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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover AAPS PharmSciTech
  [SJR: 0.718]   [H-I: 54]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Dual Activity of Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Water-Soluble Carriers
           on the Solubility of Carvedilol
    • Authors: Abdelmoumin Zoghbi; Tianjiao Geng; Bo Wang
      Pages: 2927 - 2935
      Abstract: Carvedilol (CAR) is a non-selective α and β blocker categorized as class II drug with low water solubility. Several recent studies have investigated ways to overcome this problem. The aim of the present study was to combine two of these methods: the inclusion complex using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) with solid dispersion using two carriers: Poloxamer 188 (PLX) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) to enhance the solubility, bioavailability, and the stability of CAR. Kneading method was used to prepare CAR-HPβCD inclusion complex (KD). The action of different carriers separately and in combination on Carvedilol solubility was investigated in three series. CAR-carrier and KD-carrier solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method. In vitro dissolution test was conducted in three different media: double-distilled water (DDW), simulative gastric fluid (SGF), and PBS pH 6.8 (PBS). The interactions between CAR, HPβCD, and different carriers were explored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). The results showed higher solubility of CAR in KD-PVP solid dispersions up to 70, 25, and 22 fold compared to pure CAR in DDW, SGF, and PBS, respectively. DSC and XRD analyses indicated an improved degree of transformation of CAR in KD-PVP solid dispersion from crystalline to amorphous state. This study provides a new successful combination of two polymers with the dual action of HPβCD and PLX/PVP on water solubility and bioavailability of CAR.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0769-2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • A Novel Apremilast Nail Lacquer Formulation for the Treatment of Nail
    • Authors: Avadhesh Singh Kushwaha; Michael A. Repka; S. Narasimha Murthy
      Pages: 2949 - 2956
      Abstract: The objective was to prepare a novel nail lacquer formulation to improve the ungual and trans-ungual delivery of apremilast for the potential treatment of nail psoriasis. Nail lacquer formulation was prepared using Eudragit® S 100 as a film-forming polymer and the mixture of ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water as a solvent system. As a result of high-throughput screening studies, dexpanthenol and salicylic acid were found to be the potential penetration enhancers. After 7 days of in vitro studies, the cumulative amount of apremilast delivered by the nail lacquer formulation across the nail plate was found to be ~3-fold (0.52 ± 0.07 μg/cm2) more compared to control (nail lacquer formulation without enhancers) (0.19 ± 0.02 μg/cm2). The cumulative amount of apremilast retained in the nail plate in the case of nail lacquer formulation was 1.26 ± 0.18 μg/mg which was found to be ~2-fold more compared to control (0.57 ± 0.07 μg/mg). Human subject studies were performed on the nails of thumb and index finger of six volunteers for 15 days. As a result, the cumulative amount of apremilast retained in the free distal edge of the nail plate in the case of nail lacquer was found to be ~2-fold (0.93 ± 0.14 μg/mg) more related to control (0.41 ± 0.04 μg/mg). As a conclusion, nail lacquer formulation was found to be capable of delivering a substantial amount of apremilast into the nail apparatus; thus, it can be a potential option for the treatment of nail psoriasis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0776-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Oral fast-dissolving films containing lutein nanocrystals for improved
    • Authors: Chen Liu; Daoxiao Chang; Xinhui Zhang; Hong Sui; Yindi Kong; Rongyue Zhu; Wenping Wang
      Pages: 2957 - 2964
      Abstract: Lutein is widely used as diet supplement for prevention of age-related macular degeneration. However, the application and efficacy of lutein in food and nutritional products has been hampered due to its poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the formulation of oral fast-dissolving film (OFDF) containing lutein nanocrystals for enhanced bioavailability and compliance. Lutein nanocrystals were prepared by anti-solvent precipitation method and then encapsulated into the films by solvent casting method. The formulation of OFDF was optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) as follows: HPMC 2.05% (w/v), PEG 400 1.03% (w/v), Cremophor EL 0.43% (w/v). The obtained films exhibited uniform thickness of 35.64 ± 1.64 μm and drug content of 0.230 ± 0.003 mg/cm2 and disintegrated rapidly in 29 ± 8 s. The nanocrystal-loaded films with reconstituted particle size of 377.9 nm showed better folding endurance and faster release rate in vitro than the conventional OFDFs with raw lutein. The microscope images, thermograms, and diffractograms indicated that lutein nanocrystals were highly dispersed into the films. After administrated to SD rats, t max was decreased from 3 h for oral solution formulation to less than 0.8 h for OFDF formulations, and C max increased from 150 ng/mL for solution to 350 ng/mL for conventional OFDF or 830 ng/mL for nanocrystal OFDF. The AUC 0-24h of conventional or nanocrystal OFDF was 1.37 or 2.08-fold higher than that of the oral solution, respectively. These results suggested that drug nanocrystal-loaded OFDF can be applied as a promising approach for enhanced bioavailability of poor soluble drugs like lutein.