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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AAPS PharmSciTech
  [SJR: 0.718]   [H-I: 54]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Effects of the Preparation Process on the Properties of Amorphous Solid
    • Authors: Siyuan Huang; Robert O. Williams
      Abstract: Abstract The use of amorphous solid dispersions to improve the bioavailability of active ingredients from the BCS II and IV classifications continues to gain interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the last decade, methods for generating amorphous solid dispersions have been well established in commercially available products and in the literature. However, the amorphous solid dispersions manufactured by different technologies differ in many aspects, primarily chemical stability, physical stability, and performance, both in vitro and in vivo. This review analyzes the impact of manufacturing methods on those properties of amorphous solid dispersions. For example, the chemical stability of drugs and polymers can be influenced by differences in the level of thermal exposure during fusion-based and solvent-based processes. The physical stability of amorphous content varies according to the thermal history, particle morphology, and nucleation process of amorphous solid dispersions produced by different methods. The in vitro and in vivo performance of amorphous formulations are also affected by differences in particle morphology and in the molecular interactions caused by the manufacturing method. Additionally, we describe the mechanism of manufacturing methods and the thermodynamic theories that relate to amorphous formulations.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0861-7
  • Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Dapagliflozin to Hypoxic
           Tumors: Physicochemical Characterization and Cell Studies
    • Authors: Athina Angelopoulou; Efstathia Voulgari; Argiris Kolokithas-Ntoukas; Aristides Bakandritsos; Konstantinos Avgoustakis
      Abstract: Abstract In solid tumors, hypoxia (lack of oxygen) is developed, which leads to the development of resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy through various mechanisms. Nevertheless, hypoxic cells are particularly vulnerable when glycolysis is inhibited. For this reason, in this study, the development of magnetically targetable nanocarriers of the sodium-glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA) was developed for the selective delivery of DAPA in tumors. This nanomedicine in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy should be useful for effective treatment of hypoxic tumors. The magnetic nanoparticles consisted of a magnetic iron oxide core and a poly(methacrylic acid)-graft-poly(ethyleneglycol methacrylate) (PMAA-g-PEGMA) polymeric shell. The drug (dapagliflozin) molecules were conjugated on the surface of these nanoparticles via in vivo hydrolysable ester bonds. The nanoparticles had an average size of ~ 70 nm and exhibited a DAPA loading capacity 10.75% (w/w) for a theoretical loading 21.68% (w/w). The magnetic responsiveness of the nanoparticles was confirmed with magnetophoresis experiments. The dapagliflozin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles exhibited excellent colloidal stability in aqueous and biological media. Minimal (less than 15% in 24 h) drug release from the nanoparticles occurred in physiological pH 7.4; however, drug release was significantly accelerated in pH 5.5. Drug release was also accelerated (triggered) under the influence of an alternating magnetic field. The DAPA-loaded nanoparticles exhibited higher in vitro anticancer activity (cytotoxicity) against A549 human lung cancer cells than free DAPA. The application of an external magnetic field gradient increased the uptake of nanoparticles by cells, leading to increased cytotoxicity. The results justify further in vivo studies of the suitability of DAPA-loaded magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment of hypoxic tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0874-2
  • Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro  /  In Vivo Evaluation of
           Oral Time-Controlled Release Etodolac Pellets
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Zhang; Qi Li; Mingzhu Ye; Zhinan Zhao; Jiayi Sun; Xinggang Yang; Weisan Pan
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to prepare time-controlled release etodolac pellets to facilitate drug administration according to the body’s biological rhythm, optimize the drug’s desired effects, and minimize adverse effects. The preparation consisted of three laminal layers from center to outside: the core, the swelling layer, and the insoluble polymer membrane. Factors influenced the core and the coating films were investigated in this study. The core pellets formulated with etodolac, lactose, and sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and then coated by a fluidized bed coater. Croscarmellose sodium (CC-Na) was selected as the swelling agent, and ethyl cellulose (EC) as the controlled release layer. The prepared pellets were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by a dissolution test and a pharmacokinetic study. Compared with commercial available capsules, pharmacokinetics studies in beagle dogs indicated that the prepared pellets release the drug within a short period of time, immediately after a predetermined lag time. A good correlation between in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of the pellets was exhibited in the analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0873-3
