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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AAPS PharmSciTech
  [SJR: 0.718]   [H-I: 54]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Fabrication of Nanosuspension Directly Loaded Fast-Dissolving Films for
           Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Olmesartan Medoxomil: In Vitro
           Characterization and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation in Healthy Human
           Volunteers
    • Authors: Jihad Mahmoud Alsofany; Manal Yassin Hamza; Aly Ahmed Abdelbary
      Abstract: Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is an antihypertensive drug with poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability (28.6%). Accordingly, this study aimed to formulate and evaluate OM nanosuspension incorporated into oral fast-dissolving films (FDFs) for bioavailability enhancement. OM nanosuspension was prepared by antisolvent-precipitation-ultrasonication method and characterized regarding particle size (122.67 ± 5.03 nm), span value (1.40 ± 0.51), and zeta potential (− 46.56 ± 1.20 mV). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the nanosuspension showed spherical non-aggregating nanoparticles. The nanosuspension was then directly loaded into FDFs by solvent casting technique. A full factorial design (22 × 31) was implemented for optimization of the FDFs using Design-Expert® software. Physical and mechanical characteristics in addition to dissolution profiles of the FDFs were investigated. The optimum formula (FDF1) showed 0.43 ± 0.02 kg/mm2 tensile strength, 20.50 ± 2.12 s disintegration time, and 87.53 ± 2.50 and 95.99 ± 0.25% OM dissolved after 6 and 10 min, respectively. Accelerated and long-term shelf stability studies confirmed the stability of FDF1. More than 75% OM was dissolved within 10 min from FDF1 compared with 9.80 and 47.80% for films prepared using coarse drug powder and market tablet, respectively. Relative bioavailability of FDF1 compared to market tablet was assessed in healthy human volunteers. The Cmax value increased significantly from 66.62 ± 14.95 to 179.28 ± 23.96 ng/mL for market tablet and FDF1, respectively. Similarly, the AUC0–72 value significantly increased from 498.36 ± 217.46 to 1083.67 ± 246.32 ng h/mL for market tablet and FDF1, respectively. Relative bioavailability of FDF1 was 209.28%. The highlighted results verified the effectiveness of OM nanosuspension-loaded FDFs in improving OM bioavailability.
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1015-2
       
  • Thermosensitive Poloxamer 407/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogels with Potential
           Application as Injectable Drug Delivery System
    • Authors: Wannisa Boonlai; Vimon Tantishaiyakul; Namon Hirun; Tanatchaporn Sangfai; Krit Suknuntha
      Abstract: Thermosensitive hydrogels are of great interest for in situ gelling drug delivery. The thermosensitive vehicle with a gelation temperature in a range of 30–36°C would be convenient to be injected as liquid and transform into gel after injection. To prepare novel hydrogels gelling near body temperature, the gelation temperature of poloxamer 407 (PX) were tailored by mixing PX with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The gelation behaviors of PX/PAA systems as well as the interaction mechanism were investigated by tube inversion, viscoelastic, shear viscosity, DSC, SEM, and FTIR studies. The gelation temperature of the plain PX solutions at high concentration of 18, 20, and 22% (w/w) gelled at temperature below 28°C, which is out of the suitable temperature range. Mixing PX with PAA to obtain 18 and 20% (w/w) PX with 1% (w/w) PAA increased the gelation temperature to the desired temperature range of 30–36°C. The intermolecular entanglements and hydrogen bonds between PX and PAA may be responsible for the modulation of the gelation features of PX. The mixtures behaved low viscosity liquid at room temperature with shear thinning behavior enabling their injectability and rapidly gelled at body temperature. The gel strength increased, while the pore size decreased with increasing PX concentration. Metronidazole, an antibiotic used for periodontitis, was incorporated into the matrices, and the drug did not hinder their gelling ability. The gels showed the sustained drug release characteristic. The thermosensitive PX/PAA hydrogel could be a promising injectable in situ gelling system for periodontal drug delivery.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1010-7
       