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0777-2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml
           Standard Subcutaneous Injection
    • Authors: Nikola Kojic; Pragun Goyal; Cheryl Hamer Lou; Michael J. Corwin
      Pages: 2965 - 2970
      Abstract: A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments’ innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20–30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24–48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI −10.5, −2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0779-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Establishment of a Molding Procedure to Facilitate Formulation Development
           for Co-extrudates
    • Authors: Simone Eder; Michela Beretta; Andreas Witschnigg; Ioannis Koutsamanis; Karin Eggenreich; Johannes G. Khinast; Gerold Koscher; Amrit Paudel; Klaus Nickisch; Maika Friedrich; Eleonore Froehlich; Eva Roblegg
      Pages: 2971 - 2976
      Abstract: Co-extrusion offers a number of advantages over conventional manufacturing techniques. However, the setup of a co-extrusion line is cost- and time-intense and formulation development is challenging. This work introduces a novel procedure to test the applicability of a co-extruded reservoir-type system at an early product development stage. We propose vacuum compression molding (VCM), a fast procedure that requires only small material amounts, for the manufacturing of cylindrical reservoir-type system. To this end, the commercially available co-extruded product NuvaRing® and variations thereof were used as test systems. All VCM systems showed a homogeneous skin thickness that adhered well to the core, thereby providing a precise core/skin interface. As drug release is a key criterion for pharmaceutical products, a modified in vitro dissolution method was set up to test the VCM systems. The drug release from the VCM systems was in the same order of magnitude as the corresponding co-extruded strands and followed the same release kinetics. Moreover, the VCM systems were capable of indicating the relative effect of formulation-related modifications on drug release. Overall, this shows that this system is a powerful tool that facilitates formulation tailoring and co-extrusion process setup at the earliest stage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0788-z
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Hydroxyurea-Lactose Interaction Study: In Silico and In Vitro Evaluation
    • Authors: Kunal B. Bachchhao; R. R. Patil; C. R. Patil; Dipak D Patil
      Pages: 3034 - 3041
      Abstract: The Maillard reaction between hydroxyurea (a primary amine-containing drug) and lactose (used as an excipient) was explored. The adduct of these compounds was synthesized by heating hydroxyurea with lactose monohydrate at 60 °C in borate buffer (pH 9.2) for 12 h. Synthesis of the adduct was confirmed using UV–visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies. An in silico investigation of how the adduct formation affected the interactions of hydroxyurea with its biological target oxyhemoglobin, to which it binds to generate nitric oxide and regulates fetal hemoglobin synthesis, was carried out. The in silico evaluations were complemented by an in vitro assay of the anti-sickling activity. Co-incubation of hydroxyurea with deoxygenated blood samples reduced the percentage of sickled cells from 38% to 12 ± 1.6%, whereas the percentage of sickled cells in samples treated with the adduct was 17 ± 1.2%. This indicated loss of anti-sickling activity in the case of the adduct. This study confirmed that hydroxyurea can participate in a Maillard reaction if lactose is used as a diluent. Although an extended study at environmentally feasible temperatures was not carried out in the present investigation, the partial loss of the anti-sickling activity of hydroxyurea was investigated along with the in silico drug–target interactions. The results indicated that the use of lactose in hydroxyurea formulations needs urgent reconsideration and that lactose must be replaced by other diluents that do not form Maillard adducts.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0791-4
