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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 84]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Concentrations, Source Identification, and Lung Cancer Risk Associated
           with Springtime PM 2.5 -Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in
           Nanjing, China
    • Authors: Chong Chen; Zhonghuan Xia; Minmin Wu; Qianqian Zhang; Tao Wang; Liping Wang; Hao Yang
      Abstract: Abstract This study concentrated on the pollution level, sources, and lung cancer risk of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spring in Nanjing, China. The PM2.5 samples were collected in spring of the year 2016 in Nanjing. Sixteen United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. The mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq were 3.98 ± 1.01 and 0.29 ± 0.08 ng/m3, respectively, which is a low level among results from regions worldwide. The diurnal variations of PAHs and BaPeq concentrations showed a relatively high level in the early morning, at the morning rush time of work and traffic transportation, and in the evening traffic peak hours. According to the results of diagnostic ratios, PAHs originated mainly from traffic exhaust, especially diesel vehicle emissions. In a single day, the highest inhalation exposure level was focused between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m., whereas the time between 12 a.m. to 2 p.m. in a day had the lowest exposure dose. Due to the inhalation exposure, the median values of incremental lung cancer risk in spring were estimated to be 7.08 × 10−9, 5.29 × 10−9, 3.53 × 10−8, 5.21 × 10−9, 7.21 × 10−9, 5.24 × 10−9, 3.01 × 10−8, and 5.40 × 10−9 for boys, male adolescents, male adults, male seniors, girls, female adolescents, female adults, and female seniors, respectively, indicating low potential lung cancer risk.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0435-4
  • Urinary Cadmium and Cotinine Levels and Hair Mercury Levels in Czech
           Children and Their Mothers Within the Framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES
    • Authors: Kateřina Forysová; Anna Pinkr-Grafnetterová; Marek Malý; Andrea Krsková; Jaroslav Mráz; Lucie Kašparová; Mája Čejchanová; Lenka Sochorová; Sylva Rödlová; Milena Černá
      Abstract: Abstract The COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin project was performed in 2011–2012 in 17 European countries to harmonize all steps of the human biomonitoring survey. Urinary cadmium, cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and hair mercury were measured in children (N = 120, 6–11 years) and their mothers of reproductive age, living in urban or rural areas. Cadmium in mothers’ and children’s urine was detected at a geometric mean (GM) concentration 0.227 and 0.109 μg/L, respectively; 95th percentile (P95) was 0.655 and 0.280 μg/L in mothers and children, respectively. No age-related, education-related, or urban versus rural differences were observed within the frame of each population group. Cadmium urinary level in mothers was about twofold compared with children. Higher levels were obtained in all smoking mothers but not in occasionally smoking or mothers and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Mercury values in mothers were significantly higher in urban than in rural populations but not in children. GM and P95 for mercury in children’s hair were 0.098 and 0.439 μg/g and in mothers’ hair were 0.155 and 0.570 μg/g. Concentrations for mercury in the Czech samples were lower than European average. Hair mercury increased significantly with consumption of fish or seafood and with number of amalgam tooth fillings (in children). A positive association was found with family educational level. No influence of age was observed. Urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels were lower than health-based guidelines with one exception. High levels of urinary cotinine were found in the 12 smoking mothers (GM approximately 500 μg/L); lower levels in occasionally smoking mothers, N = 11 (34.5 μg/L). The mean cotinine levels in nonsmoking mothers who reported daily exposure to ETS was 10.7 μg/L. A similar mean value (10.8 μg/L) was obtained in six children who had daily exposure to ETS. In children without exposure to ETS, the mean cotinine level was 1.39 μg/L urine. Cotinine in the urine of children demonstrates limited protection of the Czech children against exposure to ETS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0412-y
  • Occurrence and Distribution of Organophosphate Esters in Surface Soil and
           Street Dust from Chongqing, China: Implications for Human Exposure
    • Authors: Ming-Jing He; Ting Yang; Zhi-Hao Yang; Qi Li; Shi-Qiang Wei
