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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
  [SJR: 0.846]   [H-I: 84]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Marine Environmental Emergencies in the North Pacific Ocean: Lessons
           Learned from Recent Oil Spills
    • Authors: Un Hyuk Yim; Jeffrey Short
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Increasing marine vessel traffic, and oil and gas exploration and development throughout the North Pacific basin brings increasing risks of oil spills. Recognizing the serious challenges presented to response authorities, this Special Issue was organized by the North Pacific Marine Science Organization to provide an introduction to the current state of scientific understanding regarding the environmental effects of oil spills. Because interactions of spilled oils with biota and their habitats are complex, the most serious environmental damages from these spills are not necessarily those of greatest immediate concern by the public. Our overarching goal for this Special Issue is to provide an efficient introduction to the most important ways that oil spills can harm biota, habitats, and ecosystems through invited, targeted mini-reviews augmented by original research articles. We provide a brief background on the challenges posed by large oil spills to response authorities, summarize findings from the articles published in this Special Issue, and highlight some key research needs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0416-7
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Advances in Understanding the Fate and Effects of Oil from Accidental
           Spills in the United States Beginning with the Exxon Valdez
    • Authors: Jeffrey W. Short
      Pages: 5 - 11
      Abstract: Scientific studies of the environmental effects of oil spills in the United States have produced a steady stream of unexpected discoveries countering prior and often simplistic assumptions. In this brief review, I present how major discoveries from scientific studies of oil spill effects on marine ecosystems and environments, beginning with the 1989 Exxon Valdez, have led to a more informed appreciation for the complexity and the severity of the damage that major spills can do to marine ecosystems and to an increasing recognition that our ability to evaluate those damages is very limited, resulting in a structural bias toward underestimation of adverse environmental effects.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0359-4
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Toxicity to Fish Embryos of PAH in Crude and Refined Oils
    • Authors: Peter V. Hodson
      Pages: 12 - 18
      Abstract: Oil spills are a potential threat to the recruitment and production of fish. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly 3-5-ringed alkyl PAH, are components of oil that cause chronic embryotoxicity. Toxicity is related to molecular size and octanol–water partition coefficients (Kow), indicating that water–lipid partitioning controls exposure and tissue dose. Nevertheless, more than 25% of the variation in toxicity among congeners is unexplained. Congeners with the same number of rings, alkyl carbon atoms, and Kow, but different molecular shapes, have markedly different toxicities, likely due to differences in interactions with cellular receptors. The potentiation and antagonism of metabolism and toxicity in PAH mixtures suggest that measured effect concentrations for individual PAH are conservative. Because mixture interactions are not well understood, total PAH concentrations >0.1 µg/L following oil spills should be considered hazardous.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0357-6
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Crude Oil Developmental Toxicity in Fish
    • Authors: John P. Incardona
      Pages: 19 - 32
      Abstract: With major oil spills in Korea, the United States, and China in the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of studies characterizing the developmental toxicity of crude oil and its associated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The use of model fish species with associated tools for genetic manipulation, combined with high throughput genomics techniques in nonmodel fish species, has led to significant advances in understanding the cellular and molecular bases of functional and morphological defects arising from embryonic exposure to crude oil. Following from the identification of the developing heart as the primary target of crude oil developmental toxicity, studies on individual PACs have revealed a diversity of cardiotoxic mechanisms. For some PACs that are strong agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), defects in heart development arise in an AHR-dependent manner, which has been shown for potent organochlorine agonists, such as dioxins. However, crude oil contains a much larger fraction of compounds that have been found to interfere directly with cardiomyocyte physiology in an AHR-independent manner. By comparing the cellular and molecular responses to AHR-independent and AHR-dependent toxicity, this review focuses on new insights into heart-specific pathways underlying both acute and secondary adverse outcomes to crude oil exposure during fish development.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0381-1
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges to Oil Spill Assessment for Seabirds in the Deep Ocean
    • Authors: J. Christopher Haney; Patrick G. R. Jodice; William A. Montevecchi; David C. Evers