  • Photostability Issues in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and
    • Authors: Karthik Yadav Janga; Tamara King; Nan Ji; Sandeep Sarabu; Gauri Shadambikar; Sagar Sawant; Pengchong Xu; Michael A. Repka; S. Narasimha Murthy
      Abstract: Abstract Photodegradation is one of the major pathways of the degradation of drugs. Some therapeutic agents and excipients are highly sensitive to light and undergo significant degradation, challenging the quality and the stability of the final product. The adequate knowledge of photodegradation mechanisms and kinetics of photosensitive therapeutic entities or excipients is a pivotal aspect in the product development phase. Hence, various pharmaceutical regulatory agencies, across the world, mandated the industries to assess the photodegradation of pharmaceutical products from manufacturing stage till storage, as per the guidelines given in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). Recently, numerous formulation and/or manufacturing strategies has been investigated for preventing the photodegradation and enhancing the photostability of photolabile components in the pharmaceutical dosage forms. The primary focus of this review is to discuss various photodegradation mechanisms, rate kinetics, and the factors that influence the rate of photodegradation. We also discuss light-induced degradation of photosensitive lipids and polymers. We conclude with a brief note on different approaches to improve the photostability of photosensitive products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0869-z
  • Development of a Mini-Freeze Dryer for Material-Sparing Laboratory
           Processing with Representative Product Temperature History
    • Authors: Wasfy M. Obeidat; Ekneet Sahni; William Kessler; Michael Pikal
      Abstract: Abstract The goal of the work described in this publication was to evaluate a new, small, material-sparing freeze dryer, denoted as the “mini-freeze dryer or mini-FD”, capable of reproducing the product temperature history of larger freeze dryers, thereby facilitating scale-up. The mini-FD wall temperatures can be controlled to mimic loading procedures and dryer process characteristics of larger dryers. The mini-FD is equipped with a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) water vapor mass flow monitor and with other advanced process analytical technology (PAT) sensors. Drying experiments were performed to demonstrate scalability to larger freeze dryers, including the determination of vial heat transfer coefficients, K v . Product temperature histories during K v runs were evaluated and compared with those obtained with a commercial laboratory-scale freeze dryer (LyoStar II) for sucrose and mannitol product formulations. When the mini-FD wall temperature was set at the LyoStar II band temperature (− 20°C) to mimic lab dryer edge vials, edge vial drying in the mini-FD possessed an average K v within 5% of those obtained during drying in the LyoStar II. When the wall temperature of the mini-FD was set equal to the central vial product temperature, edge vials behaved as center vials, possessing a K v value within 5% of those measured in the LyoStar II. During both K v runs and complete product freeze drying runs, the temperature-time profiles for the average edge vials and central vial in the mini-FD agreed well with the average edge and average central vials of the LyoStar II.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0871-5
  • Stability of Organoleptic Agents in Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics
    • Authors: Akash Patil; Supriya Bhide; Mustafa Bookwala; Bhavik Soneta; Vijaykumar Shankar; Ahmed Almotairy; Mashan Almutairi; S. Narasimha Murthy
      Abstract: Abstract Organoleptic agents constitute an important niche in the field of pharmaceutical excipients. These agents encompass a range of additives responsible for coloring, flavoring, sweetening, and texturing formulations. All these agents have come to play a significant role in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics due to their ability to increase patient compliance by elevating a formulation’s elegance and esthetics. However, it is essential to review their physical and chemical attributes before use, as organoleptic agents, similar to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), are susceptible to physical and chemical instability leading to degradation. These instabilities can be triggered by API-organoleptic agent interaction, exposure to light, air and oxygen, and changes in pH and temperature. These organoleptic agent instabilities are of serious concern as they affect API and formulation stability, leading to API degradation or the potential for manifestation of toxicity. Hence, it is extremely critical to evaluate and review the physicochemical properties of organoleptic agents before their use in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. This literature review discusses commonly used organoleptic agents in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical formulations, their associated instabilities, and probable approaches to overcoming them.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0866-2