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, the occurrence, concentrations, and distribution of organophosphate esters (OPEs) were studied in surface soil and street dust samples collected from different sites of Chongqing, a metropolitan city in western China. Furthermore, nondietary daily intakes (DIs) of OPEs only through dust ingestion absorption were assessed between toddlers and adults. The ∑OPEs contents ranged from 10.1 to 315 ng/g dw and from 348 to 1369 ng/g dw in surface soil and street dust samples, respectively, with tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), the predominant OPEs in surface soil, whereas tris (chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) occupied a relatively high proportion in street dust samples. The mobility of TCEP and tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) to deeper soil zones with seepage water may play a role in decreasing contents of both compounds in surface soil. Considerably different patterns of pairwise correlations of six OPEs congeners were observed between surface soil and street dust, which could largely relate to the complicated environmental process for tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and TCIPP in surface soil. Analogous sources between surface soil and street dust have been identified through principal component analysis. Compared with adults, the toddlers were more vulnerable to OPEs intake, according to the estimated DI values. For both toddler and adult groups, the estimated exposure values for all OPEs were several orders of magnitude lower than the reference dose (RfD), not suggesting the potential risk to human health.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0432-7
  • Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic
           Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam ( Paphia undulata ) and
           Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia
    • Authors: Mehrzad Keshavarzifard; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Reza Sharifi
      Abstract: Abstract The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g−1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0410-0
  • Chemical Constituents of Carbonaceous and Nitrogen Aerosols over Thumba
           Region, Trivandrum, India
    • Authors: Prashant Hegde; Kimitaka Kawamura
      Abstract: Abstract Aerosol filter samples collected at a tropical coastal site Thumba over Indian region were analysed for water-soluble ions, total carbon and nitrogen, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic carbon/nitrogen and their sources for different seasons of the year. For the entire study period, the order of abundance of ions showed the dominance of secondary ions, such as SO4 2−, NO3 −, and NH4 +. On average, Mg2+ (56%), K+ (11%), SO4 2− (8.8%), and Ca2+ (8.1%) contributions were from maritime influence. There was significant chloride depletion due to enhanced levels of inorganic acids, such as SO4 2− and NO3 −. Total carbon contributed 21% of the aerosol total suspended particulate matter in which 85% is organic carbon. Primary combustion-generated carbonaceous aerosols contributed 41% of aerosol mass for the entire study period. High average ratios of OC/EC (5.5 ± 1.8) and WSOC/OC (0.38 ± 0.11) suggest that organic aerosols are predominantly comprised of secondary species. In our samples, major fraction (89 ± 9%) was found to be inorganic nitrate in total nitrogen (TN). Good correlations (R 2 ≥ 0.82) were observed between TN with NO3 − plus NH4 +, indicating that nitrate and ammonium ions account for a significant portion of TN. The temporal variations in the specific carbonaceous aerosols and air mass trajectories demonstrated that several pollutants and/or their precursor compounds are likely transported from north western India and the oceanic regions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0426-5
  • Soil or Dust for Health Risk Assessment Studies in Urban Environment
    • Authors: M. Gabarrón; A. Faz; J. A. Acosta
      Abstract: Abstract To identify the best material (soil or dust) to be selected for health-risk assessment studies, road dust and urban soil from three cities with different population densities were collected, and size fractions were analysed for metal content (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, and Ni). Results showed similar distribution of the size particles among cities, predominating fractions between 75 and 2000 μm in road dust and particles below 75 μm in soil. Metals were mainly bound to PM10 in both soil and road dust increasing the risk of adverse health effects, overall through inhalation exposure. The risk assessment showed that the most hazardous exposure pathway was the ingestion via, followed by dermal absorption and inhalation route. Values of hazard quotient showed that the risk for children due to the ingestion and dermal absorption was higher than adults, and slightly larger at PM10 comparing to <75-μm fraction for the inhalation route. Higher risk values were found for road dust, although any hazard index or cancer risk index value did not overreach the safe value of 10−6.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0413-x