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: We synthesize impediments for evaluating effects to seabirds from open ocean hydrocarbon releases. Effects on seabirds from ship discharges, spills, and well blowouts often are poorly detected and monitored far from land. Regulatory regimes for ocean spills can result in monitoring efforts that are not entirely transparent. We illustrate how interdisciplinary technologies address deficits that hamper individual or population level assessments for seabirds, and we demonstrate where emerging technologies might be engaged to bridge gaps in oil spill monitoring. Although acute mortality from direct oil exposure poses the greatest risk to seabirds, other hazards from light-attraction, flaring, collisions, chronic pollution, and hydrocarbon inhalation around oil infrastructure also may induce bird mortality in the deep ocean.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0355-8
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Photoenhanced Toxicity of Petroleum to Aquatic Invertebrates and Fish
    • Authors: Mace G. Barron
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Photoenhanced toxicity is a distinct mechanism of petroleum toxicity that is mediated by the interaction of solar radiation with specific polycyclic aromatic compounds in oil. Phototoxicity is observed as a twofold to greater than 1000-fold increase in chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms that also have been exposed to light sources containing sufficient quantity and quality of ultraviolet radiation (UV). When tested under natural sunlight or laboratory sources of UV, fresh, and weathered middle distillates, crudes and heavy oils can exhibit photoenhanced toxicity. These same products do not exhibit phototoxicity in standard test protocols because of low UV irradiance in laboratory lighting. Fresh, estuarine, and marine waters have been shown to have sufficient solar radiation exposure to elicit photoenhanced toxicity, and a diversity of aquatic invertebrate and fish species can exhibit photoenhanced toxicity when exposed to combinations of oil and UV. Risks of photoenhanced toxicity will be greatest to early life stages of aquatic organisms that are translucent to UV and that inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas exposed to oil.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0360-y
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Environmental Impacts and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in
    • Authors: U. H. Yim; J. S. Khim; M. Kim; J.-H. Jung; W. J. Shim
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: The Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) on December 7, 2007 was the worst oil spill recorded in Korea, with the release of approximately 10,900 tons of crude oil and 375 km of coastline polluted along the west coast of Korea. Cleanup operation was conducted by official and contract responders as well as volunteers for massive oil containment and removal of heavy accumulations of stranded oil. Together with the oil cleanup, a long-term environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the HSOS was initiated based on the Marine Environmental Management Act, which covers oil contamination in a multimedia environment, toxic effects on organisms, and ecosystem injury. This review summarizes the long-term monitoring results of HSOS EIA focused on (1) pollution status of seawater, sediment, and bivalves, (2) ecotoxicological effects, and (3) ecosystem recovery. Overall, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment indicated that their concentrations were well down to at or near background or pre-spill contamination levels at most sites after 1 year. The potential toxic effects of residual oils in sediments have decreased to background levels in most coastal areas of Taean. The entire ecosystem in the most affected area of the Taean coasts appear to be considerably, but not fully, recovered at present, namely after 8 years of the HSOS. The presence of lingering oil and elevated contamination levels at several sites still require continuous long-term monitoring.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0375-z
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Montara Oil Spill: A 2009 Well Blowout in the Timor Sea
    • Authors: R. B. Spies; M. Mukhtasor; K. A. Burns
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: A well on the Montara platform on the Australian continental shelf blew out in August 2009 and spilled oil into the Timor Sea for 74 days. The oil, estimated at as much as 23.5 million L in total volume, spread over a large area of the shelf and eventually into Indonesian waters. This paper documents, through published literature, reports of both Australian and Indonesian governments and observations of coastal residents and fishermen the spread of the oil and attempts to estimate its impact. The lack of observers on the ocean and baseline, pre-spill data on populations of marine organisms, and delays in deploying scientific surveys after the spill severely limited efforts by the Australian government to determine damage in its territorial waters. Biological survey work was not done in Indonesian waters, but coastal residents attested to relatively severe impacts to algal farms. In addition fish landings declined in one port in southwest Timor Island.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0356-7
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Anomalously High Recruitment of the 2010 Gulf Menhaden ( Brevoortia
           patronus ) Year Class: Evidence of Indirect Effects from the Deepwater
           Horizon Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico
    • Authors: Jeffrey W. Short; Harold J. Geiger; J. Christopher Haney; Christine M. Voss; Maria L. Vozzo; Vincent Guillory; Charles H. Peterson
      Pages: 76 - 92
