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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Archives of Osteoporosis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.71
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1862-3514 - ISSN (Online) 1862-3522
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors among
           urban and rural residents in Tianjin, China
    • Authors: Fang Fang; Hongyan Wei; Kunling Wang; Long Tan; Wanqi Zhang; Li Ding; Tong Liu; Zhongyan Shan; Mei Zhu
      Abstract: Summary There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among residents in Tianjin, China, especially among female residents, rural young adults, and elderly individuals. This is the first large-scale study evaluating vitamin D status in Tianjin, China, and we believe that it makes a significant contribution to the literature. Purpose Vitamin D deficiency has been documented as a worldwide public health problem. To our knowledge, there has not been any large-scale study on vitamin D status in Tianjin, China. The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status among Tianjin residents and to determine influencing factors. Methods This is a community-based study, and residents from both urban and rural areas of Tianjin were enrolled. Each participant completed a questionnaire regarding basic characteristics and lifestyle information. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were statistically analyzed according to sex, age, and region. Other factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were also explored. Results A total of 1814 participants were included, with mean serum 25(OH)D level of 49.44 ± 14.9 nmol/L; only 47.63% achieved the optimal (50–125 nmol/L) 25(OH)D level. Serum 25(OH)D levels were higher among male participants than among female participants (53.44 ± 13.94 versus 46.55 ± 14.91 nmol/L, P < 0.05) and among urban participants than among rural participants (50.4 ± 16.32 versus 48.65 ± 13.58 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher among the age group of 40–49 years (50.7 ± 17.99 nmol/L) than among the ≥ 70 years (48.45 ± 14.49 nmol/L) or 18–29 years (47.81 ± 13.08 nmol/L) age groups. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/inadequacy among Tianjin residents, especially among female participants, rural young adults, and elderly individuals. Vitamin D supplementation is imperative for these high-risk vitamin D-deficient residents.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0479-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Appendicular fracture epidemiology of children and adolescents: a 10-year
           case review in Western Australia (2005 to 2015)
    • Authors: Mark Jenkins; Sophia Nimphius; Nicolas H. Hart; Paola Chivers; Timo Rantalainen; Kristina Rueter; Meredith L. Borland; Fleur McIntyre; Katherine Stannage; Aris Siafarikas
      Abstract: Summary Fracture incidence data of Australian children and adolescents have not been reported in the literature. A 10-year case review of fracture presentations in Western Australia is provided. Between 2005 and 2015, fracture incidence increased relative to population growth. This is concerning, and interventions are required to reverse this trend. Purpose Fracture incidence in 0–16-year-olds is high and varies between countries. Boys have a 1.5:1 ratio of fracture incidence compared to girls. There are no specific data for Australia. Western Australia is a state with unique geography and population distribution having only a single tertiary paediatric hospital (Princess Margaret Hospital, PMH, in Perth) managing the majority of children and adolescents with fractures in the Emergency Department (ED). The aims of this study were to characterise fracture presentations to PMH-ED and compare the incidence to population data. Methods A database audit of fracture presentations between 2005 and 2015 for fracture rates with a sub-analysis for gender, fracture site and age and a comparison to Perth Metropolitan and Western Australian population data was performed. Results Analysis included 31,340 presentations. Fracture incidence, adjusted for the annual population size, increased from 0.63% in 2005 to 0.85% in 2015 (p < 0.001). The month of May reported the highest fracture rate (p < 0.001) corresponding with the start of the winter sports season. Males had a 1.5 times higher fracture incidence than females (p < 0.001), with upper limb fractures three times more common than lower limb fractures (p < 0.001). Fracture incidence increased with age until the early teenage years (15 years for males; 12 years for females) when a decline occurred. Conclusions Increased fracture incidence in Western Australia between 2005 and 2015 identifies a concerning trend for bone health in children and adolescents. Further research is needed to identify potential lifestyle factors that impact fracture incidence translating into evidence-based strategies to reverse these trends and improve bone health.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0478-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • All 25-hydroxyvitamin D-deficient Indian postmenopausal women do not have
           secondary hyperparathyroidism
    • Authors: Vivek Dixit; R. L. Tripathi; Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal
      Abstract: Summary This study shows a high 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency among postmenopausal women accompanying secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, a sizable number of subjects did not have secondary hyperparathyroidism despite having low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. This condition arises a research question in clinical practice needed to be addressed in the future. Purpose The present study was attempted to determine the prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and also to analyze the mean value (cutoff) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D from where the PTH begins to rise in Indian postmenopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study including 334 postmenopausal women attending the outpatient department (MOPD) of Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, between July 2008 and June 2010. Institutional ethical approval was obtained for this study. The apparently healthy postmenopausal women and attendees of the patients were included in the study. Post-thyroidectomy, thyroid illness, pregnant women, subjects taking drugs that can affect bone mineral metabolism, such as glucocorticoids, antitubercular therapy, antiepileptic, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplement were excluded from the study. BMD parameters such as PTH and 25(OH)D were measured by using commercial kits from DiaSorin, USA, and blood chemistry was evaluated by standard methods from the central facility of the center. Dietary calcium was analyzed by applying a food frequency questionnaire by a trained dietician. Results Mean (SD) age of the subjects was 56.4 ± 7.7 years. The mean BMI was 24.7 ± 5.5 kg/m2. The baseline biochemical investigations such as total bilirubin, liver function test (LFT), kidney function test (KFT), calcium, phosphorous, total protein, and serum albumin were in reference range except alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The mean values of 25(OH)D and PTH were 12.95 ± 8.08 ng/ml and 91.60 ± 75.56 pg/ml respectively. The 24-h dietary calcium intake was 487.06 ± 239.36 mg/24 h. 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was found in 277 subjects (82.93%) and was inversely related to PTH. Forty-three subjects had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between 20 and 29 ng/ml (12.87%), and only 14 subjects (4.19%) had optimum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was found in 235 (70.35%) subjects; however, it was not found in 30%. Conclusions Majority of postmenopausal women of India had 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with raised PTH levels. The cutoff point of 25-hydroxyvitamin D at which PTH began to rise was found at 25 ng/ml which seems similar to that of the Caucasians.
      PubDate: 2018-05-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0465-1
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • The effect of cholecystectomy on 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone
           mineral density in postmenopausal women
    • Authors: Hatice Beyazal Polat; Munevver Serdaroglu Beyazal
      Abstract: Summary Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Little is known on the potentially deleterious effect of cholecystectomy on vitamin D levels and osteoporosis. We found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density were lower in patients with prior cholecystectomy. Purpose The influence of bile salts on vitamin D absorption is well-known, and increased incidence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Little is known on the potentially deleterious effect of cholecystectomy on vitamin D levels and osteoporosis. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of cholecystectomy on vitamin D levels and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Methods The study group comprised 50 postmenopausal women who had previously undergone cholecystectomy; the control group comprised 50 age-matched postmenopausal women. Serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The study group had significantly higher parathyroid hormone levels (94.4 ± 45.1 vs. 69.2 ± 37.5, p < 0.001) but significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (16.3 ± 7.6 vs. 19.8 ± 8.7, p = 0.03). Compared with the control group, the BMDs of both the lumbar spine (− 1.5 ± 1.0 vs. − 0.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.004) and femur (− 0.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.19 ± 1.1, p = 0.001) were significantly lower in the study group. Body mass index [B = 0.81 (CI 0.67–0.98), p = 0.03] and prior cholecystectomy [B = 7.9 (CI 1.0–71.7), p = 0.04] were independent predictors of osteoporosis. Conclusion In postmenopausal women, prior cholecystectomy is associated with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and BMD.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0458-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone structure, and structural
           geometry among rural South Indian, US Caucasian, and Afro-Caribbean older
    • Authors: Guru Rajesh Jammy; Robert M. Boudreau; Tushar Singh; Pawan Kumar Sharma; Kristine Ensrud; Joseph M. Zmuda; P S Reddy; Anne B. Newman; Jane A Cauley
      Abstract: Summary Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) provides biomechanical estimates of bone strength. Rural South Indian men have reduced biomechanical indices of bone strength compared to US Caucasian and Afro-Caribbean men. This suggests an underlying higher risk of osteoporotic fractures and greater future fracture burden among the rural South Indian men. Introduction Geographical and racial comparisons of bone mineral density (BMD) have largely focused on DXA measures of areal BMD. In contrast, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measures volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone structural geometry and provides estimates of biomechanical strength. To further understand potential geographical and racial differences in skeletal health, we compared pQCT measures among US Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean, and rural South Indian men. Methods We studied men aged ≥ 60 years enrolled in the Mobility and Independent Living among Elders Study (MILES) in rural south India (N = 245), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) in