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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 84]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Ingestion of a Single 2.3 mm Lead Pellet by Laying Roller Pigeon Hens
           Reduces Egg Size and Adversely Affects F1 Generation Hatchlings
    • Authors: Robert J. Williams; Lawrence V. Tannenbaum; Susan M. Williams; Steven D. Holladay; Richard C. Tuckfield; Ajay Sharma; Danny Joe Humphrey; Robert M. Gogal
      Pages: 513 - 521
      Abstract: Many aquatic and terrestrial avian species inadvertently ingest lead (Pb) in the form of spent or fragmented ammunition, mistaking it for food or grit. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ingestion of even a single 45-mg pellet can significantly increase blood-Pb levels and significantly inhibit the enzyme delta aminolevulinic-acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) for a period of greater than 4 weeks. In the current study, proven breeder pairs of domestic Roller pigeons were housed in individual cages. The hens were orally gavaged with dH2O vehicle, a single #9 Pb pellet (2.0 mm/45 mg) or a single #7.5 Pb pellet (2.3 mm/95 mg), placed back with the cock bird and allowed to mate for two consecutive clutches. The eggs were monitored for fertilization, shell damage, egg weight, and length during the 16- to 18-day incubation period. Hatchlings remained with the hen and cock through the weaning period (28–35 days post hatch) and were monitored for weight, development, and mortality. Weanling blood was collected for blood-Pb levels, δ-ALAD activity, red blood cell counts, total protein, and packed cell volume. Following euthanasia, weanling liver, spleen, kidney, sciatic nerve, thymus, and brain were collected for histopathology. Egg weight and length were significantly decreased in the #7.5 Pb pellet treatment group for the first clutch, and hatchling weight 7 days post hatch also was significantly less in the #7.5 Pb pellet treatment group during the first clutch. Histopathologic analysis showed increased lesions in liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus of the Pb-treated weanlings, during both the first and second clutch compared with the non-Pb-treated weanlings. These data suggest that maternal consumption of a single 95-mg Pb pellet can adversely impact egg size and hatchling organ development.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0406-9
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Concentration of 12 Metals and Metalloids in the Blood of White Stork (
           Ciconia ciconia ): Basal Values and Influence of Age and Gender
    • Authors: Ana Raquel Maia; Francisco Soler-Rodriguez; Marcos Pérez-López
      Pages: 522 - 532
      Abstract: The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is being increasingly used in biomonitoring programmes of environmental contaminants due to its growing population in Europe; however, studies on inorganic elements are scarce. The blood of 70 white storks was collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to determine the presence of the following elements: lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), and cadmium (Cd). Our main goals were to determine the mean concentrations of these elements in the blood and to study its association with age and gender. Mean concentrations were highest for Fe, followed by Zn, and lowest for Co and Cd. The metal levels were similar to the values referred in the literature for the same species from different locations. No statistically significant differences were found between males and females. Regarding age, statistically significant differences were observed for Ni, Cu, Se, Hg, and Pb between young and adult animals (except for Pb, values in adults were higher than in fledglings). Many element concentrations were correlated, with the strongest correlations between the pairs Hg–Se, Hg–As, and Fe–Zn, mainly in adults. This study provides the baseline data for a monitoring program based on white stork blood as a nondestructive sample.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0431-8
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Endosulfan, Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (SCCPs) and
           Octachlorostyrene in Wildlife from Greenland: Levels, Trends and
           Methodological Challenges
    • Authors: Katrin Vorkamp; Frank F. Rigét; Rossana Bossi; Christian Sonne; Rune Dietz
      Pages: 542 - 551
