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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
AAPS PharmSciTech
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The Journey to AAPS 2020: a Reflection from Strategic Planning to PharmSci
           360
    • Authors: Joseph W. Polli; for the AAPS Leadership; Christopher R. McCurdy; Dale Eric Wurster; Binodh S. DeSilva; Annette Bak; Reina Bendayan; Bernd Meibohm; Allen C. Templeton; William Weiser
      Pages: 3325 - 3327
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1200-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Power of the Dissolution Test in Distinguishing a Change in Dosage Form
           Critical Quality Attributes
    • Authors: Vivian A. Gray
      Pages: 3328 - 3332
      Abstract: For a dissolution method to be considered relevant to in vivo performance, the dissolution data profiles should show discrimination or meaningful change when there is a change in critical material attributes (CMAs) and critical product properties (CPPs). The dissolution test has been shown repeatedly to have the power to distinguish between significant changes in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), formulation, and process that relate to the release mechanism of the in vivo performance. Examples will be discussed in the literature where the effects of formulation, drug substance, and manufacturing variables have been measured by dissolution testing. There will be a suggested plan on how to develop and challenge a discriminating method that may be utilized for regulatory purposes. A brief review of other challenges and considerations regarding discriminatory dissolution testing is presented.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1197-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Influence of Geometry on the Drug Release Profiles of Stereolithographic
           (SLA) 3D-Printed Tablets
    • Authors: Pamela Robles Martinez; Alvaro Goyanes; Abdul W. Basit; Simon Gaisford
      Pages: 3355 - 3361
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (3D printing) permits the fabrication of tablets in shapes unattainable by powder compaction, and so the effects of geometry on drug release behavior is easily assessed. Here, tablets (printlets) comprising of paracetamol dispersed in polyethylene glycol were printed using stereolithographic 3D printing. A number of geometric shapes were produced (cube, disc, pyramid, sphere and torus) with either constant surface area (SA) or constant surface area/volume ratio (SA/V). Dissolution testing showed that printlets with constant SA/V ratio released drug at the same rate, while those with constant SA released drug at different rates. A series of tori with increasing SA/V ratio (from 0.5 to 2.4) were printed, and it was found that dissolution rate increased as the SA/V ratio increased. The data show that printlets can be fabricated in multiple shapes and that dissolution performance can be maintained if the SA/V ratio is constant or that dissolution performance of printlets can be fine-tuned by varying SA/V ratio. The results suggest that 3D printing is therefore a suitable manufacturing method for personalized dosage forms.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1075-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Application of FT-NIR Analysis for In-line and Real-Time Monitoring of
           Pharmaceutical Hot Melt Extrusion: a Technical Note
    • Authors: Anh Q. Vo; Herman He; Jiaxiang Zhang; Scott Martin; Rui Chen; Michael A. Repka
      Pages: 3425 - 3429
      Abstract: Continuous manufacturing, a gaining interest paradigm in the pharmaceutical industry, requires in-process monitoring of critical process parameters to ensure product consistency. This study demonstrated the application of Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics modeling for in-line hot melt extrusion process monitoring. The obtained results suggested that inline FT-NIR analysis, along with a tailored NIR reflector, is a viable process analytical tool to monitor active pharmaceutical ingredient concentration as well as processing parameters.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1091-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Augmentation of Fluvastatin Cytotoxicity Against Prostate Carcinoma PC3
           Cell Line Utilizing Alpha Lipoic–Ellagic Acid Nanostructured Lipid
           Carrier Formula
    • Authors: Usama A. Fahmy
      Pages: 3454 - 3461
