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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Toxicological Effect of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Soil and Aquatic
           Habitats
    • Authors: Khushi Mukherjee; Krishnendu Acharya
      Pages: 175 - 186
      Abstract: Metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) with multifunctional properties are used extensively in various industries and released into the environment as industrial effluents and waste nano-products. These non-degradable, toxic MO-NPs are accumulating in the environment, debilitating the ecosystem and their biological communities. In this review article, a real-time scenario of MO-NP toxicity towards the soil and aquatic ecosystem and their mode of toxicity have been addressed in detail. The up-to-date information presented here suggests serious consideration of the consequences before random utilization of MO-NPs.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0519-9
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Historical Records and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic
           Hydrocarbons Over the Past 100 Years in Dianchi Lake, a Plateau Lake in
           Southwest China
    • Authors: Xiaohua Ma; Xiuxiu Han; Quanliang Jiang; Changchun Huang; Tao Huang; Hao Yang; Ling Yao
      Pages: 187 - 198
      Abstract: Two sediment cores were collected from Dianchi Lake, a plateau lake in Southwest China, to study the temporal trends and to investigate the sources of sedimentary deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The ΣPAH16 concentration in the two sediment cores ranged from 172.5 to 2244.8 ng/g and from 211.4 to 1777.8 ng/g, with mean values of 1106.2 and 865.1 ng/g, respectively. Three temporal trends for the ΣPAH16 concentration and the composition of PAHs in Dianchi Lake all showed three typical changing stages: (1) slight changes in deeper segments before the 1950s; (2) a rapid increase in PAH concentrations between the 1960s and 1990s; and (3) a slight reduction from the 1990s onward. These trends differ from those observed in developed countries due to differences in the timing of industrialization and urbanization processes. According to the results of the molecular ratios and principal component analysis, the PAH deposition was dominated by coal combustion, wood combustion, and vehicle emissions before and after the 1960s, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0525-y
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Water Quality Assessment of the Pardo River Basin, Brazil: A Multivariate
           Approach Using Limnological Parameters, Metal Concentrations and Indicator
           Bacteria
    • Authors: Renato I. S. Alves; Carolina S. Machado; Cassio F. Beda; Brisa M. Fregonesi; Martí Nadal; Jordi Sierra; Josep L. Domingo; Susana I. Segura-Muñoz
      Pages: 199 - 212
      Abstract: Located in the southeast of Brazil, the Pardo River Basin has a large population and an economy focused on agriculture, with a strong predominance of the sugarcane agro-industry. The purpose of the study was to assess the water quality of the Pardo River Basin under a multivariate approach using limnological parameters, metal concentrations, and indicator bacteria. Nine sampling campaigns were performed during both the dry and rainy seasons. Element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS, Perkin Elmer Elan 6000). A battery of test to determine limnological parameters was performed (in situ). Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were detected and quantified using Defined Substrate Technology Colilert® and multiple tube dilutions. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used as multivariate exploratory analysis. In general, the results suggest the influence of rain, possible sewage discharges into the watercourse, and the input of organic matter in some sampling points in both seasons, besides the absence of riparian vegetation in much of the Pardo River. The likely influence of industrial activities that do not have great prominence in the region was supported by temporal/spatial assessment of Cr and V. The water quality monitoring of Pardo River is an important tool for environmental management, and its continuity is indicated to obtain a consistent series of systematic data and thereby support concretely the actions of planning and controlling the use of water from the Pardo River and soil around them.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0493-7
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Typical Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Rivers of Northeast China:
           Occurrence, Partitioning, and Risk Assessment