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Preparation of Essential Oil-Based Microemulsions for Improving the
           Solubility, pH Stability, Photostability, and Skin Permeation of Quercetin
    • Authors: Xia Lv; Tiantian Liu; Huipeng Ma; Yan Tian; Lei Li; Zhen Li; Meng Gao; Jianbin Zhang; Zeyao Tang
      Pages: 3097 - 3104
      Abstract: Quercetin can bring many benefits to skin based on its various bioactivities. However, the therapeutic effect of quercetin is limited due to the poor water solubility, pH instability, light instability, and skin permeation. The aim of the present work was applying essential oil-based microemulsions to improve the solubility, pH stability, photostability, and skin permeation of quercetin for topical application. Peppermint oil (PO-ME), clove oil (CO-ME), and rosemary oil (RMO-ME) were selected as model essential oils. Microemulsions composed of Cremophor EL/1,2-propanediol/essential oils (47:23:30, w/w) were selected as model formulations, based on the pseudo-ternary phase diagram and the characterizations. In the solubility study, the solubility of quercetin was improved dozens of times by microemulsions. Quercetin was found instable under alkaline condition, with 50% degraded in the solution of pH 13. However, PO-ME, CO-ME, and RMO-ME could protect quercetin from the hydroxide ions, with 47, 9, and 12% of quercetin degraded. In the photostability study, the essential oil-based microemulsions showed the capability of protecting quercetin from degradation under UV radiation. Where more than 67% of quercetin was degraded in aqueous solution, while less than 7% of quercetin degraded in microemulsions. At last, the in vitro skin permeation study showed that the essential oil-based microemulsions could enhance the permeation capacity of quercetin by 2.5–3 times compared to the aqueous solution. Hence, the prepared essential oil microemulsions could improve the solubility, pH stability, photostability, and skin permeation of quercetin, which will be beneficial for its topical application.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0798-x
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Formulation and In Vitro Characterization of Bioactive Mesoporous Silica
           with Doxorubicin and Metronidazole Intended for Bone Treatment and
    • Authors: Katarzyna Czarnobaj; Magdalena Prokopowicz; Wiesław Sawicki
      Pages: 3163 - 3171
      Abstract: ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface mineralization activity and in vitro drug behavior potential of two forms of mesoporous silica: powder and granulate. Ordered mesoporous SiO2 powder was synthesized by surfactant-assisted sol-gel process using tetraethoxysilane as a silica precursor and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as the structure-directing agent. The granulate was prepared using silica powder and ethyl cellulose as a binding agent. Metronidazole (MT)—an anti-inflammatory substance and doxorubicin hydrochloride (ChD)—an anti-cancer drug were chosen as drug models for delivery studies. The results of structural characteristic studies, utilizing transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption (BET) measurements, show that obtained materials have two-dimensional hexagonal p6mm symmetry, high specific surface area, narrow pore size, and a satisfactory mineralization behavior in the simulated body solution (SBF, pH = 7.4). The release rate of drugs depends upon the structural features of the drug molecules and the form of the carrier material. Of both the drugs analyzed, faster release was observed for small MT molecules characterized by weaker interactions with the carrier. In addition, the slower drug release was observed with granulate form due to increased diffusion barrier for drugs. Obtained results prove that the MT/ChD-loaded silica formulations could be attractive materials for filling bone defects and for local delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0804-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Exploration of alginates as potential stabilizers of nanosuspension
    • Authors: Jian Guan; Yeli Zhang; Qiaoyu Liu; Xin Zhang; Rina Chokshi; Shirui Mao
      Pages: 3172 - 3181
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using alginate as a potential stabilizer of nanosuspension and elaborate the corresponding stabilization mechanism. Using lovastatin as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II drug model, alginate-stabilized nanosuspension was fabricated by the high-pressure homogenization method. The particle size, zeta potential, short-term stability, and dissolution behavior of the nanosuspension were characterized. Thereafter, the surface morphology, crystallinity, redispersability, and stability of the spray-dried nanosuspension were investigated. The spray-dried powder was further compressed into tablets via direct compression, and stressing test was carried out to investigate the stability of nanocrystal loaded tablets. It was demonstrated that alginate could stabilize nanocrystals by providing both electrostatic and steric stabilization, and the effective concentration was much lower than that of the commonly used stabilizers. Good redispersability was achieved after spray drying of the nanosuspension, and the existing state of lovastatin was not changed as indicated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The stress test indicated that nanocrystal-loaded tablets possessed a favorable stability. In conclusion, alginate could be used as a potential stabilizer of nanosuspension with preferable stabilizing ability at a very low concentration either in liquid or in solid state.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0801-6
