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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2341 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover AAPS PharmSciTech
  [SJR: 0.718]   [H-I: 54]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Comparison of Aerodynamic Particle Size Distribution Between a Next
           Generation Impactor and a Cascade Impactor at a Range of Flow Rates
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Yoshida; Akemi Kuwana; Hiroko Shibata; Ken-ichi Izutsu; Yukihiro Goda
      Pages: 646 - 653
      Abstract: Abstract Wide variation in respiratory flow rates between patients emphasizes the importance of evaluating the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of dry powder inhaler (DPI) using a multi-stage impactor at different flow rates. US Pharmacopeia recently listed modified configurations of the Andersen cascade impactor (ACI) and new sets of cut-off diameter specifications for the operation at flow rates of 60 and 90 L/min. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of these changes on the APSD of DPI products at varied flow rates. We obtained APSD profiles of four DPIs and device combinations, Relenza®-Diskhaler® (GlaxoSmithKline Co.), Seebri®-Breezhaler® (Novartis Pharma Co.), Pulmicort®-Turbuhaler® (Astrazeneca Co.), and Spiriva®-Handihaler® (Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co.) using Next Generation Impactors (NGIs) and ACIs at flow rates from 28.3 to 90 L/min to evaluate the difference in the use of previous and new sets of cut-off diameter specifications. Processing the data using the new specifications for ACI apparently reduced large differences in APSD obtained by NGI and ACI with the previous specifications at low and high flow rates in all the DPIs. Selecting the appropriate configuration of ACI corresponding to the flow rate provided comparable APSD profiles of Pulmicort®-Turbuhaler® to those using NGIs at varied flow rates. The results confirmed the relevance of the current US Pharmacopeia specifications for ACI analysis in obtaining APSD profiles of DPI products at wide flow rates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0544-9
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory Efficacy Through Targeting to Macrophages:
           Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Folate-Glycine-Celecoxib
    • Authors: Yongquan Li; Yu Xiao; Zongning Yin
      Pages: 729 - 737
      Abstract: Abstract As an effective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib is widely used in anti-inflammation therapy. However, it may cause cardiovascular risks and renal adverse effects. In the present study, we aimed to construct a celecoxib prodrug with enhanced anti-inflammatory efficacy and reduced adverse effects using folate in order to target activated macrophages. Folate-glycine-celecoxib was synthesized and identified by 1H-NMR, MS, and FTIR analyses. The cytotoxicity of folate-glycine-celecoxib was tested on murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide. Cellular uptake studies were employed to determine targeting ability toward folate receptors via flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Anti-inflammatory efficacy of folate-glycine-celecoxib was investigated by measuring the concentration of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO). Folate-glycine-celecoxib exhibited lower cytotoxicity than conventional celecoxib, and this conjugate could be targetedly transported into RAW264.7 cells through binding with folate receptors on cell surface. Through targeting to RAW264.7 cells, folate-glycine-celecoxib exhibited better effects than equimolar celecoxib in NO inhibition, suggesting greater anti-inflammatory activity. These findings demonstrated that the prodrug folate-glycine-celecoxib had potential to treat inflammatory disease with low cytotoxicity and high targeting ability.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0556-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The Influence of Maltodextrin on the Physicochemical Properties and
           Stabilization of Beta-carotene Emulsions
    • Authors: Jianpan Zhang; Xiaoxu Zhang; Xinyi Wang; Ying Huang; Beibei Yang; Xin Pan; Chuanbin Wu
      Pages: 821 - 828
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Beta-carotene is important for fortification of nutritional products while its application is limited by instability. The influence of maltodextrin (MDX) on physicochemical properties and stability of beta-carotene emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC) was investigated. The emulsions were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), laser diffraction (LD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheometer, and turbiscan lab expert. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and freeze-thaw on stability of emulsions were observed. The emulsions could tolerate up to 2 mol/L NaCl or 10 mmol/L CaCl2 and showed Newtonian behavior. The droplet diameter, polydispersity index, and zeta-potential did not change obviously after 3 months storage at 4°C in dark conditions. The emulsions with MDX showed excellent freeze-thaw stability and gave favorite protection for beta-carotene. The retention ratio of beta-carotene in the emulsions with MDX was above 92.1% after 3 months storage while that in the one without MDX was only 62.7%. The study may provide a promising strategy to improve stability of sensitive nutraceuticals without adding synthetic antioxidants. The findings obtained could provide fundamental basis for rational design of emulsion delivery systems when freeze-thawing is required during manufacturing process or storage period.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0572-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Application of Tryptophan Fluorescence Bandwidth-Maximum Plot in Analysis
           of Monoclonal Antibody Structure
    • Authors: Cheng-Yen Huang; Ming-Ching Hsieh; Qinwei Zhou
      Pages: 838 - 845