  • The Extent of Heavy Metal Pollution and Their Potential Health Risk in
           Topsoils of the Massively Urbanized District of Shanghai
    • Authors: Syed Taseer Abbas Jaffar; Fan Luo; Rong Ye; Hassan Younas; Xue-feng Hu; Long-zhu Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Urbanization and industrialization increase the concentrations of heavy metals in soils, which affect human health. A total of 127 topsoil samples were collected from the massively urbanized and industrialized district of Shanghai: Baoshan District. The sampling sites were isolated based on the land-use practice: industrial area, roadside area, residential area, and agricultural area. The absolute concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with Shanghai and the National soil background values. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and Nemerow pollution index were used to determine the existence and severity of the pollution of heavy metals. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis, spatial variability of pollution, and multivariate statistical analyses also were employed to determine the anthropogenic loading of heavy metals, their spatial dependency, and correlation among their sources, respectively. Moreover, potential ecological risk and human health risk [carcinogenic risk (RI) and noncarcinogenic hazard (HI)] were evaluated. The average concentration of all the metals (accounted as 229, 128, 56, 719, 55, 119, and 0.3 mg kg−1 for Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively) was many folds higher than the background values. The indices depicted that the pollution exists in all the sites and severity decreases in the following order: industrial soils > roadside soil > residential soils > agricultural soils. However, Zn, Pb, and Cd showed high levels of pollution in all the soils. The EF values suggested that the majority of heavy metals are anthropogenically loaded; spatial variability showed that the pollution is more concentrated in Songnan town; Pearson’s correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis suggested different sources of origin for the majority of the heavy metals. RI of Cr and Pb ranged between 2.8E−04 and 2.7E−07. However, HI was site-specific (only for Cr, Pb, Mn), and most of the sites were in Songnan town. This study could be used as a significant piece of information for management purposes to prevent heavy metal pollution and to protect human health.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0433-6
  • Seasonal Fluctuations of Trace Elements from Different Habitats of
           Orbetello Lagoon (Thyrrenian Sea, Italy)
    • Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated seasonal fluctuations of trace elements of major ecotoxicological concern in sediments and their uptakes by the aquatic vegetation indifferent undisturbed habitats from the Orbetello lagoon, correlating measured levels to abiotic and biotic drivers to scale the significant of their effect on observed seasonal variability of trace elements. Results show that under natural undisturbed conditions, observed seasonal fluctuations in different habitats are statistically correlated to temperature, salinity, and turbidity of water and total nutrients in sediments. These variables and the habitat type dominated by macroalgae (C. linum) play a significant role as drivers of variability for measured trace elements in sediments. This study represents a reference undisturbed condition of natural seasonal trends of trace elements in different habitat types before the occurrence of numerous impacting activities on sediments and could represent a useful baseline for further management evaluations after the occurrence of sediment disturbance actions planned for the near future.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
  • Allocation of Metals and Trace Elements in Different Tissues of
           Piscivorous Species Phalacrocorax carbo
    • Abstract: Abstract Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) are piscivorous birds, and as apex predators they accumulate high levels of contaminants from the aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, we analyzed distribution of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn in ten tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, spleen, gizzard, heart, skin, lard, breast feathers, and remiges) of the Great cormorants in the Marin Sprud locality, the Danube River, Serbia. Concentrations of elements in tissues were assessed by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry. Linear discriminant analysis indicates that breast feathers and remiges have a high bioaccumulation potential for heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Sr, and