      Abstract: Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) exhibited unprecedented juvenile recruitment in 2010 during the year of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, exceeding the prior 39-year mean by more than four standard deviations near the Mississippi River. Abundance of that cohort remained exceptionally high for two subsequent years as recruits moved into older age classes. Such changes in this dominant forage fish population can be most parsimoniously explained as consequences of release from predation. Contact with crude oil induced high mortality of piscivorous seabirds, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), waders, and other fish-eating marsh birds, all of which are substantial consumers of Gulf menhaden. Diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River to protect coastal marshes from oiling depressed salinities, impairing access to juvenile Gulf menhaden by aquatic predators that avoid low-salinity estuarine waters. These releases from predation led to an increase of Gulf menhaden biomass in 2011 to 2.4 million t, or more than twice the average biomass of 1.1 million t for the decade prior to 2010. Biomass increases of this magnitude in a major forage fish species suggest additional trophically linked effects at the population-, trophic-level and ecosystem scales, reflecting an heretofore little appreciated indirect effect that may be associated with major oil spills in highly productive marine waters.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0374-0
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Long-Term Monitoring of PAH Contamination in Sediment and Recovery After
           the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill
    • Authors: Moonkoo Kim; Jee-Hyun Jung; Sung Yong Ha; Joon Geon An; Won Joon Shim; Un Hyuk Yim
      Pages: 93 - 102
      Abstract: Approximately 10,900 t of crude oil was released 10 km off the west coast of Korea after the collision between the oil tanker Hebei Spirit and a barge carrying a crane in December 2007. To assess the areal extent and temporal trends of PAH contamination, 428 sediment samples were collected from December 2007 through May 2015 for PAH analysis. Sedimentary PAH concentrations measured immediately after the spill ranged from 3.2 to 71,200 ng g−1, with a mean of 3800 ng g−1. Increases in PAH concentrations were observed at stations 7–23, which were heavily oiled due to tidal currents and northwesterly wind that transported the spilled oil to these locations. Mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased drastically from 3800 to 88.5 and 71,200 to 1700 ng g−1, respectively, 4 months after the spill. PAH concentrations highly fluctuated until September 2008 and then decreased slowly to background levels. Reduction rate was much faster at the sandy beaches (k = 0.016) than in the muddy sites (k = 0.001). In muddy sediments, low attenuation due to low flushing rate in the mostly anaerobic sediment possibly contributed the persistence of PAHs. By May 2015 (~7.5 years after the spill), mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased by 54 and 481 times, respectively, compared with the peak concentrations. The sedimentary PAH concentrations in the monitoring area have returned to regional background levels.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0365-1
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Identification of Spilled Oil from the MV Marathassa (Vancouver, Canada
           2015) Using Alkyl PAH Isomer Ratios
    • Authors: Carmen Morales-Caselles; Mark B. Yunker; Peter S. Ross
      Pages: 118 - 130
      Abstract: On the morning of April 9, 2015, citizens in Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) awoke to the sight and smell of oil on the shores of popular downtown beaches. Because the oil also had spread over the shallow seawater intakes for the Vancouver Aquarium, a preliminary screening of samples was performed as a prompt, first response to assess the risks to the Aquarium collection and guide the emergency operational response. A subsequent, more detailed examination for the presence of spilled oil in sediment, biota and water samples from the Vancouver Harbour region was then conducted based on the analysis of a large suite of alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl PAH isomers. Most of the commonly applied biomarker ratios exhibit similar values for the spilled oil, Alberta oil (the main petroleum source for British Columbia), and pre-spill and un-oiled sediment samples. In contrast, alkyl PAH isomer ratios showed a clear distinction between the spilled oil and pre-spill samples, with the largest differences shown by isomers of the methyl fluoranthene/pyrene alkyl PAH series. This novel use of alkyl PAH isomers for fingerprinting petroleum helped to confirm the grain carrier MV Marathassa as the source of the oil that affected beach and mussel samples to document definitively the spread of the oil and to establish which samples contained a mix of the oil and hydrocarbons linked to historical activities. Finally, an initial evaluation of the biological risks of the MV Marathassa oil spill in Vancouver Harbour showed that oiled beach sediments had priority parent PAH concentrations that are likely to harm marine life.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0390-0
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Oil Spills and Marine Mammals in British Columbia, Canada: Development and
           Application of a Risk-Based Conceptual Framework
    • Authors: Adrianne L. Jarvela Rosenberger; Misty MacDuffee; Andrew G. J. Rosenberger; Peter S. Ross
      Pages: 131 - 153