      Abstract: Abstract Monoclonal antibodies have become the fastest growing protein therapeutics in recent years. The stability and heterogeneity pertaining to its physical and chemical structures remain a big challenge. Tryptophan fluorescence has been proven to be a versatile tool to monitor protein tertiary structure. By modeling the tryptophan fluorescence emission envelope with log-normal distribution curves, the quantitative measure can be exercised for the routine characterization of monoclonal antibody overall tertiary structure. Furthermore, the log-normal deconvolution results can be presented as a two-dimensional plot with tryptophan emission bandwidth vs. emission maximum to enhance the resolution when comparing samples or as a function of applied perturbations. We demonstrate this by studying four different monoclonal antibodies, which show the distinction on emission bandwidth-maximum plot despite their similarity in overall amino acid sequences and tertiary structures. This strategy is also used to demonstrate the tertiary structure comparability between different lots manufactured for one of the monoclonal antibodies (mAb2). In addition, in the unfolding transition studies of mAb2 as a function of guanidine hydrochloride concentration, the evolution of the tertiary structure can be clearly traced in the emission bandwidth-maximum plot.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0568-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Assay of Key Quality-Indicative Ingredients of
           Tongkang Tablets
    • Authors: Wenjie Pan; Jinfang Ma; Xue Xiao; Zhengwei Huang; Huanbin Zhou; Fahuan Ge; Xin Pan
      Pages: 913 - 919
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this paper is to develop an easy and fast near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assay for the four key quality-indicative active ingredients of Tongkang tablets by comparing the true content of the active ingredients measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the NIRS data. The HPLC values for the active ingredients content of Cimicifuga glycoside, calycosin glucoside, 5-O-methylvisamminol and hesperidin in Tongkang tablets were set as reference values. The NIRS raw spectra of Tongkang tablets were processed using first-order convolution method. The iterative optimization method was chosen to optimize the band for Cimicifuga glycoside and 5-O-methylvisamminol, and correlation coefficient method was used to determine the optimal band of calycosin glucoside and hesperidin. A near-infrared quantitative calibration model was established for each quality-indicative ingredient by partial least-squares method on the basis of the contents detected by HPLC and the obtained NIRS spectra. The correlation coefficient R 2 values of the four models of Cimicifuga glycoside, calycosin glucoside, 5-O-methylvisamminol and hesperidin were 0.9025, 0.8582, 0.9250, and 0.9325, respectively. It was demonstrated that the accuracy of the validation values was approximately 90% by comparison of the predicted results from NIRS models and the HPLC true values, which suggested that NIRS assay was successfully established and validated. It was expected that the quantitative analysis models of the four indicative ingredients could be used to rapidly perform quality control in industrial production of Tongkang tablets.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0562-7
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Visible and Sub-visible Particle Formation for a Model Bioconjugate
    • Authors: Lavinia M. Lewis; Michelle E. Pizzo; Sandipan Sinha; Syed S. Ahmed; Liji Joseph
      Pages: 926 - 931
      Abstract: Abstract The time-course and extent of visible particle (VP) and sub-visible particle (SVP) formation was monitored as a function of interfacial area (IA) for a model bioconjugate. To facilitate particle formation, the bioconjugate was agitated in a glass vial and exposed to IAs up to 478 mm2. Since vials had equal fill and headspace volumes, the area of the air-water interface was varied by placing vials on angled blocks at 0°, 30°, 60°, or 90° from the horizontal. A significant increase in visible and sub-visible particle formation was observed with increasing air-water IA. Exposure to IAs below ∼305 mm2 resulted in the formation of very few particles, while IAs > ∼305 mm2 resulted in substantial particle formation. Visible and sub-visible particle morphology varied with interfacial area and time. The sub-visible particles initially increased with time but did not reach steady state; instead the initial increase was followed by complete depletion. These phenomena indicate that visible particle formation likely increased at the expense of the sub-visible particle population and demonstrate a potential link between the two particle populations for this model bioconjugate. Initiation of particle formation did not result in corresponding decreases in protein concentration or increases in soluble aggregates. However, extended agitation time resulted in a significant decrease in protein concentration.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0540-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Dual Activity of Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Water-Soluble Carriers
           on the Solubility of Carvedilol
    • Abstract: Abstract Carvedilol (CAR) is a non-selective α and β blocker categorized as class II drug with low water solubility. Several recent studies have investigated ways to overcome this problem. The aim of the present study was to combine two of these methods: the inclusion complex using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) with solid dispersion using two carriers: Poloxamer 188 (PLX) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) to enhance the solubility, bioavailability, and the stability of CAR. Kneading method was used to prepare CAR-HPβCD inclusion complex (KD). The action of different carriers separately and in combination on Carvedilol solubility was investigated in three series. CAR-carrier and KD-carrier solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method. In vitro dissolution test was conducted in three different media: double-distilled water (DDW), simulative gastric fluid (SGF), and PBS pH 6.8 (PBS). The interactions between CAR, HPβCD, and different carriers were explored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). The results showed higher solubility of CAR in KD-PVP solid dispersions up to 70, 25, and 22 fold compared to pure CAR in DDW, SGF, and PBS, respectively. DSC and XRD analyses indicated an improved degree of transformation of CAR in KD-PVP solid dispersion from crystalline to amorphous state. This study provides a new successful combination of two polymers with the dual action of HPβCD and PLX/PVP on water solubility and bioavailability of CAR.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
       