the US (N = 1148), and the Tobago Bone Health Study (N = 828). Results The BMI (kg/m2) of rural South Indian men (21.6) was significantly lower compared to the US Caucasians (28) and Afro-Caribbean men (26.9). Adjusting for age, height, body weight, and grip strength; rural South Indian men compared to US Caucasians had significantly lower trabecular vBMD [− 1.3 to − 1.5 standard deviation (SD)], cortical thickness [− 0.8 to − 1.2 SD]; significantly higher endosteal circumference [0.5 to 0.8 SD]; but similar cortical vBMD. Afro-Caribbean men compared to US Caucasians had similar trabecular vBMD but significantly higher cortical vBMD [0.9 to 1.2 SD], SSIp [0.2 to 1.4 SD], and tibial endosteal circumference [1 SD], Conclusions In comparison to US Caucasians, rural South Indian men have reduced bone strength (lower trabecular vBMD) and Afro-Caribbean men have greater bone strength (higher cortical vBMD). These results suggest an underlying higher risk of osteoporotic fractures and greater future fracture burden among rural South Indian men.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0473-1
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Consensus on best practice standards for Fracture Liaison Service in the
           Asia-Pacific region
    • Authors: Ding-Cheng Chan; Lo-Yu Chang; Kristina E. Akesson; Paul Mitchell; Chung-Hwan Chen; E. Michael Lewiecki; Joon Kiong Lee; Tang Ching Lau; Thawee Songpatanasilp; Kin Bong Lee; Kwang Joon Kim; Jung-Fu Chen; Ko-En Huang; Yih-Lan Gau; Yin-Fan Chang; Peter Ebeling; Weibo Xia; Wei Yu; Atsushi Suzuki; Fen Lee Hew; Leilani B. Mercado-Asis; Yoon-Sok Chung; Keh-Sung Tsai; Gau-Tyan Lin; Rong-Sen Yang; Chih-Hsing Wu
      Abstract: Summary The Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) Consensus Meeting endorsed by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies (AFOS), and Asia Pacific Osteoporosis Foundation (APOF) was hosted by the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association on October 14, 2017. International and domestic experts reviewed the 13 Best Practice Framework (BPF) standards and concluded that all standards were generally applicable in the Asia-Pacific region and needed only minor modifications to fit the healthcare settings in the region. Purpose To review and generate consensus on best practices of fracture liaison service (FLS) in the Asia-Pacific (AP) region. Methods In October 2017, the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association (TOA) invited experts from the AP region (n = 23), the Capture the Fracture Steering Committee (n = 2), and the USA (n = 1) to join the AP region FLS Consensus Meeting in Taipei. After two rounds of consensus generation, the recommendations on the 13 Best Practice Framework (BPF) standards were reported and reviewed by the attendees. Experts unable to attend the on-site meeting reviewed the draft, made suggestions, and approved the final version. Results Because the number of FLSs in the region is rapidly increasing, experts agreed that it was timely to establish consensus on benchmark quality standards for FLSs in the region. They also agreed that the 13 BPF standards and the 3 levels of standards were generally applicable, but that some clarifications were necessary. They suggested, for example, that patient and family education be incorporated into the current standards and that communication with the public to promote FLSs be increased. Conclusions The consensus on the 13 BPF standards reviewed in this meeting was that they were generally applicable and required only a few advanced clarifications to increase the quality of FLSs in the region.
      PubDate: 2018-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0463-3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Correction to: Treatment patterns in patients with osteoporosis at high
           risk of fracture in Japan: retrospective chart review
    • Authors: Saeko Fujiwara; Akimitsu Miyauchi; Etsuro Hamaya; Rebecca Jayne Nicholls; Adele Weston; Santwona Baidya; Lionel Pinto; Rich Barron; Junichi Takada
      Abstract: In this article it was mistakenly stated that Akimitsu Miyauchi is affiliated with both Miyauchi Medical Center, Osaka and Amgen Astellas BioPharma K.K., Tokyo. In fact he is affiliated only with Miyauchi Medical Center; he has no connection with Amgen Astellas.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0460-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Expressed information needs of patients with osteoporosis and/or fragility
           fractures: a systematic review
    • Authors: Grace Raybould; Opeyemi Babatunde; Amy L. Evans; Joanne L. Jordan; Zoe Paskins
      Abstract: Summary This systematic review identified patients have unmet information needs about the nature of osteoporosis, medication, self-management and follow-up. Clinician knowledge and attitudes appear to be of key importance in determining whether these needs are met. Unmet information needs appear to have psychosocial consequences and result in poor treatment adherence. Purpose Patient education is an integral component of the management of osteoporosis, yet patients are dissatisfied with the information they receive and see this as an area of research priority. This study aimed to describe and summarise the specific expressed information needs of patients in previously published qualitative research. Methods Using terms relating to osteoporosis, fragility fracture and information needs, seven databases were searched. Articles were screened using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full-text articles selected for inclusion underwent data extraction and quality appraisal. Findings were drawn together using narrative synthesis. Results The search identified 11,024 articles. Sixteen empirical studies were included in the