      Abstract: Statins are commonly used in the middle-aged and elderly people for treatment of hyperlipidemia. Both alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and ellagic acid (EA) are natural antioxidants found in a normal diet. They can protect against cellular damage and induce cellular apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. Fluvastatin (FLV) was combined with ALA and EA in a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formula. The prepared NLCs were imaged with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Particle size and zeta potential and FLV entrapment efficiency (%EE) were measured, and the FLV release profile was constructed. Cellular viability, caspase-3 enzyme levels, and cellular cycle were analyzed. The prepared NLCs were spherical, with a size of 85.2 ± 4.1 nm, and had a zeta potential of − 25.1 ± 3.4 mV and a %EE of 98.2 ± 1.1%. FLV IC50 was decreased by half by the formula and by about 30% when compared with the three drugs together. According to cell-cycle analysis, treatment with FLV-ALA-EA NLCs caused a significant increase in pre-G1 phase by about 1.44-fold in comparison with FLV-ALA-EA. These findings demonstrate that ALA and EA induced cell death, which makes their combination with FLV a candidate for prostate cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1199-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Microemulsion and Microporation Effects on the Genistein Permeation Across
           Dermatomed Human Skin
    • Authors: Li Chen; Manjusha Annaji; Sharmila Kurapati; William R. Ravis; R. Jayachandra Babu
      Pages: 3481 - 3489
      Abstract: This study reports the microemulsion (ME) effects on the permeation of genistein across normal (intact) and microporated human skin. The genistein formulation was optimized to know the stable ME region in the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and to maximize the skin permeation and retention of genistein. The phase diagrams were constructed with different oil phases, surfactants, and their combinations. The influence of formulation factors on the permeation through intact and microporated human skin was determined. Based on its wide ME region, as well as permeation enhancement effects, oleic acid was used as an oil phase with various surfactants and co-surfactants to further maximize the ME region and skin permeation. The water content in the formulation played an important role in the ME stability, droplet size, and flux of genistein. For example, the ME with 20% water exhibited 4- and 9-fold higher flux as compared to the ME base (no water) and aqueous suspension, respectively. Likewise, this formulation had demonstrated 2- and 4-fold higher skin retention as compared to the ME base (no water) and aqueous suspension, respectively. The skin microporation did not significantly increase the skin permeation of genistein from ME formulations. The ME composition, water content, and to a lesser extent the ME particle size played a role in improving the skin permeation and retention of genistein.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1150-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Enhancement in the Transdermal and Localized Delivery of Honokiol Through
           Breast Tissue
    • Authors: Xinyi Gao; Meera Gujjar Patel; Pooja Bakshi; Dipali Sharma; Ajay K. Banga
      Pages: 3501 - 3511
      Abstract: Honokiol is a natural phenolic anti-cancer compound isolated from an extract of seed cones from Magnolia grandiflora. This study investigated the transdermal delivery of honokiol using various enhancement methods and to explore the potential of honokiol to treat breast cancer directly via delivery through mammary papilla. Poration of dermatomed human skin with microneedles significantly increased the delivery of honokiol by nearly 3-fold (97.81 ± 18.96 μg/cm2) compared with passive delivery (32.56 ± 5.67 μg/cm2). Oleic acid was found to be the best chemical penetration enhancer, increasing the delivery almost 27-fold (868.06 ± 100.91 μg/cm2). Addition of oleic acid also resulted in better retention of drug in the porcine mammary papilla (965.41 ± 80.26 μg/cm2) compared with breast skin (294.16 ± 8.49 μg/cm2). Anti-cancer effect of honokiol was demonstrated with the decrease in the release of cytokine IL-6 and further suppression of Ki-67 proliferative protein. In addition, the topical honokiol formulation investigated was found to be safe and non-irritant. In summary, both microneedles and chemical enhancers can improve the absorption of honokiol through skin. Directly applying honokiol on mammary papilla is a potential administration route which can increase localized delivery into breast tissue.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1158-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Skin Penetration and Permeation Properties of Transcutol®—Neat
           or Diluted Mixtures
    • Authors: David W. Osborne; Jasmine Musakhanian
      Pages: 3512 - 3533
