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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2349 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2349 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2349 journals]
  • A Comparison of Child Blood Lead Levels in Urban and Rural Children Ages
           5–12 Years Living in the Border Region of El Paso, Texas
    • Authors: Juan Alvarez; Michelle Del Rio; Tania Mayorga; Salvador Dominguez; Mayra Gisel Flores-Montoya; Christina Sobin
      Pages: 503 - 511
      Abstract: Lead exposure is an unresolved pediatric health risk and disproportionately affects children in lower-income neighborhoods. Residences with children younger than age 5 years are the focus of mitigation policies; however, studies have shown that older children between the ages of 5 and 12 years also are at risk of central nervous system effects. Whether historically contaminated neighborhoods present ongoing risk to older children also is of concern. This study compared the blood lead levels (BLLs) of older children from an historically contaminated urban neighborhood to those of demographically matched children from a nearby rural locale and predicted significantly higher BLLs in the urban children. The study included 222 children aged 5–12 years, 111 from the urban neighborhood and 111 from local rural townships, matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income. Blood lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General linear models tested whether geographic location (urban vs. rural) predicted child heavy metal levels, controlling for sex and age. Only location predicted only child BLL (R2= 0.36); children living in the urban setting had significantly higher BLLs as compared with matched rural township children (F = 125, df220,2, p <0.001). Neighborhoods with a history of lead contamination can present current risk of lead exposure for older children between the ages of 5 and 12 years, as well as for infants and toddlers. More studies are needed to better characterize the risk of lead exposure to older children, particularly in lower-income neighborhoods with a history of lead contamination.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0549-3
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Persistent Organic Pollutants Residues in Human Breast Milk from Bathinda
           and Ludhiana Districts of Punjab, India
    • Authors: P. Bawa; J. S. Bedi; J. P. S. Gill; R. S. Aulakh; A. Kumar; Kamal Arora
      Pages: 512 - 520
      Abstract: In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including six congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, were estimated in human breast milk samples collected from two districts of Punjab (India). The mean concentrations of POP residues were recorded higher in Bathinda district (PCBs: 33.7; DDTs: 519.2; HCHs: 46.6 ng g−1 lipid wt.) than Ludhiana (PCBs: 24.2; DDTs; 415.3; HCHs; 35.5 ng g−1 lipid wt.). Levels of PCBs and DDTs were observed higher in primiparas, whereas HCHs residues were seen more in multiparas. Risk analysis to POPs exposure through breast milk reflected that the daily intake for some infants was close to or above the tolerable daily intake limit for detrimental effects, which may raise a health concern. Comparative evaluation of present data indicated that DDT and HCHs residue levels in human breast milk from Punjab, India were among the lowest values reported for developing countries. The first-order kinetic reaction at a steady-state condition used to estimate the half-life of DDT and HCH suggested that DDT levels have declined from 18,211 to 490 ng g−1 lipid wt. with a half-life (Tdec1/2) of 3.25 years over a span of 15 years. Similarly, HCH levels have decreased from 8609 to 46.6 ng g−1 in this duration with Tdec1/2 of 2.25 years. Because some infants are still at risk, continuous monitoring of POPs in human milk is needed for surveillance and interpretation of time trends and for linkage to strict enforcement of agricultural regulations.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0512-3
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Clinical Symptoms, Neurological Signs, and Electrophysiological Findings
           in Surviving Residents with Probable Arsenic Exposure in Toroku, Japan
    • Authors: Nobuyuki Ishii; Hitoshi Mochizuki; Yuka Ebihara; Kazutaka Shiomi; Masamitsu Nakazato
      Pages: 521 - 529
      Abstract: Chronic arsenic intoxication is known to cause multisystem impairment and is still a major threat to public health in many countries. In Toroku, a small village in Japan, arsenic mines operated from 1920 to 1962, and residents suffered serious sequelae of arsenic intoxication. We have performed annual medical examinations of these residents since 1974, allowing us to characterize participants’ long-term health following their last exposure to arsenic. The participants could not be described as having “chronic arsenic intoxication,” because their blood arsenic levels were not measured. In this study, we defined them as having “probable arsenic intoxication.” Symptoms frequently involved the sensory nervous system, skin, and upper respiratory system (89.1–97.8%). In an analysis of neurological findings, sensory neuropathy was common, and more than half of the participants complained of hearing impairment. Longitudinal assessment with neurological examinations and nerve conduction studies revealed that sensory dysfunction gradually worsened, even after exposure cessation. However, we could not conclude that arsenic caused the long-term decline of sensory function due to a lack of comparisons with age-matched healthy controls. This is the first study to characterize the longitudinal sequelae after probable arsenic exposure. Our study will be helpful to assess the prognosis of patients worldwide who still suffer from chronic arsenic intoxication.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0544-8
