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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 84]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Monitoring the Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Potential and the Presence of
           Pesticides and Hydrocarbons in Water of the Sinos River Basin, Southern
    • Authors: Eloisa Bianchi; Gustavo Lessing; Karisa Roxo Brina; Larissa Angeli; Natália Bordin Andriguetti; Jaqueline Regina Soares Peruzzo; Carlos Augusto do Nascimento; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Ana Luiza Ziulkoski; Luciano Basso da Silva
      Pages: 321 - 334
      Abstract: Abstract The Sinos River is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. The purpose of this work was to monitor the presence of some pesticides and hydrocarbons as well as the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential on HEp-2 cells from water samples collected at seven sites in the Sinos River Basin (SRB), southern Brazil. Nine samples were taken from the three main rivers in the SRB and used as a solution to dilute the HEp-2 cell culture medium after microfiltration. Twenty-four pesticides and 19 hydrocarbons were measured. Cytotoxicity was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red (NR) assays, in which cells were exposed to different concentrations of the water samples for 24 h. Genotoxicity of the microfiltrated raw water samples was assessed by comet assay after 6 and 24 h of exposure. Among the chemicals analyzed, only the 2,4-D, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethene, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, styrene, and toluene were detected, but they were all lower than the limit established by Brazilian regulations. Twenty samples from a total of 60 had a cytotoxic effect in the MTT assay and 30 in the NR assay. The comet assay indicated the presence of genotoxic substances in the water at the seven locations monitored. Temporal and spatial variation was observed in the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays. Results indicated that the water in all stretches of the SRB is contaminated and it can cause harmful effects to humans and to the aquatic biota. This HEp-2 cell-line approach can be an additional tool for environmental monitoring.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0334-0
      Issue No: Vol. 72, No. 3 (2017)
  • Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of P38 MAPK Gene and
           Protein in Aquatic Midge, Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae),
           Exposed to Environmental Contaminants
    • Authors: Sun-Young Park; Jinhee Choi
      Pages: 428 - 438
      Abstract: Abstract P38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an important signaling protein involved in various cellular processes, including stress responses, has been well characterized in model organisms. P38 has been identified in a number of insects, including the genus Drosophila; however, its homologue in Chironomus riparius has not yet been identified. In this study, we identified and characterized p38 MAPK (Crp38) gene in C. riparius using a transcriptome database that was previously generated 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the p38 homologue of other species, such as Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti, Bombyx mori, Caenorhabditis elegans, Homo sapiens, etc. Furthermore, to test its potential as a biomarker of environmental contamination, Crp38 gene expression was analyzed upon exposure to nonylphenol (NP), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and cadmium (Cd). Crp38 gene expression was up- or down-regulated depending on the concentration and exposure duration of chemicals. These results show the role of Crp38 gene in defense against environmental stresses, as well as its potential use as a biomarker for various environmental pollutants. We further synthesized p38 antibody based on the predicted amino acid sequence deduced from Crp38 cDNA and, using this customized antibody, examined p38 protein expression in Cd exposed C. riparius. Although transcriptional alteration was not translated to the protein level, this result showed the possible application of a protein level functional study using cDNA sequence information from next-generation sequencing database in nonmodel organisms.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0366-0
      Issue No: Vol. 72, No. 3 (2017)
  • Raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) as Sentinels of Trace Element Contamination and
           Physiological Effects of Exposure to Coal Fly Ash
    • Authors: Felipe Hernández; Ricki E. Oldenkamp; Sarah Webster; James C. Beasley; Lisa L. Farina; Samantha M. Wisely
      Pages: 235 - 246