      Abstract: Besides globally banned “legacy” persistent organic pollutants, other compounds might be present in Arctic wildlife, for which regulation was introduced recently (the insecticide endosulfan), is considered (short-chain chlorinated paraffins, SCCPs) or does not exist (octachlorostyrene, OCS, a byproduct of manufacturing and combustion processes involving chlorine). The purpose of this study was to analyze the time trend of endosulfan (1986–2012) in ringed seals and to address the levels of SCCPs and OCS in wildlife species from Greenland (black guillemot, glaucous gull, ringed seal, polar bear), while taking a critical standpoint to analytical methods typically applied. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate was the only endosulfan compound consistently above detection limits, with a median concentration of 0.23 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and a significant annual decrease of −5.6%. The low-resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS) method appeared accurate and sufficiently precise; however, the gel permeation chromatography had to balance lipid removal and analyte loss. SCCPs and OCS were present in all samples. OCS median concentrations were between 2.8 (ringed seal blubber) and 29 (glaucous gull liver) ng/g lw, determined by a straightforward dual column electron capture detection method. SCCPs were analyzed by LRMS, following removal of potential interferences, and had median concentrations of several 100 ng/g wet weight. While the method showed good precision and recovery rates as well as acceptable accuracy in control samples, the Greenland samples had high concentrations in an Arctic context, possibly indicating limited selectivity of the LRMS method.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0428-3
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Metals in Blood and Eggs of Green Sea Turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) from
           Nesting Colonies of the Northern Coast of the Sea of Oman
    • Authors: Mahmood Sinaei; Mehdi Bolouki
      Pages: 552 - 561
      Abstract: The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been a species of global concern for decades. In this study, heavy metals (mercury: Hg; Cadmium: Cd; Lead: Pb; Copper: Cu; and Zinc: Zn) were measured in blood and three egg fraction of green sea turtles nesting on the northern coast of Sea of Oman. Heavy metals concentrations in blood, yolk, albumen, and egg shell ranged between 0.16–36.78, 0.006–33.88, 0.003–4.02, and 0.002–6.85 μg/g (ww), respectively. According to the results, all heavy metals found in blood samples (n = 12) also were detected in the various parts of the eggs (n = 48). Moreover, there were no significant differences between concentrations of heavy metals in different clutches laid in a nesting season. However, Pb concentrations in blood samples significantly increased in later clutches (p < 0.05), whereas Cu concentrations in blood samples exhibit a declining trend (p < 0.05). These results reveal the existence of maternal transfer phenomenon in green sea turtles on the northern coast of Sea of Oman. Results of this study suggest that heavy metals could be one of the factors influencing reductions in fertilization and hatching success. Results also indicate that green sea turtle on the northern coast of Sea of Oman have high capacity in rapid response and detoxification of heavy metals and/or from the low exposure levels of these turtles to the heavy metals. Further research is required concerning the effects of heavy metals on green sea turtles, especially on their possible influence of fetal development of turtles.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0421-x
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Standardize or Diversify Experimental Conditions in Ecotoxicology' A
           Case Study on Herbicide Toxicity to Larvae of Two Anuran Amphibians
    • Authors: Zsanett Mikó; János Ujszegi; Zoltán Gál; Attila Hettyey
      Pages: 562 - 569
      Abstract: Despite a steeply increasing number of ecotoxicological studies on the effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms, studies assessing the adequacy and reliability of different experimental approaches have remained scarce. We scrutinized effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on larvae of two European anuran amphibians by estimating species-specific LC50 values, assessing how an additional stress factor may influence outcomes, and investigating whether replicate experiments yielded qualitatively the same results. We exposed Rana dalmatina and Bufo bufo tadpoles to two predator treatments (no predator vs. predator chemical cues) combined with varying herbicide concentrations, repeated the experiment with a subset of the experimental treatments and partly with slight modifications 1 week later and assessed survival. Our results indicated that the herbicide was moderately toxic to tadpoles. The presence of predator chemical cues did not affect the lethality of the herbicide in either species. The estimated sensitivity of R. dalmatina tadpoles varied considerably across experiments, whereas in case of B. bufo LC50 values remained very similar. Our results suggest that differences in the experimental setup may often have no influence on the measured effects of pesticides, whereas replicated experiments can deliver widely differing results in other cases, perhaps depending on the studied species, the population origin of the tested individuals, or the test conditions. This draws attention to the suggestion that strict standardization may not deliver widely applicable insights into the toxicity of contaminants and, instead, intentionally introducing variation into the design of ecotoxicological experiments and replicating entire experiments may prove highly beneficial.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0427-4
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • The Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish Downstream