    • Authors: Ruijie Tan; Ruixia Liu; Bin Li; Xiaoling Liu; Zongsheng Li
      Pages: 213 - 223
      Abstract: Liao River Basin (LRB), located in northeast China, is one of seven largest river basins in China. The Daliao River Watershed (DLRW) is severely disturbed by human activities in the LRB. In this study, three rivers within the DLRW—Xi River (XR), Hun River (HR), and Daliao River (DLR)—were selected as sampling locations. The distribution, partitioning, and risk assessment of four endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), e.g., bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), in the rivers were investigated. The results showed that the concentration of BPA was generally higher than those of the other three steroidal estrogens in the sampling locations. The estrogen levels in the XR were greater than those in the HR and DLR. As a result of a decreasing river flow rate during the frozen season and irregular wastewater discharge from human domestic activities and manufacture processing, the total concentration of selected EDCs in the frozen season was much greater than those in nonfrozen season with the highest concentration in surface water of the XR at 1131.0 ng/L for BPA, 1235.0 ng/L for E1, 1253.5 ng/L for E2, and 17,111.5 ng/L for EE2, respectively. Based on the field-measured BPA concentrations in the sediment and water, the organic carbon-normalized partition coefficient (K oc) of BPA were calculated with the values of 2884–45,031 L/kg; the concentration of BPA in sediment was positive correlated with the content of OC (R 2 = 0.932). The risk assessment made by estradiol equivalent (EEQ) and risk quotient (RQ) showed that 64.7% of sampling sites were exposed to high estrogenic activity (∑EEQ > 1) and high risk in surface water, whereas the RQ values of all selected estrogens in sediment were in medium or minimal risk. Both EE2 and E1 were the major contributors to the total estrogenic activity and risk quotient in surface water.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0482-x
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Occurrence and Ecological Risk Assessment of Eight Endocrine-Disrupting
           Chemicals in Urban River Water and Sediments of South China
    • Authors: Cong Huang; Liu-Hong Wu; Guo-Qiang Liu; Lei Shi; Ying Guo
      Pages: 224 - 235
      Abstract: Chemicals in the water of urban areas are representative of the occurrence of these chemicals in the city surrounding water systems and reflect recent human or industrial usage of those chemicals in the sampling areas. In this study, the levels of eight endocrine-disrupting chemicals [including bisphenol analogues, parabens, and triclosan (TCS)] were determined in urban river water and sediments in Guangzhou, South China, and their related ecological risks were evaluated. The eight target chemicals were frequently detected in our samples, with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 65,600 ng/L and from ND to 492 ng/g dw in river water and sediments, respectively. Among these chemicals, the three most abundant were bisphenol A (BPA) (accounting for 35% of the total amount), methyl paraben (MeP) (23%), and TCS (14%) in river water and BPA (43%), TCS (37%), and MeP (14%) in sediments. Significant correlations were found between most target EDCs, particularly MeP and TCS, in river water and sediments (both p < 0.01), indicating their similar sources and wide usage. The ecological risk assessment methods used suggested that TCS was the chemical of primary concern, with an average hazard quotient (HQ) = 1.57 (up to 11.5) in river water and an average HQ = 0.74 (up to 3.63) in sediments. In addition, the ecological risk assessment of different sampling sites indicated a suspected high-risk level for some sites in the study area.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0527-9
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Endocrine-Disrupting Activities and Organic Contaminants Associated with
           Oil and Gas Operations in Wyoming Groundwater
    • Authors: Christopher D. Kassotis; Danh C. Vu; Phuc H. Vo; Chung-Ho Lin; Jennifer N. Cornelius-Green; Sharyle Patton; Susan C. Nagel
      Pages: 247 - 258
