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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Occurrence and Estrogenic Potency of Bisphenol Analogs in Sewage Sludge
           from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Central China
    • Abstract: Land application is suggested to be the most economical sludge disposal method but is also a potential source of bisphenol analogs (BPs) to the environment. In this study, BP concentrations in sewage sludge from Henan province ranged from 15.1 to 2237 ng g−1 dw. BPA was dominant with mean concentration of 140 ng g−1 dw, followed by BPS (mean 43.4 ng g−1 dw), BPF (mean 7.98 ng g−1 dw), BPAF (mean 1.04 ng g−1 dw), BPAP (mean 0.88 ng g−1 dw), BPB (mean 0.38 ng g−1 dw), and BPZ (mean 0.33 ng g−1 dw). Apart from BPB, no significant correlations were found between BPs and wastewater treatment plants characteristics, probably because adsorption does not play a major role in the removal of BPs. The estimated total emission flux of BPs from sludge-amended soils are approximately 62.7 kg year−1. BPA is the largest contributor with emission flux of 45.3 kg year−1. Hazard quotient values for BPs in sludge-amended soils are 3–6 orders of magnitude lower than 1 with total 17β-estradiol equivalents ranging from 0.33 to 26.8 pg g−1 E2EQ dw. Overall, although being partially replaced by other analogs, BPA is still widely used in Henan province.
      PubDate: 2019-08-17
       
  • Xenopus laevis as a Bioindicator of Endocrine Disruptors in the Region of
           Central Chile
    • Abstract: One of the direct causes of biodiversity loss is environmental pollution resulting from the use of chemicals. Different kinds of chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants and some heavy metals, can be endocrine disruptors, which act at low doses over a long period of time and have a negative effect on the reproductive and thyroid system in vertebrates worldwide. Research on the effects of endocrine disruptors and the use of bioindicators in neotropical ecosystems where pressure on biodiversity is high is scarce. In Chile, although endocrine disruptors have been detected at different concentrations in the environments of some ecosystems, few studies have been performed on their biological effects in the field. In this work, Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), an introduced species, is used as a bioindicator for the presence of endocrine disruptors in aquatic systems with different degrees of contamination in a Mediterranean zone in central Chile. For the first time for Chile, alterations are described that can be linked to exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as vitellogenin induction, decreased testosterone in male frogs, and histological changes in gonads. Dioxin-like and oestrogenic activity was detected in sediments at locations where it seem to be related to alterations found in the frogs. In addition, an analysis of land use/cover use revealed that urban soil was the best model to explain the variations in frog health indicators. This study points to the usefulness of an invasive species as a bioindicator for the presence of endocrine-disruptive chemicals.
      PubDate: 2019-08-17
       
  • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Surface Soils from the Yellow River
           Delta Natural Reserve, China: Occurrence, Sources, and Potential Risk
    • Abstract: A total of 39 lower brominated PBDE congeners in surface soils from the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve (YRDNR) were analyzed in the present study. The total concentrations of PBDEs (ΣPBDEs) ranged from “not detected” to 0.732 ng g−1, with a mean concentration of 0.142 ng g−1. The concentrations of the ΣPBDEs displayed no correlation with the content of the total organic carbon in the YRDNR. The ΣPBDEs concentrations in the Experimental Area were significantly higher than that of the Buffer Area and Core Area, and ΣPBDEs in soils in the North were lower than that of the South. PentaBDEs and HexaBDEs were the most abundant homologues, and the occurrence of PBDEs in the YRDNR may be attributed to the debromination and long range transport of DecaBDEs. Even though the cancer risk and mass inventory of PBDEs in the present study area were estimated to be very low, due to the widespread presence of PBDEs and the particularity of the natural reserve, vigilance should not be let up on the issue of environmental contamination caused by these compounds despite the gradual phase out of their commercial products in the world.