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Nonoccupational Exposure of Agricultural Area Residents to Pesticides:
           Pesticide Accumulation and Evaluation of Genotoxicity
    • Authors: Zeynep Banu Doğanlar; Oğuzhan Doğanlar; Hilmi Tozkir; Fulya Dilek Gökalp; Ayten Doğan; Ferah Yamaç; Orhan Onur Aşkın; Ümmühan Ersin Aktaş
      Pages: 530 - 544
      Abstract: Although many studies related the toxic effects of pesticides on agricultural workers, little research has been done about agricultural area residents. The purpose of this work was to monitor the presence of pesticides, as well as their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, in humans with blood samples collected from control and intensive agricultural areas in the Thrace region. Pesticide accumulations were determined by LC–MS/MS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were analyzed by comet assay, and the effect of pesticide accumulation on oxidative stress, DNA repair, and molecular chaperone response were analyzed by qRT-PCR assays in the human blood samples. The agricultural area residents had a significantly higher concentration of pesticides than those in the control area at all three sampling times, and the total pesticide amounts were 4.3 and 10 times significantly higher in blood sampled in the pesticide use period (August 2015 and 2016, respectively) than in the nonuse period (November 2015). The results showed that the pesticide level in blood during the use period led to oxidative stress, DNA damage (mean comet length and % tail DNA), and unfolded/misfolded protein response. Particularly, in pesticide use season, difference between these parameters was found statistically significant with comparison to control. Our results indicate that individuals residing around a monoculture rice farming area comprise an at-risk group as a result of increased genotoxicity evidenced in human blood. We suggest that biological monitoring efforts should be used to control nonoccupational exposures to pesticides and thus safeguard the health of agricultural area residents.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0545-7
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Global Monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Using Seabird
           Preen Gland Oil
    • Authors: Rei Yamashita; Hideshige Takada; Arisa Nakazawa; Akinori Takahashi; Motohiro Ito; Takashi Yamamoto; Yuuki Y. Watanabe; Nobuo Kokubun; Katsufumi Sato; Sarah Wanless; Francis Daunt; David Hyrenbach; Michelle Hester; Tomohiro Deguchi; Bungo Nishizawa; Akiko Shoji; Yutaka Watanuki
      Pages: 545 - 556
      Abstract: Situated at high positions on marine food webs, seabirds accumulate high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Our previous studies proposed the usefulness of seabirds preen gland oil as a nondestructive biomonitoring tool. The present study applied this approach to 154 adult birds of 24 species collected from 11 locations during 2005–2016 to demonstrate the utility of preen gland oil as a tool for global monitoring POPs, i.e., PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs. Concentrations of the POPs were higher in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, ∑20PCBs and∑DDTs were highly concentrated in European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and Japanese cormorants (Phalacrocorax capillatus), explainable by a diet of benthic fishes. Higher concentrations of γ-HCH were detected in species from the polar regions, possibly reflecting the recent exposure and global distillation of ∑HCHs. We examined the relationship between age and POP concentrations in preen gland oil from 20 male European shags, aged 3–16 years old. Concentrations and compositions of POPs were not related to age. We also examined sex differences in the POP concentrations from 24 streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) and did not detect a sex bias. These results underline the importance of the geographic concentration patterns and the dietary behavior as determinants species-specific POPs concentrations in preen gland oil.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0557-3
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Contamination Status of Seven Elements in Hooded Cranes Wintering in
           South-West Kyushu, Japan: Comparison with Red-Crowned Cranes in Hokkaido,
    • Authors: Hiroki Teraoka; Hasumi Miyagi; Yuko Haraguchi; Kozo Takase; Takio Kitazawa; Jun Noda
      Pages: 557 - 565