review. Thematic analysis revealed three overarching themes relating to specific information needs, factors influencing whether information needs are met and the impact of unmet information needs. Specific information needs identified included the following: the nature of osteoporosis/fracture risk; medication; self-management and understanding the role of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and follow-up. Perceived physician knowledge and attitudes, and the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of patients were important factors in influencing whether information needs were met, in addition to contextual factors and the format of educational resources. Failure to elicit and address information needs appears to be associated with poor treatment adherence, deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship and important psychosocial consequences. Conclusion This is the first study to describe the information needs of patients with osteoporosis and fracture, the impact of this information gap and possible solutions. Further research is needed to co-design and evaluate educational interventions with patients.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0470-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Increased prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures in HIV-infected
           patients over 50 years of age
    • Authors: Maria Llop; W. A. Sifuentes; S. Bañón; C. Macia-Villa; M. J. Perez-Elías; M. Rosillo; S. Moreno; M. Vázquez; J. L. Casado
      Abstract: Summary The prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fracture in HIV-infected patients over 50 was 20%, associated with older age, male sex, longer time since HIV diagnosis, and tubular renal alterations. Vertebral fractures were independent of osteoporosis at lumbar spine, and were not predicted by the use of the FRAX equation. Purpose Vertebral fractures (VF) are the hallmark of osteoporotic fractures. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic VF and associated factors in HIV-infected patients over 50 years, and the role of FRAX equation. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a diagnosis of VF was established by the semiquantitative method of Genant in thoracic and lumbar radiographs. Simultaneously, a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone and kidney-related analytical, calcium intake, physical exercise, HIV-related factors, and FRAX estimation were evaluated. Results Overall, 128 patients (35 women, 27%) were included. Mean age was 57 years. Hypophosphatemia and tubular renal dysfunction were observed in 13 and 21%. DXA scan showed osteopenia and osteoporosis at hip in 65 and 7% of patients, and in spine in 39 and 34%, respectively. VF were observed in 26 patients (20%), with a trend to be associated with lower serum phosphate, increased alkaline phosphatase, and with lower daily calcium intake. In a multivariate analysis, older age (OR 1.2 per year; 14% of VF at 50–55; 44% at 65–70), male sex (26 vs 6%), longer time since HIV diagnosis, and renal and tubular dysfunction were the associated factors. VF were not related with osteoporosis at lumbar spine, and could not be predicted by the FRAX equation. Conclusions The prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures is high in HIV-infected patients older than 50 years, and is not identified by the presence of osteoporosis in spine neither predicted by the FRAX equation. Spine and lumbar X-rays should be routinely performed in this aging population.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0464-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Bone geometry in young male and female football players: a peripheral
           quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) study
    • Authors: Gabriel Lozano-Berges; Ángel Matute-Llorente; Alejandro Gómez-Bruton; Alex González-Agüero; Germán Vicente-Rodríguez; José A. Casajús
      Abstract: Summary The present study shows that football practice during growth may improve bone geometry in male and female football players. However, only females had better bone strength in comparison with controls. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare bone geometry in adolescent football players and controls. Methods A total of 107 football players (71 males/36 females; mean age 12.7 ± 0.6/12.7 ± 0.6 years) and 42 controls (20 males/22 females; mean age 13.1 ± 1.4/12.7 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. Total and trabecular volumetric bone mineral content (Tt.BMC/Tb.BMC), cross-sectional area (Tt.Ar/Tb.Ar), and bone strength index (BSI) were measured at 4% site of the non-dominant tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Moreover, Tt.BMC, cortical BMC (Ct.BMC), Tt.Ar, cortical Ar (Ct.Ar), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), periosteal circumference (PC), endosteal circumference (EC), fracture load in X-axis, and polar strength strain index (SSIp) were measured at 38% site of the tibia. Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to compare bone pQCT variables between football players and controls using the tibia length and maturity offset as covariates. Results Female football players demonstrated 13.8–16.4% higher BSI, Ct.Th, fracture load in X-axis, and SSIp than controls (p < .0036). Males showed no significant differences in bone strength when compared to controls (p > .0036). In relation to bone mineral content and area, male football players showed 8.8% higher Tt.Ar and Tb.Ar at the 4% site of the tibia when compared to controls; whereas 13.8–15.8% higher Tt.BMC, Ct.BMC, and Ct.Ar at the 38% site of the tibia were found in female football players than controls (p < .0036). Conclusions In this study, female adolescent football players presented better bone geometry and strength values than controls. In contrast, only bone geometry was higher in male football players than controls.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0472-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Critical differences between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal atypical