      Abstract: Abstract Anthropogenic pollutants disrupt global biodiversity, and terrestrial sentinels of pollution can provide a warning system for ecosystem-wide contamination. This study sought to assess whether raccoons (Procyon lotor) are sentinels of local exposure to trace element contaminants at a coal fly ash site and whether exposure resulted in health impairment or changes in the intestinal helminth communities. We compared trace element accumulation and the impact on health responses and intestinal helminth communities of raccoons inhabiting contaminated and reference sites of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Data on morphometry, hematology, histopathology, helminth community and abundance, and liver trace element burdens were collected from 15 raccoons captured adjacent to a coal fly ash basin and 11 raccoons from a comparable uncontaminated site nearby. Of eight trace elements analyzed, Cu, As, Se, and Pb were elevated in raccoons from the contaminated site. Raccoons from the contaminated site harbored higher helminth abundance than animals from the reference site and that abundance was positively associated with increased Cu concentrations. While we found changes in hematology associated with increased Se exposure, we did not find physiological or histological changes associated with higher levels of contaminants. Our results suggest that raccoons and their intestinal helminths act as sentinels of trace elements in the environment associated with coal fly ash contamination.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0340-2
      Issue No: Vol. 72, No. 2 (2017)
  • Influence of Road Proximity on the Concentrations of Heavy Metals in
           Korean Urban Agricultural Soils and Crops
    • Authors: Hyuck Soo Kim; Kwon-Rae Kim; Won-Il Kim; Gary Owens; Kye-Hoon Kim
      Pages: 260 - 268
      Abstract: Abstract The urban agricultural (UA) environment near active roadways can be degraded by traffic-related particles (i.e., exhaust gases and road dust), which may contain heavy metals. The current study investigated changes in heavy-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)] concentrations in soils located near highly trafficked roads in Korea and the subsequent uptake of these metals by Chinese cabbage. Heavy-metal plant concentrations were determined in both washed and unwashed plant leaves to determine whether foliar deposition played any role in plant metal uptake. Soil concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were all lower than the Korean standard soil limits and showed no significant influence from road traffic. In contrast, both Ni and Cr concentrations in soils collected within 10 m of the road were 4 and 5 times greater, respectively, than those in soils collected 70 m from the road. Heavy-metal concentrations in unwashed Chinese cabbage leaf collected at 5 m from the road were consistently greater than those of washed leaf samples, thus indicating the deposition of traffic-related particles on the plant surface. With the exception of Cu, all heavy-metal concentration in washed plant samples collected at 5 m also showed greater accumulation compared with samples collected further away. This was mainly attributed to increased total soil heavy-metal concentrations and increased metal phytoavailability induced by decreases in soil pH near the road. However, overall heavy-metal soil concentrations were well lower than the allowable concentrations, and the levels observed in plants collected in this study were considered not to currently pose a significant risk to human health. However, some traffic-related heavy metals, in particular Cr and Ni, were being accumulated in the roadside UA environment, which may warrant some caution regarding the environment and/or health issues in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0344-y
      Issue No: Vol. 72, No. 2 (2017)
  • Bound PAHs in Sediment and Related Environmental Significance
    • Authors: Jian-yang Guo; Jing-an Chen; Jing-fu Wang; Feng-chang Wu
      Abstract: Abstract Extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPAHs) and bound PAHs (BPAHs) were measured in a sediment core using conventional Soxhlet extraction and a more astringent extraction method, with the objectives of determining the influence of BPAHs on the historical reconstruction of PAHs and exploring the formation of BPAHs and long-term behaviors of PAHs in sediment. The results indicated that the formation of BPAHs was clearly sediment-depth and molecular-size dependent. BPAHs represents an important portion of PAHs in sediment and cannot be extracted by conventional Soxhlet extraction. This suggests that the previously developed vertical profile of PAHs is not the real chronology of PAHs and the plausible interpretation derived from the sedimentary records of PAHs needs reexamination. Based on the previous findings, a biphase model was proposed and the formation of BPAHs was predicted. Due to the different nature of geosorbents in sediment, redistribution of PAHs among these geosorbents logically leads to the formation of BPAHs and is kinetically favorable for smaller molecular PAHs. This is consistent with the obtained results. Many factors may influence the formation of BPAHs, such as the physicochemical structure of sediment and environmental conditions. There is still a long way to reveal the thermodynamical characteristics in action during the formation of BPAHs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0393-x