  • Fabrication, Physicochemical Characterization, and Performance Evaluation
           of Biodegradable Polymeric Microneedle Patch System for Enhanced
           Transcutaneous Flux of High Molecular Weight Therapeutics
    • Abstract: Abstract A revolutionary paradigm shift is being observed currently, towards the use of therapeutic biologics for disease management. The present research was focused on designing an efficient dosage form for transdermal delivery of α-choriogonadotropin (high molecular weight biologic), through biodegradable polymeric microneedles. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-based biodegradable microneedle arrays loaded with high molecular weight polypeptide, α-choriogonadotropin, were fabricated for its systemic delivery via transdermal route. Varied process and formulation parameters were optimized for fabricating microneedle array, which in turn was expected to temporally rupture the stratum corneum layer of the skin, acting as a major barrier to drug delivery through transdermal route. The developed polymeric microneedles were optimized on the basis of quality attributes like mechanical strength, axial strength, insertion ratio, and insertion force analysis. The optimized polymeric microneedle arrays were characterized for in vitro drug release studies, ex vivo drug permeation studies, skin resealing studies, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Results depicted that fabricated polymeric microneedle arrays with mechanical strength of above 5 N and good insertion ratio exhibited similar systemic bioavailability of α-choriogonadotropin in comparison to marketed subcutaneous injection formulation of α-choriogonadotropin. Thus, it was ultimately concluded that the designed drug delivery system can serve as an efficient tool for systemic delivery of therapeutic biologics, with an added benefit of overcoming the limitations of parenteral delivery, achieving better patient acceptability and compliance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
       