  • Excipient Stability in Oral Solid Dosage Forms: A Review
    • Authors: Mittal A. Darji; Rahul M. Lalge; Sushrut P. Marathe; Tarul D. Mulay; Tasnim Fatima; Alia Alshammari; Hyung Kyung Lee; Michael A Repka; S. Narasimha Murthy
      Abstract: Abstract The choice of excipients constitutes a major part of preformulation and formulation studies during the preparation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. The physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of excipients affect various formulation parameters, such as disintegration, dissolution, and shelf life, and significantly influence the final product. Therefore, several studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of drug-excipient interactions on the overall formulation. This article reviews the information available on the physical and chemical instabilities of excipients and their incompatibilities with the active pharmaceutical ingredient in solid oral dosage forms, during various drug-manufacturing processes. The impact of these interactions on the drug formulation process has been discussed in detail. Examples of various excipients used in solid oral dosage forms have been included to elaborate on different drug-excipient interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0864-4
  • Solid-State Stability Issues of Drugs in Transdermal Patch Formulations
    • Authors: Purnendu Kumar Sharma; Apoorva Panda; Adwait Pradhan; Jiaxiang Zhang; Ruchi Thakkar; Chang-Hee Whang; Michael A. Repka; S. Narasimha Murthy
      Abstract: Abstract The transdermal patch formulation has many advantages, including noninvasiveness, an ability to bypass the first-pass metabolism, low dosage requirements, and prolonged drug delivery. However, the instability of solid-state drugs is one of the most critical problems observed in transdermal patch products. Therefore, a well-characterized approach for counteracting stability problems in solid-state drugs is crucial for improving the performance of transdermal patch products. This review provides insight into the solid-state stability of drugs associated with transdermal patch products and offers a comprehensive update on the various approaches being used for improving the stability of the active pharmaceutical ingredients currently being used.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0865-3
  • Laboratory Study Comparing Pharmacopeial Testing of Nebulizers with
           Evaluation Based on Nephele Mixing Inlet Methodology
    • Authors: Mårten Svensson; Elna Berg; Jolyon Mitchell; Dennis Sandell
      Abstract: Abstract Determination of fine droplet dose with preparations for nebulization, currently deemed to be the metric most indicative of lung deposition and thus in vivo responses, involves combining two procedures following practice as described in the United States Pharmacopeia and the European Pharmacopeia. Delivered dose (DD) is established by simulating tidal breathing at the nebulizer, collecting the medication on a filter downstream of the nebulizer mouthpiece/facemask. Fine droplet fraction (FDF<x μm) is determined separately using a cooled cascade impactor operated at 15 L/min. FDD<x μm is subsequently calculated as the product of DD and FDF<x μm. Development of the Nephele mixing inlet has allowed cascade impactor-based assessments to be made at a constant flow rate while simultaneously subjecting the nebulizer to the continuously varying flow profile associated with breath simulation. The study purpose was to investigate the feasibility of this approach, termed mixing inlet lung simulation (MILS), for direct determination of FDD<x μm. An optimal upper size limit for FDF is not given for nebulizers, but 5 μm was chosen since this limit is the European norm when testing other inhalation products. Vibrating membrane nebulizers (eFlow® Rapid) were used to deliver aqueous salbutamol sulfate, simulating an adult tidal-breathing pattern (inspiratory to expiratory ratio = 1:1, tidal volume = 500 mL, 15 breaths per minute, peak inspiratory flow rate = 24 L/min). The two procedures were inequivalent, as FDD<5 μm by the MILS approach was 72% of that obtained using the compendial “combination” method. Since the MILS methodology more closely mimics clinical use, we infer that the compendial approach likely overestimates the dose reaching the human lung.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0860-8