  • Multi-Layer Self-Nanoemulsifying Pellets: an Innovative Drug Delivery
           System for the Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Cinnarizine
    • Authors: Ahmad Abdul-Wahhab Shahba; Abid Riaz Ahmed; Fars Kaed Alanazi; Kazi Mohsin; Sayed Ibrahim Abdel-Rahman
      Abstract: Beside their solubility limitations, some poorly water-soluble drugs undergo extensive degradation in aqueous and/or lipid-based formulations. Multi-layer self-nanoemulsifying pellets (ML-SNEP) introduce an innovative delivery system based on isolating the drug from the self-nanoemulsifying layer to enhance drug aqueous solubility and minimize degradation. In the current study, various batches of cinnarizine (CN) ML-SNEP were prepared using fluid bed coating and involved a drug-free self-nanoemulsifying layer, protective layer, drug layer, moisture-sealing layer, and/or an anti-adherent layer. Each layer was optimized based on coating outcomes such as coating recovery and mono-pellets%. The optimized ML-SNEP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), in vitro dissolution, and stability studies. The optimized ML-SNEP were free-flowing, well separated with high coating recovery. SEM showed multiple well-defined coating layers. The acidic polyvinylpyrrolidone:CN (4:1) solution presented excellent drug-layering outcomes. DSC and XRD confirmed CN transformation into amorphous state within the drug layer. The isolation between CN and self-nanoemulsifying layer did not adversely affect drug dissolution. CN was able to spontaneously migrate into the micelles arising from the drug-free self-nanoemulsifying layer. ML-SNEP showed superior dissolution compared to Stugeron® tablets at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Particularly, on shifting to pH 6.8, ML-SNEP maintained > 84% CN in solution while Stugeron® tablets showed significant CN precipitation leaving only 7% CN in solution. Furthermore, ML-SNEP (comprising Kollicoat® Smartseal 30D) showed robust stability and maintained > 97% intact CN within the accelerated storage conditions. Accordingly, ML-SNEP offer a novel delivery system that combines both enhanced solubilization and stabilization of unstable poorly soluble drugs.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0990-7
       
  • Bioactivity, Safety, and Efficacy of Amphotericin B Nanomicellar Aerosols
           Using Sodium Deoxycholate Sulfate as the Lipid Carrier
    • Authors: Faisal Usman; Ruqaiya Khalil; Zaheer Ul-Haq; Titpawan Nakpheng; Teerapol Srichana
      Abstract: We report nanomicelles of amphotericin B (AmB) using various molar ratios of AmB and sodium deoxycholate sulfate (SDCS) for inhalation with improved stability, solubility, bioactivity, and safety. The particle sizes of all aerosolized formulations are expressed as mass median aerodynamic diameter (0.9–1.6 μm), fine particle fraction (70.3–86.5%), and geometric standard deviation (1.4–2.1) which indicated their sizes are appropriate for use as an inhaler. In vitro cytotoxicity studies conducted using respiratory and kidney cell lines demonstrated that the marketed Fungizone® was toxic to macrophage and embryonic kidney cells and cell viability decreased from 96 to 48% and from 97 to 67%, respectively when the AmB equivalent concentration was increased from 1 to 16 μg/mL. However, AmB-SDCS formulations showed no evidence of toxicity even up to 8 μg/mL compared to Fungizone®. Minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations were significantly reduced against Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans. Also, antileishmanial activity significantly improved for AmB-SDCS formulations. There was an evidence of phagocytosis of the AmB-SDCS formulation by alveolar macrophages NR 8383. Molecular modeling studies suggested the role of hydrogen bonding in stabilization of the AmB-SDCS complex. This study indicated that AmB-SDCS nanomicelles can be used to design a safe and cost-effective AmB for inhalation. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1013-4
       