  • Preparation of Chloramphenicol/Amino Acid Combinations Exhibiting Enhanced
           Dissolution Rates and Reduced Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress
    • Abstract: Abstract Chloramphenicol is an old antibiotic agent that is re-emerging as a valuable alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, it exhibits suboptimal biopharmaceutical properties and toxicity profiles. In this work, chloramphenicol was combined with essential amino acids (arginine, cysteine, glycine, and leucine) with the aim of improving its dissolution rate and reduce its toxicity towards leukocytes. The chloramphenicol/amino acid solid samples were prepared by freeze-drying method and characterized in the solid state by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The dissolution properties, antimicrobial activity, reactive oxygen species production, and stability of the different samples were studied. The dissolution rate of all combinations was significantly increased in comparison to that of the pure active pharmaceutical ingredient. Additionally, oxidative stress production in human leukocytes caused by chloramphenicol was decreased in the chloramphenicol/amino acid combinations, while the antimicrobial activity of the antibiotic was maintained. The CAP:Leu binary combination resulted in the most outstanding solid system makes it suitable candidate for the development of pharmaceutical formulations of this antimicrobial agent with an improved safety profile.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
       
  • Ocular Cubosome Drug Delivery System for Timolol Maleate: Preparation,
           Characterization, Cytotoxicity, Ex Vivo , and In Vivo Evaluation
    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Glaucoma is an ocular disease featuring increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and its primary treatment strategy is to lower IOP by medication. Current ocular drug delivery in treating glaucoma is confronting a variety of challenges, such as low corneal permeability and bioavailability due to the unique anatomical structure of the human eye. To tackle these challenges, a cubosome drug delivery system for glaucoma treatment was constructed for timolol maleate (TM) in this study. The TM cubosomes (liquid crystalline nanoparticles) were prepared using glycerol monooleate and poloxamer 407 via high-pressure homogenization. These constructed nanoparticles appeared spherical using transmission electron microscopy and had an average particle size of 142 nm, zeta potential of −6.27 mV, and over 85% encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, using polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), it was shown that the TM cubosomes have cubic liquid crystalline D-type (Pn3m) structure, which provides good physicochemical stability and high encapsulation efficiency. Ex vivo corneal permeability experiments showed that the total amount of TM cubosomes penetrated was higher than the commercially available eye drops. In addition, in vivo studies revealed that TM cubosomes reduced the IOP in rabbits from 27.8∼39.7 to 21.4∼32.6 mmHg after 1-week administration and had a longer retention time and better lower-IOP effect than the commercial TM eye drops. Furthermore, neither cytotoxicity nor histological impairment in the rabbit corneas was observed. This study suggests that cubosomes are capable of increasing the corneal permeability and bioavailability of TM and have great potential for ocular disease treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
       
  • Topical Delivery of Fenoprofen Calcium via Elastic Nano-vesicular
           Spanlastics: Optimization Using Experimental Design and In Vivo Evaluation
           
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of surfactant-based nanovesicular system (spanlastics) for topical delivery of fenoprofen calcium (FPCa) to eliminate its oral gastrointestinal adverse effects. FPCa-loaded spanlastics were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique according to a full factorial design to investigate the influence of formulation variables on the drug entrapment efficiency (%EE), particle size (PS), deformability index (DI), and the % drug released after 24 h through the cellulose membrane (Q24h) using Design-Expert® software. The optimized formula (composed of Span 60 and Tween 60 as an edge activator at weight ratio of 8: 2 in presence of Transcutol P as a cosolvent in the hydration media) exhibited the highest %EE (49.91 ± 2.60%), PS of 536.1 ± 17.14 nm, DI of 5.07 ± 0.06 g, and Q24h of 61.11 ± 2.70%; it was also characterized for morphology and physical stability. In vitro release study of FPCa-loaded spanlastic gel and conventional FPCa gel through a synthetic membrane and hairless rat skin were evaluated. The skin permeation study revealed that spanlastic gel exhibited both consistent and prolonged action. Finally, the % inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema of spanlastic gel was three times higher than the conventional FPCa gel after 24 h. In conclusion, spanlastic-based gel could be a great approach for improving topical delivery of fenoprofen calcium, providing both prolonged and enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in the treatment of arthritis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
       
  • The Physicochemical Investigation of 17β-Estradiol Crystalline Prepared
           by In Situ pH-Dependent Solubility Technique with Polyvinylpyrrolidone
    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Micro-particles of 17β-estradiol (ED) were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by in situ pH-dependent solubility technique. Products were characterized using multiple instruments, and molecular interactions between ED and PVP were explored. Powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis revealed crystalline ED in the micro-particles is hemihydrated. PVP was also present in the micro-particles. Laser particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed thin slice morphology, which might have resulted from the influence of PVP. Moreover, the results of contact angle, specific surface area, and dynamic vapor sorption showed that the surface properties of products were improved. These physicochemical properties of the micro-particles resulted in an obvious improvement in dissolution rate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance revealed hydrogen bonding between ED and PVP. A method was established for the preparation of micro-particles through the addition of PVP during the reaction process.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
       
