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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Fractionation, Mobility, and Contamination Assessment of Potentially Toxic
           Metals in Urban Soils in Four Industrial Serbian Cities
    • Authors: Dragana Pavlović; Marija Pavlović; Dragan Čakmak; Olga Kostić; Snežana Jarić; Sanja Sakan; Dragana Đorđević; Miroslava Mitrović; Ivan Gržetić; Pavle Pavlović
      Pages: 335 - 350
      Abstract: Abstract The main soil properties, concentrations of selected elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and the chemical speciation of each element were determined in urban soil samples taken from urban parks in four Serbian cities (Belgrade, Pančevo, Obrenovac, and Smederevo) exposed to different sources of pollution. Pollution indices (PI, PIN) and factors (MF, ICF, GCF) also were evaluated. The study revealed As and Cd concentrations below the detection limit, whereas the content of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn at some sites exceeded the limits established by local regulations, as well as the background values, which may represent an environmental threat. Sequential extraction results show that Fe, Cr, Cu, and Ni were predominantly in the residual fraction at most sites; however, Ni from Pančevo and Smederevo also was bound to the reducible fraction. The presence of Pb at all sites and Zn in Smederevo and Belgrade was mainly associated with the reducible and residual fractions. The highest Mn content was found in the reducible fraction, followed by the acid soluble/exchangeable and residual fractions. Based on the obtained indices and factors, the overall soil status at the selected sampling sites was found to range from the warning limit to slightly polluted, whereby Smederevo had the highest risk, and Pančevo and the control site the lowest risk of contamination by toxic metals.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0518-x
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Semi-arid City of
           Xi’an, Northwest China: Composition, Distribution, Sources, and
           Relationships with Soil Properties
    • Authors: Lijun Wang; Panqing Zhang; Li Wang; Wenjuan Zhang; Xingmin Shi; Xinwei Lu; Xiaoping Li; Xiaoyun Li
      Pages: 351 - 366
      Abstract: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment. This study collected a total of 62 urban soil samples from the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest. They were analyzed for the composition, distribution, and sources of PAHs as well as the relationships with soil properties. The sum of 16 individual PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 μg/kg with a mean of 2052.6 μg/kg. The average ∑16PAHs decreased in the order of the third ring road (2321.1 μg/kg) > the first ring road (1893.7 μg/kg) > the second ring road (1610.0 μg/kg), and in the order of industrial areas (3125.6 μg/kg) > traffic areas (2551.6 μg/kg) > educational areas (2414.4 μg/kg) > parks (1649.5 μg/kg) > mixed commercial and traffic areas (1332.8 μg/kg) > residential areas (1031.0 μg/kg). The most abundant PAHs in the urban soil were 3- to 5-ring PAHs. Elevated levels of PAHs were found in industrial and traffic areas from the east and west suburbs and the northwest corner of Xi’an as well as the northeast corner in the urban district of Xi’an. PAHs in the urban soil were mainly related to the combustion of fossil fuel (i.e., coal, gasoline, diesel, and natural gas) and biomass (i.e., grass and wood) (variance contribution 57.2%) as well as the emissions of petroleum and its products (variance contribution 29.9%). Soil texture and magnetic susceptibility were the main factors affecting the concentration of PAHs in urban soil. Meanwhile, this study suggested that the single, rapid, and nondeductive magnetic measurements can be an indicator of soil pollution by PAHs.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0522-1
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Seasonal Variation and Exposure Risks of Perchlorate in Soil, Indoor Dust,
           and Outdoor Dust in China
    • Authors: Yiwen Li; Ruoying Liao; Zhiwei Gan; Bing Qu; Rong Wang; Mengqin Chen; Sanglan Ding; Shijun Su
      Pages: 367 - 376
      Abstract: Abstract A total of 97 paired soil, outdoor dust, and indoor dust samples were collected in the national scale of China in summer, and the perchlorate levels were compared with those in soil and outdoor dust samples collected in winter in our previous study. The median perchlorate concentrations in the outdoor dust, indoor dust, and soil samples were 8.10, 11.4, and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the winter samples due to the natural factors and human activities. No significant differences in perchlorate concentrations were found between Northern and Southern China in the dust samples, whereas the difference was obtained in the soil samples. In the terms of possible source, the perchlorate levels in the outdoor dust exhibited strong correlation with SO42− (r2 = 0.458**) and NO3− (r2 = 0.389**), indicating part of perchlorate in outdoor environment was likely from atmospheric oxidative process in summer. The perchlorate, SO42−, and Cl− levels in the indoor dust were significantly related to those in the outdoor dust, suggesting that outdoor contaminants might be an important source for indoor environment. Furthermore, the human exposure to perchlorate was under relatively safe state in China except for special sites or periods with high perchlorate levels. Dust made an unexpected contribution of 41.3% to the total daily perchlorate intake for children, whereas 2.46% for adults in China based on biomonitoring, which deserves more attention.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0526-x