      Abstract: The hooded crane is designated as an endangered species. The cranes breed primarily in wetlands in southeast Russia and China in summer. Most of the hooded crane population winters in the Izumi plain in Japan. It is difficult to know the contamination status of their habitat because of their vast breeding area. We determined the levels of Cd, Pb, As, (total) Hg, Se, Zn, and Cu in the liver, kidney, and muscle of hooded cranes that were found dead in Izumi in the periods 2003–2006 and 2014–2015 compared with the levels in red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido, Japan, as the only cranes in which these elements had been studied extensively. There were no notable differences between levels of the seven elements in the two periods. Overall, tissue levels of the elements examined in hooded cranes were comparable to those in red-crowned cranes except for Hg and Se. Tissue levels of Hg and Se were clearly lower in hooded cranes than in red-crowned cranes that were found dead from 2000. One lead poisoning case was confirmed. The results suggest that Hooded cranes wintering in Izumi are not extensively contaminated with the seven elements examined.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0541-y
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Acute and Chronic Lead Exposure in Four Avian Scavenger Species in
    • Authors: Kathrin Ganz; Lukas Jenni; Milena M. Madry; Thomas Kraemer; Hannes Jenny; David Jenny
      Pages: 566 - 575
      Abstract: Despite irrefutable evidence of its negative impact on animal behaviour and physiology, lethal and sublethal lead poisoning of wildlife is still persistent and widespread. For scavenging birds, ingestion of ammunition, or fragments thereof, is the major exposure route. In this study, we examined the occurrence of lead in four avian scavengers of Switzerland and how it differs between species, regions, and age of the bird. We measured lead concentration in liver and bone of the two main alpine avian scavengers (golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos and bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus) over the entire area of the Swiss Alps and two of the main avian scavengers occurring in the lowlands of Switzerland (red kite Milvus milvus and common raven Corvus corax). Of those four species, only the bearded vulture is an obligate scavenger. We found that lead burdens in the two alpine avian scavengers were higher than those found for the same species elsewhere in Europe or North America and reached levels compatible with acute poisoning, whereas lead burdens of the two lowland avian scavengers seemed to be lower. Several golden eagles, but only one red kite with abnormally high bone lead concentrations were found. In all four species, a substantial proportion of birds had elevated levels which presumably represent recent (liver lead levels) or past (bone lead levels) uptake of sublethal doses of lead.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0561-7
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Brown Hare’s ( Lepus europaeus ) Histone H1 Variant H1.2 as an Indicator
           of Anthropogenic Stress
    • Authors: Andrzej Kowalski; Janusz Markowski
      Pages: 576 - 584
      Abstract: From the liver tissues of brown hare individuals that lived in two various habitats, i.e., the agricultural region with the predominant farms and the industrial area near a metallurgical plant, histones H1 were analyzed to compare their within and between population variability. Furthermore, because agricultural production emits mainly organic pollutants and metallurgical industry is a primarily source of inorganic contaminations, we wanted to check how the brown hare individuals are sensitive for both agents. Among brown hare H1 histones, the histone H1.2 was determined as heterogeneous due to its varied mobility in two-dimensional SDS–polyacrylamide gel. The obtained electrophoretic patterns contained differently moving single spots of histone H1.2 and also its double spots have a similar rate of electrophoretic mobility. Based on this, two homozygous phenotypes (slowly migrating 2a and faster moving 2b) and a heterozygous phenotype (2a2b) was distinguished. The relatively low variable (CV < 0.25) and comparably abundant (p > 0.05) histone H1.2 homozygous phenotypes form a heterozygous phenotype in a similar proportion, at a ratio approximating 0.5. Although the brown hare population originating from agricultural area displayed a slight excess of heterozygous individuals 2a2b (F = − 0.04), it was conformed to the Hardy–Weinberg assumption (χ2 = 0.035, p = 0.853). Compared with this population, a sevenfold reduced frequency of the phenotype 2b and above tenfold increase of a heterozygosity (F = − 0.53) was observed in the brown hare population inhabiting the vicinity of metallurgical plant. Therefore, this population did not fit to the Hardy–Weinberg law (χ2 = 5.65, p = 0.017). Despite the negligible genetic differentiation (FST = 0.026) between brown hare populations inhabiting areas with different anthropogenic pressure, a statistically significant difference in the distribution of their phenotypes (χ2 = 6.01, p = 0.049) and alleles (χ2 = 6.50, p = 0.013) was noted. The collected data confirm that the brown hare species is sensitive for environmental quality and may serve as a good indicator of habitat conditions related to both organic pollution emitted by agricultural activities (PIC = 0.48) and inorganic contamination originating from metallurgical processes (PIC = 0.49). These difference in the environmental quality might be assessed by estimation of genetic variability among the brown hare populations, based on the phenotypes distribution of histone H1 variant H1.2, the protein that was not so far employed as a molecular marker of anthropogenic stress.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0540-z