      Abstract: Unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) operations couple horizontal drilling with hydraulic fracturing to access previously inaccessible fossil fuel deposits. Hydraulic fracturing, a common form of stimulation, involves the high-pressure injection of water, chemicals, and sand to fracture the target layer and release trapped natural gas and/or oil. Spills and/or discharges of wastewater have been shown to impact surface, ground, and drinking water. The goals of this study were to characterize the endocrine activities and measure select organic contaminants in groundwater from conventional oil and gas (COG) and UOG production regions of Wyoming. Groundwater samples were collected from each region, solid-phase extracted, and assessed for endocrine activities (estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid, and thyroid receptor agonism and antagonism), using reporter gene assays in human endometrial cells. Water samples from UOG and conventional oil areas exhibited greater ER antagonist activities than water samples from conventional gas areas. Samples from UOG areas tended to exhibit progesterone receptor antagonism more often, suggesting there may be a UOG-related impact on these endocrine activities. We also report UOG-specific contaminants in Pavillion groundwater extracts, and these same chemicals at high concentrations in a local UOG wastewater sample. A unique suite of contaminants was observed in groundwater from a permitted drinking water well at a COG well pad and not at any UOG sites; high levels of endocrine activities (most notably, maximal estrogenic activity) were noted there, suggesting putative impacts on endocrine bioactivities by COG. As such, we report two levels of evidence for groundwater contamination by both UOG and COG operations in Wyoming.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0521-2
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Characterization and Identification of Recalcitrant Organic Pollutants
           (ROPs) in Tannery Wastewater and Its Phytotoxicity Evaluation for
           Environmental Safety
    • Authors: Ram Naresh Bharagava; Gaurav Saxena; Sikandar I. Mulla; Devendra Kumar Patel
      Pages: 259 - 272
      Abstract: Tannery wastewater (TWW) is of serious environmental concern to pollution control authorities, because it contains highly toxic, recalcitrant organic and inorganic pollutants. The nature and characteristics of recalcitrant organic pollutants (ROPs) are not fully explored to date. Hence, the purpose of this study was to characterize and identify the ROPs present in the treated TWW. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry data analysis showed the presence of a variety of ROPs in the treated TWW. Results unfolded that benzyl chloride, butyl octyl phthalate, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3TMS, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl butyl phthalate, 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol, phthalic acid, 2′6′-dihydroxyacetophenone, diisobutyl phthalate, 4-biphenyltrimethylsiloxane, di-(-2ethy hexyl)phthalate, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibenzyl phthalate, and nonylphenol were present in the treated TWW. Due to endocrine disrupting nature and aquatic toxicity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency classified many of these as “priority pollutants” and restricted their use in leather industries. In addition, the physicochemical analysis of the treated TWW also showed very high BOD, COD, and TDS values along with high Cr and Pb content beyond the permissible limits for industrial discharge. Furthermore, phytotoxicity assessment unfolds the inhibitory effects of TWW on the seed germination, seedling growth parameters, and α-amylase activity in Phaseolus aureus L. This indicates that the TWW discharged even after secondary treatment into the environment has very high pollution parameters and may cause a variety of serious health threats in living beings upon exposure. Overall, the results reported in this study will be helpful for the proper treatment and management of TWW to combat the environmental threats.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0490-x
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Accumulation of 137 Cs by Carnivorous Aquatic Macrophytes ( Utricularia
           spp.) on the Savannah River Site
    • Authors: Alexis M. Korotasz; Albert L. Bryan
      Pages: 273 - 277
      Abstract: Plants are an important mode of transfer of contaminants from sediments into food webs. In aquatic ecosystems, contaminant uptake by macrophytes can vary by path of nutrient uptake (roots vs. absorption from water column). Carnivorous plants likely have additional exposure through consumption of small aquatic organisms. This study expanded on previous research suggesting that bladderworts (Genus Utricularia) accumulate radiocesium (137Cs) and examined for (1) a potential association between sediment and plant concentrations and (2) differences in 137Cs accumulation among rooted and free floating Utricularia species. A strong correlation was found between average 137Cs concentrations in all Utricularia species (combined) and sediments (rs = 0.9, p = 0.0374). Among three bladderwort species at common sites, Utricularia floridana, the only rooted species, had higher mean 137Cs concentrations than Utricularia purpurea, and U. purpurea had a greater mean 137Cs concentration than Utricularia inflata.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0498-2