      Abstract: Marine mammals are inherently vulnerable to oil spills. We developed a conceptual framework to evaluate the impacts of potential oil exposure on marine mammals and applied it to 21 species inhabiting coastal British Columbia (BC), Canada. Oil spill vulnerability was determined by examining both the likelihood of species-specific (individual) oil exposure and the consequent likelihood of population-level effects. Oil exposure pathways, ecology, and physiological characteristics were first used to assign species—specific vulnerability rankings. Baleen whales were found to be highly vulnerable due to blowhole breathing, surface filter feeding, and invertebrate prey. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were ranked as highly vulnerable due to their time spent at the ocean surface, dense pelage, and benthic feeding techniques. Species-specific vulnerabilities were considered to estimate the likelihood of population-level effects occurring after oil exposure. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations were deemed at highest risk due to small population sizes, complex social structure, long lives, slow reproductive turnover, and dietary specialization. Finally, we related the species–specific and population-level vulnerabilities. In BC, vulnerability was deemed highest for Northern and Southern Resident killer whales and sea otters, followed by Bigg’s killer whales and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Our findings challenge the typical “indicator species” approach routinely used and underscore the need to examine marine mammals at a species and population level for risk-based oil spill predictions. This conceptual framework can be combined with spill probabilities and volumes to develop more robust risk assessments and may be applied elsewhere to identify vulnerability themes for marine mammals.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0408-7
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • Detection and Monitoring of Oil Spills Using Moderate/High-Resolution
           Remote Sensing Images
    • Authors: Ying Li; Can Cui; Zexi Liu; Bingxin Liu; Jin Xu; Xueyuan Zhu; Yongchao Hou
      Pages: 154 - 169
      Abstract: Current marine oil spill detection and monitoring methods using high-resolution remote sensing imagery are quite limited. This study presented a new bottom-up and top-down visual saliency model. We used Landsat 8, GF-1, MAMS, HJ-1 oil spill imagery as dataset. A simplified, graph-based visual saliency model was used to extract bottom-up saliency. It could identify the regions with high visual saliency object in the ocean. A spectral similarity match model was used to obtain top-down saliency. It could distinguish oil regions and exclude the other salient interference by spectrums. The regions of interest containing oil spills were integrated using these complementary saliency detection steps. Then, the genetic neural network was used to complete the image classification. These steps increased the speed of analysis. For the test dataset, the average running time of the entire process to detect regions of interest was 204.56 s. During image segmentation, the oil spill was extracted using a genetic neural network. The classification results showed that the method had a low false-alarm rate (high accuracy of 91.42%) and was able to increase the speed of the detection process (fast runtime of 19.88 s). The test image dataset was composed of different types of features over large areas in complicated imaging conditions. The proposed model was proved to be robust in complex sea conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-016-0358-5
      Issue No: Vol. 73, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Extent of Heavy Metal Pollution and Their Potential Health Risk in
           Topsoils of the Massively Urbanized District of Shanghai
    • Authors: Syed Taseer Abbas Jaffar; Long-zhu Chen; Hassan Younas
      Abstract: Urbanization and industrialization increase the concentrations of heavy metals in soils, which affect human health. A total of 127 topsoil samples were collected from the massively urbanized and industrialized district of Shanghai: Baoshan District. The sampling sites were isolated based on the land-use practice: industrial area, roadside area, residential area, and agricultural area. The absolute concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with Shanghai and the National soil background values. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and Nemerow pollution index were used to determine the existence and severity of the pollution of heavy metals. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis, spatial variability of pollution, and multivariate statistical analyses also were employed to determine the anthropogenic loading of heavy metals, their spatial dependency, and correlation among their sources, respectively. Moreover, potential ecological risk and human health risk [carcinogenic risk (RI) and noncarcinogenic hazard (HI)] were evaluated. The average concentration of all the metals (accounted as 229, 128, 56, 719, 55, 119, and 0.3 mg kg−1 for Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively) was many folds higher than the background values. The indices depicted that the pollution exists in all the sites and severity decreases in the following order: industrial soils > roadside soil > residential soils > agricultural soils. However, Zn, Pb, and Cd showed high levels of pollution in all the soils. The EF values suggested that the majority of heavy metals are anthropogenically loaded; spatial variability showed that the pollution is more concentrated in Songnan town; Pearson’s correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis suggested different sources of origin for the majority of the heavy metals. RI of Cr and Pb ranged between 2.8E−04 and 2.7E−07. However, HI was site-specific (only for Cr, Pb, Mn), and most of the sites were in Songnan town. This study could be used as a significant piece of information for management purposes to prevent heavy metal pollution and to protect human health.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0433-6
  • Indicators of Marine Pollution in the North Pacific Ocean
    • Authors: Tanya M. Brown; Hideshige Takada