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Mercury Bioaccumulation in Two Species of Insectivorous Bats from Urban
           China: Influence of Species, Age, and Land Use Type
    • Authors: Laura M. Heiker; Rick A. Adams; Claire V. Ramos
      Pages: 585 - 593
      Abstract: Mercury (Hg) is a widespread, toxic pollutant, and China is the world’s largest emitter. We investigated Hg concentrations of fur in Japanese pipistrelles (Pipistrellus abramus) and Chinese noctules (Nyctalus plancyi) from Chengdu, Sichuan Province, in relation to degree of urbanization. Bats were mist-netted in June and July 2013, and the fur was analyzed via atomic absorption. Statistical comparisons were made between ages, species, and site types with unpaired t tests and between Hg concentration and body condition with Spearman’s rank correlations. Across sites, adult pipistrelles (n = 10) had significantly greater concentrations than adult noctules (n = 16). Adult N. plancyi (n = 16) had significantly greater concentrations than juvenile N. plancyi (n = 14). Contrary to our predictions, there was no significant difference in Hg values between urban (n = 3) and peri-urban (n = 6) locations for P. abramus. While small sample sizes precluded additional comparisons, the highest value (33 mg/kg) came from an adult female P. abramus in the agricultural area. The relationship between body condition and Hg concentration was insignificant. However, most pipistrelles (7/13) and no noctules (0/31) had concentrations > 10 mg/kg, a threshold associated with disruption of homeostatic control and mobility. All bats had concentrations > 0.2 mg/kg, which is associated with compromised immunity. These are the first published records of contaminant concentrations from bats in China. For future studies, we recommend P. abramus as a regional bioindicator, longer term assessments of pre- and post-exposure effects, and simultaneous assessment of blood and fur Hg concentrations.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0547-5
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Suitability of Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) as a Bioindicator for
           Environmental Pollution with Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and
           Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS)
    • Authors: J. Kowalczyk; J. Numata; B. Zimmermann; R. Klinger; F. Habedank; P. Just; H. Schafft; M. Lahrssen-Wiederholt
      Pages: 594 - 606
      Abstract: Wildlife species, such as roe deer, moose, brown hare, wild boar, etc., are known to accumulate persistent environmental contaminants and thus are useful as bioindicators for environmental pollution. Wild boars become exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) from flora, fauna, water, and soil. The main exposure pathway to PFOA and PFOS is assumed to be the oral intake. From studies in domestic pigs (belonging to the same species Sus scrofa), it has been established that the oral exposure results in the liver accumulation of PFOA and PFOS. Thus, we posit that wild boars can be quantitatively used as suitable bioindicators for the presence of these substances in the environment. After the environmental pollution case in the Hessian region Sauerland in 2006, monitoring programs of individual Federal States from 2007 to 2013 showed that almost all wild boar liver samples contained PFOA and PFOS. In 2014, the analyses of PFOA and PFOS in liver of wild boars hunted in the south, north, and west of Germany showed liver concentrations at the same level among regions. Overall, an average ratio of PFOS:PFOA concentration in liver of 20.5:1 was found. To estimate the actual ratio of PFOS:PFOA in the wild boars’ dietary exposure, we performed toxicokinetic modeling. According to the model, the PFOS exposure is only 2.2 times that of PFOA (because PFOS has slower elimination kinetics and higher affinity for the liver than PFOA). Overall, the determination of PFOA and PFOS in liver of wild boars indicates that both substances are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. At the same time, higher exposures were found for animals living in closer proximity to dense human populations.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0552-8
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Prediction of Biodegradability for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using
           Various In Silico Modeling Methods
    • Authors: Gong Cheng; Liming Sun; Jie Fu
      Pages: 607 - 615