      Abstract: A heightened interest in (trans)dermal delivery is in part driven by the need to improve the existing skin therapies and also the demand for alternative routes of administration, notably for pharmaceutical actives with undesirable oral absorption characteristics. The premise of delivering difficult actives to the skin or via the skin however is weighed down by the barrier function properties of the stratum corneum. Short of disrupting the skin by physical means, scientists have resorted to formulation with excipients known to enhance the skin penetration and permeation of drugs. A vehicle that has emerged over the years as a safe solubilizer and enhancer for a broad range of drug actives is the highly purified NF/EP grade of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE) commercially known as Transcutol®. Whereas numerous studies affirm its enhancing effect on drug solubilization, percutaneous absorption rate, and/or drug retention in the skin, there are few publications that unite the body of the published literature in describing the precise role and mechanisms of action for Transcutol®. In view of the current mechanistic understanding of skin barrier properties, this paper takes on a retrospective review of the published works and critically evaluates the data for potential misses due to experimental variables such as formulation design, skin model, skin hydration levels, and drug properties. The goal of this review is to mitigate the incongruence of the published works and to construct a unified, comprehensive understanding of how Transcutol® influences skin penetration and permeation. Graphical Transcutol has affinity for the hydrophilic head groups of the stratum corneum structures
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1196-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Physicochemical and In Vitro Evaluation of Drug Delivery of an
           Antibacterial Synthetic Benzophenone in Biodegradable PLGA Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Gabriella Costabile; Kathrin I. Gasteyer; Venkatereddy Nadithe; Katherine Van Denburgh; Qian Lin; Shiv Sharma; Joshua J. Reineke; Steven M. Firestine; Olivia M. Merkel
      Pages: 3561 - 3570
      Abstract: Due to the increasing incidents of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, the development of new antibiotics and their efficient formulation for suitable administration is crucial. Currently, one group of promising antimicrobial compounds are the benzophenone tetra-amides which show good activity even against gram-positive, drug-resistant pathogens. These compounds suffer from poor water solubility and bioavailability. It is therefore important to develop dosage forms which can address this disadvantage while also maintaining efficacy and potentially generating long-term exposures to minimize frequent dosing. Biodegradable nanoparticles provide one solution, and we describe here the encapsulation of the experimental benzophenone-based antibiotic, SV7. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were optimized for their physicochemical properties, their encapsulation efficiency, sustained drug release as well as antimicrobial activity. The optimized formulation contained particles smaller than 200 nm with a slightly negative zeta potential which released 39% of their drug load over 30 days. This formulation maintains the antibacterial activity of SV7 while minimizing the impact on mammalian cells.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1187-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Preparation and Evaluation of Probucol-Phospholipid Complex with Enhanced
           Bioavailability and No Food Effect
    • Authors: Yiwen Qian; Guoguang Chen; Jin Wang; Lili Ren
      Pages: 3599 - 3608
      Abstract: To enhance the oral bioavailability and eliminate the food effect of probucol. Probucol-phospholipid complex was prepared using solvent-evaporation method in this research. Several methods were used to validate the formation of complexes, such as FT-IR, SEM, DSC and PXRD, and the solubility of PRO and PRO-PLC was detected by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic testing was conducted in the fasted and fed state. FTIR, SEM, DSC and PXRD validated the existence of PRO-PLC. The solubility of PRO in complexes was 15.05 μg/mL, which was 215-fold of the PRO-API. The dissolution rate was increased by preparing PRO-PLC. Compared with commercial tablets, the PRO-PLC complexes exhibited higher peak plasma concentration (1.69 ± 0.44 μg/mL), increased AUC0–24 h (6.8 ± 1.3 μg/mL h), which mean the bioavailability of PRO was increased. In addition, the absorption of PRO was not interfered with food. In conclusion, an improved solubility and bioavailability was achieved with the preparation of PRO-PLC. Additionally, the dissolution behaviour was good and the food effect was eliminated.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1157-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Repositioning of Anti-parasitic Drugs in Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes
           for Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
    • Authors: Josefina Priotti; María Virginia Baglioni; Agustina García; María José Rico; Darío Leonardi; María Celina Lamas; Mauricio Menacho Márquez
      Pages: 3734 - 3741