  • Roll Compaction and Tableting of High Loaded Metformin Formulations Using
           Efficient Binders
    • Authors: Oscar-Rupert Arndt; Peter Kleinebudde
      Abstract: Metformin has a poor tabletability and flowability. Therefore, metformin is typically wet granulated with a binder before tableting. To save production costs, it would be desirable to implement a roll compaction/dry granulation (RCDG) process for metformin instead of using wet granulation. In order to implement RCDG, the efficiency of dry binders is crucial to ensure a high drug load and suitable properties of dry granules and tablets. This study evaluates dry granules manufactured by RCDG and subsequently tableting of high metformin content formulations (≥ 87.5%). Based on previous results, fine particle grades of hydroxypropylcellulose and copovidone in different fractions were compared as dry binders. The formulations are suitable for RCDG and tableting. Furthermore, results can be connected to in-die and out-of-die compressibility analysis. The addition of 7% of dry binder is a good compromise to generate sufficient mechanical properties on the one hand, but also to save resources and ensure a high metformin content on the other hand. Hydroxypropylcellulose was more efficient in terms of granule size, tensile strength and friability. Three percent croscarmellose was added to reach the specifications of the US Pharmacopeia regarding dissolution. The final formulation has a metformin content of 87.5%. A loss in tabletability does not occur for granules compressed at different specific compaction forces, which displays a robust tensile strength of tablets independent of the granulation process.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1012-5
       
  • Development of Microemulsions and Microemulgels for Enhancing Transdermal
           Delivery of Kaempferia parviflora Extract
    • Authors: Worranan Rangsimawong; Paisit Wattanasri; Prasopchai Tonglairoum; Prasert Akkaramongkolporn; Theerasak Rojanarata; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat; Praneet Opanasopit
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop microemulsions (ME) and microemulgels (MG) for enhancing transdermal delivery of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) extract. The methoxyflavones were used as markers. Various formulations of ME and MG containing 10% w/v KP extract were prepared, and the in vitro skin permeation and deposition were investigated. The potential ME system containing oleic acid (5% w/v), Tween 20 (20% w/v), PG (40% w/v), and water (35% w/v) was successfully formulated. ME with 10% w/v limonene (ME-L10%) showed higher methoxyflavones flux than ME-L5%, ME-L1%, ME without limonene, and KP extract in water, respectively. ME-L10% was selected for adding a gelling agent to form microemulgels (MG-L10%). However, the high viscosity of the gel formulation might control the diffusion of the compound from gel layer into the skin. Therefore, the liquid formulation provided potential ME droplets to deliver KP extract through the skin. Limonene also plays an effective role on the skin permeation, in which the histological image of the skin treated with ME-L10% exhibited larger space of each flattened keratinocyte layer in the stratum corneum compared to the skin treated with KP extract in water. Moreover, ME-L10% showed good stability. Therefore, ME-L10% was a potential formulation for improving transdermal delivery of KP extract.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1003-6
       
  • Preparation and Optimization Lipid Nanocapsules to Enhance the Antitumor
           Efficacy of Cisplatin in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells
    • Authors: Qingqing Zhai; Hailong Li; Yanlin Song; Ruijiao Wu; Chuanfang Tang; Xiaodong Ma; Zhihao Liu; Jinyong Peng; Jianbin Zhang; Zeyao Tang
      Abstract: This work aimed to develop and optimize several lipid nanocapsule formulations (LNCs) to encapsulate cisplatin (CDDP) for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. By comparing the effect of oil/surfactant ratio, lecithin content, and oil/surfactant type on LNC characteristics, two LNCs were selected as optimal formulations: HS15-LNC (Solutol HS 15/MCT/lecithin, 54.5:42.5:3%, w/w) and EL-LNC (Cremophor EL/MCT/lecithin, 54.5:42.5:3%, w/w). Both LNCs could effectively encapsulate CDDP with the encapsulation efficiency of 73.48 and 78.84%. In vitro release study showed that both LNCs could sustain the release CDDP. Moreover, cellular uptake study showed that C6-labeled LNCs could be effectively internalized by HepG2 cells. Cellular cytotoxicity study revealed that both LNCs showed negligible cellular toxicity when their concentrations were below 313 μg/mL. Importantly, CDDP-loaded LNCs exhibited much stronger cell killing potency than free CDDP, with the IC50 values decreased from 17.93 to 3.53 and 5.16 μM after 72-h incubation. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly increased after treatment with LNCs. Therefore, the prepared LNC formulations exhibited promising anti-hepatocarcinoma effect, which could be beneficial to hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1011-6
       