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Source Apportionment of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) by Positive Matrix
           Factorization (PMF) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) Modeling in Ahvaz,
           Iran
    • Authors: Khosro Ashrafi; Reza Fallah; Mostafa Hadei; Marayam Yarahmadi; Abbas Shahsavani
      Pages: 278 - 294
      Abstract: There is a compelling need for apportionment of pollutants’ sources to facilitate their reduction through proper management plans. The present study was designed to determine the contribution of each possible source of total suspended particles in Ahvaz’s ambient air using positive matrix factorization (PMF), chemical mass balance (CMB), and the SPECIATE database. The sampling program undertaken followed EPA’s guidelines and finally resulted in 74 samples. The concentration of 33 elemental and 10 ionic species were measured during a whole year. Three modeling approaches were applied: PMF, the integrated use of PMF and CMB, and the integrated use of the SPECIATE database and CMB. Six sources were derived by PMF: crustal dust (30.6%), industrial and mining activities (25.4%), motor vehicles (23.4%), marine aerosols (11.5%), secondary inorganic aerosols (5.7%), and road dust (3.4%). The contributions of sources from PMF–CMB approach were crustal dust (32.9%), industrial and mining activities (20.9%), motor vehicles (19.7%), marine aerosols (11.1%), secondary inorganic aerosols (9.2%), and road dust (9.36%). Seven sources were derived by SPECIATE–CMB approach: crustal dust (23.2%), industrial and mining activities (20.1%), motor vehicles (17.5%), marine aerosols (12.4%), secondary inorganic aerosols (4.8%), road dust (5.3%), and “nondetermined sources” factor (16.7%). Despite the different contributions of sources, there is a noticeable consistency between the results of these approaches. Furthermore, because of the approved performance of combined receptor models in previous studies and the presence of sufficient data on the number of species and samples, the results of the PMF–CMB approach are possibly the most realistic among those of the three applied approaches.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0500-z
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Estimating the Bioconcentration Factors of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds
           from Biotransformation Rates Using Rainbow Trout Hepatocytes
    • Authors: Jennifer J. Trowell; Frank A. P. C. Gobas; Margo M. Moore; Christopher J. Kennedy
      Pages: 295 - 305
      Abstract: Determining the biotransformation potential of commercial chemicals is critical for estimating their persistence in the aquatic environment. In vitro systems are becoming increasingly important as screening methods for assessing the potential for chemical metabolism. Depletion rate constants (kd) for several organic chemicals with high octanol–water partition coefficient (Kow) values (9-methylanthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, and PCB-153) in rainbow trout hepatocytes were determined to estimate biotransformation rate constants (kMET) that were used in fish bioconcentration factor (BCF) models. Benzo[a]pyrene was rapidly biotransformed when incubated singly; however, its depletion rate constant (kd) declined 79% in a mixture of all four chemicals. Chrysene also exhibited significant biotransformation and its depletion rate constant declined by 50% in the mixture incubation. These data indicate that biotransformation rates determined using single chemicals may overestimate metabolism in environments containing chemical mixtures. Incubations with varying cell concentrations were used to determine whether cell concentration affected kd estimates. No statistically significant change in depletion rate constants were seen, possibly due to an increase in nonspecific binding of hydrophobic chemicals as cell density increased, decreasing overall biotransformation. A new model was used to estimate BCFs from kMET values calculated from empirically derived kd values. The inclusion of kMET in models resulted in significantly lower BCF values (compared kMET = 0). Modelled BCF values were consistent with empirically derived BCF values from the literature.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0508-z
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of the Razor Clam Tagelus plebeius on the Fate of Petroleum
           Hydrocarbons: A Mesocosm Experiment