           from a Newly Constructed Reservoir, Wujiang River, Southwest China
    • Authors: Sixin Li; Lianfeng Zhou; Jianbo Chang; Zhi Yang; Juxiang Hu; Wang Hongjun
      Pages: 570 - 577
      Abstract: Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6–7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas. Fish samples surpassed the Chinese hygienic standard for tolerances of mercury in foods increased by 4.3%. More attention should be given to fish mercury levels from downstream sites to prevent possible adverse effects on the health of local people.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0419-4
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Impact of Land Use on the Mobility of Hg Species in Different Compartments
           of a Tropical Watershed in Brazil
    • Authors: Clara Ayume Ito de Lima; Marcelo Gomes de Almeida; Inacio Abreu Pestana; Wanderley R. Bastos; Maria Cristina Nery do Nascimento Recktenvald; Cristina Maria Magalhães de Souza; Paulo Pedrosa
      Pages: 578 - 592
      Abstract: This study evaluated the levels of total Hg and CH3Hg+ from a comprehensive perspective, considering the retention, leaching, and deposition of these contaminants in the main compartments (soil, plant litter, and sediment) of three landscapes (Atlantic Forest, pasture, and agricultural area) in a watershed in northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Variables analyzed were total Hg, CH3Hg+, organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain size, and surface area. In soil samples, total Hg levels were the highest in agricultural soil followed by forest soil and pasture (97.3, 87.6, and 77.1 ng g−1, respectively), and CH3Hg+ was lower than 1.7%. Total Hg levels in leaf litter varied between 22.6 and 34.2 ng g−1, and CH3Hg+ was 4.37%. In sediment, Hg (60–180 ng g−1) and CH3Hg+ (<1%) indicate the transport of these contaminants from soils to this compartment and may be associated with soil use and cover. Multiple regressions were used to understand the dispersion of Hg species, and the effect of each variable varied with the landscape, showing that plant cover should not be ignored in investigations related to Hg species retention in a watershed. The landscapes surveyed in the present study clearly influence the quantitative and qualitative distribution of Hg species. On the other hand, anthropic processes associated with changes in soil use did not have any critical effects on the absolute levels of total Hg and CH3Hg+, meaning that the landscapes evaluated seem to represent the background concentration of these chemical species for the evaluated watershed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0449-y
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • A Comparative Evaluation of Different Sediment Quality Guidelines for
           Metal and Metalloid Pollution in the Xiangjiang River, Hunan, China
    • Authors: Hui Liu; Kejing Zhang; Liyuan Chai; Zhihui Yang; Weichun Yang; Qi Liao; Huan Li; Yi Liu
      Pages: 593 - 606
      Abstract: To evaluate intensively the quality of the sediments contaminated by heavy metals and metalloids in the Xiangjiang River, 52 surface sediment samples were collected at 13 sites and different combinations of empirical and theoretical sediment quality indexes, the consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, sediment toxicity degree, and equilibrium partitioning method were applied. The average contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, Cr, and As in the sampled surface sediments were significantly higher than the background values of trace elements in soils of Hunan Province, China. Moreover, speciation fraction analyses revealed that Cd, Hg, and Pb in the sediments were dominated by the more bioavailable organic or exchangeable fractions, whereas the major species of As and Cr were the less bioavailable residual fractions after strong acid treatment. In addition, all indexes showed that these metals posed a median-high degree of toxic risk to benthic organisms in sediments from nearly all of the sampling sites along the Xiangjiang River. Cd, followed by Cu and Pb, erected the most severe ecological risk. Pearson correlation and linear regression analyses between the mean PEC quotients, sediment toxicity degree, interstitial water criteria toxic units, and sediment pollution index showed that these indexes were relatively consistent to assess the quality of sediments contaminated by heavy metals and metalloids in the Xiangjiang River. Our results will facilitate the proposal of proper sediment quality guidelines for the Xiangjiang River.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0436-3
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Occurrence and Fate of Organic and Organometallic Pollutants in Municipal
           Wastewater Treatment Plants and Their Impact on Receiving Waters (Adour
           Estuary, France)
    • Authors: J. Cavalheiro; O. Zuloaga; A. Prieto; H. Preudhomme; D. Amouroux; M. Monperrus
      Pages: 619 - 630