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mussels from a South American Estuary
    • Authors: Ana L. Oliva; Andrés H. Arias; Pamela Y. Quintas; Natalia S. Buzzi; Jorge E. Marcovecchio
      Abstract: Abstract Bivalves, especially mussels, have been pointed as putative species to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environment. After several environmental PAHs baseline reports, the present study was conducted to assess for the first time the levels of PAHs in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) collected from a critical industrialized estuary of Argentina. Under this objective, after an 18-month sampling period, 34 pools of mussels were assessed for 17 PAHs, including the 16 compounds prioritized by United States Environmental Protection Agency. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, results showed total PAHs concentrations in mussel’s tissue ranged from under laboratory detection limits to 482.4 ng/g dry weight. Mussel body burdens were dominated by lower molecular weight PAHs, such as phenanthrene, naphthalene, and pyrene, whereas the overall PAHs profile suggested the predominance of petrogenic sources. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological impact was evaluated by applying Environmental Assessment Criteria and benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent factors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0392-y
  • Evaluating the Effects of Metals on Microorganisms in Flooded Paddy Soils
           Using the SEM/AVS-Based Approach and Measurements of Exchangeable Metal
    • Authors: Takashi Kunito; Hitomi Toya; Hirotaka Sumi; Yuichi Ishikawa; Hideshige Toda; Kazunari Nagaoka; Kazutoshi Saeki; Yoshio Aikawa; Satoshi Matsumoto
      Abstract: Abstract We examined possible adverse effects of heavy metals on microbial activity, biomass, and community composition using the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)/acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-based approach and measurements of exchangeable metal concentrations in three paddy soils (wastewater-contaminated soil, mine-contaminated soil, and noncontaminated soil) incubated for 60 days under flooded conditions. Incubation under flooding increased pH and decreased Eh in all samples. AVS increased when Eh decreased to approximately −200 mV for the mine-contaminated and noncontaminated soils, while the wastewater-contaminated soil originally had a high concentration of AVS despite its air-dried condition. Addition of rice straw or alkaline material containing calcium carbonate and gypsum increased AVS levels under flooded conditions. We observed no apparent relationship between soil enzyme activity (β-d-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and concentrations of SEM, [∑SEM − AVS], and exchangeable metals. Bacterial and fungal community composition, assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis targeting rRNA genes, was largely influenced by site of collection and incubation time, but metal contamination did not influence community composition. We observed significant negative correlations between biomass C and [∑SEM − AVS] and between biomass C and ∑SEM, suggesting that [∑SEM − AVS] and ∑SEM might reflect the bioavailability of organic matter to microorganisms in these soils.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0387-8
  • Feeding Preference and Sub-chronic Effects of ZnO Nanomaterials in Honey
           Bees ( Apis mellifera carnica )
    • Authors: Gordana Glavan; Tamara Milivojević; Janko Božič; Kristina Sepčić; Damjana Drobne
      Abstract: Abstract The extensive production of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials (NMs) may result in high environmental zinc burdens. Honeybees need to have special concern due to their crucial role in pollination. Our previous study indicated that low concentrations of ZnO NMs, corresponding to 0.8 mg Zn/mL, have a neurotoxic potential for honeybees after a 10-day oral exposure. Present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short, dietary exposure of honeybees to ZnO NMs at concentrations 0.8–8 mg Zn/mL on consumption rate, food preference, and two enzymatic biomarkers—a stress-related glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Consumption rate showed a tendency toward a decrease feeding with the increasing concentrations of ZnO NMs. None of Zn NMs concentrations caused alterations in mortality rate and in the activities of brain GST and AChE. To investigate if there is an avoidance response against Zn presence in food, 24-h two-choice tests were performed with control sucrose diet versus sucrose suspensions with different concentrations of ZnO NMs added. We demonstrated that honeybees prefer ZnO NMs ZnO NMs containing suspensions, even at highest Zn concentrations tested, compared with the control diet. This indicates that they might be able to perceive the presence of ZnO NMs in sucrose solution. Because honeybees feed frequently the preference towards ZnO NMs might have a high impact on their survival when exposed to these NMs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0385-x
