Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2570 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2570 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Legacy and Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants in Bizerte Lagoon Murex (
           Hexaplex Trunculus ): Levels and Human Health Risk Assessment
    • Abstract: Abstract Occurrence of traditional (PBDEs) and novel (HBB, PBEB, DBDPE) brominated flame retardants, as well as the natural compounds of MeO-PBDEs, were studied in a shellfish species (Hexaplex trunculus) sampled from Bizerte Lagoon. PBDE and MeO-PBDE mean concentrations in murex soft tissues were 187 and 264 ng g−1 lw respectively. The alternative flame retardants were not identified. The sum of PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels recorded in murex from the investigated aquatic ecosystem were comparable or a relatively lower than those reported for other organisms from other regions across the world. The amount of PBDE and MeO-PBDE concentrations from the Bizerte Lagoon recorded in murex were comparable or a relatively lower than those recorded from other areas across the world for other species. There is not a danger to the population health with regard to PBDE intakes associated with the consumption of murex in Bizerte city. We believe that this is the first study of the analysis of these pollutants in marine gastropod mollusks from Tunisian aquatic areas.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14
       
  • Distribution, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic
           Compounds in Hefei City
    • Abstract: Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in the formation of ozone formation, which plays a significant role in regional air contamination and poses a great threat to human health. The VOCs were collected from the urban area of Hefei city via an off-line sampling method (SUMMA canister) and determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer. The average concentrations of VOCs were 17.65 ± 28.36 ppbv, which were mainly contributed by aromatics (10.02 ± 13.37 ppbv), haloalkane (5.37 ± 8.90 ppbv), ally halide (1.25 ± 3.36 ppbv), and aryl halid (1.02 ± 2.73 ppbv). According to the principal component analysis, three major sources were identified, including solvent use, vehicle exhaust, and industrial release, accounting for 70.6% of the total variance of the data. Health risk assessment was utilized to evaluate the potential adverse health effects of the individual VOC. The total hazard ratio in the selected area was higher than 1, where could pose health threat to exposed population. The cancer risk for benzene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloromethane, and 1, 2-dichloroethane were 4.8 × 10−5, 4.5 × 10−5, 3.3 × 10−5, and 2.5 × 10−5, respectively, indicating definite health risks.
      PubDate: 2020-01-13
       
  • Reply to Comment on “Bioaccumulation of Methyl Siloxanes in Common Carp
           
    • PubDate: 2020-01-11
       
  • A Simple Approach to the Toxicity Prediction of Anilines and Phenols
           Towards Aquatic Organisms
    • Abstract: Abstract Chemicals pollution in the environment has attracted attention all over the world, and the toxicity prediction of chemical pollutants has become quite important. In this paper, we introduce a simple approach to predict the toxicity of some chemical components, in which the Tchebichef image moment (TM) method was employed to extract useful chemical information from the images of molecular structures to establish quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) prediction models. The proposed approach was applied to predict the toxicity of anilines and phenols for the aquatic organisms of P. subcapitata and V. fischeri, in which the obtained TMs were defined as the independent variables, while the biological toxicity (pEC50) was regarded to be the dependent variable. Then, the predictive models were established by stepwise regression, respectively. The obtained squared correlation coefficients of leave-one-out cross-validation (Q2) for training sets and the predictive squared correlation coefficients (Rp2) for test sets of the two groups of data were higher than 0.79 and 0.75, respectively, which indicated that the obtained models possessed satisfactory accuracy and reliability. Compared with several reported methods, the proposed approach was more convenient and has a higher predictive capability. Our study provides another perspective in QSAR research.
      PubDate: 2020-01-08
       
  • Sources and a Health Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements in Dust
           at Children’s Playgrounds with Artificial Surfaces: A Case Study in
           Belgrade
    • Abstract: Abstract The focus of this research on children’s playgrounds with artificial surfaces aimed to establish levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in dust, their origin, and impact on children at 15 playgrounds: 9 on school grounds and 6 on day nurseries in Belgrade (Serbia). Soil samples were taken from the immediate vicinity of the playgrounds to establish the origin of PTEs in the dust samples. Soil analyses revealed the lithogenic origin of Co, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn and the anthropogenic origin of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. However, in the dust samples, the origin of the elements was different with As, Co, Fe, and Mn originating from the surrounding soil; Cr and Ni levels affected by both atmospheric deposition and the surrounding soil; Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations impacted by atmospheric deposition; and Cu levels affected by factors of a local character. No noncancer risk was found for any of the individual elements investigated, nor for any of the playgrounds being studied, while a minimal cancer risk was found from As with values greater than 1E−6 at almost all the sites. Based on the results obtained for the spatial distribution of individual PTE levels, it was determined that the surrounding soil and atmospheric deposition have an almost equal impact on noncancer risk values.
      PubDate: 2020-01-04
       
  • Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Two Sites, in
           Bursa, Turkey: Determination of Concentrations, Gas–Particle
           Partitioning, Sources, and Health Risk
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using particle and gas-phase air samples collected in the Ovaakca and Cumalikizik region of Bursa, between May and September 2017. The concentration of Σ16PAH measured in the gas phase, for Ovaakca and Cumalikizik, were 5.32 ± 1.98 and 4.91 ± 3.41 ng m−3, respectively; and for the particle phase, 0.81 ± 0.56 and 1.84 ± 1.82 ng m−3, respectively. The coefficient of gas-particle partitioning was related to the excessive cooled vapor pressure. The determined slope values were − 0.319 (Ovaakca) and − 0.505 (Cumalikizik), which showed the strong effect of organic carbon absorption and the distance to the equilibrium. These experimental values were compared with the results obtained using the octanol/air and Dual partition models, and Dual partition model showed more accurate values than the octanol/air model. The relations between temperature and concentration in the gas phase of PAHs were evaluated using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. The results indicated the influence of long-range transport of the atmospheric concentrations of PAHs at the regions. Diagnostic ratio analysis showed that biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicular emissions contributed greatly to the atmospheric PAHs in the regions. In principal component analysis analysis, wood-burning was found to be the predominant parameter in addition to PAH sources determined with diagnostic ratios. In this study, the lifetime risk of lung cancer was calculated according to the mean and max BaP-TEQ values. When calculated according to the average values, while both regions were acceptable risk levels (Ovaakca: 2.6 × 10−6 and Cumalikizik: 8.6 × 10−6), at low-risk level was determined according to max BaP-TEQ values only in the Cumalikizik region (1.93 × 10−5).
      PubDate: 2020-01-04
       
  • Integrated Assessment of Bioconcentration, Toxicity, and Hazards of
           Chlorobenzenes in the Aquatic Environment
    • Abstract: Abstract The evaluation of bioconcentration, toxicity, and hazard (BTH) of persistent lipophilic organic compounds (LOCs) are generally performed as separate rather than integrated assessments. There are adequate data sets in the literature for chlorobenzenes (CBs) consisting of (a) concentrations in aquatic biota (CB) and water (Cw) in the natural environment, (b) laboratory-derived bioconcentration factors (KB) and field concentration ratios (CR), the field equivalent factor of KB, (c) measured internal lethal concentrations (ILC50) and model estimated ILC50 calculated from KB and lethal concentrations (LC50), and (d) calculated hazard quotients in aquatic biota (HQB) and in water (HQW). However, there have been no integrated studies of those parameter values based on the respective lipid-based parameters (CBL, KBL, CRL, ILC50L, HQBL) performed. This study utilized the lipid-based parameters for CBs; a group of widely occuring, bioaccumulative, and toxic LOCs, and integrated those parameters into a bioconcentration–toxicity–hazard (BTHL) index. The values of the parameters were obtained from selected literature with known lipid contents of the aquatic biota. The results showed that the laboratory derived bioconcentration factors, KBLs, were comparable to the corresponding field based factors, CRLs, and the measured internal lethal concentrations, ILC50L, showed comparable values with the estimated ones. The integrated BTHL index was less than an order of magnitude or moderately acceptable for the assessment of variability, uncertainty, and predictive power of the index. This integrated assessment can be used to support decision making dealing with CBs in specific and LOCs in general, both in regional and global aquatic environments.
      PubDate: 2020-01-02
       