  • Appraisal of Transdermal Water-in-Oil Nanoemulgel of Selegiline HCl for
           the Effective Management of Parkinson’s Disease: Pharmacodynamic,
           Pharmacokinetic, and Biochemical Investigations
    • Authors: Sonal Setya; Tushar Madaan; Mohammad Tariq; B. K. Razdan; Sushama Talegaonkar
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, the potential of transdermal nanoemulsion gel of selegiline hydrochloride for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease was investigated. Water-in-oil nanoemulsions were developed by comparing low- and high-energy methods and were subjected to thermodynamic stability tests, in vitro permeation, and characterization studies. In vitro studies indicated that components of nanoemulsion acted as permeation enhancers with highest flux of 3.531 ± 1.94 μg/cm2/h from nanoemulsion SB6 containing 0.5 mg selegiline hydrochloride, 3% distilled water, 21% S mix (Span 85, Tween 80, PEG 400), and 76% isopropyl myristate by weight. SB6 with the least droplet size of 183.4 ± 0.35 nm, polydispersity index of 0.42 ± 0.06 with pH of 5.9 ± 0.32 and viscosity of 22.42 ± 0.14 cps was converted to nanoemulsion gel NEGS4 (viscosity = 22,200 ± 400 cps) by addition of Viscup160® for ease of application and evaluated for permeation, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile in Wistar rats. It provided enhancement ratio 3.69 times greater than conventional gel. NEGS4 showed 6.56 and 5.53 times increase in bioavailability in comparison to tablet and conventional gel, respectively, along with sustained effect. Therefore, the developed water-in-oil nanoemulsion gel promises to be an effective vehicle for transdermal delivery of selegiline hydrochloride.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0868-0
  • Optimization of Curcuma Oil/Quinine-Loaded Nanocapsules for Malaria
    • Authors: Graziela Scheuer Gomes; Tamara Ramos Maciel; Eduarda Martini Piegas; Luana Roberta Michels; Letícia Marques Colomé; Rodrigo José Freddo; Daiana Silva de Ávila; Andre Gundel; Sandra Elisa Haas
      Abstract: Abstract Quinine, a treatment used in chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, was loaded into poly(ɛ-caprolactone) or Eudragit® RS100 nanocapsules using Curcuma oil as the oil-based core. Until now, the effect of cationic nanocapsules on malaria has not been reported. A 24 factorial design was adopted using, as independent variables, the concentration of Curcuma oil, presence of quinine, type of polymer, and aqueous surfactant. Diameter, zeta potential, and pH were the responses studied. The formulations were also evaluated for drug content, encapsulation efficiency, photostability, and antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. The type of polymer influenced all of the responses studied. Quinine-loaded Eudragit® RS100 (F13) and PCL nanocapsules (F9), both with polysorbate 80 coating, showed nanometric particle size, positive zeta potential, neutral pH, high drug content, and quinine photoprotection ability; thus, these nanocapsules were selected for in vivo tests. Both formulations showed lower levels of parasitemia from the beginning of the experiment (5.78 ± 3.60 and 4.76 ± 3.46% for F9 and F13, respectively) and highest survival mean time (15.3 ± 2.0 and 14.9 ± 5.6 days for F9 and F13, respectively). F9 and F13 showed significant survival curve compared to saline, thus demonstrating that nanoencapsulation improved bioefficacy of QN and co-encapsulated curcuminoids, regardless of the surface charge.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0854-6
  • Albumin-Conjugated Lipid-Based Multilayered Nanoemulsion Improves Drug
           Specificity and Anti-Inflammatory Potential at the Spinal Cord Injury
           gSite after Intravenous Administration
    • Authors: Xiao-Gang Chen; Fu Hua; Shou-Guo Wang; Hong-Hui Tang
      Abstract: Abstract Albumin-conjugated multilayered nanoemulsion (albumin-MNE) of methyl prednisolone (MP) was developed to ensure the specificity of the drug at the spinal cord injury (SCI) site. MNE was prepared by emulsification followed by ionic deposition of oppositely charged polymer followed by albumin conjugation using N-hydroxysuccinimide. Prepared nanoemulsion was characterized for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (Zp), pH, viscosity, and entrapment efficiency. It was further evaluated for shape and morphological analysis, in vitro release, cell viability, and in vivo efficacy against post SCI-like conditions in terms of behavioral assessment, histopathological evaluation, and immunoflorescence assay of the histological sections showing Bax-driven apoptosis. Entrapment efficiency, particle size, PDI, and Zp of spherical-shaped, smooth-surfaced MNE droplets were found to be 68.9%, 83.2 ± 14.4 nm, 0.231, and + 62.7 mV, respectively. In vitro release of MP from MNE and albumin-MNE was observed to be 68.5 and 72.2% after 96th hour of the study. MNE showed higher viability of astrocytes than MP solution. Albumin-MNE improved behavior of SCI rat and histopathological conditions in a very effective manner when compared with MNE. Immunoflorescence assay reveals explicit decline in mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by sub-cellular upregulation of Bax at spinal cord injury site. In conclusion, albumin-MNE delivered MP specifically at SCI site and avoided its instant availability inside astrocytes culture. On account of which the chitosan stabilized, lecithin-emulsified, multilayered nanoemulsion of MP depicts higher efficacy and safety than MNE and may offer safe and effective mean for the treatment of post SCI-like conditions in human.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0867-1