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
       
  • Influence of Season, Sex, Age and Diet Composition on Mercury
           Concentration in Walleye Sander vitreus
    • Abstract: We collected Walleye Sander vitreus (May–October) from Bitter and Twin lakes, South Dakota to assess seasonal- and diet-related variation in tissue mercury (Hg) concentration. The average Hg concentration in Walleye was 43–68% higher in the spring for Bitter (p < 0.008) and Twin Lakes (p < 0.017) compared with summer or autumn months. Bioenergetics analysis of Bitter Lake Walleye showed that consumption of fish prey (primarily Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas) increased from late summer through winter and was linked to increased Hg accumulation in Walleye the following spring. Mercury concentration varied significantly with Walleye age but was similar for comparably-aged male (0.62 μg/g) and female fish (0.62 μg/g). However, after adjusting for Walleye size (total length, mm), mean Hg concentration was greater in male (0.66 μg/g) compared with female (0.50 μg/g) fish, likely due to slower growth rate of male Walleye. At 425 mm, male Walleye in Bitter Lake were approximately 1 year older than female fish. These findings show that diet, age, and gender-related growth affect Hg concentration in Walleye and are important factors to consider in fish contaminant monitoring programs.
      PubDate: 2019-08-05
       
  • Spatial Distribution of Organophosphorus and Brominated Flame Retardants
           in Surface Water, Sediment, Groundwater, and Wild Fish in Chengdu, China
    • Abstract: The occurrence and spatial distribution of 13 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), 11 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and eight novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were investigated in Jinjiang river water, sediment, crucian carp, and groundwater in Chengdu, China. OPFRs were predominant and ubiquitous contaminants in the Jinjiang river water, sediment, groundwater, fish muscle, fish gills, and viscera with concentrations ranging from 19.1 to 533 ng L−1, 12.5 to 253 ng g−1, 11.7 to 149 ng L−1, 114 to 2108 ng g−1 lipid weight (lw), 220 to 638 ng g−1 lw, and 116 to 1356 ng g−1 lw, respectively. The halogenated OPFRs were the primary pollutant in the Jinjiang river water samples, whereas nonhalogenated OPFRs were the dominant OPFRs in the sediments. Brominated flame retardants were not detected in the groundwater, whereas the NBFRs detected in aquatic environment at low frequency. The ΣPBDEs ranged from n.d. to 23.4 ng L−1 and n.d. to 48.7 ng g−1 in the Jinjiang river water and sediment, respectively. BDE-209 was dominant in the sediment samples with concentrations ranging from n.d. to 47.2 ng g−1. The PBDEs levels in the muscle, gills, and viscera of the crucian carp ranged from 10.6 to 90.6 ng g−1 lw, n.d. to 75.6 ng g−1 lw, and n.d. to 219 ng g−1 lw, respectively. BDE-47, chlorinated, and alkyl OPFRs were the main contaminants in the fish samples.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • A Hybrid Phase I–Phase II Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) for
           the Simultaneous Characterization and Identification of Toxicants of
           Concern in Coastal and Estuarine Environments
    • Abstract: A sequential TIE procedure combining in a single framework Phase I manipulations and Phase II methods, including chemical analyses and complementary Phase I treatments, was proposed for characterization and identification of toxicants of concern in estuarine environments. Interstitial water was chosen as test matrix and embryo-larval development with the bivalve Crassostrea gigas as toxicity endpoint. TIE treatments included addition of Ulva rigida and elution through zeolite column for addressing effects due to ammonia, addition of EDTA and elution through a Cation-Exchange Solid-Phase Extraction column for characterize metals, and elution through two different type of polymers (XAD and DPA) with different affinity for polar and nonpolar organic pollutants. Chemical analyses concerned determination of ammonia and trace elements in the untreated sample and after manipulation intended to remove or modify bioavailability of ammonia and metals. The “hybrid” Phase I–Phase II TIE sequence proved to be a reliable and effective tool for the identification of main toxicant of concern in a highly toxic and contaminated interstitial water sample, also in presence of high concentration of potential confounding factors (ammonia). The addition of U. rigida was the more reliable treatment for the removal of ammonia, due to the concurrent release of particles and potentially toxic elements, such as Ba, Rb, and Tl by zeolite column, which may increase toxicity in the post-column sample. The combined use of polymers with different affinity for the various classes of organic pollutants was essential to identify the contribution of polar organic compounds to the observed toxicity.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Assessments of Metals in Coastal Environments: State of Art