           femoral fractures: analyses of 51 cases at a single institution in Korean
    • Authors: Yoon-Je Cho; Kyung-Chung Kang; Young-Soo Chun; Kee Hyung Rhyu; Sang-Jun Kim; Tae-Su Jang
      Abstract: Summary There still remains controversy on the pathomechanism of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). The angle of lateral bowing and bone mineral density showed significant differences between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal atypical fracture groups. In addition to the use of bisphosphonate, mechanical factors might play important roles in the occurrence of AFFs. Introduction Although AFF could be divided into subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fracture according to the location of fractures, there is a lack of evidence regarding differences between two fractures and etiology of the occurrence. The aim of study is to determine differences between atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fracture in Korean population. Methods Between February 2010 and March 2015, 51 AFFs in 40 patients were included in this study. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The AFF patients satisfied all the diagnostic criteria of the 2014 revised edition of the ASMBR. To analyze the differences according to the location of fracture, the AFFs were divided into subtrochanteric (n = 16) and diaphyseal (n = 35) fracture groups. The following factors were compared between two groups: patients’ demographics, underlying diseases, laboratory findings (serum-25(OH) VitD3, osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, ALP, Ca, and P), bone mineral density (BMD), duration of bisphosphonate (BP) usage, and lateral bowing of the femur at time of the fracture. Results All AFFs happened in female patients (mean age, 73.8 years) who have received bisphosphonate treatments except three patients. The mean duration of bisphosphonate usage was 95.3 months. Between the two groups, demographic data (age, height, weight, and BMI), underlying diseases, laboratory findings, hip BMD, and duration of BP treatment were comparable to each other (p > 0.05). However, the subtrochanteric fracture group showed higher FNSBA (femoral neck shaft bowing angle, p < 0.001) and spine BMD (p = 0.014) compared to the diaphyseal fracture group. Conclusions Angle of lateral bowing (FNSBA) and spine BMD showed significant differences between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal atypical fracture groups. According to our results, femoral bowing and spine BMD may play important roles in the AFF locations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0457-1
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Persistence of and switches from teriparatide treatment among women and
           men with osteoporosis in the real world: a claims database analysis
    • Authors: Tomoko Usui; Masaru Funagoshi; Kahori Seto; Kazuki Ide; Shiro Tanaka; Koji Kawakami
      Abstract: Summary This study investigated the real-world persistence rate and switches of teriparatide-treated patients using a claims database in Japan. The persistence rate of teriparatide at 12 months was 34.9%, and approximately one-third of the patients were not treated with any osteoporosis drugs after teriparatide. Improvement in persistence and switches are desired. Purpose We aimed to elucidate the persistence rates and switches before and after teriparatide treatment in real-world osteoporosis patients based on data from a medical claims database in Japan. Methods We reviewed the records of patients with diagnoses of osteoporosis who were prescribed teriparatide at least once from January 2005 to June 2017. Patients with a follow-up ≤ 90 days before the first and ≤ 90 days after the last prescription of teriparatide were excluded. Discontinuation was defined as no treatment for > 90 days. We investigated treatment duration, compared characteristics of patients with persistence ≤ 12 and > 12 months, and osteoporotic medications before and after teriparatide by weekly or daily teriparatide. Results Among the 553 patients extracted for the study, 81.9% were women, 45.6% were aged ≥ 65 years, and 67.3% had a fracture. The most common fracture site was the spine (39.2%). The overall persistence rate of teriparatide > 12 months was 34.9% (weekly, 23.5%; daily, 43.1%). The subjects with persistence > 12 months comprised a higher proportion of women and they had a higher prevalence of rib and sternum fractures than those with ≤ 12 months. After teriparatide, 38.2% were switched to active vitamin D3, 35.1% to bisphosphonates, and 13.7% to denosumab allowing duplication. However, 34.0% of the patients were not switched to any subsequent medication for osteoporosis. Conclusions Persistence rate over 12 months of teriparatide treatment was 34.9% in Japan. Approximately one-third of patients had no subsequent treatment immediately after teriparatide. Monitoring persistence and considering subsequent drugs for osteoporosis are necessary for teriparatide treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0466-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Promoting bone health management in women diagnosed with breast cancer: a
           pilot randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Olivia L. Tseng; John J. Spinelli; Carolyn C. Gotay; Wan Yu Ho; Mary L. McBride; Martin G. Dawes