      Abstract: Drug repositioning refers to the identification of new therapeutic indications for drugs already approved. Albendazole and ricobendazole have been used as anti-parasitic drugs for many years; their therapeutic action is based on the inhibition of microtubule formation. Therefore, the study of their properties as antitumor compounds and the design of an appropriate formulation for cancer therapy is an interesting issue to investigate. The selected compounds are poorly soluble in water, and consequently, they have low and erratic bioavailability. In order to improve their biopharmaceutics properties, several formulations employing cyclodextrin inclusion complexes were developed. To carefully evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of these drugs and their complexes, several studies were performed on a breast cancer cell line (4T1) and BALB/c mice. In vitro studies showed that albendazole presented improved antitumor activity compared with ricobendazole. Furthermore, albendazole:citrate-β-cyclodextrin complex decreased significantly 4T1 cell growth both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Thus, new formulations for anti-parasitic drugs could help to reposition them for new therapeutic indications, offering safer and more effective treatments by using a well-known drug.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1169-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Mechanical Characterization and Dissolution of Chewing Gum Tablets (CGTs)
           Containing Co-compressed Health in Gum® and Curcumin/Cyclodextrin
           Inclusion Complex
    • Authors: Turki Al Hagbani; Christopher Altomare; Mohammad M. Kamal; Sami Nazzal
      Pages: 3742 - 3750
      Abstract: Curcumin chewing gums could be therapeutically beneficial if used by the head and neck cancer patients. High curcumin loading in chewing gums however is needed to achieve desired therapeutic effect. Preparing gums with high drug load is nonetheless challenging because of the negative impact of solids on their masticatory properties. The use of liquid flavors was found to partially solve this problem. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the maximum amount of curcumin that can be loaded into co-compressed chewing gums made from Health in Gum® as the base and flavored with 1.5% peppermint oil, (2) determine if addition of sweeteners can improve the yield strength and compressibility of the gums when examined by a texture analyzer, (3) examine the effect of temperature over a storage period of one month on the physical stability of the chewing gums, and (4) study the impact of substituting curcumin with its inclusion complex with SBE-β-CD on drug release. It was found that when flavored, Health in Gum® could load up to 25% curcumin by weight without compromising its masticatory properties. When tested for drug release, SBE-β-CD was found to significantly increase the amount of curcumin dissolved within 30 min. Despite poor drug release from gums loaded with insoluble curcumin, the fragmentation of the gums during mastication by the Erweka tester is nonetheless expected to produce a suspension for absorption in the lower GIT. This study demonstrated how modulating gum composition and storage conditions can impact the mechanical properties of chewing gums with high solids content.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1174-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Dry Formulations Enhanced Mucoadhesive Properties and Reduced Cold Chain
           Handing of Influenza Vaccines
    • Authors: Nattika Saengkrit; Somsak Saesoo; Noppawan Woramongkolchai; Warayuth Sajomsang; Sarunya Phunpee; Tararaj Dharakul; Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai
      Pages: 3763 - 3769
      Abstract: To alleviate concerns in health security, emergency flu vaccine stockpiles are required for ensuring rapid availability of vaccines when needed. Cold chain preservation, at high cost and risk, is necessary to maintain vaccine efficacy. This study aimed to develop a dry, easily storable formula for influenza vaccine preparation. The formulation with mucoadhesive properties is expected to facilitate rapid delivery via nasal administration. Chitosan, a cationic polymer, was used as cryo-protectant and to promote mucoadhesion. Optimal concentrations and molecular weights of chitosan polymers were screened, with short chain chitosan (10 kDa) being most suitable. H1N1 dry powder, in different formulations, was prepared via freeze-drying. A series of cryo-protectants, trehalose (T), chitosan (C), fetal bovine serum (FBS; F), or a combination of these (TCF), were screened for their effects on prolonging vaccine shelf life. Physicochemical monitoring (particle size and zeta potential) of powders complexed with mucin revealed that the order of cryo-protectant mixing during preparation was of critical importance. Results indicated that the TCF formula retains its activity up to 1 year as indicated by TCID50 analysis. This approach was also successful at prolonging the shelf life of H3N2 vaccine, and has the potential for large-scale implementation, especially in developed countries where long-term storage of vaccines is problematic.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1181-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: First Development, Optimization, and Stability Control of a