      Abstract: To achieve a “Good Environmental Status by 2015,” as demanded by the water framework directive, monitoring programs are needed to furnish data on target compounds. In this study, a first evaluation of influents and main emissions of 3 local wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Adour estuary (southwest of France) was performed for 23 pollutants (10 musk fragrances, 5 alkylphenols, and 8 organometallics), as well as receiving estuarine water from the same area. High frequency of occurrence of these compounds was found in influents samples (musks: 22–100%; alkylphenols 11–100%; organometallics 0–100%) and effluents (musks: 0–100%; alkylphenols 0–100%; organometallics 0–100%). The removal efficiencies were calculated and varied from negative values up to 98% with the lowest values for synthetic musk compounds. Temporal variability of the target compounds also was studied, and a few tendencies were observed. Estimation of the daily output of each WWTP into the estuary also showed that galaxolide, nonylphenol, monobuthyltin, and inorganic mercury were the compounds discharged into the environment at the highest concentrations. Finally, the occurrence of these compounds in estuarine waters was evaluated; most of them were present at concentrations below the limits of quantification (musks: 0.53–41.5 ng/L; alkylphenols 3.4–410 ng/L; organometallics 0.02–0.70 ng/L) suggesting a low impact in the resulting receiving waters.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0422-9
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Direct Determination of Nimesulide in Natural Waters and Wastewater by
           Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry
    • Authors: Luciane Miranda; Vanessa C. Pereira; Christiane S. Machado; Yohandra R. Torres; Vanessa E. dos Anjos; Sueli P. Quináia
      Pages: 631 - 640
      Abstract: Pharmaceuticals are included in a group of compounds considered as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in environmental matrices. The quantification of CECs is typically accomplished using chromatographic methods that require several sample pretreatment steps. The current study proposes a voltammetric method to quantify directly nimesulide (NIM) in aqueous samples. The voltammetric parameters were optimized and chosen based on the profile of the voltammograms and peak current intensity. The adequacy of the analytical method was evaluated using validation criteria, such as accuracy, selectivity, linearity, detection, and quantification limits. Linearity was assessed by a standard addition curve at a concentration range of 0.5–130 µg L−1 of NIM. The limit of quantification was 0.50 µg L−1, with 60 s of preconcentration time. Accuracy was expressed as recovery percentages of NIM and ranged from 111.4 to 119.8%. The voltammetric method herein proposed has several advantages over others already used to determine NIM, such as fewer sample pretreatment steps, faster, and cheaper analyses. NIM was detected in wastewater samples at concentration levels ranging from 101.7 to 385.0 µg L−1. This result is the first evidence about NIM occurrences in environmental matrices in the area surrounding the Itaipu Lake reservoir in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0425-6
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Heat and Bleach: A Cost-Efficient Method for Extracting Microplastics from
           Return Activated Sludge
    • Authors: Surya Sujathan; Ann-Kathrin Kniggendorf; Arun Kumar; Bernhard Roth; Karl-Heinz Rosenwinkel; Regina Nogueira
      Pages: 641 - 648
      Abstract: The extraction of plastic microparticles, so-called microplastics, from sludge is a challenging task due to the complex, highly organic material often interspersed with other benign microparticles. The current procedures for microplastic extraction from sludge are time consuming and require expensive reagents for density separation as well as large volumes of oxidizing agents for organic removal, often resulting in tiny sample sizes and thus a disproportional risk of sample bias. In this work, we present an improved extraction method tested on return activated sludge (RAS). The treatment of 100 ml of RAS requires only 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for bleaching at 70 °C, followed by density separation with sodium nitrate/sodium thiosulfate (SNT) solution, and is completed within 24 h. Extracted particles of all sizes were chemically analyzed with confocal Raman microscopy. An extraction efficiency of 78 ± 8% for plastic particle sizes 20 µm and up was confirmed in a recovery experiment. However, glass shards with a diameter of less than 20 µm remained in the sample despite the density of glass exceeding the density of the separating SNT solution by 1.1 g/cm3. This indicates that density separation may be unreliable for particle sizes in the lower micrometer range.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0415-8
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effect of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Metabolism and Morphology of
           Filamentous Green Microalgae
    • Authors: Michele Munk; Humberto M. Brandão; Claude Yéprémian; Alain Couté; Luiz O. Ladeira; Nádia R. B. Raposo; Roberta Brayner
      Pages: 649 - 658
      Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have potential applications in the industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental remediation fields. However, many uncertainties exist regarding the environmental implications of engineered nanomaterials. This study examined the effect of the MWCNTs on metabolic status and morphology of filamentous green microalgae Klebsormidium flaccidum. Appropriate concentrations of MWCNT (1, 50, and 100 μg mL−1) were added to a microalgal culture in the exponential growth phase and incubated for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Exposure to MWCNT led to reductions in algal growth after 48 h and decreased on cell viability for all experimental endpoints except for 1 µg mL−1 at 24 h and 100 µg mL−1 after 72 h. At 100 µg mL−1, MWCNTs induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and had an effect on intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content depending on concentration and time. No photosynthetic activity variation was observed. Observations by scanning transmission electron microscopy showed cell damage. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that exposure to MWCNTs affects cell metabolism and microalgal cell morphology. To our best knowledge, this is the first case in which MWCNTs exhibit adverse effects on filamentous green microalgae K. flaccidum. These results contribute to elucidate the mechanism of MWCNT nanotoxicity in the bioindicator organism of terrestrial and freshwater habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0429-2
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 4 (2017)
  • Benzalkonium Chloride and Anticancer Drugs in Binary Mixtures:
           Reproductive Toxicity and Genotoxicity in the Freshwater Crustacean
           Ceriodaphnia dubia
    • Authors: Chiara Russo; Michael Kundi; Margherita Lavorgna; Alfredo Parrella; Marina Isidori
      Abstract: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a cationic surfactant commonly used as a disinfectant. Its ubiquitous nature is the result of high usage and frequent discharge into the environment and evidence of interaction with numerous contaminants, such as pharmaceutical active compound residues. Anticancer drugs, among these compounds, are able to exert eco-genotoxic effects at sub ng–µg/L. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive toxicity and the genotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide (ET), and imatinib mesylate (IM)—binary mixtures combined with BAC in Ceriodaphnia dubia. The effects of the mixtures were assessed under the assumption of independent action in experiments that applied two effect levels. The type of interaction was not the same over the range of effect sizes. The combined action experiment on reproduction showed an antagonistic effect at higher effect levels for all binary combinations, except for BAC/IM, whereas independent action was observed in all mixtures at a low effect level. The results of binary combinations on genotoxicity showed antagonistic effects for BAC + ET and BAC + CDDP, whereas independence was expressed in BAC + IM and BAC + 5-FU. The antagonistic interactions still led to higher effects than those observed after single exposures at the same doses in most cases. The effects of mixtures of drugs should be taken into account for environmental risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0473-y
  • Particle-Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the
           Atmosphere of Hefei, China: Levels, Characterizations and Health Risks
    • Authors: Ruoyu Hu; Guijian Liu; Hong Zhang; Huaqin Xue; Xin Wang; Ruwei Wang
      Abstract: Airborne PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected in summertime (August 2015) and wintertime (December 2015–January 2016) in an industrial complex area in Hefei, China. The average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (90.5 and 114.5 μg/m3, respectively) were higher than the regulated levels of China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (grade I) and the WHO Ambient (outdoor) Air Quality and Health Guideline Value. Seasonal variations in PM2.5/PM10 indicated that the secondary sources of particulate matters, formed by gas-to-particle conversion, were enhanced in summer due to longer time of solar radiation and higher temperature. The total concentrations of PM2.5- and PM10-associated PAHs were 5.89 and 17.70 ng/m3 in summer as well as 63.41 and 78.26 ng/m3 in winter, respectively. Both PM2.5- and PM10-associated PAHs were dominated by 4- to 6-ring PAHs, suggesting that the fossil fuel combustion and vehicle emissions were the primary sources of PAHs in atmospheric particulate matters in Hefei. The total concentration of PAHs had a slightly higher correlation coefficient with PM2.5 (R = 0.499, P < 0.05) than PM10 (R = 0.431, P > 0.05), indicating the higher association tendency of PAHs with PM2.5. The coefficient of divergence analysis showed that the compositions of PAH were quite different between summer and winter. Total BaP equivalent concentration (BaP-TEQ) for particulate-bound PAHs in winter (58.87 ng/m3) was higher than that in summer (5.53 ng/m3). In addition, particulate-bound PAHs in winter had an inhalation cancer risk (ICR) value of 2.8 × 10−3, which was higher than the safe range (10−4–10−6).