      Abstract: Summary This study investigates, in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the feasibility of evaluating the effects of educational material and its delivery method, on bone health management. The study results suggest educational material may improve rates of bone mineral density testing. Introduction Educational materials improve bone mineral density (BMD) testing rates in high-risk patients, but the effect is unknown in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods of delivering educational materials may also affect testing rates. The purposes of this study were to determine the feasibility of the protocol and to pilot-test the effects of educational material and its delivery methods on BMD testing rates. Method Pilot randomized controlled trial with block randomization. Fifty-four women (aged 65–75 and diagnosed with breast cancer ≥ 3 years ago (2010–2012) and not taking osteoporosis medication) were recruited from February to May 2016 and randomized to three groups: control without educational material, educational material delivered by postal mail, and educational material delivered by patient choice of postal mail, email, or text messaging. Outcome measures were primarily evaluated using self-report questionnaires. Results The participation rate, defined as the proportion of eligible participants who consented to participate, was 39.1%. Primary outcome measure was obtained for 98% of the recruited women. During the 6-month follow-up period, BMD testing rates were significantly higher in the groups receiving educational materials by mail (26%, 95%CI = 10 to 49) and by patient choice (18%, 95%CI = 5 to 41), when compared with the control group (6%, 95%CI = 0.3 to 25). Educational material was associated with a 17% higher BMD testing rate. Conclusions The study protocol is feasible for a large-scale study. The educational material intervention is broadly accepted by the study participants with a promising positive effect on BMD testing rates.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0469-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Multiple vertebral fractures sustained 5 months after Roux-en-Y
           gastric bypass: a case report
    • Authors: Susie C. Higgins; George Papasavvas
      Abstract: Introduction We report a case of a patient sustaining multiple simultaneous vertebral fractures 5 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Obesity is associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality and obesity rates globally continue to rise. Bariatric surgical procedures are successful in inducing sustained weight loss with many improved health outcomes. Potential complications include nutritional deficiencies and adverse effects on bone mineral metabolism with increased rates of fracture. Case Study We have recently cared for a 40-year-old female who sustained multiple vertebral fractures after bending forwards, occurring only 5 months after she underwent RYGB surgery, with post-operative weight loss of 55 kg. Blood tests performed several months after the fractures occurred revealed she had biochemical secondary hyperparathyroidism with low serum vitamin D levels. Discussion It has been previously demonstrated that RYGB surgery is associated with an increased incidence of fractures, and with reduction in bone mineral density. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery are frequently vitamin D deficient pre-operatively and show variable responses to vitamin D supplementation in the post-operative period. With particular reference to the RYGB procedure, there is evidence from several studies that bone mineral density is reduced at 12 and 24 post-operative months. To the best of our knowledge, this case may be the first time that multiple vertebral fractures have been documented so soon after weight loss surgery. It therefore highlights the growing conclusion that early consideration must be given to the maintenance of bone health in patients undergoing weight loss surgery.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0471-3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Long-term benefits and risks of parathyroid hormone treatment in compliant
           osteoporotic patients. A Danish national register based cohort study
    • Authors: Anne-Luise Thorsteinsson; Louise Hansen; Peter Vestergaard; Pia Eiken
      Abstract: Purpose Medical treatment of osteoporosis should preferably be both effective and have minimal side effects. The aim of the present study was to examine long-term benefits and risks of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment in compliant patients. Methods This is a nationwide retrospective cohort study based on national registers in which we identified 1739 patients treated with PTH (2003–2010) (index cases) for at least 18 months and with a medication possession rate of > 0.8. For comparison, patients treated with bisphosphonate (BP) (n = 13,131) and anti-osteoporotic treatment-naïve controls (n = 12,721) were selected. Incidence of fractures, drug consumption, and comorbidity were compared between the three cohorts. Mean follow-up of the PTH-treated patients was 4.3 years (range 1.8–8.7 years). Results Before initiation of treatment, PTH patients had a significantly higher Charlson comorbidity index score and more osteoporotic fractures than both BP patients and controls. No difference was detected in the incidence of fractures during PTH treatment or years after between PTH patients and BP patients. No significant difference in the use of drugs was seen between PTH and BP patients, except for PPI intake which was higher in PTH patients. No significant increases were found in the incidence of cancers or other ICD-10 diagnoses among PTH-treated patients in comparison with both BP and controls. Conclusion Overall, PTH treatment is effective and safe. Following PTH treatment in compliant patients, neither fracture incidence nor drug consumption differed between PTH-treated and BP-treated patients, despite the fact that PTH-treated patients had more severe osteoporosis. No increased incidence of malignant diseases or other diseases was detected.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0444-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Age and gender differences in the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D