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted great concern as global environmental pollutants. In this work, the quantitative structure–biodegradability relationship (QSBR) study has been done to predict the biodegradability of PAHs and develop the correlation between the biodegradability and the molecular structures. The structural chemistry and quantum chemistry descriptors were used to represent molecular structures. Three in silico modeling methods, i.e., multiple linear regression (MLR), radial basis function neural network, and back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN), are utilized to construct the linear and nonlinear prediction models and provide some insights into the structural characteristics affecting the biodegradability of PAHs. The stability of these QSBR models was tested by leave-one-out cross-validation, and the cross-validated correlation coefficients (q2) were 0.6109, 0.6887, and 0.6586, respectively. The correlation coefficients (R2) of the three models for the training set were 0.7811, 0.8883, and 0.9667, respectively. The comparison of the three models showed that the BPANN model produced a statistically more significant model than the other two models. On the basis of molecular structure, the dominant molecular structure descriptor affecting biodegradability of PAHs were analyzed and discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0556-4
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Fullerene C 60 in Atmospheric Aerosol and Its Relationship to Combustion
    • Authors: Dolores Encinas; Zuriñe Gómez-de-Balugera
      Pages: 616 - 624
      Abstract: Fullerenes are emerging pollutants, and it is essential to determine and quantify these compounds to assess environmental risk and environmental flows. The goal of this work was to determine the fullerene C60 emission levels in the atmospheric aerosol and their relationship with combustion processes. To measure the concentration, a fullerene C60 extraction method with toluene was optimized in air samples using ultrasound, followed by analysis using high-pressure, liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry. This method has been applied to outdoor and indoor environmental samples collected in different places in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain), with diverse environmental characteristics, as well as at the exhaust outlets of different vehicles with and without catalytic converters. The maximum concentration of fullerene C60 present in the outdoor samples was 2.27 pg/m3, and the maximum concentration was 10.50 pg/m3 in indoor environments. The air samples collected at the exhaust outlets of vehicles without catalytic converters showed fullerene C60 concentrations above 170 pg/m3, while in the case of vehicles with catalytic converters, the detected concentration of fullerene C60 was lower than the limit of quantification.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0524-z
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Atmospheric Deposition of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs): Species,
           Levels, Diurnal and Seasonal Fluctuations, Transfer Velocities
    • Authors: Gizem Eker; Yucel Tasdemir
      Pages: 625 - 633
      Abstract: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the persistent organic pollutants class are pollutants that can enter water reservoirs, soils, and sediments by atmospheric deposition. The aim of the present study was to determine the total atmospheric deposition fluxes of OCPs in a semi-rural area in Bursa, Turkey. Total deposition fluxes, phase distributions, dry deposition velocities and mass transfer coefficients were calculated in the samples collected during day and night periods. Ambient air OCP samples were also taken simultaneously. Samples were analyzed for 9 OCP compounds (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane; heptachlor epoxide; endrin; endosulfan beta; endrin aldehyde; and methoxychlor). OCPs were found predominantly in gas and dissolved phases in all seasons for the ambient air and deposition samples, respectively. The annual maximum averages of deposition fluxes for dissolved and particulate phases for the beta-HCH compound were 200.2 ng/m2-day and 28.6 ng/m2-day, respectively. The average dry deposition velocity and mass transfer coefficient values calculated for OCPs were 4.6 ± 5.5 cm/s and 0.46 ± 0.37 cm/s, respectively, and these values were in line with the values in the literature. In the nighttime and daytime samples, the average deposition fluxes of OCP compounds in the dissolved phase were 1.5–10 times higher than those in the particulate phase. Although there were no great differences in daytime and nighttime samples, it was found that the flux values during daytime periods were sometimes higher.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0560-8
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Interactions Between Silver Nanoparticles/Silver Ions and Liposomes:
           Evaluation of the Potential Passive Diffusion of Silver and Effects of
    • Authors: Camille Guilleux; Peter G. C. Campbell; Claude Fortin
      Pages: 634 - 646