  • First Investigation of Seasonal Concentration Behaviors and Sources
           Assessment of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon in Waters and Sediments from Wadi El
           Bey, Tunisia
    • Abstract: Abstract The contents, composition profiles, and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons were examined in surface sediment and water samples collected from Wadi El Bey, in Tunisia, during different year seasons in 14 stations receiving domestic effluent, industrial discharge, and agricultural drainage wastes. The target substances were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Total concentrations of n-alkanes (n-C14-n-C38) ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 18.14 ± 0.1 µg/L in waters and 0.22 ± 0.04 to 31.9 ± 24.6 µg/g in sediments, while total aliphatic fraction ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 196 ± 140 µg/L in waters and 0.22 ± 0.04 to 1977 ± 1219 µg/g in sediments, which means that almost all sites were affected by hydrocarbon contents in sediments exceeding the recommended limit (100 µg/g). Various diagnostic indices (ADIs) were used to identify the hydrocarbon sources, namely the concentration ratios of individual compounds (n-C17/pristane, n-C18/phytane, pristane/phytane, n-C29/n-C17, n-C31/n-C19) as well as cumulative quantities (Carbon Preference Index, natural n-alkanes ratio, terrigenous/aquatic compounds ratio, unresolved complex mixture percentage, low molecular weight vs. high molecular weight homologues, Alkane Proxy and Terrestrial Marine Discriminants). In general, these indexes indicated that the origin of aliphatic hydrocarbons affecting sediments and waters of Wadi El Bey were linked to both biogenic and petrogenic inputs, attesting the impact of plankton and terrestrial plants and of oil contamination, respectively. The average carbon chain length computation (ACL), used to further index the chemical environment, ranged from 25.5 to 31.1 in sediments and 47.9–116 in waters. This finding could depend on the severe disturbances suffered by the ecosystem as a consequence of heavy anthropogenic inputs. Petroleum contamination associated with high eutrophication rates in Wadi El Bey must be strictly controlled, due to possible harmful effects induced on ecosystem and humans.
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • Characterization of PM 2.5 -Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Two
           Central China Cities: Seasonal Variation, Sources, and Health Risk
           Assessment
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, ambient PM2.5 samples were collected from October 2014 to August 2015 in urban area of Luoyang (LY) and Pingdingshan (PDS), two medium-size industrial cities in central China. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to investigate the seasonal variation, potential pollution sources, and health risk of PAHs bound to PM2.5 (PM2.5-bound PAHs). The diagnostic ratios analysis and positive matrix fraction (PMF) model were used to identify potential sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound PAHs were 128 μg m−3 and 73 ng m−3 for LY, and 119 μg m−3 and 182 ng m−3 for PDS, respectively, both displaying seasonal trends with higher concentrations in winter and autumn than in spring and summer. BaP equivalent concentrations were 14.4 and 16.5 ng m−3 in LY and PDS, respectively. The predominant PAHs were 4–6 ring PAHs, with contribution of more than 80% at both sampling sites. PMF analysis revealed that coal combustion was the most important source of PM2.5-bound PAHs in LY and PDS, accounting for 37% and 39%, respectively, followed by traffic emissions (34% and 33% in LY and PDS, respectively). The average inhalation cancer risk (ICR) for a lifetime of 70 years were 12.5 × 10−4 and 14.3 × 10−4 in LY and PDS, respectively, which were much higher than US EPA guideline limit of 10−6. The traffic source and coal combustion source contributed the highest ICR values in LY and PDS, respectively.
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • The Effects of Microplastics on Dolioletta gegenbauri (Tunicata,
           Thaliacea)
    • Abstract: Abstract Oceanographic studies revealed the abundance of minute plastic particles in coastal regions. Such particles, called microplastics, are abundant in sizes smaller than 100 µm ESD (Equivalent Spherical Diameter) and can be collected and ingested by planktonic copepods. Those animals are the most abundant metazoans on our planet. Abundantly co-occurring with planktonic copepods in subtropical and temperate neritic waters are doliolids (Tunicata, Thaliacea), which can dominate subtropical shelves because of their high asexual reproductive performance. Our studies were designed to examine the effects of polystyrene beads at low abundance, compared with phytoplankton, on abundantly occurring gonozooids of Dolioletta gegenbauri. Our findings reveal that such abundance of microplastic particles, in the presence of environmental concentrations of phytoplankton, reduces rates of feeding, growth, and oxygen consumption of this tunicate. Feeding rates on phytoplankton in the presence of beads were reduced by up to 58%, growth rates by up to 85%, and oxygen consumption rates by up to 33%. We conclude that such microplastic particles could limit the often in situ encountered pronounced proliferation of this tunicate species (Deibel in: Bone (ed) The biology of pelagic tunicates, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998).