    • Authors: AlJohara M. AlQuaiz; Ambreen Kazi; Mona Fouda; Nada Alyousefi
      Abstract: Summary Younger adults and males had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to older participants and females. Low intake of milk, central obesity, and lack of use of vitamin D supplements were associated with vitamin D deficiency, highlighting potentially important avenues for preventive intervention. Background Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern. This study’s objective was to measure the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and determine its correlates among Saudi adults in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 2835 Saudi males and females aged 30–75 years in 18 different primary health care centers (PHCC) in Riyadh. Detailed interviews on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements were conducted. Serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid, alkaline phosphatase, and 25(OH) vitamin D were measured. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The mean age (SD) of male and female participants was 43.0 (± 11.7) and 42.8 (± 10.3) years, respectively. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D assays for participants revealed that 72.0% (n = 695) of males and 64.0% (n = 1191) of females had levels < 50 nmol/L (deficiency), whereas 17.3% (n = 166) and 19.4% (n = 362), respectively, had levels of 50–75 nmol/L (insufficiency). Multivariate analyses for males revealed that lack of use of vitamin D supplements [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.0, 95% CI 1.7, 9.4], younger age [30–40 years aOR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.7, 7.3 and 41–50 years aOR = 4.2, 95% CI 2.0, 8.8], low milk intake [aOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.0, 2.8], consumption of cola drinks [aOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9], and central obesity [aOR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0, 3.4] were associated with low vitamin D. In females, lack of use of vitamin D supplements [aOR = 3.7, 95% CI 2.8, 4.9], younger age [30–40 years aOR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.0, 5.8 and 41–50 years aOR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.6, 4.7], central obesity [aOR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 2.2], and seasonal variation [aOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.3, 2.1] had higher odds for vitamin D deficiency. Significantly lower levels were observed for men than women for mean serum 25(OH) vitamin D [42.6 (± 24.1) vs. 46.8 (± 30.5)], parathyroid hormone [5.3 (± 2.9) vs. 5.9 (± 2.7)], and phosphorus [1.1 (± 0.2) vs. 1.2 (± 0.2)], respectively; alkaline phosphatase levels [106 (± 32.8) vs. 99 (± 27.8)] [p < 0.01] were significantly higher in males than females. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent, particularly among young adults and those with central obesity. Proper fortification policy, health education, and regular screening PHCCs may help prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency.
      PubDate: 2018-04-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0461-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Association between metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in Taiwanese
           middle-aged and elderly participants
    • Authors: Hsin-Hui Lin; Chun-Yuan Huang; Lee-Ching Hwang
      Abstract: Summary This study examined the association between metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis among middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese participants. After controlling for body mass index, age, liver and renal functions, and nutrition and exercise statuses, we found no significant association between MS and osteoporosis in either gender. Purpose The term metabolic syndrome (MS) encompasses different abnormalities with independent effects on bone metabolism, which has led to inconsistencies in the association between MS and osteoporosis. This study evaluated this association among middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese participants by adjusting relevant covariates. Methods We enrolled 2007 participants (1045 men and 962 women) older than 50 years, who underwent a health examination at a preventive examination agency in urban Taiwan. We studied age, gender, diabetes mellitus and hypertension histories, smoking and exercise statuses, metabolic and nutrition indices, and liver and renal function profiles. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the association between MS and osteoporosis by categorizing participants in terms of gender and body mass index (BMI). Results Overall, men with osteoporosis were less likely to have MS, and displayed fewer MS components than men without osteoporosis; but we found no significant associations between MS, or its components, and osteoporosis in women. After forming two groups according to BMI and adjusting for covariates, we found no association between MS and osteoporosis in any group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that regular exercise had a negative association with osteoporosis in the low BMI group for men (OR, 0.365; p = 0.008). Conclusions After BMI stratification and adjustments for age, nutrition status, liver and renal functions, and exercise status, we found no significant association between MS and osteoporosis in either gender. Regular exercise may prevent osteoporosis, particularly in men with a lean body mass.