  • Fate of Metals in Relation to Water and Sediment Properties in a
           Subtropical Lake in Central Himalaya, India
    • Authors: Shaikhom Inaotombi; Prem Kumar Gupta
      Abstract: Abstract Lakes of Himalaya are one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth. Tourism and urban development in the upland region strongly affect its water resources. The high rate of sedimentation and organic matter deposition alters the ecological state of sediment bed, which indirectly influences on dynamics of metallic elements. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of water and sediment characteristic in Lake Sattal of Central Himalaya, India. Samples were collected seasonally from four sampling locations from January 2011 to December 2012. Pearson’s correlation and Canonical correspondence analysis (CCAs) were applied to examine the dynamics and behaviors of heavy metals. Concentrations of elements were in the order of fluoride (Fl) > zinc (Zn) > copper (Cu) > iron (Fe) > manganese (Mn). Sand size fraction was higher in the littoral zone while clay particle was dominant in the profundal zone of the lake. Dissolved oxygen at sediment–water-interface (SWI) and water temperature were the major factors influencing the dynamics of metallic contents in the water column. Spatially, total organic matter (TOM) was higher in the deeper portion of the lake. Our study revealed that mobility of Fe is temperature-dependent, whereas speciation of Mn and Cu are primarily controlled by the suboxic condition of SWI in organic-rich site. Upland lakes are more vulnerable to anoxic condition and have severe implications on heavy metals speciation. Proper implementation of land use policies and management practices, including stormwater detention, can be integrated into resolving such problems.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0386-9
  • The Effects of Acute Copper and Ammonia Challenges on Ammonia and Urea
           Excretion by the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus
    • Authors: Alex M. Zimmer; Marianna Basso Jorge; Chris M. Wood; Camila M. G. Martins; Adalto Bianchini
      Abstract: Abstract Copper (Cu) is a persistent environmental contaminant that elicits several physiological disturbances in aquatic organisms, including a disruption in ammonia regulation. We hypothesized that exposure to Cu in a model crustacean (blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) acclimated to brackish water (2 ppt) would lead to hyperammonemia by stimulating an increase in ammonia production and/or by inhibiting ammonia excretion. We further hypothesized that urea production would represent an ammonia detoxification strategy in response to Cu. In a pilot experiment, exposure to 0, 100, and 200 µg/L Cu for 6 h caused significant concentration-dependent increases in ammonia excretion (J amm). Based on these results, an acute 24-h 100 µg/L Cu exposure was conducted and this similarly caused an overall stimulation of J amm during the 24-h period, indicative of an increase in ammonia production. Terminal haemolymph total ammonia content (T amm) was unchanged, suggesting that while ammonia production was increased, there was no inhibition of the excretion mechanism. In support of our second hypothesis, urea excretion (J urea) increased in response to Cu exposure; haemolymph [urea] was unaffected. This suggested that urea production also was increased. To further test the hypothesis that J urea increased to prevent hyperammonemia during Cu exposure, crabs were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 2.5 mmol/L NH4HCO3) for 12 h in a separate experiment. This led to a fourfold increase in haemolymph T amm, whereas J urea increased only transiently and haemolymph [urea] was unchanged, indicating that urea production likely does not contribute to the attenuation of hyperammonemia in blue crabs. Overall, Cu exposure in blue crabs led to increased ammonia and urea production, which were both eliminated by excretion. These results may have important implications in aquaculture systems where crabs may be exposed to elevated Cu and/or ammonia.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0379-8
  • Source Apportionment of PM 10 -Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by
           Positive Matrix Factorization in Córdoba City, Argentina
    • Authors: Ana C. Amarillo; Ana C. Mateos; Hebe Carreras
      Abstract: Abstract The composition and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on particles smaller than 10 microns (PM10) were analyzed in an urban area during a 2-year period from August 2011 to August 2013. Diagnostic ratios (DR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were employed to assess emission sources. To discount weather influence, a multiple linear regression model was generated and also a photodecomposition index was calculated for each sample. Despite the fact that mean PM10 levels showed a similar pattern all around the year, majority of PAHs showed higher concentrations during the cold than the warm period, indicating a strong seasonal variation. A 38% of PAHs variation could be explained by meteorological variables, with wind speed, wind direction, and dew point being the significant regressor variables in the model. The source apportionment of PAHs was performed using PMF although they are photosensitive compounds. The sampling period was separated in warm and cold seasons according to a photodecomposition index and cold period was used. Also, DR were calculated. DR as well as PMF analysis suggested that both gasoline and diesel vehicular emissions are the main PAHs emission sources in this urban area.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0384-y