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Surface Soil from North-East India:
           Implication for Sources Apportionment and Health-Risk Assessment
    • Authors: Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi; Ishwar Chandra Yadav; Paromita Chakraborty; Qi Shihua
      Pages: 377 - 389
      Abstract: Abstract Although India never manufactured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), evidence suggests the prevalence of PCBs in multi-environmental matrices. Despite the high level of PCBs that has been detailed in the major urban areas of India, little is known about the fate and sources of PCBs in Northeast India (NEI). This motivated us to investigate the contamination level and sources of PCBs in the surface soil. In this study, the environmental concentration and sources of 25 PCBs were investigated in surface soil (n = 60) from three states of NEI (lower Assam, Manipur, and Tripura). Additionally, the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) and PCBs was studied to investigate the role of SOC in the distribution of PCBs. Overall, the concentration of ∑25PCBs ranged from 2950 to 16,700 pg/g dw (median 7080 pg/g dw), 3580–21,100 pg/g dw (median 11,500 pg/g dw), and 2040–11,000 pg/g dw (median 4270 pg/g dw) in Assam, Manipur, and Tripura, respectively. Low-chlorinated PCBs were more prevalent than highly chlorinated PCBs. PCB-49 was identified as the most abundant in soil, followed by PCB-52, and accounted for 13% and 12.9% of ∑25PCBs, respectively. With respect to land use categories, high ∑25PCBs were related to grassland areas and proximity to the roadside soil. The principal component analysis indicated emissions from technical PCB mixtures, combustion of municipal wastes/residential wood, incineration of hospital wastes, and e-waste recycling/disposal sites are the real sources of PCBs. Marginally, a moderate-to-weak correlation of SOC with ∑25PCBs (R2 = 0.144, p < 0.05) and their homologs (R2 = 0.280–0.365, p < 0.05) indicated the little role of SOC in the dispersion of PCBs. The estimated toxic equivalency of dioxin-like PCBs suggested that PCB-126 is the most toxic contaminant to endanger the human population.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0528-8
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Assessment of Heavy and Trace Metals in Surface Soil Nearby an Oil
           Refinery, Saudi Arabia, Using Geoaccumulation and Pollution Indices
    • Authors: Fatimh Alshahri; A. El-Taher
      Pages: 390 - 401
      Abstract: Abstract The present study deals with the measurement of heavy and trace metals in the soils of Ras Tanura city nearby one of the oldest and largest oil refineries located on Arabian Gulf, eastern Saudi Arabia. Metals were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples using plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICPE-9820). The result showed that the mean values of the metals concentrations were in the order: Cd > Mo > Tb > Ce > Hf > Eu > Yb > U > Sm > Rb > Cr > Ni > Pb > Sc > Cs > Zn > Lu > Co. The mean values of Cd (39.9 mg/kg), Mo (13.2 mg/kg), Eu (4.01 mg/kg), Hf (6.09 mg/kg), Tb (8.23 mg/kg), and Yb (3.88) in soil samples were higher than the background values in soil and the world average. The obtained results indicated to elevated levels of Cd and Mo in most samples, with mean concentrations exceeded the background levels by 113 times for Cd and 5 times for Mo. Pollution index (PI) and Geoaccumulation (Igeo) for each metal were calculated to assess the metal contamination level of surface soil in the study area. The assessment results of PI and Igeo revealed a significant pollution by Cd, Mo, Eu, Hf, Tb, and Yb in most of sampling sites nearby Ras Tanura refinery.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0531-0
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Arsenic in Playground Soils from Kindergartens and Green Recreational
           Areas of Bratislava City (Slovakia): Occurrence and Gastric
    • Authors: Edgar Hiller; Lenka Filová; Ľubomír Jurkovič; Lucia Lachká; Tatsiana Kulikova; Mária Šimurková
      Pages: 402 - 414
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, playground soils of kindergartens and green recreational zones in Bratislava were investigated for the occurrence and gastric bioaccessibility of arsenic (As) in the < 150 μm soil size fraction. Eighty topsoil (0–10 cm) samples were collected from playgrounds in kindergartens and green recreational zones throughout the urban area. Bioaccessibility measurements of As were performed using the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test that mimics the human gastric environment, and resulting extracts were analyzed by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to assess bioaccessible As concentrations in the collected playground soils. Single selective chemical extractions using hydroxylamine hydrochloride–hydrochloric acid and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate solutions also were used to determine the amount of As associated with amorphous and amorphous/crystalline Fe oxy-hydroxides in soils, respectively. The results showed that the spatial distribution of total As concentrations was related to the historical development of the city, with higher soil concentrations of As found in the old city centre and related urban