  • Formulation Screening and Freeze-Drying Process Optimization of Ginkgolide
           B Lyophilized Powder for Injection
    • Authors: Daichun Liu; Federico Galvanin; Ying Yu
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to prepare ginkgolide B (GB) lyophilized powder for injection with excellent appearance and stable quality through a formulation screening and by optimizing the freeze-drying process. Cremophor EL as a solubilizer, PEG 400 as a latent solvent, and mannitol as an excipient were mixed to increase the solubility of GB in water to more than 18 times (about from 2.5 × 10−4 mol/L (0.106 mg/mL) to 1.914 mg/mL). Formulation screening was conducted by orthogonal design where the content of GB in the solution before lyophilization (using external standard method of HPLC) and reconstitution time after lyophilization were the two evaluation indexes. The optimized formulations were GB in an amount of 2 mg/mL, Cremophor EL in an amount of 16% (v/v), PEG 400 in an amount of 9% (v/v), mannitol in an amount of 8% (w/v), and the solution pH of 6.5. Through four single-factor experiments (GB adding order, preparation temperature of GB solution, adding amount, and adsorption time of activated carbon), the preparation process of GB solution was confirmed. The glass transition temperature of maximally GB freeze-concentrated solution was − 17.6°C through the electric resistance method. GB lyophilized powder began to collapse at − 14.0°C, and the fully collapsed temperature was − 13.0°C, which were determined by freeze-drying microscope. When the collapse temperature was determined, the primary drying temperature was obtained. Thereby, the freeze-drying curve of GB lyophilized powder was initially identified. The freeze-drying process was optimized by orthogonal design, the qualified product appearance and residual moisture content were the two evaluation indexes. The optimized process parameters and process were (1) shelf temperature, decreased from room temperature to − 45.0°C, at 0.5°C/min in 2 h; (2) shelf temperature increased from − 45.0 to − 25.0°C, at 0.1°C/min, maintained for 3 h, and the chamber pressure was held at 10 Pa; (3) shelf temperature was increased from − 25.0 to − 15.0°C at 0.1 °C/min, maintained for 4 h, and the chamber pressure was held at 10 Pa; and (4) shelf temperature was increased from − 15.0 to 20.0°C at 1.0 °C/min, maintained for 4 h, and the chamber pressure was raised up to 80 Pa. In these lyophilization process conditions, the products complied with relevant provisions of the lyophilized powders for injection. Meanwhile, the reproducibility was satisfactory. Post-freezing annealing had no significantly beneficial effects on shortening the freeze-drying cycle and improving the quality of GB lyophilized powder.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0858-2
  • Co-Spray Dried Mannitol/Poly(amidoamine)-Doxorubicin Dry-Powder Inhaler
           Formulations for Lung Adenocarcinoma: Morphology, In Vitro Evaluation, and
           Aerodynamic Performance
    • Authors: Qian Zhong
      Abstract: Abstract nhaled chemotherapeutics have emerged as a promising regimen to combat lung cancer as they maximize local drug concentration while significantly reduce systemic exposure. However, the poor lung/systemic safety profiles and lack of clinically efficient formulations restrict the applicability of inhaled chemotherapeutics. This work developed a dry-powder inhaler (DPI) formulation that dispersed a pH-responsive poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-doxorubicin conjugate (G4-12DOX) into mannitol microparticles. The dendrimer conjugate only releases cytotoxic agents in response to intracellular pH drop, leading to reduced systemic and local toxicity. This work investigated the effect of G4-12DOX content on the microparticle size and morphology, redispersibility, in vitro cytotoxicity, and aerosol properties of the formulations. The spray-dried G4-12DOX/mannitol microparticles showed smooth and spherical morphology with 1–4 μm in diameter. As the content of the G4-12DOX conjugate in the microparticles increased, the size, and degree of aggregation of microparticles increased dramatically. The G4-12DOX/mannitol microparticles were readily redispersed in the aqueous environment, reverting to nanoscale dendrimer conjugates to escape alveolar phagocytosis. All DPI formulations demonstrated the similar cytotoxicity as the original conjugate against a lung adenocarcinoma cell line. The emitted dose (ED) and fine particle fraction (FPF) of the DPI formulations decreased as the content of G4-12DOX increased, but EDs and FPFs of all formulations fell within the range of 85–60% and 60–40%, which were higher than those of commercial products (EDs = 40–60%; FPFs = 12–40%). Therefore, the spray-dried dendrimer/mannitol microparticle is an efficient and practical DPI formulation for direct delivery of large dose of chemotherapeutics to lung tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0859-1