           Pediatric Oral Atenolol Formulation
    • Authors: Mauro Morri; Patricia Castellano; Darío Leonardi; Silvana Vignaduzzo
      Pages: 3907 - 3907
      Abstract: In the INTRODUCTION section, Atenolol is defined in parenthesis as (ATN, Fig. 1.) The correct definition is (ATN). Fig 1 corresponds to the RESULTS section.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1014-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Effects of Dendrimer-Like Biopolymers on Physical Stability
           of Amorphous Solid Dispersions and Drug Permeability Across Caco-2 Cell
           Monolayers
    • Authors: Monika Lavan; Gregory Knipp
      Pages: 3908 - 3908
      Abstract: During the production process, an editorial error occurred where the label numbering for the first two tables were inadvertently switched. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1109-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 8 (2018)
       
  • Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Chlormadinone Acetate through a
           
    • Authors: Jia Zeng; Jianxing Chen; Liangkang Chen; Wei Zheng; Yunfeng Cao; Ting Huang
      Abstract: Chlormadinone acetate (CMA) is a derivative of the naturally secreted hormone progesterone and exhibits reliable contraceptive and non-contraceptive benefits. Although the marketed product of CMA as oral tablets under the trade name Belara® has been highly successful, there is still room for further improvements in oral bioavailability and a reduction in the clinical dose to decrease related adverse effects. In the current study, a CMA-based self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed using 32% ethyl oleate as an oil phase, 40% Tween-80 as a surfactant, and 12% Transcutol P combined with 16% PEG400 as a cosurfactant, resulting in spherical droplets with a z-average particle size of 38.92 nm and an average zeta potential of − 3.18 mv. The in vitro release rate of CMA from CMA-SMEDDS in different media (distilled water, HCl solution at pH 1.2, phosphate buffers at pH 4.5 and pH 6.8) was significantly faster than that from Belara® in the first 15 min. A pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that the Cmax and AUC of CMA-SMEDDS were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those of Belara®, with a 1.98-fold increase in oral bioavailability. In comparison with Belara®, the developed CMA-SMEDDS showed promising release profiles both in vitro and in vivo, which could potentially be useful in enhancing oral bioavailability and reducing the clinical dose of CMA.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1193-y
       
  • Nanocarrier-Based Combination Chemotherapy for Resistant Tumor:
           Development, Characterization, and Ex Vivo Cytotoxicity Assessment
    • Authors: Sarjana Raikwar; Sonal Vyas; Rajeev Sharma; Nishi Mody; Surbhi Dubey; Suresh P. Vyas
      Abstract: A folic acid-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX)-doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier(s) (FA-PTX-DOX NLCs) were prepared by using emulsion-evaporation method and extensively characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and % entrapment efficiency which were found to be 196 ± 2.5 nm, 0.214 ± 0.04, +23.4 ± 0.3 mV and 88.3 ± 0.2% (PTX), and 89.6 ± 0.5% (DOX) respectively. In vitro drug release study of optimized formulation was carried out using dialysis tube method. FA-conjugated PTX-DOX-loaded NLCs showed 75.6 and 78.4% (cumulative drug release) of PTX and DOX respectively in 72 h in PBS (pH 7.4)/methanol (7:3), while in the case of FA-conjugated PTX-DOX-loaded NLCs, cumulative drug release recorded was 80.4 and 82.8% of PTX and DOX respectively in 72 h in PBS (pH 4.0)/methanol (7:3). Further, the formulation(s) were evaluated for ex vivo cytotoxicity study. The cytotoxicity assay in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cell lines revealed lowest GI50 value of FA-D-P NLCs which was 1.04 ± 0.012 μg/ml, followed by D-P NLCs and D-P solution with GI50 values of 3.12 ± 0.023 and 3.89 ± 0.007 μg/ml, respectively. Findings indicated that the folic acid-conjugated PTX and DOX co-loaded NLCs exhibited lower GI50 values as compared to unconjugated PTX and DOX co-loaded NLCs; thus, they have relatively potential anticancer efficacy against resistant tumor.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1185-y
       
  • Intratumoral Injection Administration of Irinotecan-Loaded Microspheres:
           In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation
    • Authors: Shengjun Zhu; Mingjin Dou; Guihua Huang