    • Abstract: This study is an overview of the assessments of metal contamination in coastal environments for the past five decades. Research articles with evaluations in sediments and biota were quantified and had their content visited for the registry of (1) the source of metals (anthropogenic or natural), (2) assessed country/territory, (3) groups of organisms assessed, (4) trophic transfer evaluation, (5) spatio-temporal variations, and (6) metals evaluated. We found an increase in the number of assessments over the years, mainly from 2014. The majority of the assessments pointed to anthropogenic sources of metals. The United States, the United Kingdom, and China were the most assessed countries. “Mollusks” was the most assessed group of organisms, and only 17% of all sampled studies identified any trophic relation, although there has been an increase since 2013. Spatial variations were more frequent than spatio-temporal and temporal variations alone. Cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead were the top metals evaluated in both sediment and biota. We believe that these are all valuable information for researchers and policy makers interested in the topic.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Average Hourly Concentrations of Air Contaminants in Selected Urban, Town,
           and Rural Sites
    • Abstract: The inhabitants of cities, towns, and villages are exposed to different levels of air pollution, which also vary throughout the day. Information regarding episodes of poor and good air quality enables planning to mitigate the risks and maximize the benefits of spending time outdoors. In this work, an analysis was made of the state of air quality 2012–2016, using data gathered from automatic measuring stations located in five cities (> 50,000 inhabitants), five towns (5000–50,000 inhabitants), and five villages (< 5000 inhabitants) in five neighboring provinces in central Poland, in Central Europe. The monitoring stations were designated as “city background”, “town background”, and “rural background”. More than 3 million pieces of data were collected from 15 monitoring stations. This allowed the average daily changes in the concentration of air pollutants (NO2 and NOx, O3, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, C6H6) to be determined, depending on the type of station and the size of the settlement unit in both winter periods and summer periods. As a result, the most and least favorable hours in terms of levels of air pollution were identified. This information could help to inform air quality management in modern cities, towns, and villages and to improve the quality of life, particularly among those most susceptible to the negative effects of air pollution, such as the elderly and children. Graphical
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Influence of Meteorological Variables and Forest Fires Events on Air
           Quality in an Urban Area (Córdoba, Argentina)
    • Abstract: Extreme environmental events, such as forest fires, are a major emission source of aerosols into the atmosphere. Thus, to investigate the contribution of local forest fires to urban particulate matter, we selected several forest fire indicators, such as number of heat sources, fire events, and burnt area, and collected particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) during a 2.5-year period in Cordoba City (Argentina). Temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration and composition was described considering fire and nonfire periods, and the influence of meteorological variables was estimated as well. On average, PM2.5 levels registered in Córdoba city during the study period were lower than values reported for other similar cities in Latin America, despite the fact that during wintertime an increase in PM2.5 levels was observed due to the occurrence of thermal inversions. Several fire events taking place in the nearby hills around the city during winter and spring 2013 suggest that biomass burning was a strong contribution to urban particles levels, which is consistent with the significant correlation between PM2.5 concentration and heat sources number. During fire periods, levels of Fe, Ca, and K, were significantly higher than in the nonfire periods, suggesting that these elements can be reliable forest fire markers. Graphical
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Spatial Distribution of Perfluorinated Compounds in Atmosphere of the
           Pearl River Delta, China
    • Abstract: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are of special concern due to their environmental persistence and biotoxicity. In the present study, spatial distribution of PFCs in atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of Southern China was investigated from November 2013 to January 2014. Forty-two air samples were collected using passive air samplers to determine the 13 target analytes, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5–14) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, and C8). Results showed that the total concentrations of PFCs (ΣPFCs) ranged from 53.7 to 225 pg m−3 with an average level of 122 ± 41.5 pg m−3, indicating a wide variation on ΣPFCs in atmosphere of the PRD. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most abundant PFCs, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA). PFOS, PFOA, PFPeA, and PFHpA accounted for 26%, 22%, 21%, and 19% of ΣPFCs, respectively. A general decline in ΣPFCs was observed in the atmosphere from south PRD to north PRD. It was likely related to the industrial distribution, population density, and wind direction. In addition, the same order of magnitude of PFOS and lower level of PFOA were observed in this study compared with those in atmosphere sampled in other regions. The lifetime risk indexes on the PFOS and PFOA concentrations were much less than unity, suggesting a lower nononcogenic risk to residents in the PRD.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Metal Resistance in Bacteria from Contaminated Arctic Sediment is Driven
           by Metal Local Inputs