  • Dissolution Test of Tacrolimus Capsule: Effects of Filtration and Glass
    • Authors: Kui Zeng; Zongming Gao; Michael Trehy; Wenlei Jiang
      Abstract: Abstract Tacrolimus is a potent, narrow therapeutic index, immunosuppressive drug used to avoid organ rejection in patients that have undergone organ transplantation. Dissolution tests are widely used to evaluate drug product quality and performance. Analysis of tacrolimus during dissolution testing is sensitive to several factors, such as sample solution storage time and container material. The filtration process, tacrolimus glass adsorption, and sample solution storage time are found to impact the tacrolimus dissolution results. Based on observations in this work, the use of G4 or equivalent filter flush before collection and polypropylene test tubes or vials instead of glass test tubes or vials are recommended for tacrolimus drug product dissolution test.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0856-4
  • Cationic Niosomes for Enhanced Skin Immunization of Plasmid DNA-Encoding
           Ovalbumin via Hollow Microneedles
    • Authors: Boonnada Pamornpathomkul; Nattisa Niyomtham; Boon-Ek Yingyongnarongkul; Chutinun Prasitpuriprecha; Theerasak Rojanarata; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat; Praneet Opanasopit
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of cationic niosomes composed of Span20:cholesterol:cationic lipid (N 1,N 1-dimyristeroyloxyethyl-spermine) at the molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:0.5 mM combined with hollow microneedle (MN) devices for in vivo skin immunization of plasmid DNA-encoding ovalbumin (pOVA). The results revealed that using hollow MNs with cationic niosomes for pOVA penetration successfully induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses including immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) cytokine secretion. When using hollow MNs with cationic niosome/pOVA complexes, the immune response was superior to naked pOVA, which testifies the increased amount of IgG antibody responses and cytokine secretion. In comparison with conventional subcutaneous (SC) injections, using hollow MNs with cationic niosome/pOVA complexes induced a higher level of both IgG immune response and cytokine release. Moreover, a group of mice immunized with hollow MNs did not show infection or bleeding on the skin. Consequently, targeted delivery of pOVA using cationic niosomes combined with hollow MNs might prove a promising vaccination method for skin vaccination.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0855-5
  • Anti-inflammatory Effect from a Hydrogel Containing Nanoemulsified Copaiba
           oil ( Copaifera multijuga Hayne)
    • Authors: Letícia G. Lucca; Sheila P. de Matos; Tainá Kreutz; Helder F. Teixeira; Valdir F. Veiga; Bibiana V. de Araújo; Renata P. Limberger; Letícia S. Koester
      Abstract: Abstract Copaiba oil is used as a popular medicine in the Amazonian forest region, especially due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In this paper, we describe the formulation of hydrogel containing copaiba oil nanoemulsions (with positive and negative charges), its skin permeation, and its anti-inflammatory activity in two in vivo models: mouse ear edema and rat paw edema. Three hydrogels were tested (Carbopol®, hydroxyethylcellulose and chitosan), but only Carbopol® and hydroxyethylcellulose hydrogels presented good stability and did not interfere with the nanoemulsions droplet size and polydispersity index. In skin permeation assay, both formulations, positively charged nanoemulsion (PCN) and negatively charged nanoemulsion (NCN), presented a high retention in epidermis (9.76 ± 2.65 μg/g and 7.91 ± 2.46 μg/cm2, respectively) followed by a smaller retention in the dermis (2.43 ± 0.91 and 1.95 ± 0.56 μg/cm2, respectively). They also presented permeation to the receptor fluid (0.67 ± 0.22 and 1.80 ± 0.85 μg/cm2, respectively). In addition, anti-inflammatory effect was observed to NCN and PCN with edema inhibitions of 69 and 67% in mouse ear edema and 32 and 72% in rat paw edema, respectively. Histological cuts showed the decrease of inflammatory factors, such as dermis and epidermis hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect from both copaiba oil nanoemulsions incorporated in hydrogel.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0862-6
  • Formulation and In Vitro Release Kinetics of Mucoadhesive Blend Gels