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Development of Cordycepin Formulations for Preclinical and Clinical
    • Authors: Jong Bong Lee; Cecilia Adrower; Chaolong Qin; Peter M. Fischer; Cornelia H. de Moor; Pavel Gershkovich
      Pages: 3219 - 3226
      Abstract: ABSTRACT There is extensive literature on in vivo studies with cordycepin, but these studies were generally conducted without validation of the various formulations, especially in terms of the solubility of cordycepin in the dosing vehicles used. Cordycepin is a promising drug candidate in multiple therapeutic areas, and there is a growing interest in studies aimed at assessing the pharmacological activity of this compound in relevant animal disease models. It is likely that many reported in vivo studies used formulations in which cordycepin was incompletely soluble. This can potentially confound the interpretation of pharmacokinetics and efficacy results. Furthermore, the presence of particles in intravenously administered suspension can cause adverse effects and should be avoided. Here, we present the results from our development of simple and readily applicable formulations of cordycepin based on quantitative solubility assessment. Homogeneous solutions of cordycepin were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at different pH levels, suitable as formulations for both intravenously and oral administration. For the purpose of high-dose oral administration, we also developed propylene glycol (PPG)-based vehicles in which cordycepin is completely soluble. The stability of the newly developed formulations was also assessed, as well as the feasibility of their sterilisation by filtration. Additionally, an HPLC-UV method for the determination of cordycepin in the formulations, which may also be useful for other purposes, was developed and validated. Our study could provide useful information for improvement of future preclinical and clinical studies involving cordycepin.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0795-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • A Cheap and Convenient Method of Liposome Preparation Using Glass Beads as
           a Source of Shear Force
    • Authors: Aoke Wang; Aftab Ahmad; Sadeeq Ullah; Li Cheng; Lin Ke; Qipeng Yuan
      Pages: 3227 - 3235
      Abstract: Liposomes, the biocompatible lipid bilayer vesicles, have attracted immense attention due to their distinctive features such as efficient vehicle for the delivery of a wide range of therapeutic agents, adjustable formulation properties, and high drug entrapment efficiency. In this contribution, we present a simple method for the preparation of liposomes using glass beads and compared the potential of this method with conventional methods of liposome preparation. The prepared liposomes were characterized by different analytical techniques (HPLC, DLS, TEM, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug release). Our findings revealed that the particle size of liposomes is mainly dependent on the size of the glass beads and the glass bead shearing time. An average liposome size of 67.7 ± 25.5 nm was obtained using 2-mm glass beads after 24-h incubation at 200 rpm. The liposomes prepared under the optimized conditions exhibited a high encapsulation efficiency of 92.1 ± 1.7% with 31.08% drug release after 360 min at 37°C. In conclusion, the developed method is a simple and convenient process of liposome preparation of different sizes with desirable entrapment efficiency capacity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0812-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 8 (2017)
  • Correction to: Drug Delivery from an Innovative LAMA/LABA Co-suspension
           Delivery Technology Fixed-Dose Combination MDI: Evidence of Consistency,
           Robustness, and Reliability
    • Authors: Amber Doty; Jon Schroeder; Kou Vang; Mark Sommerville; Mervin Taylor; Brad Flynn; David Lechuga-Ballesteros; Peter Mack
      Abstract: This article was originally published Online First without open access. After publication it was discovered that the author had ordered open access during the production process. The incorrect license was assigned to this paper due to a technical error.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0916-9