Zn). Those tissues had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb) (2.179 ± 0.742; 0628 ± 0.282). Maximum concentrations of mercury (Hg) were detected in liver (30.673 ± 14.081), followed by kidney, for the same element (17.409 ± 5.676), respectively. The overall maximum metal accumulation was observed in breast feathers and remiges, followed by liver and kidney, whereas the minimum values were observed in muscle, skin, and lard. The greatest concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, and Al were detected in feather tissues. Our study confirms that great cormorant is a good indicator species for monitoring of pollution of river and wetland ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
  • Association Between Placental Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS),
           Oxidative Stress, and Preterm Delivery: A Case–Control Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known to disturb the antioxidant defense system, which may indirectly contribute to induction of early pregnancy in women. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to offer preliminary information about exposure to PAHs by estimating their placental levels and its association with oxidative stress as well as with preterm birth. Placenta tissue samples were drawn after delivery from 84 healthy pregnant women, recruited at a local nursing home of Agra, India, and levels of PAHs were quantified by gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector. To evaluate redox status biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in placenta tissue. Significantly elevated levels of benzo(a)pyrene and MDA while decreasing trend of GSH was found in women with preterm delivery group (study) than women with a full-term delivery group (control). Results demonstrated higher, but statistically insignificant (p > 0.05), levels of naphthalene, anthracene, fluorene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, and benzo(ghi)perylene in the study group than the control group. However, higher and lower molecular weight PAHs showed significant correlation for the depletion trend of GSH sights upon an example of oxidative stress mechanism. Because of limited statistical power and absence of controlled confounders, this study does not provide an ample involvement of PAHs with preterm delivery but increased MDA and decreased GSH in cases than controls gives the possible contribution of PAHs to early delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
  • Oxidative Damage and Genetic Toxicity Induced by DBP in Earthworms (
           Eisenia fetida )
    • Authors: Guanying Wang; Jun Wang; Lusheng Zhu; Jinhua Wang; Hengzhou Li; Yizhang Zhang; Wenjun Liu; Jianpeng Gao
      Abstract: Abstract Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the most ubiquitous plasticizers used worldwide. However, it has negatives effects on the soil, water, atmosphere, and other environmental media and can cause serious pollution. According to the artificial soil test and previous studies, this study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of earthworms induced by DBP at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 50 mg kg−1) on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of exposure. The variations in the antioxidant activities of enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), in the amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in the amount of DNA damage were measured to evaluate the toxic impact of DBP in earthworms. Upon exposure to DBP, the SOD, CAT, POD, and GST activities were significantly increased, with the exception of the 0.1 mg kg−1 treatment dose. High concentrations of DBP (10 and 50 mg kg−1) induced superfluous ROS to be produced and caused the MDA content to increase significantly. Therefore, we proposed that DBP led to DNA damage in earthworm coelomocytes in a dose-dependent manner, which means that DBP is a source of oxidative damage and genetic toxicity in earthworms.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0451-4
  • Impact of Land Use on the Mobility of Hg Species in Different Compartments
           of a Tropical Watershed in Brazil
    • Authors: Clara Ayume Ito de Lima; Marcelo Gomes de Almeida; Inacio Abreu Pestana; Wanderley R. Bastos; Maria Cristina Nery do Nascimento Recktenvald; Cristina Maria Magalhães de Souza; Paulo Pedrosa