zones and the lower ones on the outskirts of Bratislava. There was a variation in the values of bioaccessible concentrations and fractions of As, with ranges from 0.40 to 5.60 mg/kg and 7.29 to 56.1%, respectively. Correlation and multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that bioaccessible concentrations of As were linearly related to its total concentrations in the soils, whereas dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeDCB) was the main soil property, controlling the bioaccessibility of As. When the amount of FeDCB in the soils increased, As bioaccessibility decreased, confirming an importance of Fe bound to amorphous and crystalline iron oxy-hydroxides to the limitation of As bioaccessibility in urban playground soils of Bratislava. Additionally, single selective extractions showed that As concentrations extracted by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (AsHH) and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (AsDCB) were positively correlated with its bioaccessible concentrations (Spearman r = 0.75 and 0.62, respectively; p < 0.001).
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0534-x
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Characterization and Risk Analysis of Metals Associated with Urban Dust in
           Rawang (Malaysia)
    • Authors: Sarva Mangala Praveena
      Pages: 415 - 423
      Abstract: Abstract This study was designed to determine the particle size distribution and develop road dust index combining source and transport factors involving road dust for dust pollution quantification in Rawang. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify possible sources of potentially toxic elements and spot major pollution areas in Rawang. The health risks (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) to adults and children were assessed using the hazard index and total lifetime cancer Risk, respectively. A total of 75 road dust samples were collected and particle sizes (1000, 500, 250, 160, 125 and 63 µm) were determined. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and As) in particle size of 63 µm were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the highest grain size of 250 µm has contributed almost more than 25% of atmospheric particulate pollution. The highest potentially toxic element concentration was Pb (593.3 mg/kg), whereas the lowest was Co (5.6 mg/kg). Road dust index output indicated that pollution risk fell into moderate levels in eastern and northern areas of Rawang. Similarly, PCA results revealed that potentially toxic elements (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cr) were linked with anthropogenic sources (urbanization process, industrial and commercial growth, urban traffic congestion) in northern and southern parts of Rawang. Cobalt and As concentrations were explained mainly from natural sources. Noncarcinogenic risk by hazard index value more than 1.0 was indicated for adults and children. Similarly, carcinogenic risk by total lifetime cancer risk value also showed carcinogenic risks among adults and children.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0537-7
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Influence of Road Paving on Particulate Matter Emission and Fingerprinting
           of Elements of Road Dust
    • Authors: Anil Kumar; Suresh Pandian Elumalai
      Pages: 424 - 435
      Abstract: Most assessments of road dust have focused largely on the resuspension of materials from the paved road while the contribution from unpaved shoulder to particulate matter is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of unpaved road shoulders in the contribution of particulate matter emitted by analyzing elements in the road dust. We collected road dust samples and employed US-EPA empirical equations. The results of TSP emission reveal that unpaved shoulder adjacent to paved roads (43.1–29.9%) is a potential emitter than that at roundabouts (27%). In paved road environment, the contribution of TSP emission was 54.9–25.6% from unpaved shoulders based on driving share of vehicles. TSP emission results suggest that waste material is frequently exchanged from paved to unpaved shoulder, which leads to seasonal variations in paved road. The observed particle size of paved surface waste material shows that about 36% particles were less than 2.5 μm and 52% were greater than 10 μm, suggesting that dust is resuspendable and presents a health risk due to being respirable. Elemental analysis confirmed the presence of the toxic elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn, Sb, and Ba in waste material. Moreover, receptor models indicate that the waste material comprised of elements from tire wear (31%), mineral dust (27%), brake wear (17%), vehicle exhaust (14%), and coal (7%). The elemental contribution of coal is a location-specific source identified from principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, which originated spillage during transportation. The study illustrates the contributions of PM emission from the different road networks and the mechanism of exchange of waste materials. Graphical Microscopic observation of resuspension and transportation of road dust due to vehicular movement leads to advection mechanism at the roundabout and the paved road having unpaved shoulders.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0546-6
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Exposure Through Runoff and Ground Water Contamination Differentially
           Impact Behavior and Physiology of Crustaceans in Fluvial Systems