  • Studies on Core-Shell Nanocapsules of Felodipine: In Vitro - In Vivo
           Evaluations
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study aimed for in vitro-in vivo-in silico simulation studies of experimentally designed (32-factorial) Capmul PG-8-cored, Eudragit RSPO-Lutrol F 127 nanocapsules to ferry felodipine using GastroPlus™. The in silico parameter sensitivity analysis for pharmacokinetic parameters was initially assessed to justify the preparation of felodipine-loaded nanocapsules (FLNs) with enhanced solubility to overcome the bioavailability issues of felodipine. The overall integrated desirability ranged between 0.8187 and 0.9488 for three optimized FLNs when analyzed for mean particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro dissolution parameters. The morphological evaluation (SEM, TEM, and AFM) demonstrated spherical nanoparticles (200–300 nm). Validated LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated enhanced relative bioavailability (13.37-fold) of optimized FLN as compared to suspension. The simulated regional absorption of the FLN presented significant absorption from the cecum (26.3%) and ascending colon (20.1%) with overall absorption of 67.4% from the GIT tract. Furthermore, in vitro-in vivo correlation demonstrated the Wagner-Nelson method as the preferred model as compared to mechanistic and numerical deconvolution on the basis of least mean absolute prediction error, least standard error of prediction, least mean absolute error, and maximum correlation coefficient (r 2 = 0.920). The study demonstrated enhanced oral absorption of felodipine-loaded nanocapsules, and GastroPlus™ was found to be an efficient simulation tool for in vitro-in vivo-in silico simulations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
       
  • A New Role of Fine Excipient Materials in Carrier-Based Dry Powder
           Inhalation Mixtures: Effect on Deagglomeration of Drug Particles During
           Mixing Revealed
    • Abstract: Abstract The potential of fine excipient materials to improve the performance of carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures is well acknowledged. The mechanisms underlying this potential are, however, open to question till date. Elaborate understanding of these mechanisms is a requisite for rational rather than empirical development of ternary dry powder inhalation mixtures. While effects of fine excipient materials on drug adhesion to and detachment from surfaces of carrier particle have been extensively investigated, effects on other processes, such as carrier–drug mixing, capsule/blister/device filling, or aerosolization in inhaler devices, have received little attention. We investigated the influence of fine excipient materials on the outcome of the carrier–drug mixing process. We studied the dispersibility of micronized fluticasone propionate particles after mixing with α-lactose monohydrate blends comprising different fine particle concentrations. Increasing the fine (D < 10.0 μm) excipient fraction from 1.84 to 8.70% v/v increased the respirable drug fraction in the excipient–drug mixture from 56.42 to 67.80% v/v (p < 0.05). The results suggest that low concentrations of fine excipient particles bind to active sites on and fill deep crevices in coarse carrier particles. As the concentration of fine excipient particles increases beyond that saturating active sites, they fill the spaces between and adhere to the surfaces of coarse carrier particles, creating projections and micropores. They thereby promote deagglomeration of drug particles during carrier–drug mixing. The findings pave the way for a comprehensive understanding of contributions of fine excipient materials to the performance of carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
       
  • Evaluation of Rosin Gum and Eudragit® RS PO as a Functional Film
           Coating Material
    • Abstract: Abstract Polymers are essential tools in the research and development of new therapeutic devices. The diversity and flexibility of these materials have generated high expectations in the composition of new materials with extraordinary abilities, especially in the design of new systems for the modified release of pharmaceutically active ingredients. The natural polymer rosin features moisture protection and pH-dependent behavior (i.e., it is sensitive to pH > 7.0), suggesting its possible use in pharmaceutical systems. The synthetic polymer Eudragit® RS PO is a low-permeability material, the disintegration of which depends on the time of residence in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study developed a polymeric material with desirable physicochemical characteristics and synergistic effects that resulted from the inherent properties of the associated polymers. Isolated films were obtained by solvent evaporation and subjected to a water vapor transmission test, scanning electron microscopy, calorimetry, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and mechanical analysis. The new polymeric material was macroscopically continuous and homogeneous, was appropriately flexible, had low water permeability, was vulnerable in alkaline environments, and was thermally stable, maintaining an unchanged structure up to temperatures of ∼400°C. The new material also presented potentially suitable characteristics for application in film coatings for oral solids, suggesting that it is capable of carrying therapeutic substances to distal regions of the gastrointestinal tract. These findings indicate that this new material may be added to the list of functional excipients.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0766-5
       