    • Authors: P. L. Klerks; A. Kascak; A. M. Cazan; N. Deb Adhikary; A. Chistoserdov; A. Shaik; S. Osman; F. R. Louka
      Pages: 306 - 315
      Abstract: The relationship between organisms and contaminants may be a two-way interaction: contaminants affecting the biota and the biota affecting the environmental fate and distribution of the contaminants. This may be especially so for sediment-dwelling organisms, because their burrowing and feeding can drastically influence sediment characteristics. The present study looked at the influence of the suspension-feeding stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius on the distribution of crude oil and pyrene in greenhouse mesocosm experiments. Water column turbidity and sediment redox also were monitored during the 15- to 30-day exposures to provide information on the influence of hydrocarbons and the razor clams on environmental conditions. For the experiment with crude oil, sediment was taken from the mesocosms at the end of the experiment, and the hydrocarbon-degradation potential was assessed in incubations with 14C-naphthalene. The experiments used four treatments: hydrocarbons present/absent and razor clams present/absent. Hydrocarbon dosing levels were relatively low (1 mL of oil or 30 mg of pyrene per mesocosm with 22 L of natural sediment and 11 L of seawater). The presence of the razor clams resulted in hydrocarbon concentrations at the sediment surface being 25% lower than in mesocosms without clams. No consistent effects were noted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the water column or in subsurface sediment. The naphthalene-degradation potential was elevated for sediment from mesocosms dosed with oil, but the presence of the clams did not affect this potential. The presence of the razor clams resulted in a lowering of water column turbidity, but no effect on sediment redox. The hydrocarbon addition had no effect on turbidity, but sediment redox was lowered. While results show that the presence of the razor clams resulted in a loss of hydrocarbons from the surface sediment, the other results do not provide a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms and the fate of the PAHs lost from the sediment surface. We hypothesize that the loss of surface sediment PAHs was due to burial of surface sediment and possibly bioaccumulation by the clams. While additional research is needed for further insights into underlying mechanisms, the present work demonstrates that the presence of sediment-burrowing suspension feeders decreases hydrocarbon levels in surface sediment. This means that assessments of the impact of an oil spill should pay attention to effects on these organisms and to their influence on the fate and distribution of the spilled oil.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0515-0
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of the Antiparasitic Drug Moxidectin in Cattle Dung on Zooplankton
           and Benthic Invertebrates and its Accumulation in a Water–Sediment
           System
    • Authors: Leticia M. Mesa; J. Hörler; I. Lindt; M. F. Gutiérrez; L. Negro; G. Mayora; L. Montalto; M. Ballent; A. Lifschitz
      Pages: 316 - 326
      Abstract: Two anthelmintic macrocyclic lactones—ivermectin and moxidectin—have revolutionized parasite control in cattle. These drugs are only partly metabolized by livestock, and the main route of excretion is via feces. In seasonally inundated floodplains, cattle feces come into direct contact with surface water. Important differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between these drugs may bear on their ecotoxicology in aquatic ecosystems. Moxidectin strongly binds to organic matter and thereby may be consumed in aquatic food webs, but there is a scarcity of data on toxicity to freshwater invertebrates. The objectives of this work were to determine the effect of moxidectin spiked in cattle dung on survival and growth of three representative aquatic invertebrates: the zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia, the amphipod Hyalella curvispina, and the snail Pomacea canaliculata. Moxidectin-laced dung was added in microcosms and concentrations were measured in water, sediment + dung, roots of the aquatic plant Salvinia biloba, and the aforementioned invertebrates. The influence of moxidectin on nutrient concentrations was also evaluated. Dung was spiked with moxidectin to attain concentrations of 750, 375 and 250 µg kg−1 dung fresh weight, approximating those found in cattle dung at days 2, 3, and 5 following subcutaneous injection. Concentrations of moxidectin in dung during the first week of excretion were lethally toxic for the tested invertebrate taxa. The persistence of moxidectin in the sediment + dung and the uptake of the drug in roots of S. biloba increase its potential exposure to aquatic food webs. Moxidectin also reduced the rate of release of soluble reactive phosphorus to the water.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0539-5