      Abstract: The complex nature of ocean pollution underscores the utility in identifying and characterizing a limited number of “indicators” that enables scientists and managers to track trends over space and time. This paper introduces a special issue on indicators of marine pollution in the North Pacific Ocean and builds on a scientific session that was held at the North Pacific Marine Science Organization. The special issue highlights studies using a variety of indicators to provide insight into the identification of legacy and emerging contaminants, the ranking of priority pollutants from various sources, and the effects of contaminants on ecosystem health in the North Pacific Ocean. Examples include the use of mussels to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of a number of contaminants following the 2011 tsunami in Japan, the use of molecular marker (linear alkylbenzenes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) profiles to identify pollution sources, and the use of plastic resin pellets to illustrate spatial trends of petroleum pollution around the world. Stable isotopes were used to strengthen the utility of the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as an indicator of marine pollution. Examples also demonstrate the development and application of biomarker approaches, including gene transcripts, oxidative stress, estradiol, hatchability, and respiration and swimming behavior abnormalities, as a function of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, sulfur-diesel, Pinghu crude oil, galaxolide and antifouling biocides. We provide a brief review of indicators of marine pollution, identify research gaps, and summarize key findings from the articles published within the issue. This special issue represents the first compilation of research pertaining to marine pollution indicators in the North Pacific Ocean and provides guidance to inform mitigation and monitoring efforts of contaminants in the region.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0424-7
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin
           Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch
    • Authors: Bee Geok Yeo; Hideshige Takada; Junki Hosoda; Atsuko Kondo; Rei Yamashita; Mahua Saha; Thomas Maes
      Abstract: Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7–101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0423-8
  • Concentration of 12 Metals and Metalloids in the Blood of White Stork (
           Ciconia ciconia ): Basal Values and Influence of Age and Gender
    • Authors: Ana Raquel Maia; Francisco Soler-Rodriguez; Marcos Pérez-López
      Abstract: The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is being increasingly used in biomonitoring programmes of environmental contaminants due to its growing population in Europe; however, studies on inorganic elements are scarce. The blood of 70 white storks was collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to determine the presence of the following elements: lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), and cadmium (Cd). Our main goals were to determine the mean concentrations of these elements in the blood and to study its association with age and gender. Mean concentrations were highest for Fe, followed by Zn, and lowest for Co and Cd. The metal levels were similar to the values referred in the literature for the same species from different locations. No statistically significant differences were found between males and females. Regarding age, statistically significant differences were observed for Ni, Cu, Se, Hg, and Pb between young and adult animals (except for Pb, values in adults were higher than in fledglings). Many element concentrations were correlated, with the strongest correlations between the pairs Hg–Se, Hg–As, and Fe–Zn, mainly in adults. This study provides the baseline data for a monitoring program based on white stork blood as a nondestructive sample.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0431-8
  • Occurrence and Distribution of Organophosphate Esters in Surface Soil and
           Street Dust from Chongqing, China: Implications for Human Exposure
    • Authors: Ming-Jing He; Ting Yang; Zhi-Hao Yang; Qi Li; Shi-Qiang Wei
      Abstract: In the present study, the occurrence, concentrations, and distribution of organophosphate esters (OPEs) were studied in surface soil and street dust samples collected from different sites of Chongqing, a metropolitan city in western China. Furthermore, nondietary daily intakes (DIs) of OPEs only through dust ingestion absorption were assessed between toddlers and adults. The ∑OPEs contents ranged from 10.1 to 315 ng/g dw and from 348 to 1369 ng/g dw in surface soil and street dust samples, respectively, with tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), the predominant OPEs in surface soil, whereas tris (chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) occupied a relatively high proportion in street dust samples. The mobility of TCEP and tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) to deeper soil zones with seepage water may play a role in decreasing contents of both compounds in surface soil. Considerably different patterns of pairwise correlations of six OPEs congeners were observed between surface soil and street dust, which could largely relate to the complicated environmental process for tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and TCIPP in surface soil. Analogous sources between surface soil and street dust have been identified through principal component analysis. Compared with adults, the toddlers were more vulnerable to OPEs intake, according to the estimated DI values. For both toddler and adult groups, the estimated exposure values for all OPEs were several orders of magnitude lower than the reference dose (RfD), not suggesting the potential risk to human health.