  • Variation in Day-of-Week and Seasonal Concentrations of Atmospheric PM 2.5
           -Bound Metals and Associated Health Risks in Bangkok, Thailand
    • Authors: Siwatt Pongpiachan; Suixin Liu; Rujin Huang; Zhuzi Zhao; Jittree Palakun; Charnwit Kositanont; Junji Cao
      Abstract: Abstract While effective analytical techniques to promote the long-term intensive monitoring campaign of particulate heavy metals have been well established, efforts to interpret these toxic chemical contents into policy are lagging behind. In order to ameliorate the interpretation of evidence into policies, environmental scientists and public health practitioners need innovative methods to emphasize messages concerning adverse health effects to state and local policymakers. In this study, three different types of health risk assessment models categorized by exposure pathways. Namely, ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation were quantitatively evaluated using intensive monitoring data of 51 PM2.5-bound metals that were collected on three consecutive days, from 17 November 2010 to 30 April 2011 in the heart of Bangkok. Although different exposure pathways possess different magnitudes of risk for each PM2.5-bound metal, it can be concluded that ingestion of dust causes more extensive risk to residents compared with inhalation and dermal contact. The investigation of enrichment factors reveals the overwhelming influences of vehicular exhausts on 44 selected metal concentrations in Bangkok. These findings are in agreement with previous studies that highlight the role of public transportation and urban planning in air pollution control.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0382-0
  • Modulation of N -Methyl- D -Aspartate Receptors (NMDAR), Bcl-2 and C-Fos
           Gene Expressions on Exposure to Individual and Mixtures of Low
           Concentration Metals in Zebrafish ( Danio rerio )
    • Authors: Samuel Jerry Cobbina; Guanghua Mao; Ting Zhao; Hai Xu; Zhen Zhang; Hongyang Liu; Yanmin Zou; Xiangyang Wu; Liuqing Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Currently, there is limited information on the toxicity of low concentration of metal mixtures in the environment. Of particular interest is the effect of low levels of metal mixtures on neurodevelopment of aquatic organisms. This study reports the neurological gene expressions after exposing zebrafish embryos to low concentration toxic heavy metals, 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Embryos were exposed to low concentration individual and mixtures of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess gene expressions. The findings of this study confirmed that exposure to low concentration heavy metals upregulated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NMDAR2A (NR2A), NMDAR2B (NR2B), and NMDAR2D (NR2D) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) genes. NR2A genes were significantly upregulated by 90 and 74%, respectively, on exposure to Pb + As and Pb + Cd. NR2B genes were upregulated by 85.3, 68.6, 62.7, and 62.7% on exposure to As, Pb + Hg, Pb + As, and Pb + Cd, respectively. Exposure to As, Pb + Cd, and Pb + Hg + As significantly upregulated Bcl-2 genes by 2.01-, 1.84-, and 1.80-fold, respectively. NR1A and C-fos gene expressions were not significantly different from control. Upregulation of NMDAR subunits and Bcl-2 genes in this study was largely a counter measure against insults from exposure to low concentration heavy metals. Principal component analysis confirmed the influence of low concentration individual and mixtures of Pb, Hg, As, and Cd on gene expression of NMDAR subunits and Bcl-2. These data suggest that altered expression of NMDA receptor subunits and Bcl-2 genes may explain toxicity of low concentration individual and mixtures of Pb, Hg, As, and Cd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0352-y
  • Toxicity of Chromium (VI) to Two Mussels and an Amphipod in Water-Only
           Exposures With or Without a Co-stressor of Elevated Temperature, Zinc, or
    • Authors: Ning Wang; James L. Kunz; Christopher D. Ivey; Christopher G. Ingersoll; M. Christopher Barnhart; Elizabeth A. Glidewell