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Erythrocyte Nuclear Abnormalities in Astyanax lacustris in Response to
           Landscape Characteristics in Two Neotropical Streams
    • Authors: Lucilene Finoto Viana; Yzel Rondon Súarez; Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso; Julio César Jut Solórzano; Bruno do Amaral Crispim; Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia; Sidnei Eduardo Lima-Junior
      Pages: 327 - 334
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate land use and occupation in the landscape surrounding two neotropical streams of the Upper Paraná River in Brazil and to investigate if the water from these streams induces erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in Astyanax lacustris. We observed that the areas surrounding the streams are predominantly used for agricultural purposes (73.46% of the total area), followed by buildings (15.21%). Only 8.78% of the area consisted of forest fragments. We observed higher frequencies of micronuclei in erythrocytes of A. lacustris exposed to water from impacted sites (IMP) compared with less impacted sites and the negative control (NC) (p < 0.05). Analysis of nuclear alterations in A. lacrustis erythrocytes showed significant differences in the frequency of notched nuclei and nuclear pyknosis only between the NC and the IMP sites (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that water from the most impacted sites of the microbasin can induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects in A. lacustris.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0476-8
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The Arsenic Contamination of Drinking and Groundwaters in Bangladesh:
           Featuring Biogeochemical Aspects and Implications on Public Health
    • Authors: Michael Raessler
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Arsenic is a widespread contaminant of drinking and groundwaters in the world. Even if these contaminations have a geogenic origin, they often are exacerbated by anthropogenic activities. This is particularly true for the Bengal delta. Millions of people in Bangladesh are consuming drinking water with arsenic concentrations ≥ 50 µg/L. Their drinking water supply is based on groundwaters extracted by pumping wells, which were part of a well-drilling program by the United Nations. The intention was to provide the people with groundwater instead of surface water due to its critical hygienic conditions. Unfortunately, many wells extract the groundwater at depths where arsenic concentrations are highest. Arsenic is being dissolved from the aquifer by biogeochemical processes that are fueled by the presence of high amounts of organics in the Bengal delta sediments. This problem was not encountered at the time due to a lack of chemical analyses of the waters.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0511-4
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Variation of Metallothionein I and II Gene Expression in the Bank Vole (
           Clethrionomys glareolus ) Under Environmental Zinc and Cadmium Exposure
    • Authors: Magdalena Mikowska; Barbara Dziublińska; Renata Świergosz-Kowalewska
      Pages: 66 - 74
      Abstract: The main idea of the study was to assess how environmental metal pollution activates defence responses at transcription levels in the tissues of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). For this purpose, the metallothioneine (MT) genes expression (a well known biomarker of exposure and response to various metals) was measured. The real-time PCR method was used for relative quantification of metallothionein I and metallothionein II expressions in the livers, kidneys and testes of bank voles from six populations exposed to different contaminants, mainly zinc, cadmium and iron. The assessment of Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in the tissues allowed to study the MTs gene expression responses to these metals. ANOVA analysis showed differences between populations in terms of metal concentration in tissues, livers and kidneys. Student T test showed significant differences in metal concentration between unpolluted and polluted sites only for the liver tissue: significantly lower Zn levels and significantly higher Fe levels in the unpolluted sites. Kruskal–Wallis test performed on C T data shows differences in the gene expressions between populations for both MT genes for liver and testes. In the liver metallothionein I