      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the levels of total Hg and CH3Hg+ from a comprehensive perspective, considering the retention, leaching, and deposition of these contaminants in the main compartments (soil, plant litter, and sediment) of three landscapes (Atlantic Forest, pasture, and agricultural area) in a watershed in northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Variables analyzed were total Hg, CH3Hg+, organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain size, and surface area. In soil samples, total Hg levels were the highest in agricultural soil followed by forest soil and pasture (97.3, 87.6, and 77.1 ng g−1, respectively), and CH3Hg+ was lower than 1.7%. Total Hg levels in leaf litter varied between 22.6 and 34.2 ng g−1, and CH3Hg+ was 4.37%. In sediment, Hg (60–180 ng g−1) and CH3Hg+ (<1%) indicate the transport of these contaminants from soils to this compartment and may be associated with soil use and cover. Multiple regressions were used to understand the dispersion of Hg species, and the effect of each variable varied with the landscape, showing that plant cover should not be ignored in investigations related to Hg species retention in a watershed. The landscapes surveyed in the present study clearly influence the quantitative and qualitative distribution of Hg species. On the other hand, anthropic processes associated with changes in soil use did not have any critical effects on the absolute levels of total Hg and CH3Hg+, meaning that the landscapes evaluated seem to represent the background concentration of these chemical species for the evaluated watershed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0449-y
  • Seasonal Variation in Water-Soluble Ions in Airborne Particulate
           Deposition in the Suburban Nanjing Area, Yangtze River Delta, China,
           During Haze Days and Normal Days
    • Authors: Junlin An; Qimin Cao; Jianan Zou; Honglei Wang; Qing Duan; Yuanzhe Shi; Chen Chen; Junxiu Wang
      Abstract: Abstract To investigate the seasonal variation and characterization of water-soluble ions (WSIs) present in airborne particle deposition (APD) during Haze Days (visibility ≤7.5 km) and Normal Days (visibility >7.5 km) in suburban Nanjing area, 151 filter samples were collected from 18 May 2013 to 26 May 2014. Ten different WSIs from the samples were determined by Ion Chromatography. The results indicated that secondary WSIs (NH4 +, NO3 −, and SO4 2−) were the main ions in the WSIs, averaging 17.2, 18.5, and 17.1 μg/m3, respectively, and accounting respectively 20.9, 22.5, and 20.8% of the total WSIs. On Haze Days, the concentration of WSIs increased dramatically in fine size (particle size <2.1 μm), especially for NH4 +, NO3 −, and SO4 2− (increased by 52.6, 71.3, and 73.1%, respectively), whereas the concentrations of WSIs increased slowly in coarse size (2.1 μm < particle size < 10 μm), in which NH4 +, NO3 −, and SO4 2− increased by 14.7, 27.2, and 54.5%, respectively. According to the backward trajectories and the principal component analysis analysis, Nanjing APD were mainly derived from the soil dust in northern China (35%) in the spring, from ocean air masses (61 and 55%) in the summer and the autumn, and from local air masses (73%) in the winter. On summer Haze Days, secondary components in PM2.1 consisted mainly of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, whereas secondary components in PM2.1–10 consisted mainly of (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3. The increasing concentrations of secondary components increase the light extinction coefficients of aerosol on winter and autumn Haze Days. The concentrations of WSIs in fine size rose sharply on Haze Days, leading the visibility to exponential decline. Differently, the concentrations of WSIs in coarse size were not the main cause in the change of the visibility.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0447-0
  • Endocrine Disrupting Compounds from the Source Water of the Huai River
           (Huainan City), China
    • Authors: Siping Niu; Cunliang Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract The occurrence and environmental risk of eight endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), nonyl phenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E1), from four water sources (Pingshantou, Wanfenggang, Shisi, and Shiyi) of Huai River (Huainan section) were investigated in this study. Except for DMP only found in Pingshantou, all of the selected EDCs existed widely in the source water. DMP, DEP, BBP, DBP, NP, BPA, EE2, and E1 had the ranges of nd (cannot be detected)-130 ng/L, 25–310, 76–1351, 431–1299, 215–627, 23–107, nd-0.174, and 0.143–0.334 ng/L, respectively. Therefore, the studied water sources were associated with notable levels of EDCs, wherein the concentrations of BBP, DBP, and NP were much higher than the other five chemicals. The selected EDCs appeared to be higher in upstream than in downstream (p < 0.05) for each water source, suggesting that EDCs were subjected to a decreasing with water flow. Correlation analysis suggests that DEP-BP-DBP, NP-BPA, and EE2-E1 might have the same sources, respectively; and the source of NP, EE2, and E1 was different from that of BBP, BEP and BBP, and DEP, respectively. It was observed that both the TAS (total ambient severity) and RQ (risk quotient) were less than 1, indicating that EDCs in Huai River (Huainan section) posed little or no thread to the health of local inhabitants and ecological environmental.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0445-2