  • MPEG-PCL Copolymeric Micelles for Encapsulation of Azithromycin
    • Authors: Wenxiu Wei; Shida Li; Hongmei Xu; Feilong Zhou; Yi Wen; Zhimei Song; Sijia Feng; Runliang Feng
      Abstract: Macrolide antibiotics are lipophilic drugs with some limitations including low solubility, limited cellular permeation, patients discomfort, etc. With amphiphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) copolymer and azithromycin (AZT) as drug carrier and model drug, AZT-loaded micelles were prepared via thin-membrane hydration method in order to overcome these limitations. Encapsulation efficiency of AZT-loaded micelles was 94.40% with good storage stability for 28 days, and AZT’s water solubility was enhanced to 944 μg/mL. Fourier transform infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction analysis indicated that AZT was enveloped into the micelles in amorphous form due to its interaction with the copolymer. AZT’s in vitro release from the AZT-loaded micelles demonstrated a slow and continuous behavior when compared with raw AZT. The release dynamics was accorded with Weibull equation, meaning that release amount of AZT lowered with time and was proportional to remaining amount of drug in the AZT-loaded micelles. Korsmeyer-Peppas fitting result suggested that drug release process was a classical Fickian diffusion-controlled manner. With Staphylococcus aureus as bacterial strain, antibacterial activity of the AZT-loaded micelles displayed was comparable with raw AZT. In conclusion, MPEG-PCL should be a promising carrier for macrolide antibiotic delivery in treatment of bacterial infections.
      PubDate: 2018-04-19
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1009-0
       
  • Influence of Material Properties on the Effectiveness of Glidants Used to
           Improve the Flowability of Cohesive Pharmaceutical Powders
    • Authors: Divya Sunkara; Maxx Capece
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of material properties, primarily particle size and surface energy, on the effectiveness of glidants used for the purpose of flowability enhancement. Three pharmaceutical grade glidants (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, and Cab-O-Sil M5P) were evaluated and blended with various pharmaceutical actives as well as cohesive excipients common to capsule and tablet formulation. Flowability enhancement was characterized by the flow function coefficient (ff c ). An industry-relevant mixer (Turbula mixer) and a highly efficient and effective mixer (LabRAM vibratory mixer) were used to further understand the effect of material properties on glidant effectiveness. While concepts of inter-particle cohesion and interaction strength were applied to evaluate their usefulness in understanding and predicting flowability enhancement, theoretical expectations did not fully explain the behavior of all three glidants. However, the study suggests that the low surface energy and optimal particle size of Aerosil R972 relative to the other glidants results in lower inter-particle force and consequently better flowability. Aerosil R972 was also shown to be more effectively utilized in the Turbula mixing process particularly for larger (d50 > 40 μm) and less cohesive (ff c  > 3) materials. This may be due to its lower surface energy and hydrophobic surface which allows it to disperse easily. Overall, this study provides useful insight into the material properties which influence the effectiveness of glidants used in formulation development.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1006-3
       