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles, used mainly for their antibacterial properties, are among the most common manufactured nanomaterials. How they interact with aquatic organisms, especially how they cross biological membranes, remains uncertain. Free Ag+ ions, released from these nanoparticles, are known to play an important role in their overall bioavailability. In this project, we have studied the uptake of dissolved and nanoparticulate silver by liposomes. These unilamellar vesicles, composed of phospholipids, have long been used as models for natural biological membranes, notably to study the potential uptake of solutes by passive diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer. The liposomes were synthesized using extrusion techniques and were exposed over time to dissolved silver under different conditions where Ag+, AgS2O3−, or AgCl0 were the dominant species. Similar experiments were conducted with the complexes HgCl 2 0 and Cd(DDC) 2 0 , both of which are hydrophobic and known to diffuse passively through biological membranes. The uptake kinetics of Ag+, HgCl 2 0 , and Cd(DDC) 2 0 show no increase in internalized concentrations over time, unlike AgS2O3− and AgCl0, which appear to pass through the phospholipid bilayer. These results are in contradiction with our initial hypothesis that lipophilic Hg and Cd complexes would be able to cross the membrane, whereas silver would not. Encapsulated tritiated water inside the liposomes was shown to rapidly diffuse through the lipid bilayer, suggesting a high permeability. We hypothesize that monovalent anions or complexes as well as small neutral complexes with a strong dipole can diffuse through our model membrane. Finally, liposomes were exposed to 5-nm polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles over time. No significant uptake of nanoparticulate silver was observed. Neither disruption of the membrane nor invagination of nanoparticles into the liposomes was observed. This suggests that the main risk caused by AgNPs for nonendocytotic biological cells would be the elevation of the free silver concentration near the membrane surface due to adsorption of AgNPs and subsequent oxidation/dissolution.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0562-6
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 4 (2018)
  • Trace Elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Variation Along the
           Guang-Shen Expressway Before and After the 2016 Qingming Festival in
    • Authors: Jie Luo; Wenxiang He; Jian Wu; Xiaowen Sophie Gu; Lin Ye
      Abstract: PM2.5 samples (particles with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm) were collected along the Guang-Shen expressway around the Qingming Festival, one of the most congested periods in China, which started from April 2–4, in 2016. Twenty-five trace elements and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the samples were analyzed. Their major sources at different periods were identified. The concentrations of PAHs distinctly increased with growing traffic flow 2 days before the Qingming Festival (March 31th and April 1st), decreased gradually on the first 2 days of the 3-day festival (April 2nd and 3rd) and rose again on the last day (April 4th). The proportion changing of higher molecular weight containing 5- and 6-ring PAHs (HMW PAHs) closely related to the traffic flow variation were consistent with the concentration variation of PAHs during the experimental period. Indicators of gasoline/diesel engines emission, i.e., Mo, Co, Mn, and Pb showed similar concentration variation with PAHs. The concentrations of trace elements, mainly derived from wear instead of combustion process, such as Cu, Zn, Ti, and Sb, raised significantly during the rainy days. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values were calculated to evaluate the health risk caused by PAH around the Qingming Festival. The ILCR values increased by 3–10 times 2 days before and on the last day of the festival comparing with other days, as a result of traffic related sources, including engine emission and wearing of tires. It concluded by recommending the necessity of traffic diversion to alleviate the health risk to drivers and nearby residents during important festivals.
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0582-2
  • Ecotype Variation in Trace Element Content of Hard Tissues in the European
           Roe Deer ( Capreolus capreolus )
    • Authors: Jan Demesko; Janusz Markowski; Eva Demesko; Mirosława Słaba; Janusz Hejduk; Piotr Minias
      Abstract: Animals living in anthropogenic habitats bear a multitude of costs, which are directly or indirectly associated with human activities. Among others, an elevated exposure to environmental pollution can have negative consequences for wildlife populations. We examined the differences in the concentrations of trace elements between the field and forest ecotype of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Naturally, roe deer inhabited various types of woodlands (forest ecotype), but within the last century, they adapted to life in a human-transformed agricultural areas (field ecotype), which could be associated with an increased exposure to pollution. In this study, we measured concentrations of seven trace metals (barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, strontium, zinc) and fluoride in skull bones and permanent teeth of more than 230 roe deer from 8 study plots in East-Central Europe. We found that field roe deer had higher concentrations of four trace metals (copper, iron, lead, strontium) and fluoride compared with forest roe deer. These differences were consistent with variations in the general level of environmental contamination within the study plots, as assessed with trace element content in wild plants. Our study indicates that bone and teeth of the European roe deer can be used as a valid indicator of environmental pollution. Also, we expect that elevated exposure of field roe deer to environmental pollution can have negative consequences for wild populations of this species, as well as for the consumers of venison.