    • Authors: Alexandra N. Steele; Rachelle M. Belanger; Paul A. Moore
      Pages: 436 - 448
      Abstract: Abstract Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms. This study used agonistic encounters in crayfish Orconectes virilis as a behavioral assay to investigate impact of sublethal concentrations of atrazine (0, 40, 80, and 160 µg/L) delivered by methods mimicking ground water and surface runoff influx into flow-through exposure arenas for a total of 23 h. Each experimental animal participated in a dyadic fight trial with an unexposed opponent. Fight duration and intensity were analyzed. Experimental crayfish hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissue samples were analyzed for cytochrome P450 and acetylcholinesterase levels to discern mechanism of detoxification and mode of action of atrazine. Atrazine delivered via runoff decreased crayfish overall fight intensity and contrastingly ground water delivery increased overall fight intensity. The behavioral differences were mirrored by increases in cytochrome P450 activity, whereas no differences were found in acetylcholinesterase activity. This study demonstrates that method of delivery into fluvial systems has differential effects on both behavior and physiology of organisms and emphasizes the need for the consideration of delivery pathway in ecotoxicological studies and water-impairment standards.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0542-x
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Arsenic and Trace Metals in Three West African rivers: Concentrations,
           Partitioning, and Distribution in Particle-Size Fractions
    • Authors: Ahbeauriet Ahmed Ouattara; Koffi Marcellin Yao; Maley Pacome Soro; Thomas Diaco; Albert Trokourey
      Pages: 449 - 463
      Abstract: Abstract Despite increasing mining activities, and fertilizer and pesticide use in agriculture, little information is available on the status of metal(loid) contamination in rivers in West Africa. Sixty water samples were collected from three significant rivers (the Bandama, Comoé, and Bia Rivers) in Côte d’Ivoire, the world’s top cocoa producer, to examine As, Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, and Zn concentrations, partitioning, and distribution in suspended particle-size fractions. The results showed higher total metal(loid) concentrations during the dry and flood seasons than during the rainy season. Significant As and Pb concentrations, moderate Cu and Fe concentrations, and low Zn concentrations were observed during the flood season. The metal(loid) concentrations decreased upstream to downstream primarily due to increased deposition through flocculation. Inverse or no obvious spatial trends often were observed, indicative of local contamination from anthropogenic activities. The suspended solid phase and the strength of metal affinity to the particles controlled the metal(loid) concentrations. Furthermore, total metal(loid) concentrations increased significantly with decreasing suspended particle-size fractions. The results underline that As and Pb contents in the Comoé and Bia Rivers threaten the health of at least 3 million people in southeastern Côte d’Ivoire. Filtering river waters before use will significantly reduce human health risks.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0543-9
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bioaccumulation and Cycling of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in
           Typical Mangrove Wetlands of Hainan Island, South China
    • Authors: Yao-Wen Qiu; Han-Lin Qiu; Jun Li; Gan Zhang
      Pages: 464 - 475
      Abstract: Mangrove wetlands are important coastal ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, and mangrove sediments and tissues often are the pollutant sinks due to their high organic matter contents. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mangrove sediments and tissues of nine species from three typical mangrove wetlands of Hainan Island were studied. The average concentration of PAHs in all mangrove tissues was 403 ng g−1 dw, with PAHs concentrations in leaf, branch, root, and fruit of 566, 335, 314, and 353 ng g−1 dw, respectively. PAHs levels were much higher in leaf than in other mangrove tissues, which may be caused partly by atmospheric deposition of PAHs. The dominant individual PAH compounds in mangrove tissues were phenanthrene (41.3%), fluoranthene (14.7%), and pyrene (11.4%), while in sediments were naphthalene (73.4%), phenanthrene (3.9%), and pyrene (3.6%), respectively. The biota-sediment accumulation factors of PAH congeners in the mangrove wetlands showed different patterns, with the most predominant of phenanthrene. The cycling of PAHs in the mangrove wetlands of Hainan Island also were estimated, and the results showed that the standing accumulation, the annual absorption, the annual net retention, the annual return, and the turnover period in all mangrove tissues of the community were 2228 µg m−2, 869 µg m−2 a−1, 206 µg m−2 a−1, 663 µg m−2 a−1, and 3.4 a, respectively. These results indicated that mangroves are playing an important role in retaining PAHs. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0548-4
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Chemical Preservation of Semi-volatile Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
           Compounds at Ambient Temperature: A Sediment Sample Holding Time Study
    • Authors: Gregory Douglas; Jeffery Hardenstine; Shahrokh Rouhani; Deyuan Kong; Ray Arnold; Will Gala
      Pages: 486 - 494