  • Chitosan Nanoparticles of Gamma-Oryzanol: Formulation, Optimization, and
           In vivo Evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic Activity
    • Authors: Tejal Rawal; Neha Mishra; Abhishek Jha; Apurva Bhatt; Rajeev K. Tyagi; Shital Panchal; Shital Butani
      Abstract: The elevated blood levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins result in hyperlipidemia. The available expensive prophylactic treatments are kindred with severe side effects. Therefore, we fabricated the polymeric nanoparticles of gamma-oryzanol to achieving the improved efficacy of drug. The nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and optimized using 23 full factorial design taking drug/polymer ratio (X1), polymer/cross linking agent ratio (X2), and stirring speed (X3) as independent variables. The average particle size, percentage entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release at 2, 12, and 24 h were selected as response parameters. The factorial batches were statistically analyzed and optimized. The optimized nanoparticles were characterized with respect to particle size (141 nm) and zeta potential (+ 6.45 mV). Results obtained with the prepared and characterized formulation showed 83% mucoadhesion towards the intestinal mucosa. The in vitro findings were complemented well by in vivo anti-hyperlipidemic activity of developed formulation carried out in Swiss albino mouse model. The in vivo studies showed improved atherogenic index, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels in poloxamer-407-induced hyperlipidemic animals when treated with oryzanol and gamma-oryzanol nanoformulation. Based on our findings, we believe that chitosan-mediated delivery of gamma-oryzanol nanoparticles might prove better in terms of anti-hyperlipidemic therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1001-8
       
  • In Vitro-In Vivo Predictive Dissolution-Permeation-Absorption Dynamics of
           Highly Permeable Drug Extended-Release Tablets via Drug
           Dissolution/Absorption Simulating System and pH Alteration
    • Authors: Zi-qiang Li; Shuang Tian; Hui Gu; Zeng-guang Wu; Makafui Nyagblordzro; Guo Feng; Xin He
      Abstract: Each of dissolution and permeation may be a rate-limiting factor in the absorption of oral drug delivery. But the current dissolution test rarely took into consideration of the permeation property. Drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS) valuably gave an insight into the combination of drug dissolution and permeation processes happening in human gastrointestinal tract. The simulated gastric/intestinal fluid of DDASS was improved in this study to realize the influence of dynamic pH change on the complete oral dosage form. To assess the effectiveness of DDASS, six high-permeability drugs were chosen as model drugs, including theophylline (pKa1 = 3.50, pKa2 = 8.60), diclofenac (pKa = 4.15), isosorbide 5-mononitrate (pKa = 7.00), sinomenine (pKa = 7.98), alfuzosin (pKa = 8.13), and metoprolol (pKa = 9.70). A general elution and permeation relationship of their commercially available extended-release tablets was assessed as well as the relationship between the cumulative permeation and the apparent permeability. The correlations between DDASS elution and USP apparatus 2 (USP2) dissolution and also between DDASS permeation and beagle dog absorption were developed to estimate the predictability of DDASS. As a result, the common elution-dissolution relationship was established regardless of some variance in the characteristic behavior between DDASS and USP2 for drugs dependent on the pH for dissolution. Level A in vitro-in vivo correlation between DDASS permeation and dog absorption was developed for drugs with different pKa. The improved DDASS will be a promising tool to provide a screening method on the predictive dissolution-permeation-absorption dynamics of solid drug dosage forms in the early-phase formulation development.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0996-1
       
  • Pulmonary Administration of Microparticulate Antisense Oligonucleotide
           (ASO) for the Treatment of Lung Inflammation
    • Authors: Ruhi V. Ubale; Prathap Nagaraja Shastri; Carl Oettinger; Martin J. D’Souza
      Abstract: Targeted delivery to the lung for controlling lung inflammation is an area that we have explored in this study. The purpose was to use microparticles containing an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to NF-κB to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Microparticles were prepared using the B-290 Buchi Spray Dryer using albumin as the microparticle matrix. Physicochemical characterization of the microparticles showed the size ranged from 2 to 5 μm, the charge was − 38.4 mV, and they had a sustained release profile over 72 h. Uptake of FITC-labeled ASO-loaded microparticles versus FITC-labeled ASO solution by RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells was 5–10-fold higher. After pulmonary delivery of microparticles to Sprague-Dawley rats, the microparticles were uniformly distributed throughout the lung and were retained in the lungs until 48 h. Serum cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels of rats after induction of lung inflammation by lipopolysaccharide were measured until 72 h. Animals receiving ASO-loaded microparticles were successful in significantly controlling lung inflammation during this period as compared to animals receiving no treatment. This study was successful in proving that microparticulate ASO therapy was capable of controlling lung inflammation.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1002-7
       