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • Assessment of Gene Expression Biomarkers in the Chilean Pencil Catfish,
           Trichomycterus areolatus , from the Choapa River Basin, Coquimbo Chile
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to describe changes in the gene expression in the Chilean catfish, Trichomycterus areolatus, based on their geographic location within the Choapa River. Genes of choice included those that are biomarkers of exposure to metals, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption. Male and female T. areolatus were sampled from four sites in January 2015 differently impacted by human activities. In males, but not females, hepatic gene expression of heat shock protein (HSP70) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were significantly elevated at the site adjacent to the small city of Salamanca, relative to the other sites. In females, hepatic HSP70, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the estrogen responsive genes, vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), were significantly lower at the site located furthest downstream. A similar downstream pattern of lower expression levels also was found in ovarian tissue for the genes, HSP70 and ERα. Gill gene expression showed a unique pattern in females as levels of metallothionein were elevated at the site furthest downstream. While analytical chemistry of water samples provided limited evidence of agrichemical contamination, the gene expression data are consistent with an exposure to agrichemicals and metals. T. areolatus may be a valuable sentinel organism and its use as a bioindicator species in some rivers within Chile can provide considerable insight, particularly in situations analytical chemistry is limited by environmental constraints.
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • Spatial Distribution and Formation Mechanism of Water-soluble Inorganic
           Ions in PM 2.5 During a Typical Winter Haze Episode in Guilin, China
    • Abstract: Abstract A 5-day PM2.5 sampling campaign was conducted during a typical haze episode from December 16 to 20, 2016, at five urban sites and one background site in Guilin, a famous tourist city in Southern China. A total of 30 PM2.5 samples were collected, and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII) (SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Cl−, Na+, and Mg2+) were determined using ion chromatography. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and coefficient of divergence were applied to identify the formation mechanisms of secondary inorganic ions, potential sources, and spatial distribution of WSII. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 at each sampling site were 71.6–127.85 μg m−3, which were more than the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-2012, GradeII (35 μg m−3)) in China. SO42− NO3−, and NH4+ were the major WSII, accounting for 34.43–40.59% of PM2.5 mass. NO3−/SO42− ratio revealed that stationary sources-induced PM2.5 was still remarkable. Cl−/Na+ ratio and their strong correlation (r = 0.824) indicated that atmospheric transport from outside urban region played an effective role during the haze episode. Spatial variations of WSII are not pronounced at five urban sites except the background site. High relative humidity and O3 contributed to evidently influence the transformation of SO2 to SO42− but not obvious to NOx oxidation. Finally, the major sources of WSII are identified as the mixture of sea salt, coal combustion, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and agricultural emissions (66.892%), and fugitive sources (19.7%).
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • Oxidative Potential of Chemical Mixtures Extracted from Contaminated
           Galveston Bay, TX Seafood Using a Human Cell Co-culture Model
    • Abstract: Abstract Increasing levels of pollution in Galveston Bay, TX, are of significant concern for populations that directly depend on fishing activities. Efforts to evaluate contaminant levels in commercial fish have been largely limited to the quantification of chemical mixtures in fish tissue, but little information exists about the toxicological potential of these chemicals on consumption of contaminated seafood. The present study makes use of a human cell co-culture model, mimicking the digestive system, to address the oxidative potential of chemical mixtures in seafood. Chemical extractions were performed on fillets from three fish species and oysters collected from different areas in Galveston Bay. The resulting extracts were used to expose intestinal and liver cells before the measurement of cytotoxicity and activity of antioxidant enzymes. The pesticide 4,4′-DDE was found in nearly all samples from all sites in concentrations ranging from 0.23–9.4 µg/kg. Similarly, total PCBs found in fish and oyster tissue ranged from 0.68–65.65 µg/kg, with PCB-118 being the most common congener measured. In terms of cytotoxicity, oyster extracts led to significant cell mortality, contrary to observations for fish extracts. Antioxidant enzymes, while not directly related to the presence of chemical mixtures in tissue, presented evidence of potential increases in activity from spotted trout extracts. Observations from this study suggest the need to evaluate toxicological aspects of contaminated seafood and support the use of in vitro models for the screening of accumulated chemicals.
      PubDate: 2019-12-23
       