      Abstract: Abstract Site investigations require the collection and analysis of representative environmental samples to delineate impacts, risks, and remediation options. When environmental samples are collected, concentrations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) begin to change due to several processes, such as evaporation, adsorption, precipitation, photo, and microbial degradation. Preservation techniques are used to minimize these changes between collection and analysis. The most common techniques are refrigeration, freezing, and acidification. In the mid 1970 s, regulatory agencies developed a holding time limit of 14 days for PAHs in soil/sediment samples stored at < 6 °C. The technical basis for this limit is not well defined yet failing to meet this limit may force resampling. This study examined the effectiveness of preservatives at maintaining PAH concentrations in sediment samples to 60 days. Sediment samples were collected at three sites that were impacted with petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs. Chemically preserved (sodium azide, NaN3) and unpreserved samples were analyzed at defined time intervals from 0 to 60 days. Statistical analysis indicated acceptable preservation of PAHs in the sediment samples preserved with sodium azide for 60 days when maintained at either ambient laboratory temperature or 4 ± 2 °C, and for up to 21 days with no preservative when maintained at 4 ± 2 °C.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0517-y
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 3 (2018)
  • Acute and Chronic Lead Exposure in Four Avian Scavenger Species in
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite irrefutable evidence of its negative impact on animal behaviour and physiology, lethal and sublethal lead poisoning of wildlife is still persistent and widespread. For scavenging birds, ingestion of ammunition, or fragments thereof, is the major exposure route. In this study, we examined the occurrence of lead in four avian scavengers of Switzerland and how it differs between species, regions, and age of the bird. We measured lead concentration in liver and bone of the two main alpine avian scavengers (golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos and bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus) over the entire area of the Swiss Alps and two of the main avian scavengers occurring in the lowlands of Switzerland (red kite Milvus milvus and common raven Corvus corax). Of those four species, only the bearded vulture is an obligate scavenger. We found that lead burdens in the two alpine avian scavengers were higher than those found for the same species elsewhere in Europe or North America and reached levels compatible with acute poisoning, whereas lead burdens of the two lowland avian scavengers seemed to be lower. Several golden eagles, but only one red kite with abnormally high bone lead concentrations were found. In all four species, a substantial proportion of birds had elevated levels which presumably represent recent (liver lead levels) or past (bone lead levels) uptake of sublethal doses of lead.
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
  • Interactions Between Silver Nanoparticles/Silver Ions and Liposomes:
           Evaluation of the Potential Passive Diffusion of Silver and Effects of
    • Abstract: Abstract Silver nanoparticles, used mainly for their antibacterial properties, are among the most common manufactured nanomaterials. How they interact with aquatic organisms, especially how they cross biological membranes, remains uncertain. Free Ag+ ions, released from these nanoparticles, are known to play an important role in their overall bioavailability. In this project, we have studied the uptake of dissolved and nanoparticulate silver by liposomes. These unilamellar vesicles, composed of phospholipids, have long been used as models for natural biological membranes, notably to study the potential uptake of solutes by passive diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer. The liposomes were synthesized using extrusion techniques and were exposed over time to dissolved silver under different conditions where Ag+, AgS2O3−, or AgCl0 were the dominant species. Similar experiments were conducted with the complexes HgCl 2 0 and Cd(DDC) 2 0 , both of which are hydrophobic and known to diffuse passively through biological membranes. The uptake kinetics of Ag+, HgCl 2 0 , and Cd(DDC) 2 0 show no increase in internalized concentrations over time, unlike AgS2O3− and AgCl0, which appear to pass through the phospholipid bilayer. These results are in contradiction with our initial hypothesis that lipophilic Hg and Cd complexes would be able to cross the membrane, whereas silver would not. Encapsulated tritiated water inside the liposomes was shown to rapidly diffuse through the lipid bilayer, suggesting a high permeability. We hypothesize that monovalent anions or complexes as well as small neutral complexes with a strong dipole can diffuse through our model membrane. Finally, liposomes were exposed to 5-nm polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles over time. No significant uptake of nanoparticulate silver was observed. Neither disruption of the membrane nor invagination of nanoparticles into the liposomes was observed. This suggests that the main risk caused by AgNPs for nonendocytotic biological cells would be the elevation of the free silver concentration near the membrane surface due to adsorption of AgNPs and subsequent oxidation/dissolution.