  • Biodegradable Ingredient-Based Emulgel Loaded with Ketoprofen
           Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Rabia Gul; Naveed Ahmed; Naseem Ullah; Muhammad Ijaz Khan; Abdelhamid Elaissari; Asim.ur. Rehman
      Abstract: Biodegradable materials are extensively employed to design nanocarriers that mimic extracellular environment in arthritis. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize biocompatible, biodegradable ketoprofen-loaded chitosan-chondroitin sulfate (CHS-CS) nanoparticles with natural ingredients for transdermal applications. Polymers used in the design of nanocarriers are biodegradable and produce synergistic anti-inflammatory effect for the treatment of arthritis. For transdermal application, argan oil-based emulgel is utilized to impart viscosity to the formulation. Furthermore, naturally occurring argan oil synergizes anti-inflammatory effect of formulation and promotes skin penetration. CHS and CS form nanoparticles by polyelectrolyte complex formation or complex coacervation at pH 5.0. These particles were loaded into argan oil-based emulgel. Employing this method, nanoparticles were formulated with particle size in the range of 300–500 nm. These nanocarriers entrapped ketoprofen and showed more than 76% encapsulation efficiency and 77% release of the ketoprofen at pH 7.4 within 72 h. Drug releases from CHS-CS nanoparticles by mechanism of simple diffusion. Nanoparticle-loaded argan oil emulgel significantly enhanced skin penetration of ketoprofen as compared to marketed gel (p < 0.05). Nanocarriers prepared successfully delivered drug through transdermal route using natural ingredients. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0997-0
       
  • Impact of Physicochemical Properties of Cellulosic Polymers on
           Supersaturation Maintenance in Aqueous Drug Solutions
    • Authors: Shiqi Hong; Steven A. Nowak; Chan Lai Wah
      Abstract: The precipitation inhibitory effect of cellulosic polymers in relation to their physicochemical properties was studied. Using a poorly water-soluble model drug, griseofulvin, the precipitation inhibitory effect of a series of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and methylcellulose polymers was studied using solvent–shift method. The extent of supersaturation maintenance of each polymer was then quantified by the parameter, supersaturation factor (SF). Partial least square (PLS) regression analysis was employed to understand the relative contribution from viscosity, hydroxypropyl content (HC), methoxyl content, methoxyl/hydroxypropyl ratio, and drug–polymer interaction parameter (χ) on SF. All grades of cellulosic polymers effectively prolonged supersaturation of griseofulvin. PLS regression analysis revealed that HC and χ appeared to have the strongest influence on SF response. A regression model of SF = 1.65–0.16 χ + 0.05 HC with a high correlation coefficient, r of 0.921, was obtained. Since the value of χ is inversely related to the strength of drug–polymer interaction, the result shows that SF increases with increasing drug–polymer interaction and increasing HC. As such, it can be implied that strong drug–polymer interaction and presence of hydroxypropyl groups in cellulosic polymers for hydrogen bonding are two key parameters for effective supersaturation maintenance. This knowledge on the relative contribution of polymer physicochemical properties on precipitation inhibition will allow the selection of suitable cellulosic polymers for systematic development of supersaturating drug delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0999-y
       
  • Microemulsion Formulations for the Transdermal Delivery of Lapachol
    • Authors: Maria Alice Maciel Tabosa; Ana Rosa Brissant de Andrade; Ana Amélia Moreira Lira; Victor Hugo Vitorino Sarmento; Davi Pereira de Santana; Leila Bastos Leal
      Abstract: This project was carried out to investigate the feasibility of using microemulsions for transdermal delivery of lapachol. From the screening of surfactants and oils, a range of microemulsions were developed using oleic acid, a mixture of Cremophor EL and Tween 20 and water. The solubility of lapachol was determined in these ingredients and in the formulated microemulsions. The microemulsions were characterised using cross-polarising light microscopy, their electrical conductivity, pH, zeta potential and rheology were analysed, and they were also investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. Ex vivo studies were performed using porcine ear skin and Franz diffusion cells to investigate the permeation and retention of lapachol. Systems containing different concentrations of Cremophor EL (8.4–41.6%), Tween 20 (5.4–41.6%) and oleic acid (12–31.9%) are able to form microemulsions. Lapachol was delivered more effectively through the skin from all of the microemulsions tested than by the control (oleic acid). These studies indicated that microemulsions incorporating lapachol were formed successfully and that these enhanced drug delivery and retention in the skin. Microemulsion systems may, therefore, provide promising vehicles for percutaneous delivery of lapachol.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0995-2
       