      Abstract: Abstract The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for propagating western pearlshell (Margaritifera falcata) for laboratory toxicity testing and evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of chromium VI [Cr(VI)] to the pearlshell and a commonly tested mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea at 20 °C or in association with a co-stressor of elevated temperature (27 °C), zinc (50 µg Zn/L), or nitrate (35 mg NO3/L). A commonly tested invertebrate (amphipod, Hyalella azteca) also was tested in chronic exposures. Newly transformed pearlshell (~1 week old) were successfully cultured and tested in acute 96 h Cr exposures (control survival 100%). However, the grow-out of juveniles in culture for chronic toxicity testing was less successful and chronic 28-day Cr toxicity tests started with 4 month-old pearlshell failed due to low control survival (39–68%). Acute median effect concentration (EC50) for the pearlshell (919 µg Cr/L) and fatmucket (456 µg Cr/L) tested at 20 °C without a co-stressor decreased by a factor of > 2 at elevated temperature but did not decrease at elevated Zn or elevated NO3. Chronic 28-day Cr tests were completed successfully with the fatmucket and amphipod (control survival 83–98%). Chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for fatmucket at 20 °C (26 µg Cr/L) decreased by a factor of 2 at elevated temperature or NO3 but did not decrease at elevated Zn. However, chronic MATC for amphipod at 20 °C (13 µg Cr/L) did not decrease at elevated temperature, Zn, or NO3. Acute EC50s for both mussels tested with or without a co-stressor were above the final acute value used to derive United States Environmental Protection Agency acute water quality criterion (WQC) for Cr(VI); however, chronic MATCs for fatmucket at elevated temperature or NO3 and chronic MATCs for the amphipod at 20 °C with or without elevated Zn or NO3 were about equal to the chronic WQC. The results indicate that (1) the elevated temperature increased the acute Cr toxicity to both mussel species, (2) fatmucket was acutely more sensitive to Cr than the pearlshell, (3) elevated temperature or NO3 increased chronic Cr toxicity to fatmucket, and (4) acute WQC are protective of tested mussels with or without a co-stressor; however, the chronic WQC might not protect fatmucket at elevated temperature or NO3 and might not protect the amphipod at 20 °C with or without elevated Zn or NO3.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0377-x
  • Screening Level Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Streambed Sediments
           and Floodplain Soils within the Grand Lake Watershed in Northeastern
           Oklahoma, USA
    • Authors: Ean M. Garvin; Cas F. Bridge; Meredith S. Garvin
      Abstract: Abstract Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The <63-µm fraction was analyzed for Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations by portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mean metal concentration results at reference transects indicated that background sediment/soil concentrations for Cd, Pb, and Zn within the watershed were 0.5, 19, and 68 mg/kg, respectively. A significant difference in the distributions of metal concentrations was found between reference and impacted transects (Cd, Pb, Zn: p = 0.00; Cd: n = 29; Pb, Zn: n = 283). These results demonstrated that concentrations of metals in streambed sediments and floodplain soils were significantly higher in areas downstream of major mining influences relative to upstream reference sites, and the source of metal contamination within these media was the result of mining releases from the TSMD. Toxicity risks to benthic macroinvertebrates were evaluated using a TSMD-specific sediment mixture model (∑PEC-QCd,Pb,Zn) for metals (MacDonald et al. in Development and evaluation of sediment and pore-water toxicity thresholds to support sediment quality assessments in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas. Draft Final Technical Report. Volume I: Text. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Prepared by MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., U.S. Geological Survey, and CH2M Hill, Nanaimo, 2009). Toxicity risks to plant populations were also assessed by comparing soil metal concentrations to Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs). It was found that the survival and/or biomass of benthic invertebrates was highly impacted at Tar Creek, highly to moderately impacted at Spring River and Elm Creek, and unimpacted at Lost Creek and Grand Lake as a result of sediment metal concentrations. It also was found that soil metal concentrations were likely sufficient to impact plant populations at all streams. Within the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, the majority of environmental studies, remediation, and restoration efforts by local, state, and federal agencies have been primarily focused within the Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSS) boundary. Importantly, the findings of this study highlighted the downstream extent of metals contamination as well as the resulting potential toxicities to benthic invertebrates and plants that is present outside of the TCSS boundary. Because the Oklahoma portion of the watershed comprises the jurisdictional lands of ten tribes, these results emphasized the potential tribal loss of use of benthic invertebrates and plants due to their decline in population as a result of metal toxicity. These overall findings provide an important basis for future data needs in assessing metal concentrations in aquatic and terrestrial biota that are consumed by tribal communities within the watershed to determine if certain organisms are unsafe to consume or warrant consumption advisories. This will allow risk assessors and risk managers to better understand the potential loss of use of tribal biological resources as well as improving risk-based decision making to be protective of these resources and tribal human health.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0376-y
  • Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds in an Urban Environment
           at the Yangtze River Delta, China
    • Authors: Junlin An; Junxiu Wang; Yuxin Zhang; Bin Zhu
      Abstract: Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected continuously during June–August 2013 and December 2013–February 2014 at an urban site in Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was used to analyse the sources of VOCs in different seasons. Eight and seven sources were identified in summer and winter, respectively. In summer and winter, the dominant sources of VOCs were vehicular emissions, liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas (LPG/NG) usage, solvent usage, biomass/biofuel burning, and industrial production. In summer, vehicular emissions made the most significant contribution to ambient VOCs (38%), followed by LPG/NG usage (20%), solvent usage (19%), biomass/biofuel burning (13%), and industrial production (10%). In winter, LPG/NG usage accounted for 36% of ambient VOCs, whereas vehicular emissions, biomass/biofuel burning, industrial production and solvent usage contributed 30, 18, 9, and 6%, respectively. The contribution of LPG/NG usage in winter was approximately four times that in summer, whereas the contribution from biomass/biofuel burning in winter was more than twice that in summer. The sources related to vehicular emissions and LPG/NG usages were important. Using conditional probability function analysis, the VOC sources were mainly associated with easterly, northeasterly and southeasterly directions, pointing towards the major expressway and industrial area. Using the propylene-equivalent method, paint and varnish (23%) was the highest source of VOCs in summer and biomass/biofuel burning (36%) in winter. Using the ozone formation potential method, the most important source was biomass/biofuel burning (32% in summer and 47% in winter). The result suggests that the biomass/biofuel burning and paint and varnish play important roles in controlling ozone chemical formation in Nanjing.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0371-3
  • Dietary Selenomethionine Administration in the American Alligator (
           Alligator mississippiensis ): Hepatic and Renal Se Accumulation and Its
           Effects on Growth and Body Condition
    • Authors: John W. Finger; Matthew T. Hamilton; Travis C. Glenn; Tracey D. Tuberville
      Abstract: Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient, but in excess, it can induce toxicity. Incomplete combustion of coal produces coal combustion wastes, which are enriched in Se and often disposed of in aquatic basins. While a multitude of studies have investigated Se accumulation in vertebrates, few studies have examined its effects on longer-lived top trophic carnivores, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). In this study, alligators were fed one of three Dietary Treatments: mice injected with water (controls) or water supplemented with 1000 or 2000 ppm selenomethionine (SeMet). Dietary Treatment significantly affected Se levels in both the liver (p < 0.0001; raw mean ± SE: 1000 ppm group, 35.20 ± 6.32 ppm; 2000 ppm group, 49.97 ± 4.00 ppm) and kidney (p < 0.0001; raw mean ± SE: 1000 ppm group, 101.60 ± 8.64 ppm; 2000 ppm, 96.38 ± 5.81 ppm), which were significantly higher in alligators fed SeMet than in controls. Post-treatment head length, used to control for size variation, was negatively related to both kidney (p = 0.0142) and liver (p = 0.0010) Se concentrations. Dietary treatment with SeMet significantly reduced body condition (1000 ppm, p < 0.0029; 2000 ppm, p = 0.0075), but it significantly increased growth (1000 ppm, p < 0.0001; 2000 ppm, p = 0.0316). Body condition and growth remained unchanged in control alligators (p > 0.05). Our results demonstrate alligators are capable of accumulating high levels of Se through trophic transfer. The positive effects of accumulation on growth may demonstrate Se essentiality, whereas the negative effects on condition may demonstrate toxicity. Accumulation also was associated with mortality, further demonstrating toxicity. Future studies should further investigate the physiological effects of Se accumulation in long-lived, top-trophic carnivores.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0370-4
  • Effects of CeO 2 Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber :
           Comparison of CeO 2 Biological Potential with Other Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Olga Malev; Polonca Trebše; Małgorzata Piecha; Sara Novak; Bojan Budič; Miroslav D. Dramićanin; Damjana Drobne