      PubDate: 2018-04-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0467-z
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Infection following percutaneous vertebral augmentation with
    • Authors: Jae-Woo Park; Sang-Min Park; Hui Jong Lee; Choon-Ki Lee; Bong-Soon Chang; Hyoungmin Kim
      Abstract: Summary Although the incidence of infection following vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty is rare, postoperative infection and cement augmentation in preexistent spondylitis can cause life-threatening complications in frail patients with notable comorbidities. In such cases, urgent culture and biopsy and the long-term use of proper antibiotics are necessary. Purpose Infection following vertebral augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is rare. We aimed to analyze 11 cases of pyogenic spondylitis and spondylodiscitis that occurred after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty and to review similar cases in the literature. Methods All cases of postoperative spinal infections in our institution between January 2005 and November 2016 that primarily underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty were retrospectively reviewed. Eleven patients (mean age 76.3 years) were included. Results The incidence of infection following vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty was 0.36%. Postoperative infection occurred in 3 of 826 cases. All patients underwent combined surgical and antibiotic treatment because of neurologic deficit on the initial diagnosis of the infection or failure of prior medical treatment of the infection. The surgical procedure was thorough debridement of infected tissue and material including PMMA following anterior column reconstruction via anterior/posterior/combined approach in 10 patients and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation alone in 1 patient aged 96 years. The mean follow-up period was 21.1 months after the revision operation, excluding one patient who died 17 days after revision surgery. Ten patients recovered from infection. Conclusions Although the incidence of infection following vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty is rare, postoperative infection and cement augmentation in preexisting spondylitis can develop into a life-threatening complication in frail patients with notable comorbidities. In treating infected vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, immediate culture and biopsy and the long-term use of proper antibiotics are critical. Prompt surgical treatment should be considered in case of significant neurologic deficit, severe instability due to infected fracture, and resistance to antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0468-y
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Association between alcohol consumption and bone mineral density in
           elderly Korean men and women
    • Authors: Yoosun Cho; Seulggie Choi; Kyuwoong Kim; Gyeongsil Lee; Sang Min Park
      Abstract: Summary In this cross-sectional study based on Korean elderly men and women, heavy alcohol intake for men was related to low whole-body BMD and light alcohol intake for women was associated with high whole-body, lumbar, and total femur BMD. Purpose Alcohol is a risk factor of osteoporosis but previous studies on its effect on bone health has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol intake and bone mineral density in Korean elderly men and women. Methods Based on the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), 2657 men and 2080 women 50 to 79 years of age were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Alcohol consumption was determined by self-administered questionnaires and classified into four groups according to sex: non-drinkers (0 g/day), light drinking (1–19 g/day men, 1–9 g/day women), moderate drinking (20–39 g/day men, 10–29 g/day women), and heavy drinking (≥ 40 g/day men, ≥ 20 g/day women). The adjusted mean values calculated by linear regression analysis for BMD were determined according to the amount of alcohol consumed. Results Light drinkers had the highest whole-body BMD for both men (mean 1.164, SD 0.047–1.281) and women (mean 1.046, SD 0.912–1.180). Among men, mean whole-body BMD for heavy drinkers was significantly lower than that among light drinkers (P = 0.031). Among women, BMD for light drinkers was significantly higher in the whole body, lumbar, and total femur than that for non-drinkers (P < 0.001, P = 0.026, P = 0.040, respectively). Conclusions Heavy alcohol intake may be associated with lower BMD in men while light alcohol intake may associate with higher BMD among women. Future longitudinal studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density are needed to validate the findings of this study.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0462-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Treatment costs and cost drivers among osteoporotic fracture patients in
           Japan: a retrospective database analysis
    • Authors: Yurie Taguchi; Yuta Inoue; Taichi Kido; Nobuhiro Arai
      Abstract: Summary This study estimated the direct medical costs of osteoporotic fractures from a large claim database in Japan. We further identified several comorbidities which drove the treatment costs. The results would contribute to health economic analysis as well as understanding of individual financial burden in Japan. Introduction The purposes of this study were to estimate treatment costs of osteoporotic fractures and to investigate the cost drivers. Methods Male and female patients aged 50 years and older with a hip, vertebral, or non-hip/non-vert (NHNV) fracture between April 2008 and December 2016 were analyzed from claim database. Two types of costs were estimated. The incremental yearly costs of fractures and comorbidity treatments (total medical costs) were calculated by subtracting pre-fracture costs from post-fracture costs. The costs exclusive for fracture treatments (fracture treatment costs) were estimated by summing up the costs of fracture treatments within 1 year after fracture. The associations between comorbidities and costs were examined with a generalized linear model. Results Total 12,898 patients were identified (83% was female). The total medical costs of fractures were $14,592 for male-hip, $15,691 for female-hip, $4268 for male-vertebral, $3819 for female-vertebral, $3790 for male-NHNV, and $4259 for female-NHNV. The fracture treatment costs were $4506 for male-hip, $5427 for female-hip, $1022 for male-vertebral, $1044 for female-vertebral, $1035 for male-NHNV, and $1408 for female NHNV. Three comorbidities were associated with increasing fracture treatment costs whereas four comorbidities were associated with decreasing fracture treatment costs. Five comorbidities were associated with increasing total medical costs whereas one comorbidity was associated with decreasing total medical costs. Conclusions Yearly treatment costs were increased considerably after fracture. Several comorbidities were considered to be cost drivers for osteoporotic fracture treatment. The cost estimates with different patient profile would support conducting health economic analysis in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0456-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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