gene expression was upregulated in populations considered as more polluted (up to 7.5 higher expression in Miasteczko Śląskie comparing to Mikołajki). Expression of metallothionein II revealed a similar pattern. In kidneys, differences in expression of both MT genes were not that evident. In testes, MT upregulation in polluted sites was noted for metallothionein II. For metallothionein however, we found downregulation in populations from more contaminated sites. The expressions of both MTs were positively influenced by cadmium in kidney (concentration data from the previous study) and zinc and copper in liver, while cadmium had effects only on the liver MT II gene expression. Positive relationship was obtained for lead and metallothionein II expression in the liver.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0485-7
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Influence of Road Paving on Particulate Matter Emission and Fingerprinting
           of Elements of Road Dust
    • Abstract: Most assessments of road dust have focused largely on the resuspension of materials from the paved road while the contribution from unpaved shoulder to particulate matter is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of unpaved road shoulders in the contribution of particulate matter emitted by analyzing elements in the road dust. We collected road dust samples and employed US-EPA empirical equations. The results of TSP emission reveal that unpaved shoulder adjacent to paved roads (43.1–29.9%) is a potential emitter than that at roundabouts (27%). In paved road environment, the contribution of TSP emission was 54.9–25.6% from unpaved shoulders based on driving share of vehicles. TSP emission results suggest that waste material is frequently exchanged from paved to unpaved shoulder, which leads to seasonal variations in paved road. The observed particle size of paved surface waste material shows that about 36% particles were less than 2.5 μm and 52% were greater than 10 μm, suggesting that dust is resuspendable and presents a health risk due to being respirable. Elemental analysis confirmed the presence of the toxic elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn, Sb, and Ba in waste material. Moreover, receptor models indicate that the waste material comprised of elements from tire wear (31%), mineral dust (27%), brake wear (17%), vehicle exhaust (14%), and coal (7%). The elemental contribution of coal is a location-specific source identified from principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, which originated spillage during transportation. The study illustrates the contributions of PM emission from the different road networks and the mechanism of exchange of waste materials. Graphical Microscopic observation of resuspension and transportation of road dust due to vehicular movement leads to advection mechanism at the roundabout and the paved road having unpaved shoulders.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0546-6
       
  • Arsenic and Trace Metals in Three West African rivers: Concentrations,
           Partitioning, and Distribution in Particle-Size Fractions
    • Authors: Ahbeauriet Ahmed Ouattara; Koffi Marcellin Yao; Maley Pacome Soro; Thomas Diaco; Albert Trokourey
      Abstract: Despite increasing mining activities, and fertilizer and pesticide use in agriculture, little information is available on the status of metal(loid) contamination in rivers in West Africa. Sixty water samples were collected from three significant rivers (the Bandama, Comoé, and Bia Rivers) in Côte d’Ivoire, the world’s top cocoa producer, to examine As, Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, and Zn concentrations, partitioning, and distribution in suspended particle-size fractions. The results showed higher total metal(loid) concentrations during the dry and flood seasons than during the rainy season. Significant As and Pb concentrations, moderate Cu and Fe concentrations, and low Zn concentrations were observed during the flood season. The metal(loid) concentrations decreased upstream to downstream primarily due to increased deposition through flocculation. Inverse or no obvious spatial trends often were observed, indicative of local contamination from anthropogenic activities. The suspended solid phase and the strength of metal affinity to the particles controlled the metal(loid) concentrations. Furthermore, total metal(loid) concentrations increased significantly with decreasing suspended particle-size fractions. The results underline that As and Pb contents in the Comoé and Bia Rivers threaten the health of at least 3 million people in southeastern Côte d’Ivoire. Filtering river waters before use will significantly reduce human health risks.