  • Distribution and Characterization of Microplastics in Surface Waters and
           the Southern Caspian Sea Coasts Sediments
    • Abstract: Abstract The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed aquatic ecosystem in the world. The combinations of the toxic pollutants with microplastics endanger the Caspian Sea ecosystem. In this work, the distribution of microplastics was studied in surface waters and southern Caspian Sea coasts sediments. The samples were collected from eight stations, including the Tonakabon, Chalos, Nowshahr, Noor, Mahmood Abad, Babolsar, Sari, and Neka coasts. The average concentrations of microplastics in the coastal waters and sediments were 34,490 particles per km2 and 210 particles per kg, respectively. Isolated microplastics were characterized using ATR-FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) techniques. The samples exhibited a strong carbon peak in the EDS spectra, which was screened as microplastic particles. The microplastics were mainly fragments and foams and identified as polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene by means of ATR-FTIR spectra. This is the first study to determine the distribution of microplastics in southern Caspian coastal regions.
      PubDate: 2019-12-23
       
  • Influence of Vehicular Emissions (NO, NO 2 , CO and NMHCs) on the Mixing
           Ratio of Atmospheric Ammonia (NH 3 ) in Delhi, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Mixing ratios of atmospheric ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and methane (CH4) were measured to investigate the vehicular emissions, which are a dominant source of atmospheric NH3 in urban sites of Delhi, India from January 2013 to December 2014. The annual average mixing ratios of NH3, NO, CO, NMHCs, and CH4 were 21.2 ± 2.1 ppb, 21.2 ± 6.1 ppb, 1.89 ± 0.18 ppm, 0.67 ± 0.21 ppm and 3.11 ± 0.53 ppm, respectively. Considering NO as a tracer of vehicular plume, ambient NH3 was correlated with NO during peak traffic hour in the morning (7:00–10:00 h) and evening (17:00–19:00 h) and observed significant positive correlation between them. Result reveals that the mixing ratio of atmospheric NH3 significantly positive correlated with traffic related pollutants (NO, CO, and NHHCs) during all the seasons (winter, summer, and monsoon). During winter, the average mixing ratio of atmospheric NH3 was increased by 1.2–3.5 ppb in the morning peak hour, whereas increased by 0.3–1.6 ppb in the evening peak hour. Similarly, an increase in NH3 mixing ratio was observed during summer (morning: 1.2–2.7 ppb and evening: 1.5–1.6 ppb) and monsoon (morning: 0.4–3.6 ppb and evening: 0.9–1.4 ppb) seasons. The results emphasized that the traffic could be one of the dominant source of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi, as illustrated by positive relationships of NH3 with traffic related co-pollutants (NO, CO and NMHCs).
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
       
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Road Dust Collected from
           Myanmar, Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust from Myanmar, Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam. PAHs were detected in urban and rural areas of Myanmar at mean concentrations of 630 ng/g dry weight and 200 ng/g dry weight, respectively. PAHs were also detected in road dust from Vietnam (mean 1700 ng/g) and Taiwan (2400 ng/g). PAH diagnostic ratios suggested that fossil fuel vehicular exhaust and biomass combustion are major sources of PAHs in road dust in Myanmar. Road dust samples from Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam had similar PAH diagnostic ratios, implying that PAH sources are similar. We assessed the human health risks posed by PAHs in road dust using carcinogenic equivalents (CEQs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Mean CEQs were decreased in the order Taiwan (173 ng/g) > Vietnam (162 ng/g for Hanoi) > Myanmar (42 and 31 ng/g for Yangon and Pathein, respectively) > Japan (30 ng/g for Kumamoto). Benz[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene, the predominant PAHs, contributed > 70% of total CEQs. High ILCR values were found for Taiwan (5.9 × 10−4 and 9.9 × 10−4 for children and adults, respectively) and Vietnam (6.5 × 10−4 and 9.2 × 10−4 for children and adults, respectively, in Hanoi), indicating that PAHs in road dust pose cancer risks to the inhabitants of Taiwan and Hanoi. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify PAH pollution in the environment and to evaluate the human health risks of these PAHs in Myanmar.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
       
  • Elemental Composition of PM 2.5 Aerosol in a Residential–Industrial Area
           of a Mediterranean Megacity
    • Abstract: Abstract Very little is known about the elemental composition and possible sources of fine aerosol particles from Mediterranean megacities. Fine aerosol particles were collected at a residential-industrial area in Greater Cairo, Egypt, during the period from October 2010 to May 2011. The elemental compositions of the collected samples were quantified by using a homemade energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, whereas black carbon was quantified by a black smoke detector. Fifteen elements have been quantified. Of these constituents, Ca, C, Cl, S, and Fe had the highest concentrations: greater than 1 µg m−3. The overall mean mass concentration of the collected samples equals 70 µg m−3; this value exceeds the European Union annual Air Quality Standard levels. The individual elemental concentrations of the fine particles were found to be dominated by elements linked to mineral dust. Most of the monthly variations of elemental concentrations can be attributed to seasonal meteorological conditions. Other possible sources were vehicle-exhaust and industrial activities. The results pinpoint the problem of identifying different sources when one source, in this case, the nearby deserts, is dominant. The results from this study contribute to the growing knowledge of concentrations, composition, and possible sources of ambient fine particulate matter.
      PubDate: 2019-11-23
       