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0472-z
  • Expression of Xenobiotic Biomarkers CYP1 Family in Preputial Tissue of
           Patients with Hypospadias and Phimosis and Its Association with DNA
           Methylation Level of SRD5A2 Minimal Promoter
    • Authors: Seiichiroh Ohsako; Toshiki Aiba; Mami Miyado; Maki Fukami; Tsutomu Ogata; Yutaro Hayashi; Kentaro Mizuno; Yoshiyuki Kojima
      Abstract: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that the incidence of male reproductive organ malformations, including hypospadias or cryptorchidism, has increased due to fetal-stage exposure to environmental pollutants. However, the association of chemical exposure with the expression of target regulatory genes in the tissues of patients has not yet been reported. Because experimental approaches or clinical trials in human studies are limited, especially those using fetal and/or infants, it is difficult to obtain clear physiological evidence of mechanisms underlying male reproductive malformations. Thus, the lack of physiological evidence makes this issue controversial. We analyzed preputial tissues from patients with hypospadias (n = 23) and phimosis (n = 16). The atypical CYP1 family genes, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, are potential biomarkers of environmental chemical exposure. We then compared the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 between hypospadias and phimosis samples by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The mRNA expression levels of SRD5A2 and AR also were measured, because the androgen-related genes involved in the onset of disorders of male reproductive system. A significantly higher CYP1B1 expression level and a lower AR expression level were observed in the hypospadias groups than in the phimosis group. Positive correlations (P < 0.001) between the mRNA expression levels of the CYP1 family and SRD5A2 were found in patients with hypospadias but not in those with phimosis. Moreover, the methylation levels of the four genes were determined by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Although the SRD5A2 promoter region showed moderate methylation, no methylation was detected in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, or AR. There was no significant difference in SRD5A2 promoter methylation level between hypospadias and phimosis patients. Negative correlations were found between the methylation level of SRD5A2, especially at the − 221 Sp1 site, and the CYP1 family mRNA expression levels (CYP1A1, p = 0.002; CYP1B1, p = 0.007) in hypospadias patients, but not in phimosis patients. The significant positive association of mRNA expression level and the negative association of methylation level of the SRD5A2 gene with the mRNA expression levels of CYP1 family genes in the preputial tissue seem to indicate the chemical exposure of patients with hypospadias.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0466-x
  • Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in School Playground Soils
           in Urban Gwangju, South Korea
    • Authors: Mohammad Nazrul Islam; Young-Tae Jo; Seon-Yong Chung; Jeong-Hun Park
      Abstract: Soil samples from school playground of Gwangju City were analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the soil contamination status and the potential cancer risk for students and adults were investigated. Soil samples were collected from 57 sites from 5 districts of Gwangju City in the summer of 2013. Regardless of the sampling site, the ∑PAHs concentrations ranged from 13.2 to 145.5 ng/g (mean 51.2 ng/g). Four and five-ring PAHs were predominant in the soil samples while the fraction of two-ring PAHs was the lowest. Seven carcinogenic PAHs contributed ~ 55% of ∑PAHs in school playground soils. The benzo[a]pyrene (46.4%) and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (41.2%) were the major contributors to toxic equivalent quantity. The strong correlation between carcinogenic PAHs suggested that they originated from the same source either vehicular emission or coal combustion, because they are markers of these pollution sources. The mean cancer risk for students (3.61 × 10−7) and adults (8.41 × 10−6) was in the U.S. EPA safety range (< 10−6).
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0467-9
  • Age-Related Patterns in Trace Element Content Vary Between Bone and Teeth
           of the European Roe Deer ( Capreolus capreolus )
    • Authors: Jan Demesko; Janusz Markowski; Mirosława Słaba; Janusz Hejduk; Piotr Minias
      Abstract: Game animals, such as the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), have long been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. Most ecotoxicological research on ungulates has focused on trace element content in soft tissues and antlers. Also, only fragmentary information exists about whether and how trace element concentrations vary with the age of wild-living animals and whether these age-related patterns are similar for different types of tissues. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of seven trace metals (barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, strontium, zinc) and fluoride in bone and teeth of roe deer and to determine whether significant variation is evident with individual age. For this purpose, we collected permanent molars and fragments of mandible bone from more than 130 female roe deer in Central Poland. We found that concentrations of four trace elements (barium, manganese, zinc, and fluoride) in teeth of deer showed positive linear relationships with individual age. No such trends were recorded for trace element content in bone. We suggest that these striking differences in age-related patterns of trace element bioaccumulation between bone and permanent teeth of roe deer might be explained by higher turnover rate and constant remodelling of bone tissue. The results suggest that analysis of permanent teeth may be useful for assessing throughout-life intoxication by environmental pollution in the roe deer and possibly in other mammal species. Our study reinforces the need to carefully account for age-related variation in ecotoxicological research on wild-living animals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0470-1