  • Evaluation of Efficiency of Modified Polypropylenimine (PPI) with Alkyl
           Chains as Non-viral Vectors Used in Co-delivery of Doxorubicin and TRAIL
    • Authors: Mahboubeh Ebrahimian; Sahar Taghavi; Maryam Ghoreishi; Shahrzad Sedghi; Sara Amel Farzad; Mohammad Ramezani; Maryam Hashemi
      Abstract: In this study, co-delivery system was achieved via plasmid encoding TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (pTRAIL) and doxorubicin (DOX) using carrier based on polypropylenimine (PPI) modified with 10-bromodecanoic acid. Incorporation of alkylcarboxylate chain to PPIs (G4 and G5) could improve transfection efficiency via overcoming the plasma membrane barrier of the cells and decrease cytotoxicity of PPI. Characterization of fabricated NPs revealed that PPI G5 in which 30% of primary amines were substituted by alkyl carboxylate chain (PPI G5-Alkyl 30%) has higher drug loading as compared to the other formulations. PPI G5-Alkyl 30% indicated a decreased drug release may be due to alkyl chains on the surface of PPI, which serve as an additional hindrance for drug diffusion. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that co-delivery system induced apoptosis of tumor cells more efficiently than each of delivery system alone. Furthermore, these results revealed that our combined delivery platform of pTRAIL and DOX using Alkyl-modified PPI G5 can significantly improve the anti-tumor activity and this strategy might develop a new therapeutic window for cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0913-z
  • Chemometric Methods to Quantify 1D and 2D NMR Spectral Differences Among
           Similar Protein Therapeutics
    • Authors: Kang Chen; Junyong Park; Feng Li; Sharadrao M. Patil; David A. Keire
      Abstract: NMR spectroscopy is an emerging analytical tool for measuring complex drug product qualities, e.g., protein higher order structure (HOS) or heparin chemical composition. Most drug NMR spectra have been visually analyzed; however, NMR spectra are inherently quantitative and multivariate and thus suitable for chemometric analysis. Therefore, quantitative measurements derived from chemometric comparisons between spectra could be a key step in establishing acceptance criteria for a new generic drug or a new batch after manufacture change. To measure the capability of chemometric methods to differentiate comparator NMR spectra, we calculated inter-spectra difference metrics on 1D/2D spectra of two insulin drugs, Humulin R® and Novolin R®, from different manufacturers. Both insulin drugs have an identical drug substance but differ in formulation. Chemometric methods (i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), 3-way Tucker3 or graph invariant (GI)) were performed to calculate Mahalanobis distance (D M) between the two brands (inter-brand) and distance ratio (D R) among the different lots (intra-brand). The PCA on 1D inter-brand spectral comparison yielded a D M value of 213. In comparing 2D spectra, the Tucker3 analysis yielded the highest differentiability value (D M = 305) in the comparisons made followed by PCA (D M = 255) then the GI method (D M = 40). In conclusion, drug quality comparisons among different lots might benefit from PCA on 1D spectra for rapidly comparing many samples, while higher resolution but more time-consuming 2D-NMR-data-based comparisons using Tucker3 analysis or PCA provide a greater level of assurance for drug structural similarity evaluation between drug brands.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0911-1
  • Development of Chitosan-Based pH-Sensitive Polymeric Micelles Containing
           Curcumin for Colon-Targeted Drug Delivery
    • Authors: Thisirak Woraphatphadung; Warayuth Sajomsang; Theerasak Rojanarata; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat; Prasopchai Tonglairoum; Praneet Opanasopit
      Abstract: pH-sensitive N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) and N-octyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (OSCS) polymeric micelles carriers have been developed to incorporate curcumin (CUR) for colon-targeted drug delivery. The physical entrapment methods (dialysis, co­solvent evaporation, dropping, and O/W emulsion) were applied. The CUR-loaded micelles prepared by the dialysis method presented the highest loading capacity. Increasing initial amount of CUR from 5 to 40 wt% to polymer resulted in the increase in loading capacity of the polymeric micelles. Among the hydrophobic cores, there were no significant differences in the loading capacity of CUR-loaded micelles. The particle sizes of all CUR-loaded micelles were in the range of 120–338 nm. The morphology of the micelles changed after being contacted with medium with different pH values, confirming the pH-responsive properties of the micelles. The release characteristics of curcumin from all CUR-loaded micelles were pH-dependent. The percent cumulative release of curcumin from all CUR-loaded micelles in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) was limited to about 20%. However, the release amount was significantly increased after contacted with simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) (50–55%) and simulated colonic fluid (SCF) (60–70%). The released amount in SIF and SCF was significantly greater than the release of CUR from CUR powder. CUR-loaded NSCS exhibited the highest anti-cancer activity against HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. The stability studies indicated that all CUR-loaded micelles were stable for at least 90 days. Therefore, the colon targeted, pH-sensitive NSCS micelles may have potential to be a prospective candidate for curcumin delivery to the colon.