian Bone Club annual Clinical Update Symposium held in Brussels on January 20th, discussing the best papers (in the opinion of the author) published in the previous year. Methods A PubMed search using the keyword “bone” and articles published in 2017. Results Hot topics include screening for osteoporosis, novel anabolic drugs such as romosozumab and abaloparatide for osteoporosis and rare metabolic bone diseases, as well as long-term efficacy of denosumab and possible risk of multiple vertebral fractures following its discontinuation. Other selected articles cover effectiveness of bisphosphonates and changes in mineralization after long-term use, new guidelines for glucocorticoid- and aromatase inhibitor-induced osteoporosis, increasing use of high-dose vitamin D supplements despite lack of evidence for their widespread high-dose use, and cardiovascular safety concerns surrounding the use of calcium supplements. Other topics discussed are effects of diabetes on bone health, reciprocal crosstalk between bone cells and adipose tissue, and resistance exercise training to prevent bone loss and sarcopenia. Conclusions These papers offer a hopeful outlook for a better treatment and management of patients with osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases anno 2018.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0437-5
       
  • Weather conditions and their effect on seasonality of incident
           osteoporotic hip fracture
    • Abstract: Summary Our aim was to analyze the seasonality and the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in a Southern European region. Introduction The objective of this work is to evaluate seasonality and the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in a Southern European region. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients admitted to Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital with a diagnosis of osteoporotic hip fracture between the years 1999 and 2015. In a time series analysis, we examined the association between hip fracture incidence and different weather conditions and seasonality using general additive models (with Poisson distribution). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) crude and adjusted by season was estimated for all parameters. Hip incidence was further analyzed by sex and age (below or over 75) subgroups. Results Four thousand two hundred seventy-one patients with an osteoporotic hip fracture were included (79% females, mean age 83.8). Season fracture rate was significantly higher in fall and winter (67.06 and 64.41 fractures/season) compared to summer and spring (59.71 and 60.06; p < 0,001). Hip fracture incidence was 15% greater in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. Fog [IRR 1.15 (95% CI: 1.003–1.33)], atmospheric pressure (per 100 mb) [IRR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.004–1.114)], and frost [IRR 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03–1.30)] were significantly associated with increased hip fracture. Haze [IRR 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99–1.23)] showed a trend without statistical significance. Daily average temperature (per 5 °C) [IRR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.957–0.996)], rain (per 10 ml) [IRR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.981–1.0)], wind speed [IRR = 0.952, (95% CI: 0.907–0.998)], and daily ultraviolet radiation (per 100 joules) [IRR 0.998 (95% CI: 0.996–1.0)] were negatively associated with fracture. After adjusting by season and trend, all these associations disappear. Conclusions In this Southern region, hip fracture incidence exhibits a seasonal pattern different from those communicated in Northern regions. There is short-term association with different weather conditions that partly explain this seasonal pattern.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0438-4
       
 
 
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