  • Gender- and Age-Specific Relationships Between Phthalate Exposures and
           Obesity in Shanghai Adults
    • Authors: Ruihua Dong; Tong Zhou; Jingsi Chen; Meiru Zhang; Han Zhang; Min Wu; Shuguang Li; Liwen Zhang; Bo Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Phthalate exposure has been reported to be associated with obesity (measured by body mass index [BMI]) and central obesity (measured by waist circumference [WC]). Yet, reported associations and the potential gender and age differences are inconsistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 2330 participants in the fall of 2012. Urinary metabolites of ten phthalates were measured. Height, body weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured using standardized methods. We performed logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between each urine phthalate metabolite (categorized into quartiles) and obesity and central obesity and conducted an additional, stratified analysis to explore the gender and age differences. In the overall study population, higher urinary levels of MMP, MEHHP, and MECPP were associated with increased ratios of central obesity. When stratifying by gender and central obesity, higher urinary levels of MMP, MEHHP, and MEOHP were associated with increased odds of central obesity in females, whereas MBzP was significantly associated inversely with central obesity in females. In males, it showed no significant P value for trend (P trend). When stratifying by age in females, higher urinary levels of MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, and MECPP were associated with increased odds of central obesity in women aged ≤45 years. In females aged >45 years, it showed no significant P trend. In conclusion, we found that association between phthalates and central obesity was stronger than between phthalates and obesity; association between phthalates and central obesity was stronger in females than in males and was stronger in younger females (aged ≤45 years) than in older females (aged >45 years).
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0441-6
  • Erratum to: The Extent of Heavy Metal Pollution and Their Potential Health
           Risk in Topsoils of the Massively Urbanized District of Shanghai
    • Authors: Syed Taseer Abbas Jaffar; Fan Luo; Rong Ye; Hassan Younas; Xue-feng Hu; Long-zhu Chen
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0442-5
  • Low-Level Environmental Cadmium Exposure Induces Kidney Tubule Damage in
           the General Population of Korean Adults
    • Authors: Sang-Yong Eom; Mi-Na Seo; Young-Sub Lee; Kyung-Su Park; Young-Seoub Hong; Seok-Joon Sohn; Yong-Dae Kim; Byung-Sun Choi; Ji-Ae Lim; Ho-Jang Kwon; Heon Kim; Jung-Duck Park
      Abstract: Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is the most potent nephrotoxic heavy metal and may affect bone; it also has a long biological half-life in the human body. This study was designed to assess the effect of environmental low-level Cd exposure on kidney function and bone in the general population. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 1907 healthy Korean adults who had not been exposed to Cd occupationally. We analyzed the concentrations of Cd in the urine, markers of renal tubule damage, such as β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in the urine, calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine, and measured bone mineral density (BMD). Also, we analyzed malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the urine. The geometric mean concentration of Cd in urine was higher in women (1.36 μg/g creatinine) than in men (0.82 μg/g creatinine). Urinary Cd was significantly positively correlated with urinary β2-MG and NAG activity, whereas it was negatively correlated with eGFR and BMD. The risk of renal tubule damage was significantly associated with urine Cd level, and the association remained significant after controlling for various confounding variables. However, no association was observed between urinary Cd level and glomerular dysfunction or bone damage. The concentration of MDA was increased with urinary Cd level in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that low-level environmental Cd exposure may cause microscopic damage to renal tubules through oxidative stress but might not impair kidney glomeruli or bones.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0443-4
  • Seasonal Distribution, Source Identification, and Toxicological Risk
           Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from
           Wadi El Bey Watershed in Tunisia
    • Authors: Imen Gdara; Ines Zrafi; Catia Balducci; Angelo Cecinato; Ahmed Ghrabi