  • Investigations of the Atmospheric Deposition of Major and Trace Elements
           in Western Tajikistan by Using the Hylocomium splendens Moss as
           Bioindicators
    • Abstract: Abstract The study was performed in a mountainous area of approximately 7000 sq. km of Western Tajikistan, i.e., Turkestan, Zeravshan, Hissar, and Karateghin ridges that are characterized by complex geological settings. Moss biomonitoring was used to assess the concentration level of trace and major elements in atmospheric deposition of the study area. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. moss was used as biomonitor in this study. 43 major and trace-elements were determined by Epithermal Neutron Activation (ENAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). GIS maps of the 43 elements showed that the distribution of Mo, Cd, REE, Th, and U could be most probably associated with the Odjuk pegmatite field. Zr, Hf, and W contents are significantly increased in the vicinity of the Sarbo River washout while Cr, Co, Ni, and As showed a maximum content near Kanchoch gold field. The global pollution index based on the local content of presumed pollutants Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb in some places exceeded the threshold limits for a pristine, unpolluted environment. At the same time, the distribution of incompatible Sc, La, Yb, and Th suggested for the airborne material deposited on mosses a continental component, enriched in few places in felsic components.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
       
  • Variation in the Concentration of Metals in Road Dust Size Fractions
           Between 2 µm and 2 mm: Results from Three Metallurgical Centres in
           Poland
    • Abstract: Abstract The composition of road dust is influenced by emissions from local industry as well as by traffic emissions. Thus, the composition of urban road dust can be used as an indicator for environmental pollution. Pollutants contained in road dust also are transferred into the atmosphere by resuspension and into the aquatic system by wash-off. In this transfer, the particle size of the road dust particles is of extreme importance. Therefore, information about the composition of road dust in dependence of the particle size is crucial. In this study, road dust samples were separated by air classification into size fractions down to 2 µm. The chemical analysis of the size fractions also revealed a significant size dependence of the metal concentrations in the finest size fractions. The least polluted size fraction was generally the fraction 200–500 µm, whereas the highest concentrations were measured in the finest size fraction < 2 µm. These results are important for the assessment of the mass fraction of the various pollutants in the mobile size fractions in re-entrainment as well as in run-off during rainfall.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
       
  • Acute Toxicity of Salt Cavern Brine on Early Life Stages of Striped Bass (
           Morone saxatilis )
    • Abstract: Abstract A plan to create solution-mined salt caverns for natural gas storage by discharging brine into the Shubenacadie River estuary poses a potential risk to an “endangered” stock of striped bass. Toxicity of brine made from both salt-core and artificial sea-salt “Instant Ocean” was assessed by 1-h acute toxicity tests at both 19 °C and 12 °C, the typical thermal range in June, post-spawning. The short test duration was justified given the rapid dilution of the brine in the macrotidal estuary. The median lethal concentration (LC50 1 h) 95% confidence intervals of salt-core brine at 19 °C for eggs was 51–60 parts per thousand (ppt); yolk-sac larvae 34–55 ppt; first-feeding stage larvae (6–8 mm total length, TL) 37–44 ppt, and 30–46 ppt for large larvae (14–20 mm TL). Among juveniles, the median lethal concentration was significantly higher compared to larvae: 51–58 ppt for early juveniles (4-cm fork length, FL) and 63–67 ppt for juveniles 12-cm FL. The toxicity of brine made from either Instant Ocean or salt-core was similar. At 12 °C, yolk-sac larvae salinity tolerance was 30% lower than at 19 °C, whereas other life stages exhibited a similar response to 12 °C and 19 °C. The threshold observed effect concentration (TOEC) of the salt-core ranged from 24.4 ppt on large larvae to 59.7 ppt on 12-cm juveniles. In conclusion, a very low direct threat to striped bass is estimated for the discharge of brine into the Shubenacadie River estuary.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
       
 
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