  • Preparation and Optimization of Rivaroxaban by Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug
           Delivery System (SNEDDS) for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability and No Food
           Effect
    • Authors: Xu Xue; Mengyuan Cao; Lili Ren; Yiwen Qian; Guoguang Chen
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was used to improve the oral bioavailability in fasted state and diminish the food effect for rivaroxaban. Oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant were selected by saturated solubility study. IPM, Tween80, and 1,2-propanediol were finally selected as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively. The pseudo-ternary-phase diagram was utilized to optimize the preliminary composition of SNEDDS formulation. The optimized rivaroxaban-SNEDDS formulation was selected by central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology. Optimized SNEDDS formulation was evaluated for drug content, self-emulsifying time, droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The drug dissolution profile compared to the commercial formulation Xarelto® (20 mg rivaroxaban) was determined in four different media (pH 1.2HCl, pH 4.5NaAc-HAc, pH 6.8PBS, and water). The result indicated that the SNEDDS formulation had successfully increased the drug solubility in four different media. A HPLC-MS method that indicated a high sensitivity, strong attribute, and high accuracy characteristic was built to measure the drug concentration in plasma. The fast/fed in vivo pharmacokinetics studies of SNEDDS formulation and Xarelto® were carried out in adult beagle dog, rivaroxaban with no food effect was achieved in SNEDDS formulation compared with Xarelto® in fed state. The result suggested that SNEDDS formulation in this study is useful to increase the oral bioavailability and diminish the food effect in fasted state.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0991-6
       
  • Two Contrasting Failure Modes of Enteric Coated Beads
    • Authors: Galen H. Shi; Xia Dong; Michelle Lytle; Craig A. J. Kemp; Robert J. Behme; Jeremy Hinds; Zhicheng Xiao
      Abstract: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and kinetics of coating failure for enteric coated beads exposed to high-humidity conditions at different storage temperatures. Enteric coated beads were placed on high-humidity conditions (75 to 98% relative humidity (RH)) in the temperature range of 5 to 40°C. These stability samples of beads were tested for acid dissolution and water activity and also analyzed with SEM, X-ray CT, and DMA. Exposure of enteric coated beads to high humidity led to increased gastric release of drug which eventually failed the dissolution specification. SEM showed visible cracks on the surface of beads exposed to 5°C/high humidity and fusion of enteric beads into agglomerates at 40°C/high humidity. In a non-destructive time elapse study, X-ray CT demonstrated swelling of microcrystalline cellulose cores, crack initiation, and propagation through the API layer within days under 5°C/98% RH storage conditions and ultimately fracture through the enteric coating. DMA data showed a marked reduction in Tg of the enteric coating materials after exposure to humidity. At 5°C/high humidity, the hygroscopic microcrystalline cellulose core absorbed moisture leading to core swelling and consequent fracture through the brittle API and enteric layers. At 40°C (high humidity) which is above the Tg of the enteric polymer, enteric coated beads coalesced into agglomerates due to melt flow of the enteric coating. We believe it is the first report on two distinct failure models of enteric coated dosage forms.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1000-9
       
