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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2348 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2348 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
AAPS PharmSciTech
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • RETRACTED ARTICLE: Development and In Vitro - In Vivo Characterization of
           Chronomodulated Pulsatile Delivery Formulation of Terbutaline Sulphate by
           Box-Behnken Statistical Design
    • Authors: Prabhjot Singh Bajwa; Anurag Bhargava; Jaya Sharma; Shailesh Sharma; Abhimanyu Rai Sharma; Binu Sharma
      Pages: 2750 - 2750
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0838-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Erratum to: Co-spray Drying with HPMC as a Platform to Improve Direct
           Compaction Properties of Various Tablet Fillers
    • Authors: JinZhi Li; LiJie Zhao; Xiao Lin; Lan Shen; Yi Feng
      Pages: 2752 - 2752
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0815-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • The Effects of Fillers and Binders on the Accuracy of Tablet Subdivision
    • Abstract: The effects of excipients on the accuracy of tablet subdivision are severely underinvestigated. In this study, placebo tablets were prepared using a combined mixture design of fillers and binders to evaluate the effect of these excipients on subdivision accuracy. The responses assessed were mass loss, mass variation, tablet fragmentation, and increased friability. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) gave rise to more uniform and denser tablets than microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), thus resulting in greater subdivision accuracy. The binder type, hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), did not affect the subdivision of DCP tablets. On the contrary, the structural similarity between HPC and MCC led to improved subdivision accuracy for MCC tablets. A less accurate subdivision was observed in tablets prepared with a DCP–MCC combination; this finding could be attributed to irregular binder distribution in this matrix. An optimized response was built using desirability analysis. This study helps to illuminate the relationship between fillers and binders to guide formulation scientists in the development of tablets with better subdivision performance.
      PubDate: 2018-08-17
       
  • Using Manufacturing Design Space Concepts for Stability Risk
           Assessment—Gabapentin NIPTE/FDA Case Study
    • Abstract: A quantitative, model-based risk assessment process was evaluated using Bayesian parameter estimation to determine the posterior distribution of the probability of a model tablet formulation’s (gabapentin) ability to meet end-of-expiry stability criteria-based manufacturing controls. Experimental data was obtained from an FDA-supported, multi-year project that involved researchers at nine universities working collaboratively with industrial and governmental scientists under the leadership of the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Technology and Education (NITPE). The risk assessment process involved the development of a design space manufacturing model and shelf life stability model that shared stability-related critical quality attributes (CQAs). Monte Carlo simulations of the design space and shelf life models that uses model parameter uncertainty to estimate the probability of shelf life failure as a function of manufacturing control. The resultant linked design space and shelf life stability models were tested by comparing model predicted and observed long-term stability data generated under a variety of pilot scale production conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-08-17
       
  • Apoptosis Induction and Antimigratory Activity of Andrographolide Analog
           (3A.1)-Incorporated Self-Assembled Nanoparticles in Cancer Cells
    • Abstract: Andrographolide analog, namely 19-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-8,17-epoxy andrographolide (or 3A.1) has been reported to be a potential anticancer agent for several types of cancer. Due to its poor aqueous solubility, 3A.1 was incorporated within self-assembly polymeric nanoparticles made of naphthyl-grafted succinyl chitosan (NSC), octyl-grafted succinyl chitosan (OSC), and benzyl-grafted succinyl chitosan (BSC). These 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles were nanosized (< 200 nm) and spherical in shape with a negative surface charge. 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles were produced using a dropping method, which 40% initial drug adding exhibited the highest entrapment efficiency. The release of 3A.1 from the 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles displayed a delayed release pattern. Under acidic conditions (pH 1.2), there was no free drug release. After the pH was adjusted to 6.8, a high cumulative 3A.1 release was obtained which was dependent on the hydrophobic moieties. These 3A.1-loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles proved to be beneficial for specifically delivering anticancer drugs to the targeted colon cancer sites. In vitro anticancer activity against HT-29 found that the 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles had significantly lower IC50 than that of the free drug and promoted apoptosis. Additionally, in vitro wound-healing migration on HN-22 revealed that free 3A.1 and the 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles inhibited cell motility compared with untreated cells. These pH-sensitive amphiphilic chitosan nanoparticles may be promising nanocarriers for oral anticancer drug delivery to colorectal cancer cells. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-08-16
       