  • The Effect of Nitric Oxide Pollution on Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women
           Living in Durban, South Africa
    • Authors: Samantha M. Anderson; Rajen N. Naidoo; Prithiksha Ramkaran; Alisa Phulukdaree; Sheena Muttoo; Kareshma Asharam; Anil A. Chuturgoon
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect nitric oxide (NO x ) pollution had on maternal serum 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women living in Durban, South Africa (SA). Women, in their third trimester with singleton pregnancies, were recruited from the heavily industrialised south (n = 225) and less industrialised north (n = 152). Biomarker levels of serum 8-OHdG concentrations were analysed, and the women were genotyped for glutathione-S-transferases pi 1 (GSTP1) and glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 (GSTM1) polymorphisms. The level of NO x pollution in the two regions was determined by using land use regression modelling. The serum 8-OHdG was shown to correlate significantly with NO x levels; this relationship was strengthened in the south (p < 0.05). This relationship was still observed after adjusting for maternal characteristics. GSTP1 was significantly associated with the south region, where the variant (AG+GG) genotype was associated with increased 8-OHdG levels as a result of NO x exposure (p < 0.05). GSTM1 null genotype was associated with a positive correlation between NO x and 8-OHdG levels (p < 0.05). NO x levels were found marginally to reduce gestational age (p < 0.05) with mothers carrying male neonates. Variant GSTP1 and living in the north were factors that contributed to gestational age reduction (p < 0.05). Our study demonstrated that NO x exposure resulted in increased 8-OHdG levels in pregnant women living in Durban, SA, which led to gestational age reduction. The GSTP1 variant increased susceptibility of individuals to harmful effects of NO x .
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0465-y
  • Biochemical, Histopathological and Molecular Responses in Gills of
           Leuciscus cephalus Exposed to Metals
    • Authors: Anca Hermenean; Georgiana Gheorghiu; Miruna Silvia Stan; Hildegard Herman; Bianca Onita; Doru Puiu Ardelean; Aurel Ardelean; Mihály Braun; Miklós Zsuga; Sándor Kéki; Marieta Costache; Anca Dinischiotu
      Abstract: Gills are major targets for acute metal toxicity in fish, due to their permanent contact with aquatic pollutants. To assess the effects of metals on gills of the Leuciscus cephalus (chub), fish individuals were collected from two sites in the Tur River, Romania, in upstream (site 1) and downstream (site 2) of a metal pollution source. Quantitative and hyperspectral analyses showed that Zn, Sr, and Fe concentrations were significantly higher in gills from site 2 compared with site 1. Malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products levels increased 17 and 28%, respectively, whereas reduced glutathione level diminished significantly in the gills of fish collected from site 2 compared to site 1. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase increased significantly at 41, 21, and 28%, respectively. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels, as well as the amount of DNA damage, were significantly increased for site 2 compared with site 1. The induced oxidative stress generated hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and inflammation in the epithelial cells and apoptosis. Hence, this could suggest that gill cells have tried to counteract the oxidative stress-induced DNA fragmentation by PCNA up-regulation, but the PCNA expression decreased on longer time due to the low level of GSH, resulting in apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0450-5
  • Allocation of Metals and Trace Elements in Different Tissues of
           Piscivorous Species Phalacrocorax carbo
    • Authors: Hribšek Irena; Jovičić Katarina; Karadžić Branko; Skorić Stefan
      Abstract: Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) are piscivorous birds, and as apex predators they accumulate high levels of contaminants from the aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, we analyzed distribution of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn in ten tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, spleen, gizzard, heart, skin, lard, breast feathers, and remiges) of the Great cormorants in the Marin Sprud locality, the Danube River, Serbia. Concentrations of elements in tissues were assessed by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry. Linear discriminant analysis indicates that breast feathers and remiges have a high bioaccumulation potential for heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Sr, and Zn). Those tissues had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb) (2.179 ± 0.742; 0628 ± 0.282). Maximum concentrations of mercury (Hg) were detected in liver (30.673 ± 14.081), followed by kidney, for the same element (17.409 ± 5.676), respectively. The overall maximum metal accumulation was observed in breast feathers and remiges, followed by liver and kidney, whereas the minimum values were observed in muscle, skin, and lard. The greatest concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, and Al were detected in feather tissues. Our study confirms that great cormorant is a good indicator species for monitoring of pollution of river and wetland ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0452-3
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