    • Abstract: Anthropogenic impact over the Pasvik River (Arctic Norway) is mainly caused by emissions from runoff from smelter and mine wastes, as well as by domestic sewage from the Russian, Norwegian, and Finnish settlements situated on its catchment area. In this study, sediment samples from sites within the Pasvik River area with different histories of metal input were analyzed for metal contamination and occurrence of metal-resistant bacteria in late spring and summer of 2014. The major differences in microbial and chemical parameters were mostly dependent on local inputs than seasonality. Higher concentrations of metals were generally detected in July rather than May, with inner stations that became particularly enriched in Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn, but without significant differences. Bacterial resistance to metals, which resulted from viable counts on amended agar plates, was in the order Ni2+>Pb2+>Co2+>Zn2+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Hg2+, with higher values that were generally determined at inner stations. Among a total of 286 bacterial isolates (mainly achieved from Ni- and Pb-amended plates), the 7.2% showed multiresistance at increasing metal concentration (up to 10,000 ppm). Selected multiresistant isolates belonged to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, and Serratia. Results highlighted that bacteria, rapidly responding to changing conditions, could be considered as true indicators of the harmful effect caused by contaminants on human health and environment and suggested their potential application in bioremediation processes of metal-polluted cold sites.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • First Assessment of Metals Contamination in Road Dust and Roadside Soil of
           Suva City, Fiji
    • Abstract: Studies have claimed that road dust and roadside soil are potential banks of pollutants generally in urban areas. Thus, quantifying the concentrations of metals in an urban area is a prerequisite for assessing pollution and their health effects. Hence, this study reports the concentration of the metals, such as Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Fe, in the road dust and the roadside soil of Suva City. A total number of 45 road dust and 36 roadside soil samples were collected at 18 different locations around Suva City with potential traffic influence and analysed. The respective metals concentration in the road dust and roadside soil samples of Suva City were Cd (3.7 and 3.1 mg/kg), Co (35.0 and 33.2 mg/kg), Cr (40.0 and 34.0 mg/kg), Ni (54.3 and 32.4 mg/kg), Cu (172.3 and 265.7 mg/kg), Pb (71.0 and 59.3 mg/kg), Zn (685.0 and 507.0 mg/kg), and Fe (41,010.4 and 39,525.5 mg/kg) and showed the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Co > Cd and Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd for road dust and roadside soil, respectively. Furthermore, the mean values of the metals surpassed their background levels, except for Fe, whereas the mean values of Cd, Ni, Cu, and Zn have exceeded their permissible limits in road dust. Similarly, Cd, Cu, and Zn have exceeded their permissible limit in roadside soil except for Ni. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) assessment of Suva City road dust thus indicated nonpolluted to moderate pollution by Ni and Cu and moderate pollution by Zn. The Igeo assessment of the roadside soil showed moderately polluted by Cu and Zn but no pollution from the remaining studied metals. Overall, the study indicated that the sampling locations at an industrial site of Suva City is highly predominated with almost all of the studied metals and is a concern to the general public who live and work within the vicinity of Walu Bay industrial area.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Uranium and Trace Metals Contamination in Topsoil from Different Zones
           Around Industrial City, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia
    • Abstract: The concentrations of uranium and 9 trace metals were analyzed in 116 topsoil samples collected from 6 zones around the most important and oldest industrial city in Al Jubail, eastern Saudi Arabia. The concentrations of U, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn were measured using gamma ray spectrometry and plasma atomic emission spectrometer. The obtained data showed that the mean values of uranium in all zones were below or similar to the world average and the background value of soil. In contrast, the results revealed that the selected metals were higher than the background values in most zones, where the highest mean value of Pb was 2270 times higher than the background value in the eastern border of the industrial city (Zone 5), and the lowest mean value of Pb was 980 times higher than the background value in the western border of the industrial city (Zone 1). Moreover, the concentrations of uranium and metals were compared with local and global mean values. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) were calculated to assess the pollution levels of trace metals in topsoil. The Igeo values indicated uncontaminated to moderately contaminated for all metals except Pb, which was extremely contaminated in all zones. The PLI value was much higher than 1 for all zones. Accordingly, the topsoil around the industrial city is contaminated with metals.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Distributions and Sources of PAHs and OCPs in Surficial Sediments of
           Edremit Bay (Aegean Sea)