  • Particle Size Distribution Equivalency as Novel Predictors for
           Bioequivalence
    • Abstract: The use of particle size distribution (PSD) similarity metrics and the development and incorporation of drug release predictions based on PSD properties into PBPK models for various drug administration routes may provide a holistic approach for evaluating the effect of PSD differences on in vitro drug release and bioavailability of disperse systems. The objectives of this study were to provide a rational approach for evaluating the utility of in vitro PSD comparators for predicting bioequivalence for subcutaneously administered test and reference drug emulsions. Two types of in vitro comparators for test and reference emulsion products were evaluated: PSD characterization comparators (overlap metrics, median, and span ratios) and release profile comparators (f2 and various fractional time ratios). A subcutaneous-input PBPK disposition model was developed to simulate blood concentration-time profiles of reference and test emulsion products and pharmacokinetic responses (e.g., AUC, Cmax, and Tmax) were used to determine bioequivalence. A pool of 10,440 pairs of test and reference products was simulated using Monte Carlo experiments. The PSD and release profile comparators were correlated to pass/fail bioequivalence metrics using logistical regression. Based on the use of single in vitro comparators, the f2 method was the best predictor of bioequivalence prediction. The use of combinations of f2 and PSD overlap comparators (e.g., OVL or PROB) improved bioequivalence prediction to about 90%. Simulation procedures used in this study demonstrated a process for developing reliable in vitro BE predictors.
      PubDate: 2018-08-16
       
  • Strategic Pentablock Copolymer Nanomicellar Formulation for Paclitaxel
           Delivery System
    • Abstract: Nanomicelles (NM) enhance solubility and absorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Various polymers and non-polymers are utilized to prepare nanomicellar formulations to achieve high absorption and delivery of drugs. The main purpose of this study was to develop drug-loaded nanomicelles with pentablock copolymers for paclitaxel delivery. Monomers of lactide, ε-caprolactone, and polyethylene-glycol were utilized to prepare pentablock copolymer by ring opening technique. The pentablock nanomicelles (PBNM) were formulated by evaporation and rehydration. Both copolymers and nanomicelles were analyzed by H-NMR, FTIR, and XRD. Nanomicelles were further analyzed for size and zeta potential using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and by H-NMR and TEM. The XRD, FTIR, and H-NMR analyses confirmed the structures of the pentablock copolymers. Average size was 20 nm ± 5.00 nm, and ζ-potential is around zero. H-NMR and FTIR analyses for Paclitaxel-PBNM indicated peaks of paclitaxel and the polymer, confirming successful encapsulation. TEM showed spherical morphology and size range similar to that obtained by DLS. In vitro release studies revealed slow first-order paclitaxel release rate from pentablock nanomicelles in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis with coumarin-6-loaded in PBNM indicated that pentablock nanomicelles were efficiently taken into prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. Cell proliferation assay showed that nanomicelles were able to ferry adequate amounts of paclitaxel drug into PC-3 cells and subsequently inhibiting PC-3 cell proliferation significantly. Results confirmed that pentablock copolymer can generate drug-loaded nanomicelles with desirable sizes and zeta potential. These demonstrate potentiality of pentablock nanomicelles as carrier for anticancer delivery.
      PubDate: 2018-08-15
       
  • Solid Form of Lipid-Based Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for
           Minimization of Diacerein Adverse Effects: Development and Bioequivalence
           Evaluation in Albino Rabbits
    • Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Naseef; Howida Kamal Ibrahim; Samia Abd El-Kader Nour
      Abstract: This work aimed to enhance the oral bioavailability of diacerein. The drug was incorporated in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed using Capryol™90, Miglyol®812 and isopropyl myristate as oils, Tween®80 and Tween®20 as surfactants and PEG 200 and PEG 300 as co-surfactants. Among a total of 432 formulae, 17 formulae were clear. They were assessed for mean droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), saturation solubility and transmission electron microscopy. Solid granules were obtained by adsorption on Aeroperl®300. Results for DSC, PXRD, and SEM of prepared granules revealed that diacerein was molecularly dispersed within the formula. Desirability factor was adopted to find the granules with maximum solubility, maximum dissolution efficiency, maximum dissolution rate and percentage of drug dissolved at 5 min and minimum dissolution time and Carr’s index. The optimized formula consisted of 10% Miglyol®812, 70% Tween®80 and 20% PEG 200 adsorbed to Aeroperl® 300 with a ratio of 2:1 preconcentrate:carrier. It recorded a 3.77-fold increase in bioavailability, compared to the marketed product. Such enhancement means lower doses and less gastrointestinal side effects.
      PubDate: 2018-08-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1138-5
       