      PubDate: 2018-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0543-9
       
  • Nonoccupational Exposure of Agricultural Area Residents to Pesticides:
           Pesticide Accumulation and Evaluation of Genotoxicity
    • Authors: Zeynep Banu Doğanlar; Oğuzhan Doğanlar; Hilmi Tozkir; Fulya Dilek Gökalp; Ayten Doğan; Ferah Yamaç; Orhan Onur Aşkın; Ümmühan Ersin Aktaş
      Abstract: Although many studies related the toxic effects of pesticides on agricultural workers, little research has been done about agricultural area residents. The purpose of this work was to monitor the presence of pesticides, as well as their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, in humans with blood samples collected from control and intensive agricultural areas in the Thrace region. Pesticide accumulations were determined by LC–MS/MS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were analyzed by comet assay, and the effect of pesticide accumulation on oxidative stress, DNA repair, and molecular chaperone response were analyzed by qRT-PCR assays in the human blood samples. The agricultural area residents had a significantly higher concentration of pesticides than those in the control area at all three sampling times, and the total pesticide amounts were 4.3 and 10 times significantly higher in blood sampled in the pesticide use period (August 2015 and 2016, respectively) than in the nonuse period (November 2015). The results showed that the pesticide level in blood during the use period led to oxidative stress, DNA damage (mean comet length and % tail DNA), and unfolded/misfolded protein response. Particularly, in pesticide use season, difference between these parameters was found statistically significant with comparison to control. Our results indicate that individuals residing around a monoculture rice farming area comprise an at-risk group as a result of increased genotoxicity evidenced in human blood. We suggest that biological monitoring efforts should be used to control nonoccupational exposures to pesticides and thus safeguard the health of agricultural area residents.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0545-7
       
  • Clinical Symptoms, Neurological Signs, and Electrophysiological Findings
           in Surviving Residents with Probable Arsenic Exposure in Toroku, Japan
    • Authors: Nobuyuki Ishii; Hitoshi Mochizuki; Yuka Ebihara; Kazutaka Shiomi; Masamitsu Nakazato
      Abstract: Chronic arsenic intoxication is known to cause multisystem impairment and is still a major threat to public health in many countries. In Toroku, a small village in Japan, arsenic mines operated from 1920 to 1962, and residents suffered serious sequelae of arsenic intoxication. We have performed annual medical examinations of these residents since 1974, allowing us to characterize participants’ long-term health following their last exposure to arsenic. The participants could not be described as having “chronic arsenic intoxication,” because their blood arsenic levels were not measured. In this study, we defined them as having “probable arsenic intoxication.” Symptoms frequently involved the sensory nervous system, skin, and upper respiratory system (89.1–97.8%). In an analysis of neurological findings, sensory neuropathy was common, and more than half of the participants complained of hearing impairment. Longitudinal assessment with neurological examinations and nerve conduction studies revealed that sensory dysfunction gradually worsened, even after exposure cessation. However, we could not conclude that arsenic caused the long-term decline of sensory function due to a lack of comparisons with age-matched healthy controls. This is the first study to characterize the longitudinal sequelae after probable arsenic exposure. Our study will be helpful to assess the prognosis of patients worldwide who still suffer from chronic arsenic intoxication.
      PubDate: 2018-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0544-8
       
  • PAHs in Water, Sediment and Biota in an Area with Port Activities
    • Abstract: The study reports concentration of 16 PAHs in sediment, water, plankton and in muscle and liver of sampled fishes from Paranagua Bay in Southern Brazil. According to the range of PAHs concentration found in sediments (ΣPAHs 15.33–133.61 µg g−1) and water (ΣPAHs 51.20–162.37 µg L−1), the area was characterized as slightly polluted. In contrast, significant concentration of PAHs was found in fish and plankton, ranging from 26.52 to 2055.00 µg g−1 and 175.41 to 2096.10 µg g−1, respectively. The concentrations were 15 times more than in sediments. Even though the concentration of PAHs in water and sediments are low, the concentration in fish tissues are alarmingly. The hypothesis of bioaccumulation is not discharged. Accumulation levels of PAHs in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For example, fish sampled from site 11 had a BAF of 49 and BSAF of 2.3, whereas for plankton the BAF was 16.3 and BSAF 0.7. Mean values of BAF and BSAF were higher in plankton samples. It is known that PAHs are enzymatically metabolized by organisms, thus the lower BSAF in fish might have resulted from biochemical transformation. Statistical analysis indicates no significant correlation between total PAHs concentration in fish tissues and total lipid content in fishes (p > 0.1). Accumulation in tissues is controlled by lipid content, although factors, such as spatial distribution of compounds, trophic level, and behavior of each species in the environment, must be considered. Besides, size and nutritional conditions can affect both absorption as well as metabolic process and excretion. A positive and significant correlation was found between total PAHs and trophic positions obtained from FishBase data (r2 = 0.784; p < 0.05). Thus, it seems that the area, with great influence of urban and industrial activities, and the bioaccumulation compounds, such as PAHs, depend on others factors, as well as resuspension of sediments and releasing of compounds for biota.
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0538-6
       
 
 
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