           Containing Matrine for Buccal Administration
    • Authors: Xiaojin Chen; Jun Yan; Shuying Yu; Pingping Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a pathogenic factor of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). No vaccine or specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Hence, we developed a buccal mucoadhesive gel containing matrine to protect against HFMD. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared by Carbopol 974P and were combined with Carbopol 971P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), or hydroxypropylmethy cellulose (HPMC K100M). The formulations were characterized in terms of tensile testing and continuous flow techniques for mucoadhesion. The rheological studies and in vitro drug release characteristics were also investigated. The results showed that combinations of two polymers significantly improved mucoadhesion, especially Carbopol 974P blended with HPMC. Carbopol 974P to HPMC blend ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 induced better mucoadhesion in the tensile test and continuous flow method, respectively. The most sustained release was obtained at a Carbopol 974P to HPMC ratio of 2.5:1. A predominantly non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism was obtained. The gel containing 2.5% Carbopol 974P combined with 1% HPMC showed good mucoadhesion properties and sustained drug release.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0853-7
  • Improved Oral Bioavailability, Therapeutic Efficacy, and Reduced Toxicity
           of Tamoxifen-Loaded Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Sanyog Jain; B. Heeralal; Rajan Swami; Nitin K. Swarnakar; Varun Kushwah
      Abstract: Abstract Present investigation deals with formulation and evaluation of tamoxifen (TMX)-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles (TMX-LCNPs) for improving oral bioavailability and safety of the existing treatment. Hexagonal Glyceryl monooleate-based TMX-LCNPs (GLCNPs) and Phytantriol-based TMX-LCNPs (PLCNPs) were prepared by dilution-through-hydrotrope method for oral administration. Oleic acid was incorporated in the lipid matrix to enhance the drug loading in the LCNPs. Optimized LCNPs displayed small particle size with a narrow distribution, sustained drug release and high gastrointestinal stability. TMX-LCNPs were found to be considerably higher cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells as compared to free TMX. Substantial fold enhancement in oral bioavailability (~7- and ~5-folds with TMX-GLCNPs and TMX-PLCNPs, respectively) was evident followed by significant reduction in tumor burden with lesser hepatotoxicity. Out of the two LCNP formulations, PLCNPs were found to be better in convalescing the disease.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0851-9
  • Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Freeze-Drying Microscopy for
           Designing Lyophilization Process and Its Impact on Process Efficiency and
           Product Quality
    • Authors: Maxwell Korang-Yeboah; Charudharshini Srinivasan; Akhtar Siddiqui; David Awotwe-Otoo; Celia N. Cruz; Ashraf Muhammad
      Abstract: Abstract Optical coherence tomography freeze-drying microscopy (OCT-FDM) is a novel technique that allows the three-dimensional imaging of a drug product during the entire lyophilization process. OCT-FDM consists of a single-vial freeze dryer (SVFD) affixed with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. Unlike the conventional techniques, such as modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) and light transmission freeze-drying microscopy, used for predicting the product collapse temperature (Tc), the OCT-FDM approach seeks to mimic the actual product and process conditions during the lyophilization process. However, there is limited understanding on the application of this emerging technique to the design of the lyophilization process. In this study, we investigated the suitability of OCT-FDM technique in designing a lyophilization process. Moreover, we compared the product quality attributes of the resulting lyophilized product manufactured using Tc, a critical process control parameter, as determined by OCT-FDM versus as estimated by mDSC. OCT-FDM analysis revealed the absence of collapse even for the low protein concentration (5 mg/ml) and low solid content formulation (1%w/v) studied. This was confirmed by lab scale lyophilization. In addition, lyophilization cycles designed using Tc values obtained from OCT-FDM were more efficient with higher sublimation rate and mass flux than the conventional cycles, since drying was conducted at higher shelf temperature. Finally, the quality attributes of the products lyophilized using Tc determined by OCT-FDM and mDSC were similar, and product shrinkage and cracks were observed in all the batches of freeze-dried products irrespective of the technique employed in predicting Tc.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0848-4
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