    • Abstract: In this study, levels, distributions, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (18 compounds) and organochlorine pesticides (19 compounds) in surface sediments of 14 stations from Edremit Bay (Aegean Sea) were investigated in April and November 2015. ΣPAH concentrations (0.65–175 ng/g) in Edremit Bay sediments indicated low pollution. ΣPAH levels were decreased in the order of inner (81.1 ± 47.0 ng/g), northern (48.4 ± 15.9 ng/g), and southern (19.0 ± 15.8 ng/g) bays. p,p’-DDE was the only organochlorine pesticide detected in Edremit Bay sediments and found between nd to 1.16 ng/g dw. According to sediment quality guidelines, PAHs and p,p’-DDE levels in Edremit Bay were below the threshold effect level, effect range low, and threshold effect concentration limits and the sediments have no potential ecological risks. Two- to 3-ring PAHs were found at higher levels than 4- to 5-ring PAHs. Molecular PAHs ratios and Principal Component Analysis-Multiple Linear Regression analyses indicated combustion of wood-coal and vehicle emissions might have contributed to PAH levels in the bay.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Metal Contamination in Seven Tributaries of the Ganga River and Assessment
           of Human Health Risk from Fish Consumption
    • Abstract: We investigated the distribution of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in water, sediment, and two dietary fish (an omnivore, Labeo rohita and a benthic carnivore, Clarias batrachus) and potential health risk to human consumers during summer low flow (2017–2018) at 28 sites across 7 tributary confluences of the Ganga River. We selected Devprayag, an upper reach site, as a reference for data comparison. We found significant spatial variations in the distribution of study metals and the concentrations remained higher in tributaries, confluences, and downstream cities. The pollution load index showed all sites except Devprayag in the polluted category. Ecological risk analysis indicated 1 site with very high risk, 7 with considerable risk, and 10 with moderate-risk category. The Zn did appear the most, and Cd the least accumulated metal in the fish. The metal accumulation was higher in C. batrachus. The levels of Cd, Cr, and Pb in the study fishes were higher compared with the international standards. The health risk analysis indicated safe levels for individual metals except for Cd where the target hazard quotient (THQ) did exceed 1 for C. batrachus at the Ramganga and Varuna confluences. When all metals were considered, the THQ was > 1 (> 2 for C. batrachus), indicating the full possibility of adverse health effects to human consumers. Our study highlights the importance of tributaries in creating a mosaic of metal-rich habitats in the Ganga River and food chain associated with a health risk to human consumers.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Atmospheric
           Deposition in the Seattle, WA, USA Area Measured with Method 1668
    • Abstract: Atmospheric deposition can be an important pathway for the delivery of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to ecosystems, especially in remote areas. Determining the sources of atmospheric PCBs can be difficult, because PCBs may travel long distances to reach the monitoring location, allowing for a variety of weathering processes that may alter PCB fingerprints. Previous efforts to determine the sources of atmospheric PCBs have been hampered by the electron capture detection methods used to measure PCBs. In this work, EPA method 1668, which is capable of measuring all 209 congeners, was used to measure PCBs in bulk atmospheric deposition at seven locations in the Green-Duwamish River watershed in and near Seattle, WA. Analysis of this data set via Positive Matrix Factorization allowed the identification of six factors that represent PCB sources. Four factors, representing approximately 88% of all PCB mass, are strikingly similar to unweathered Aroclors, suggesting minimal weathering during transport and/or local PCB sources at some sites. A fifth factor contained virtually all of the PCB 11 mass and represents PCBs from pigments. It explained approximately 39% of the Toxic Equivalency Quotient in the atmospheric deposition samples. The remaining factor contained non-Aroclor PCBs and may be related to silicone.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Urinary Metal Concentrations and the Incidence of Hypertension Among Adult
           Residents Along the Yangtze River, China
    • Abstract: Metals from the natural environment have potential hypertension effects. However, relevant studies on this topic are few. A total of 1358 adults aged 18–74 years from Chizhou, Maanshan, and Tongling of Anhui Province participated in the baseline study from 2014 to 2015. The follow-up study was performed from 2016 to 2017. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (7000 DV) was used to measure urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn of residents. Urinary concentrations of Cd determined via TAS-900 atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 228.8 nm wavelength. A total of 275 hypertension cases were identified. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and risk factors for hypertension, four metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, and Mn) were significantly associated with hypertension in the single-metal model. Upon including all metals in the same model, the hazard ratios of the highest quartiles Cd and Cu compared with the reference group were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–2.02) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.16–2.09) for cases of hypertension. Our findings suggested that high levels of Cd and Cu might increase the incidence of hypertension. Further studies involving larger population should be conducted to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: 2019-07-30
       