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
  • Global Monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Using Seabird
           Preen Gland Oil
    • Abstract: Abstract Situated at high positions on marine food webs, seabirds accumulate high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Our previous studies proposed the usefulness of seabirds preen gland oil as a nondestructive biomonitoring tool. The present study applied this approach to 154 adult birds of 24 species collected from 11 locations during 2005–2016 to demonstrate the utility of preen gland oil as a tool for global monitoring POPs, i.e., PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs. Concentrations of the POPs were higher in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, ∑20PCBs and∑DDTs were highly concentrated in European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and Japanese cormorants (Phalacrocorax capillatus), explainable by a diet of benthic fishes. Higher concentrations of γ-HCH were detected in species from the polar regions, possibly reflecting the recent exposure and global distillation of ∑HCHs. We examined the relationship between age and POP concentrations in preen gland oil from 20 male European shags, aged 3–16 years old. Concentrations and compositions of POPs were not related to age. We also examined sex differences in the POP concentrations from 24 streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) and did not detect a sex bias. These results underline the importance of the geographic concentration patterns and the dietary behavior as determinants species-specific POPs concentrations in preen gland oil.
      PubDate: 2018-09-19
  • Distribution and Bioavailability of Trace Metals in Shallow Sediments from
           Grand Lake, Oklahoma
    • Abstract: Abstract The Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) is a historic mining area containing the Tar Creek superfund site and is the source for sediment-bound metals in Grand Lake. Despite elevated concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc, no evidence of sediment toxicity has been observed during previous investigations; however, these studies were limited to lake transects with mostly deep-water sediments. The purpose of this study was to assess whether TSMD-specific sediment toxicity thresholds (STTs), developed for small streams and tributaries draining the TSMD, are predictive of biological effects within the greater lake body. Investigations focused on determining trace metal distribution within the northern reaches of Grand Lake, emphasizing shallow water areas (≤ 6-m depth), and the effects of sediment disturbance on trace metal bioavailability and toxicity to two freshwater invertebrates. No significant mortality or differences in growth occurred under natural or disturbed sediment conditions for either aquatic invertebrate despite using some sediments that exceeded both McDonald general sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and TSMD-specific STTs. Although the simulated disturbance event (i.e., vigorously aerating sediments for 30 days before toxicity tests) was sufficient to increase trace metal water concentrations and detection frequencies, no changes in overall sediment load, bioavailability, or toxicity were observed following a 10-day exposure duration. These results suggest that TSMD-specific STTs could be used to evaluate Grand Lake sediments that could potentially be disturbed by boat traffic, wave action, and dredging associated with dock construction as opposed to the more conservative general-SQGs.
      PubDate: 2018-09-18
  • Assessment of Fish Embryo Survival and Growth by In Situ Incubation in
           Acidic Boreal Streams Undergoing Biomining Effluents
    • Authors: Hanna E. Arola; Anna K. Karjalainen; Jukka T. Syrjänen; Maija Hannula; Ari Väisänen; Juha Karjalainen
      Abstract: Abstract The applicability of an in situ incubation method in monitoring the effects of metal mining on early life stages of fish was evaluated by investigating the impacts of a biomining technology utilizing mine on the mortality, growth, and yolk consumption of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) embryos. Newly fertilized eggs were incubated from autumn 2014 to spring 2015 in six streams under the influence of the mine located in North-Eastern Finland and in six reference streams. Although the impacted streams clearly had elevated concentrations of several metals and sulfate, the embryonic mortality of the two species did not differ between the impacted and the reference streams. Instead, particle accumulation to some cylinders had a significant impact on the embryonic mortality of both species. In clean cylinders, mortality was higher in streams with lower minimum pH. However, low pH levels were evident in both the reference and the mine-impacted groups. The embryonic growth of neither species was impacted by the mining activities, and the growth and yolk consumption of the embryos was mainly regulated by water temperature. Surprisingly, whitefish embryos incubated in streams with lower minimum pH had larger body size. In general, the applied in situ method is applicable in boreal streams for environmental assessment and monitoring, although in our study, we did not observe a specific mining impact differing from the effects of other environmental factors related to catchment characteristics.