      Abstract: To reduce the toxic and side effects of intravenous chemotherapeutic drugs on the tumor-patients, the aims of this study were to design and study intratumor-administrated irinotecan-loaded PLGA microspheres (CPT-11-PLGA-MS) in vitro and in vivo according to the structure characteristics of CPT-11. PLGA microspheres containing irinotecan were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method and evaluated in terms of their morphology, particle size analysis, in vitro drug release, drug retention and leakage studies in vivo, and pharmacodynamics studies. The CPT-11-PLGA-MS were spherical with mean size of 9.29 ± 0.02 μm, and average encapsulation efficiency were measured of 77.97 ± 1.26% along with the average drug loading of 7.08 ± 0.11%. DSC results indicated that the drug existed in the phase of uncrystallization in the microspheres. The formulation of CPT-11-PLGA-MS could prolong the in vitro drug release to 16 days following Weibull equation. In CPT-11-PLGA-MS after intratumor injection administration was significantly improved. The results demonstrated that the slow-sustained release of CPT-11-PLGA-MS in tumor tissue after intratumor injection of microspheres can reduce the drug leakage to the circulation system, maintain the drug retention, and improve the therapeutic effect, which could become a promising drug delivery system for CPT-11 and could maintain the most effective concentration at the target site to maximum limit.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1167-0
       
  • Comparing a Statistical Model and Bayesian Approach to Establish the
           Design Space for the Coating of Ciprofloxacin HCl Beads at Different
           Scales of Production
    • Authors: Bhaveshkumar H. Kothari; Raafat Fahmy; H. Gregg Claycamp; Christine M. V. Moore; Sharmista Chatterjee; Stephen W. Hoag
      Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to compare two methods for establishing a design space for critical process parameters that affect ethylcellulose film coating of multiparticulate beads and assess this design space validity across manufacturing scales. While there are many factors that can affect film coating, this study will focus on the effects processing conditions have on the quality and extent of film formation, as evaluated by their impact coating yield and drug release. Ciprofloxacin HCl layered beads were utilized as an active substrate core, ethylcellulose aqueous dispersion as a controlled release polymer, and triethyl citrate as a plasticizer. Thirty experiments were conducted using a central composite design to optimize the coating process and map the response surface to build a design space using either statistical least squares or a Bayesian approach. The response surface was fitted using a linear two-factor interaction model with spraying temperature, curing temperature, and curing time as significant model terms. The design spaces established by the two approaches were in close agreement with the statistical least squares approach being more conservative than the Bayesian approach. The design space established for the critical process parameters using small-scale batches was tested using scale-up batches and found to be scale-independent. The robustness of the design space was confirmed across scales and was successfully utilized to establish process signature for the coating process.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1116-y
       
  • In-Line Film Coating Thickness Estimation of Minitablets in a Fluid-Bed
           Coating Equipment
    • Authors: Gregor Podrekar; Domen Kitak; Andraž Mehle; Zoran Lavrič; Boštjan Likar; Dejan Tomaževič; Rok Dreu
      Abstract: Film coating thickness of minitablets was estimated in-line during coating in a fluid-bed equipment by means of visual imaging. An existing, commercially available image acquisition system was used for image acquisition, while dedicated image analysis and data analysis methods were developed for this purpose. The methods were first tested against simulated minitablet’s images and after that examined on a laboratory-scale fluid-bed Wurster coating process. An observation window cleaning mechanism was developed for this purpose. Six batches of minitablets were coated in total, using two different dispersions, where for the second dispersion coating endpoint was determined based on the in-line measurement. Coating thickness estimates were calculated from the increasing size distributions of the minitablet’s major and minor lengths, assessed from the acquired images. Information on both the minitablet’s average band and average cap coating thicknesses was obtained. The in-line coating thickness estimates were compared to the coating thickness weight gain calculations and the optical microscope measurements as a reference method. Average band coating thickness estimate was found the most accurate in comparison to microscope measurements, with root mean square error of 1.30 μm. The window cleaning mechanism was crucial for the accuracy of the in-line measurements as was evident from the corresponding decrease of the root mean square error (9.52 μm, band coating thickness). The presented visual imaging approach exhibits accuracy of at least 2 μm and is not susceptible to coating formulation or color variations. It presents a promising alternative to other existing techniques for the in-line coating thickness estimation.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1186-x
       
 
 
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