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0906-y
  • Non-ionic Surfactant Based In Situ Forming Vesicles as Controlled
           Parenteral Delivery Systems
    • Authors: Hussein O. Ammar; Magdy Ibrahim; Azza A. Mahmoud; Rehab N. Shamma; Nada M. El Hoffy
      Abstract: Non-ionic surfactant (NIS) based in situ forming vesicles (ISVs) present an affordable alternative to the traditional systems for the parenteral control of drug release. In this work, NIS based ISVs encapsulating tenoxicam were prepared using the emulsion method. Tenoxicam-loaded ISVs were prepared using a 22.31 full factorial experimental design, where three factors were evaluated as independent variables; type of NIS (A), molar ratio of NIS to Tween®80 (B), and phase ratio of the internal ethyl acetate to the external Captex® oil phase (C). Percentage drug released after 1 h, particle size of the obtained vesicles and mean dissolution time were chosen as the dependent variables. Selected formulation was subjected to morphological investigation, injectability, viscosity measurements, and solid state characterization. Optimum formulation showed spherical nano-vesicles in the size of 379.08 nm with an initial drug release of 37.32% in the first hour followed by a sustained drug release pattern for 6 days. DSC analysis of the optimized formulation confirmed the presence of the drug in an amorphous form with the nano-vesicles. Biological evaluation of the selected formulation was performed on New Zealand rabbits by IM injection. The prepared ISVs exhibited a 45- and 28-fold larger AUC and MRT values, respectively, compared to those of the drug suspension. The obtained findings boost the use of ISVs for the treatment of many chronic inflammatory conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0897-8
  • Evaluation of Streptococcus thermophilus IFFI 6038 Microcapsules Prepared
           Using an Ultra-fine Particle Processing System
    • Authors: Huanbin Zhou; Shunyi Li; Yao Chen; Qian Zhang; Xuequn Bai; Chune Zhu; Hu Liu; Lili Wang; Chuanyu Wu; Xin Pan; Chuanbin Wu
      Abstract: Microencapsulation technology has the potential to protect probiotics and to deliver them to the gut, and extrusion is one of the most commonly used methods. However, the rather large diameters of 1~5 mm produced tend to cause oral grittiness and result in low compliance. In this article, Streptococcus thermophilus IFFI 6038 (IFFI 6038) microcapsules were prepared using an ultra-fine particle processing system (UPPS) previously developed by this research group. IFFI 6038 suspension was pumped by a peristaltic pump to the feeding inlet nozzle and then dispersed into micro-droplets by a rotating disk, followed by solidification. Trehalose (16%) was used as a cryoprotectant to protect IFFI 6038 from damage by lyophilization used in the process. Alginate (3%) resulted in IFFI 6038 microcapsules with a median particle diameter (d 50) of 29.32 ± 0.12 μm and a span value of 1.00 ± 0.02, indicating uniform particle size distribution. To evaluate the potential of microencapsulation in protecting IFFI 6038 from the gastric conditions, the viable counts of IFFI 6038 following incubation of IFFI 6038 microcapsules in simulated gastric juices for 120 min were determined and compared with those of free IFFI 6038. The stability of microencapsulated IFFI 6038 upon storage for 3 months at 4°C and 25°C, respectively, was also determined. The results showed that microcapsules prepared by UPPS protected IFFI 6038 from gastric conditions. The results from a rat diarrhea model showed that microcapsules prepared by the UPPS method were able to effectively improve the diarrhea conditions in rats.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0907-x
  • Process Analytical Technology in Freeze-Drying: Detection of the Secondary
           Solute + Water Crystallization with Heat Flux Sensors
    • Authors: Qiming Wang; Evgenyi Shalaev