  • Anionic Surfactants and Traffic Related Emission from an Urban Area of
           Perak, Malaysia
    • Abstract: Anionic surfactants are one of the pollutants derived from particulate matter (PM) and adversely affect the health of living organisms. In this study, the compositions of surfactants extracted from PM and vehicle soot collected in an urban area were investigated. A high-volume air sampler was used to collect PM sample at urban area based on coarse (> 1.5 µm) and fine (< 1.5 µm) mode particles. Meanwhile, the vehicle soot was collected randomly from the exhaust pipe of various types of diesel and petrol vehicles using a soft brush during dry days. The concentration of anionic surfactants, such as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS), was determined by the colorimetric method using UV–Vis Spectrophotometer. Morphological properties of the PM and exhaust soot sample was studied using field-emission scanning electron microscope. Results revealed that the MBAS concentration was dominated by fine mode particles (6.03 ± 3.97 µmol g−1), whereas heavy-duty vehicles, such as buses, demonstrated the highest surfactant concentration with an average value of 0.340 ± 0.180 µmol g−1. The structure of collected PM for all samples mostly appeared to be an irregular shape with the size range of ultrafine particles (0.05–0.2 µm). The emission of surfactants from diesel and petrol vehicles, especially at urban areas, should be a major concern, because they could negatively affect human health and the environment.
      PubDate: 2019-07-29
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Variation of Atmospheric Particulate Matter in
           Bangalore: A Technology-Intensive Region in India
    • Abstract: All of India’s megacities are experiencing acute air pollution problems due to the accelerated urbanization/industrialization and rapid economic growth. Nowadays, environmental pollution due to particulate matter is a major threat to human health and our regional air quality. Long-term air pollution data with the high spatial and temporal resolution are required to understand regional air quality and its effects on environmental degradation and human health. In view of the above, the particulate matter (PM2.5: particles with diameters less than 2.5 μm and PM10: particles with diameters less than 10 μm) were measured from January 2017 to March 2018 at five locations (PM2.5 at 3 sites and PM10: at 2 sites) across the Bangalore city, India. The measured concentrations indicated that PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in Bangalore exceeded the World Health Organization’s air quality standards although the PM2.5 values did meet the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The PM10 NAAQS was exceeded at one site. Temporal patterns showed a strong evening peak at all sites and morning rush hour peaks of varying strength. Season peaks were observed in the winter or premonsoon seasons again with variations among the five sites. Lower pairwise correlation coefficients among the sites suggest that the PM sources were largely localized. The role of meteorological parameters (MP) was studied, and it was observed that MP play a vital role in the accumulation of PM2.5. During calm wind condition (WS < 0.5 m/s), the concentrations of PM2.5 has increased by 17%, indicating localized sources; however, in the case of PM10, it was opposite. Annually, the highest concentrations of PM2.5 (> 30 μg/ m3) and PM10 (> 75 μg/m3) over receptor side were observed during lower wind speeds (< 2 knots), which indicate that the transportation does not play any crucial role in higher concentrations of PM over Bangalore.
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
       
  • Environmental Transformation of Pharmaceutical Formulations: A Scientific
           Review
    • Abstract: Environmental pollution caused by pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) has become an increasingly important concern, due to the increased use of pharmaceutical formulations exposed to environmental change. Considerable concerns have been raised regarding potential toxic effects of the transformation products of pharmaceutical formulations on human health. Environmental risk assessments are mostly based on one active component, which causes different ecotoxicological effects, albeit the particular component is present in the environment as a part of a multicomponent mixture with different pharmaceuticals and excipients. The purpose of this review was to present the insight and new knowledge recently obtained by studies on the risk of pharmaceutical formulations, including all contained excipients, pharmaceuticals, and their transformation products exposed to the environment. Numerous studies have shown that the level of pharmaceuticals in the environment is below toxic concentration; however, long exposure to very low concentrations can still lead to harmful concentrations in biota. Accordingly, the findings of this study are expected to highlight the existing issues of the effect of pharmaceutical formulations to the environment, including TPs, and help to determine future research directions towards accumulating the data and improving ecological risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
       
 
 
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