  • Technological Device for Manufacturing Transdermal Films: Possible
           Applications to the Individualized Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Abstract Pharmacological advances in erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment have aroused growing interest among health professionals towards sexual dysfunction, generating an increasing demand for dosage forms and drug delivery systems, including tadalafil. This study aimed to develop a device to generate patches that would enable drug dosage individualization and transdermal administration. To create such a mechanical device, technical drawings were made using the CAD software. A functional prototype was built, and a pharmaceutical formulation containing tadalafil (10 mg cm−2) was prepared. An analytical method (HPLC) was developed and validated. The average weight of adhesives (n = 10) was 241.01 mg; the content uniformity for preparations in unit doses (n = 10) was 108.93%, and a CV <2% for intraadhesive tadalafil content (n = 40) was observed. The ex vivo permeation of patches containing tadalafil was determined in Franz cells (n = 6), equipped with human skin and kept for 12 h in contact with the patch, by using the tape stripping method. The optimized method showed acceptable confidence limits within the range recommended by regulatory agencies, being validated for use in this ex vivo permeation study. Tadalafil could permeate to the viable epidermis and dermis (5.7%). The created device produced homogeneous patches of tadalafil, showing such technological innovation as to be feasible in individualized therapy for the treatment of ED.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0757-6
       
  • Alginate Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin and Resveratrol: Preparation,
           Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation Against DU145 Prostate Cancer
           Cell Line
    • Authors: Pushkar Saralkar; Alekha K. Dash
      Abstract: Abstract Curcumin and resveratrol are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds having anti-cancer potential. However, their poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability limit their clinical use. Entrapment of hydrophobic drugs into hydrophilic nanoparticles such as calcium alginate presents a means to deliver these drugs to their target site. Curcumin and resveratrol-loaded calcium alginate nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification and cross-linking process. The nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, moisture content, physical state of the drugs, physical stability, and entrapment efficiency. An UPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of curcumin and resveratrol. Alginate nanoformulation was tested for in vitro efficacy on DU145 prostate cancer cells. The particle size of the nanosuspension and freeze-dried nanoparticles was found to be 12.53 ± 1.06 and 60.23 ± 15 nm, respectively. Both DSC and powder XRD studies indicated that curcumin as well as resveratrol were present in a non-crystalline state, in the nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency for curcumin and resveratrol was found to be 49.3 ± 4.3 and 70.99 ± 6.1%, respectively. Resveratrol showed a higher percentage of release than curcumin (87.6 ± 7.9 versus 16.3 ± 3.1%) in 24 h. Curcumin was found to be taken up by the cells from solution as well as the nanoparticles. Resveratrol had a poor cellular uptake. The drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibit cytotoxic effects on DU145 cells. At high concentration, drug solution exhibited greater toxicity than nanoparticles. The alginate nanoformulation was found to be safe for intravenous administration.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0772-7
       
  • Effects of Chamber Pressure and Partial Pressure of Water Vapor on
           Secondary Drying in Lyophilization
    • Authors: James A. Searles; Sridhar Aravapalli; Cody Hodge
      Abstract: Abstract Secondary drying is the final step of lyophilization before stoppering, during which water is desorbed from the product to yield the final moisture content. We studied how chamber pressure and partial pressure of water vapor during this step affected the time course of water content of aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in glass vials. The total chamber pressure had no effect when the partial pressure of water vapor was very low. However, when the vapor phase contained a substantial fraction of water vapor, the PVP moisture content was much higher. We carried out dynamic vapor sorption experiments (DVS) to demonstrate that the higher PVP moisture content was a straightforward result of the higher water vapor content in the lyophilizer. The results highlight that the partial pressure of water vapor is extremely important during secondary drying in lyophilization, and that lower chamber pressure set points for secondary drying may sometimes be justified as a strategy for ensuring low partial pressure of water vapor, especially for lyophilizers that do not inject dry gas to control pressure. These findings have direct application for process transfers/scale ups from freeze-dryers that do not inject dry gas for pressure control to those that do, and vice versa.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0768-3
       