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0580-4
  • Analysis of PM10 and PM2.5 Concentrations in an Urban Atmosphere in
           Northern Spain
    • Authors: M. Ángeles García; M. Luisa Sánchez; Adrián de los Ríos; Isidro A. Pérez; Nuria Pardo; Beatriz Fernández-Duque
      Abstract: This work analyses levels of particles PM10 and PM2.5 recorded at four air-quality monitoring stations located in the urban area of Valladolid (Spain) during 2015–2016. To achieve this, the evolution of particle concentrations at different time scales was determined. Average concentrations ranged from 15.3 to 17.6 µg m−3 for PM10 and between 8.9 and 14.8 µg m−3 for PM2.5. The highest monthly means were recorded in autumn and winter. The difference between mean concentrations at weekends and on weekdays for PM10 was around 3 µg m−3 at most of the measuring stations and was 1 µg m−3 for PM2.5. Two concentration peaks were found during the day, one in the morning and the other in the evening, which evidenced the influence of traffic and other anthropogenic activities on PM concentrations. Their mean values were approximately 21 and 17–21 µg m−3, respectively, for PM10. Mean maximum values for PM2.5 were 12 µg m−3, except at one of the measuring sites, with 17 µg m−3 for the morning maximum and 1 µg m−3 more for the nocturnal peak. In addition, the impact of long-distance transport of air masses in the study area was analysed by applying a HYSPLIT trajectory model, taking into account backward trajectories of European, African, and Atlantic origins as well as local conditions. In particular, high concentration events due to Saharan dust intrusions are presented. Finally, background levels of particle concentrations estimated at most sampling areas were around 15 and 7.7 µg m−3 for the PM10 and PM2.5 particle fractions, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0581-3
  • Response to Comment on: “Estimating the Bioconcentration Factors of
           Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals from Biotransformation Rates Using Rainbow
           Trout Hepatocytes”
    • Authors: Frank A. P. C. Gobas; Yung-Shan Lee; Leslie J. Saunders; Margo M. Moore; Jennifer J. Trowell; Christopher J. Kennedy
      PubDate: 2018-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0579-x
  • Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Surface Waters from the Inner
           City of Beijing, China: Influence of Hospitals and Reclaimed Water
    • Authors: Guo-Hui Lu; Hai-Tao Piao; Nan Gai; Peng-Wei Shao; Yu Zheng; Xing-Chun Jiao; Zhu Rao; Yong-Liang Yang
      Abstract: Surface waters from five districts in the inner city of Beijing were collected for analysis of 43 target compounds of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) to understand the spatial distribution patterns of different groups of PPCPs in the central urban area of a metropolitan city characterized by many hospitals and public parks. The total concentrations of PPCPs showed large spatial variability, ranging from 71.1 to 2400 ng/L. The x-ray contrast medium iopromide was the compound with the highest concentrations. Pharmaceuticals showed similar spatial distributional patterns with large hospitals. Positive correlations between iopromide and pharmaceuticals were observed. In contrast, in general there is no correlation between iopromide and personal care products. The concentrations of PPCPs in the landscape waters were not high but were characterized by high proportions of acidic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with low or even negative removal efficiencies in the WWTP in Beijing, suggesting that the reclaimed water irrigation can be another source of PPCPs in surface waters in the inner city of Beijing.
      PubDate: 2018-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0578-y
  • Experimental and Theoretical Determination of Henry’s Law Constant for
           Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Its Dependence on Solubility and Degree of
    • Authors: R. C. Bhangare; P. Y. Ajmal; T. D. Rathod; M. Tiwari; S. K. Sahu
      Abstract: The fate of a pollutant in the environment depends on its interaction with the surroundings. Henry’s law constant (HLC) is one of the important properties useful for assessment of environmental risk and estimation of mass transfer of the pollutant between water and air. Estimation of HLC is relatively a difficult task for many of the organic pollutants due to their very low aqueous solubility. People have attempted the measurement of HLC for persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but due to the difficulty in estimation, there is a variation of approximately 2–3 orders of magnitude in reported values of HLC for PCBs in the literature. A study was performed for estimation of HLC for PCBs using the static method with a modification that eliminates any disturbance in equilibrium due to sampling and also avoids removal or addition of material in or out of the system unlike the conventional methods. The results were consistent with the literature values. The experimental values of HLC ranged from 0.004 to 0.08 for different congeners. All of the experimental values were in agreement with the literature values. The experimental data was further used for deriving a correlation equation for theoretical estimation of the HLC from aqueous solubility and chlorination number. The equation gave a very good estimation of HLC values for all the PCBs congeners except single- and double-chlorinated congeners. The theoretically predicted values were also found to be in close agreement with the reported HLC values.
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0577-z
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