      Abstract: In situ and non-invasive detection of solute crystallization during freeze-drying would facilitate cycle optimization and scale-up from the laboratory to commercial manufacturing scale. The objective of the study is to evaluate heat flux sensor (HFS) as a tool for monitoring solute crystallization and other first-order phase transitions (e.g., onset of freezing). HFS is a thin-film differential thermopile, which acts as a transducer to generate an electrical signal proportional to the total heat applied to its surface. In this study, HFS is used to detect both primary (ice formation) and secondary (also known as eutectic) solute + water crystallization during cooling and heating of solutions in a freeze-dryer. Binary water-solute mixtures with typical excipients concentrations (e.g., 0.9% of NaCl and 5% mannitol) and fill volumes (1 to 3 ml/vial) are studied. Secondary crystallization is detected by the HFS during cooling in all experiments with NaCl solutions, whereas timing of mannitol crystallization depends on the cooling conditions. In particular, mannitol crystallization takes place during cooling, if the cooling rate is lower than the critical value. On the other hand, if the cooling rate exceeds the critical cooling rate, mannitol crystallization during cooling is prevented, and crystallization occurs during subsequent warming or annealing. It is also observed that, while controlled ice nucleation allows initiation of the primary freezing event in different vials simultaneously, there is a noticeable vial-to-vial difference in the timing of secondary crystallization. The HFS could be a valuable process monitoring tool for non-invasive detection of various crystallization events during freeze-drying manufacturing.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0910-2
  • Melts of Octaacetyl Sucrose as Oral-Modified Release Dosage Forms for
           Delivery of Poorly Soluble Compound in Stable Amorphous Form
    • Authors: Dorota Haznar-Garbacz; Ewa Kaminska; Daniel Zakowiecki; Marek Lachmann; Kamil Kaminski; Grzegorz Garbacz; Przemysław Dorożyński; Piotr Kulinowski
      Abstract: The presented work describes the formulation and characterization of modified release glassy solid dosage forms (GSDFs) containing an amorphous nifedipine, as a model BCS (Biopharmaceutical Classification System) class II drug. The GSDFs were prepared by melting nifedipine together with octaacetyl sucrose. Dissolution profiles, measured under standard and biorelevant conditions, were compared to those obtained from commercially available formulations containing nifedipine such as modified release (MR) tablets and osmotic release oral system (OROS). The results indicate that the dissolution profiles of the GSDFs with nifedipine are neither affected by the pH of the dissolution media, type and concentration of surfactants, nor by simulated mechanical stress of biorelevant intensity. Furthermore, it was found that the dissolution profiles of the novel dosage forms were similar to the profiles obtained from the nifedipine OROS. The formulation of GSDFs is relatively simple, and the dosage forms were found to have favorable dissolution characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0912-0
  • Using 3D Printing for Rapid Prototyping of Characterization Tools for
           Investigating Powder Blend Behavior
    • Authors: Cosima Hirschberg; Johan P. Boetker; Jukka Rantanen; Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch
      Abstract: There is an increasing need to provide more detailed insight into the behavior of particulate systems. The current powder characterization tools are developed empirically and in many cases, modification of existing equipment is difficult. More flexible tools are needed to provide understanding of complex powder behavior, such as mixing process and segregation phenomenon. An approach based on the fast prototyping of new powder handling geometries and interfacing solutions for process analytical tools is reported. This study utilized 3D printing for rapid prototyping of customized geometries; overall goal was to assess mixing process of powder blends at small-scale with a combination of spectroscopic and mechanical monitoring. As part of the segregation evaluation studies, the flowability of three different paracetamol/filler-blends at different ratios was investigated, inter alia to define the percolation thresholds. Blends with a paracetamol wt% above the percolation threshold were subsequently investigated in relation to their segregation behavior. Rapid prototyping using 3D printing allowed designing two funnels with tailored flow behavior (funnel flow) of model formulations, which could be monitored with an in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. Calculating the root mean square (RMS) of the scores of the two first principal components of the NIR spectra visualized spectral variation as a function of process time. In a same setup, mechanical properties (basic flow energy) of the powder blend were monitored during blending. Rapid prototyping allowed for fast modification of powder testing geometries and easy interfacing with process analytical tools, opening new possibilities for more detailed powder characterization.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0904-0
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