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0432-7
  • Comparative Toxicity of Two Chemical Dispersants and Dispersed Oil in
           Estuarine Organisms
    • Authors: M. E. DeLorenzo; P. B. Key; K. W. Chung; E. Pisarski; B. Shaddrix; E. F. Wirth; P. L. Pennington; J. Wade; M. Franco; M. H. Fulton
      Abstract: Chemical dispersants can be a useful tool to mitigate oil spills. This study examined potential risks to sensitive estuarine species by comparing the toxicity of two dispersants (Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR 52) individually and in chemically enhanced water-accommodated fractions (CEWAFs) of Louisiana Sweet Crude oil. Acute toxicity thresholds and sublethal biomarker responses were determined in seven species (sheepshead minnow, grass shrimp, mysid, amphipod, polychaete, hard clam, mud snail). Comparing median lethal (LC50) values for the dispersants, Finasol was generally more toxic than Corexit and had greater sublethal toxicity (impaired embryonic hatching, increased lipid peroxidation, decreased acetylcholinesterase activity). The nominal concentration-based mean LC50 for all species tested with Corexit was 150.31 mg/L compared with 43.27 mg/L with Finasol. Comparing the toxicity of the CEWAFs using the nominal concentrations (% CEWAF), Corexit-CEWAFs appeared more toxic than Finasol-CEWAFs; however, when LC50 values were calculated using measured hydrocarbon concentrations, the Finasol-CEWAFs were more toxic. There was greater dispersion efficiency leading to greater hydrocarbon concentrations measured in the Corexit-CEWAF solutions than in equivalent Finasol-CEWAF solutions. The measured concentration-based mean LC50 values for all species tested with Corexit-CEWAF were 261.96 mg/L total extractable hydrocarbons (TEH) and 2.95 mg/L total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), whereas the mean LC50 values for all species tested with Finasol-CEWAF were 23.19 mg/L TEH and 0.49 mg/L total PAH. Larval life stages were generally more sensitive to dispersants and dispersed oil than adult life stages within a species. These results will help to inform management decisions regarding the use of oil-spill dispersants.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0430-9
  • Effect of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Metabolism and Morphology of
           Filamentous Green Microalgae
    • Authors: Michele Munk; Humberto M. Brandão; Claude Yéprémian; Alain Couté; Luiz O. Ladeira; Nádia R. B. Raposo; Roberta Brayner
      Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have potential applications in the industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental remediation fields. However, many uncertainties exist regarding the environmental implications of engineered nanomaterials. This study examined the effect of the MWCNTs on metabolic status and morphology of filamentous green microalgae Klebsormidium flaccidum. Appropriate concentrations of MWCNT (1, 50, and 100 μg mL−1) were added to a microalgal culture in the exponential growth phase and incubated for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Exposure to MWCNT led to reductions in algal growth after 48 h and decreased on cell viability for all experimental endpoints except for 1 µg mL−1 at 24 h and 100 µg mL−1 after 72 h. At 100 µg mL−1, MWCNTs induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and had an effect on intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content depending on concentration and time. No photosynthetic activity variation was observed. Observations by scanning transmission electron microscopy showed cell damage. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that exposure to MWCNTs affects cell metabolism and microalgal cell morphology. To our best knowledge, this is the first case in which MWCNTs exhibit adverse effects on filamentous green microalgae K. flaccidum. These results contribute to elucidate the mechanism of MWCNT nanotoxicity in the bioindicator organism of terrestrial and freshwater habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-017-0429-2
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