      Abstract: Abstract Surface sediments were collected from the Watershed of Wadi El Bey in Tunisia to evaluate the degree of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination. Sediments were collected during different seasons in 14 sites that received wastes from domestic effluent, industrial discharge, and agricultural drainage wastes. Twenty-six individual PAHs were analyzed. The total PAH contents (Σ PAHs) in surface sediments showed wide variability, ranging from 6.89 ± 0.05 to 340 ± 0.1 ng g−1. The 4-, 5-, and 6-ring compounds were the most abundant PAHs detected at the majority of sites. Diagnostic concentration ratios between pairs of PAHs and molecular indices, calculated with the purpose of drawing information about pollution sources, indicated that PAHs were of both petrogenic and pyrolytic origins. Toxic contaminants concentrations were determined according to the numerical effect-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). PAH levels did not exceed the SQGs, indicating that PAHs seem to pose low and occasional toxicity risks. Total carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (TEQBaP and MEQBaP) ranged from 0.08 to 65 ng and from 0.02 to 135.0 ng g−1 of dry weight, respectively. Among the seven carcinogenic PAHs, BaP accounted for the majority of the potency and could potentially be used as a unique indicator of PAH toxicity. This study provides a baseline to promote environmental protection programs and pollution monitoring/control in Watershed and coastal areas.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0440-7
  • Determination of the Extent of Trace Metals Pollution in Soils, Sediments
           and Human Hair at e-Waste Recycling Site in Ghana
    • Authors: Takashi Tokumaru; Hirokazu Ozaki; Siaw Onwona-Agyeman; John Ofosu-Anim; Izumi Watanabe
      Abstract: Abstract The concentrations of trace elements (Mg, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in soils, sediment, human hair, and foodstuff collected around the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites in Accra, Ghana were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High levels of Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, and Pb were observed in soils collected from the e-waste recycling sites. Four sequential extraction procedures were used to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, and Pb). Especially, the results showed that Cd and Zn in soils were mostly recovered in exchangeable fraction (respectively 58.9 and 62.8%). Sediment collected from around the site had enrichment of Zn, Sn, Sb, Mo, In, Pb, and Bi. The concentrations of Cu, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Pb in human hair were significantly higher than those collected from the control site (p < 0.01). Additionally, hierarchical cluster analysis reviewed that these elements were derived from e-waste activities. The results of Pb isotopic ratios in the samples indicate that Pb in human hair possibly originated from contaminated soils, fish, and foodstuff.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0434-5
  • Glucuronide and Sulfate Conjugates of Bisphenol A: Chemical Synthesis and
           Correlation Between Their Urinary Levels and Plasma Bisphenol A Content in
           Voluntary Human Donors
    • Authors: Ka-Lok Ho; Ka-Ki Yuen; Man-Shan Yau; Margaret B. Murphy; Yi Wan; Bonnie M.-W. Fong; Sidney Tam; John P. Giesy; Kelvin S.-Y. Leung; Michael H.-W. Lam
      Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) glucuronide and sulfate conjugates are major products of Phase II metabolism of BPA in humans. In the past, their determination in body fluids usually involves tedious enzymatic hydrolysis and multiresidual analysis. The recent availability of authentic standards of these conjugates enables our better understand of the human metabolism of BPA and the distribution of their metabolites in body fluids. In this work, we report the chemical synthesis and purification of BPA mono- and di-glucuronide and BPA mono- and di-sulfate. Their levels, as well as that of BPA, in 140 paired human plasma and urine samples collected randomly from voluntary donors in Hong Kong SAR, China, were determined by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). BPA was found in more than 135 human plasma and urine samples. Its Phase II metabolites, ranging from N.D. to 36.7 µg g−1-creatinine, also were detected in 139 of the 140 urine samples. Good correlation (r = 0.911) between molar concentration of BPA in the plasma and that of “total urinary BPA” (i.e., ln [(BPA + ∑ BPA phase II conjugate)molar concentration]) was observed. Direct quantification of Phase II metabolites of BPA in human urine can be a useful assessment tool for population exposure to this potent endocrine disrupting chemical. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0438-1
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