  • Experimental Aspects of Measuring the Vial Heat Transfer Coefficient in
           Pharmaceutical Freeze-Drying
    • Authors: Lindsay A. Wegiel; Steven J. Ferris; Steven L. Nail
      Abstract: One of the current methods for cycle optimization in primary drying to is develop a graphical design space based on quality by design (QbD). In order to construct the design space, the vial heat transfer coefficient (Kv) is needed. This paper investigated experimental factors that can affect the Kv result, examined the relationship between the batch average Kv and Kv values for individual vials, and recommended best practices for measuring Kv. Factors investigated included the technique for measuring ice temperature, shelf temperature, the use of a radiation shield on the door of the freeze-dry chamber, and shelf spacing. All experiments reported here used a chamber pressure of 100 mTorr. The most important factor was the technique for ice temperature measurement, where it is important to assure that any restrictions to vapor flow at the top of the vial are the same between monitored and non-monitored vials. Another factor that was found to play a role was the shelf temperature whereby the lower the shelf temperature, the larger the “edge effect,” and the larger the average Kv. Factors that were found to not have a significant effect were the use of a radiation shield inside the chamber door and the shelf spacing. Being aware of these factors and knowing best practices when determining the vial heat coefficient will lead to more accurate design spaces and better cycle optimization.
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0998-z
       
  • Zein Microneedles for Localized Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Agents to
           Treat Breast Cancer: Drug Loading, Release Behavior, and Skin Permeation
           Studies
    • Authors: Shubhmita Bhatnagar; Pooja Kumari; Srijanaki Paravastu Pattarabhiran; Venkata Vamsi Krishna Venuganti
      Abstract: Localized delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer could limit their adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physico-chemical properties of chemotherapeutic agents in their loading, release behavior, and skin permeation using microneedles. Zein microneedles were fabricated using the micromolding technique containing 36 microneedles in a 1-cm2 area. These microneedles were loaded with two anti-breast cancer drugs, tamoxifen and gemcitabine, having different water solubilities. Entrapment or surface coating of chemotherapeutic agents in zein microneedles was optimized to achieve greater loading efficiency. The greatest loading achieved was 607 ± 21 and 1459 ± 74 μg for tamoxifen and gemcitabine using the entrapment approach, respectively. Skin permeation studies in excised porcine skin showed that the coating on microneedles approach results in greater skin deposition for tamoxifen; while the poke-and-patch approach would provide greater skin permeation for gemcitabine. Taken together, it can be concluded that different loading strategies and skin penetration approaches have to be studied for delivery of small molecules using polymeric microneedles.
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1004-5
       
  • Daptomycin Proliposomes for Oral Delivery: Formulation, Characterization,
           and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics
    • Authors: Javier Rueda Arregui; Surya Prakasarao Kovvasu; Guru V. Betageri
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a proliposomal formulation of lipopeptide antibiotic drug daptomycin (DAP) for oral delivery. Thin film hydration was the selected method for preparation of proliposomes. Different phospholipids including soy-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), hydrogenated egg-phosphatidylcholine (HEPC), and distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) were evaluated in combination with cholesterol. The inclusion of surface charge modifiers in the formulation such as dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and stearylamine (SA) to enhance drug encapsulation was also evaluated. Particle size, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency were performed on daptomycin-hydrated proliposomes as part of physical characterization. USP type II dissolution apparatus with phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) was used for in vitro drug release studies. Optimized formulation was evaluated for in vivo pharmacokinetics after oral administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. Proliposomes composed of SPC exhibited higher entrapment efficiency than those containing HEPC or DSPC. The highest entrapment efficiency was achieved by positively charged SPC-SA proliposomes, showing an encapsulation efficiency of 92% and a zeta potential of + 28 mV. In vitro drug release of optimized formulation demonstrated efficient drug retention totaling for less than 20% drug release within the first 60 min and only 42% drug release after 2 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters after single oral administration of optimized proliposomal formulation indicated a significant increase in oral bioavailability of DAP administered as SPC-SA proliposomes when compared to drug solution. Based on these results, incorporation of charge modifiers into proliposomes may increase drug loading and proliposomes an attractive carrier for oral delivery of daptomycin.
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-0989-0
       
 
 
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