      Abstract: Abstract Nano-sized cerium dioxide (CeO2) particles are emerging as an environmental issue due to their extensive use in automobile industries as fuel additives. Limited information is available on the potential toxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on terrestrial invertebrates through dietary exposure. In the present study, the toxic effects of CeO2 NPs on the model soil organism Porcellio scaber were evaluated. Nanotoxicity was assessed by monitoring the lipid peroxidation (LP) level and feeding rate after 14-days exposure to food amended with nano CeO2. The exposure concentration of 1000 μg of CeO2 NPs g−1 dry weight food for 14 days significantly increased both the feeding rate and LP. Thus, this exposure dose is considered the lowest observed effect dose. At higher exposure doses of 2000 and 5000 μg of CeO2 NPs g−1 dry weight food, NPs significantly decreased the feeding rate and increased the LP level. Comparative studies showed that CeO2 NPs are more biologically potent than TiO2 NPs, ZnO NPs, CuO NPs, CoFe2O4 NPs, and Ag NPs based on feeding rate using the same model organism and experimental setup. Based on comparative metal oxide NPs toxicities, the present results contribute to the knowledge related to the ecotoxicological effects of CeO2 NPs in terrestrial invertebrates exposed through feeding.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0363-3
  • Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Desalination Brine and
           Sulfate-Dominated Saltwater in a Euryhaline Fish
    • Authors: Allison Kupsco; Rafid Sikder; Daniel Schlenk
      Abstract: Abstract Desalination is a promising sustainable solution to meet growing water needs of cities across the United States. However, the environmental impacts of the resulting filtrate (brine) discharged to surface water need to be evaluated before large-scale desalination can be successful in the United States. Developing fish are especially sensitive to changes in salinity and varying ionic composition. Limited research is available on the impacts of hypersalinity on chronic vertebrate embryonic development, particularly on sublethal effects. To investigate this, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were treated with: (1) graphite filtered freshwater; (2) artificial seawater [17, 35, 42, 56, and 70 parts per thousand (ppt)]; (3) effluent from a desalination facility at Monterey Bay Aquarium, CA, diluted to 75, 50, and 25% with 35 ppt artificial seawater to simulate mixing (39, 42, 46, and 50 ppt); (4) artificial San Joaquin River water (CA, USA) (9, 13, and 17 ppt); and (5) artificial San Joaquin River water diluted to 75, 50, and 25% with artificial seawater to simulate estuarine mixing in the San Francisco Bay (13, 19, 24, and 30 ppt). Percent hatch, survival post hatch, deformities, swim bladder inflation, and median day to hatch were recorded to calculate EC50 (50% effect concentration) and NOEC (no observable effect concentration) values. No significant difference was observed between artificial seawater and Monterey Bay aquarium effluent (EC50 = 45–55 ppt). However, San Joaquin River water decreased survival post hatch and increased deformities in comparison to artificial seawater and San Joaquin River water mixed with seawater, suggesting that unique ion compositions may play a role in embryo and larval toxicity.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0354-9
  • Toxicity Assessment of Binary Metal Mixtures (Copper–Zinc) to
           Nitrification in Soilless Culture with the Extended Biotic Ligand Model
    • Authors: Aiju Liu; JinXin Li; Menghong Li; Xiao yin Niu; Jun Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Metals are always found in the environment as mixtures rather than as solitary elements. Only a limited number of studies have developed appropriate models that incorporate bioavailability to estimate the toxicity of heavy-metal mixtures. In the present study, we explored the applicability of two extended biotic ligand model (BLM) approaches—BLM-f mix and BLM-toxicity unit (TU)—to predict and interpret mixture toxicity with the assumption that interactions between metal ions obey the BLM theory. Exposure assays of single and mixed metals were performed with inoculums of an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium SD5 isolated from soil. Nitrification of the cultures was the end point used to quantify the toxic response. The results indicated that the developed BLM-f mix approach could well estimate the single toxicity of Cu2+ and Zn2+ as well as their binary mixture toxicity to nitrification with >90% of toxicity variation explained. Assuming that metal ions compete with each other for binding at a single biotic ligand, the BLM-f mix approach (root-mean-square error [RMSE] = 19.66, R 2 = 0.8879) showed better predictive power than the BLM-TU approach (RMSE = 31.12, R 2 = 0.6892). The present study supports the use of the accumulation of metal ions at the biotic ligands as predictor of toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0346-9
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