  • Evaluation of the Potential Use of Laminar Extrudates on Stabilizing
           Micronized Coumarin Particles by Supercritical Fluids (RESS)—Study of
           Different RESS Processing Variables and Mode of Operation
    • Authors: Gonçalo E. Oliveira; João F. Pinto
      Abstract: Abstract The study evaluates the ability of extrudates to deliver coumarin particles micronized by the rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS). The RESS parameters were drug load (2–50 g), pressure (15–42 MPa) and temperature (40–60°C) in the extraction and pressure in the expansion (0.1–5 MPa) chambers in batch or continuous and CO2 flow rate in the continuous mode of operation. Particles were characterized for size (laser diffractometry, optical and electronic microscopies—19–61 μm), surface area (BET—0.282–0.423 m2/g), density (pycnometry—1.273–1.358 g/cm3) and yield (2–70%). Extrudates were characterized for the force of extrusion (4 kN), release of coumarin (100%/24 h) and mechanical properties (bending strength and stiffness increased, whereas elasticity decreased in storage) and X-ray diffractometry (micronized particles and extrudates have shown identical patterns) and calorimetry (DSC, enthalpies increased on storage). In the discontinuous mode of operation, increased loads in the extraction or increased pressure in the expansion chambers led to larger particles, whereas increased temperature and pressure in the extraction chamber led to smaller particles. In the continuous mode of operation, a decrease on the expansion pressure, load and CO2 flow rate led to increased yields. An increase on the flow rate led to a decrease on the particles’ diameter, but an increase on coumarin load in the extraction chamber led to an increase in diameter. The study has identified the key parameters in RESS continuous and discontinuous modes of operation affecting the properties of the micronized coumarin particles and has proved the ability of extrudates with a laminar shape on delivering micronized particles.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0760-y
       
  • Ketoprofen Microemulsion for Improved Skin Delivery and In Vivo
           Anti-inflammatory Effect
    • Authors: Ana Luisa Murbach Aliberti; Alemer Cortat de Queiroz; Fabíola Silva Garcia Praça; Josimar O. Eloy; Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley; Wanessa Silva Garcia Medina
      Abstract: Abstract We have designed a microemulsion (ME) containing Ketoprofen (KET) for anti-inflammatory effect evaluated using the rat paw edema model. The ME was prepared by adding propylene glycol (PG) loaded with 1% KET/water (3:1, w/w), to a mixture of sorbitan monooleate and polysorbate 80 (47.0%) at 3:1 (w/w) and canola oil (38.0%). The physicochemical characterization of KET-loaded ME involved particle size and zeta potential determination, entrapment efficiency, calorimetric analysis, and in vitro drug release. The in vivo anti-inflammatory study employed male Wistar rats. Measurement of the foot volume was performed using a caliper immediately before and 2, 4, and 6 h after injection of Aerosil. KET-loaded ME showed particle size around 20 nm, with zeta potential at −16 mV and entrapment efficiency at 70%. Moreover, KET was converted to the amorphous state when loaded in the formulation and it was shown that the drug was slowly released from the ME. Finally, the in vivo biological activity was similar to that of the commercial gel, but ME better controlled edema at 4 h. These results demonstrated that the ME formulation is an alternative strategy for improving KET skin permeation for anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, our findings are promising considering that the developed ME was loaded with only 1% KET, and the formulation was able to keep a similar release profile and in vivo effect compared to the commercial gel with 2.5% KET. Therefore, the KET-loaded developed herein ME is likely to have a decreased side effect compared with that of the commercial gel, but both presented the same efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0749-6
       
 
 
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