      PubDate: 2018-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0558-2
  • Comment on “Estimating the Bioconcentration Factors of Hydrophobic
           Organic Compounds from Biotransformation Rates Using Rainbow Trout
           Hepatocytes” by Trowell et al. in AECT
    • Authors: Kai-Uwe Goss
      PubDate: 2018-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0553-7
  • The Response of Neotropical Fish Species (Brazil) on the Water Pollution:
           Metal Bioaccumulation and Genotoxicity
    • Authors: Lucilene Finoto Viana; Yzel Rondon Súarez; Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso; Bruno do Amaral Crispim; Deborah Navit de Carvalho Cavalcante; Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia; Sidnei Eduardo Lima-Junior
      Abstract: Abstract The streams and rivers of the Upper Paraná River Basin have been seriously affected by impacts of high population density around the basin area. Fishes are widely used as models to assess the health of aquatic ecosystems, being considered as bioindicators of environmental pollution. In this context, our objective was to assess the potential genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the polluted water in three native fish species (Astyanax lacustris, Hypostomus ancistroides, and Rhamdia quelen) from Tarumã Microbasin, Upper Paraná River, Brazil. We also investigated the concentration of metals in water and in fish muscle to verify bioavailability and bioaccumulation of metals. For both less impacted sites (LI) and impacted sites (IMP) of the microbasin, the concentrations of metals were above the maximum limit allowed by Brazilian legislation (Resolution CONAMA 357/2005), except for Pb, total Cr, and Cu at LI sites and total Cr at IMP sites. A. lacustris showed a higher frequency of micronuclei (MN) at IMP sites compared with LI sites (p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences in MN frequency between site classes for H. ancistroides and R. quelen (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between site classes regarding to nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes frequencies (p > 0.05). A. lacustris from IMP sites had higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Ni in muscle tissue (p < 0.05), whereas H. ancistroides from IMP sites had higher concentration of Cr, Cu, and Ni (p < 0.0001) and R. quelen showed higher concentration of Cd, Fe, and Ni at these sites (p < 0.0001). So, the chosen biomarkers are able to identify the environmental risk of the water pollution.
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0551-9
  • A Reliable Method to Determine Monomethylmercury and Monoethylmercury
           Simultaneously in Aqueous Samples by GC–CVAFS After Distillation
    • Authors: Ming Liu; Zhiqiang Gao; Laiguo Chen; Wei Zhao; Qing Lu; Jian Yang; Lu Ren; Zhencheng Xu
      Abstract: Abstract A reliable method for simultaneous determination of monomethylmercury (MeHg) and monoethylmercury (EtHg) in water by gas chromatography with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry was developed and validated. The experimental conditions, including derivatisation pH, distillation, and complexing agents, were optimized in detail. The absolute detection limits (3σ) were 0.007 ng/L as Hg for MeHg and 0.004 ng/L as Hg for EtHg. The relative standard deviation values (n = 6) for 0.1 ng/L of MeHg and EtHg were 2.7 and 2.1%, 1.0 ng/L of MeHg and EtHg were 6.0 and 6.9%, 4.4 ng/L of MeHg and EtHg were 2.8 and 2.7%, respectively. In addition, five different water samples were analyzed, including river water (RW), effluent wastewater (EW), seawater (SW), industrial wastewater (IW), underground water (UW), and the spiked recoveries of MeHg, were all greater than 85%, whereas EtHg was 86.0% in RW, 83.0% in EW, 87.0% in UW, 82.6% in SW, and 80% in IW. Formation of artefact MeHg and EtHg was studied during distillation. The level of artefact MeHg formed by methylation of Hg(II) during distillation varies from ~ 0.002 to 0.009% for river water and from ~ 0.002 to 0.004% for effluent wastewater, ethylation of Hg(II) was not observed. The method was validated for a variety of water sources with Hg(II) concentrations under 440 ng/L.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-018-0550-x
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