  • Optimization of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Spray-Dried Microparticles for
           Pulmonary Delivery Using Design of Experiments
    • Authors: Mariela Razuc; Juliana Piña; María V. Ramírez-Rigo
      Abstract: Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic for treatment of pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. The purpose of this work was to rationally study the spray drying of ciprofloxacin in order to identify the formulation and operating conditions that lead to a product with aerodynamic properties appropriate for dry powder inhalation. A 24 − 1 fractional factorial design was applied to investigate the effect of selected variables (i.e., ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) concentration, drying air inlet temperature, feed flow rate, and atomization air flow rate) on several product and process parameters (i.e., particle size, aerodynamic diameter, moisture content, densities, porosity, powder flowability, outlet temperature, and process yield) and to determine an optimal condition. The studied factors had a significant effect on the evaluated responses (higher p value 0.0017), except for the moisture content (p value > 0.05). The optimal formulation and operating conditions were as follows: CIP concentration 10 mg/mL, drying air inlet temperature 110°C, feed volumetric flow rate 3.0 mL/min, and atomization air volumetric flow rate 473 L/h. The product obtained under this set had a particle size that guarantees access to the lung, a moisture content acceptable for dry powder inhalation, fair flowability, and high process yield. The PDRX and SEM analysis of the optimal product showed a crystalline structure and round and dimpled particles. Moreover, the product was obtained by a simple and green spray drying method.
      PubDate: 2018-08-13
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1137-6
       
  • Extrusion 3D Printing of Paracetamol Tablets from a Single Formulation
           with Tunable Release Profiles Through Control of Tablet Geometry
    • Authors: Shaban A. Khaled; Morgan R. Alexander; Derek J. Irvine; Ricky D. Wildman; Martin J. Wallace; Sonja Sharpe; Jae Yoo; Clive J. Roberts
      Abstract: An extrusion-based 3D printer was used to fabricate paracetamol tablets with different geometries (mesh, ring and solid) from a single paste-based formulation formed from standard pharmaceutical ingredients. The tablets demonstrate that tunable drug release profiles can be achieved from this single formulation even with high drug loading (> 80% w/w). The tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed well-defined release profiles (from immediate to sustained release) controlled by their different geometries. The dissolution results showed dependency of drug release on the surface area/volume (SA/V) ratio and the SA of the different tablets. The tablets with larger SA/V ratios and SA had faster drug release. The 3D printed tablets were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including tablet dimension, drug content, weight variation and breaking force and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the US Pharmacopoeia. X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify the physical form of the active and to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. These data again showed that the tablets meet USP requirement. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of 3D printing to create unique pharmaceutical manufacturing, and potentially clinical, opportunities. The ability to use a single unmodified formulation to achieve defined release profiles could allow, for example, relatively straightforward personalization of medicines for individuals with different metabolism rates for certain drugs and hence could offer significant development and clinical opportunities.
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1107-z
       
  • Lacidipine Amorphous Solid Dispersion Based on Hot Melt Extrusion: Good
           Miscibility, Enhanced Dissolution, and Favorable Stability
    • Authors: Long Xi; Hang Song; Yunzhi Wang; Haoshi Gao; Qiang Fu
      Abstract: The present study aimed to increase the in vitro dissolution rate of lacidipine, a poorly water-soluble drug, by formulating amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) using hot-melt extrusion (HME). Differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared were used to characterize the optimal formulations and evaluate the physical stability for the stress test. Film-casting method and hot-stage microscopy were applied to study the miscibility of lacidipine and the drug carriers. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted as the final evaluation index. The optimal formulations were successfully obtained with Soluplus and PVP VA64 at a drug/carrier ratio of 1:10 (w/w), Fourier transform infrared studies revealed the hydrogen bonding between drug and polymers, and in vitro dissolution rates of the optimal formulations were extremely enhanced compared to bulk lacidipine and physical mixtures, similar with that of the commercial tablet. The ASD formulated with Soluplus showed better physical stability than that with PVP VA64. A strong hydrogen bonding and good drug-polymer miscibility were essential to hinder the recrystallization of lacidipine ASDs. In conclusion, the lacidipine ASD formulated with Soluplus showed a significant increase in in vitro dissolution rate and favorable physical stability in the stress test.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1134-9
       
  • Preparation of Sustained Release Tablet with Minimized Usage of Glyceryl
           Behenate Using Post-Heating Method
    • Authors: Changmin Kang; Ju-Hyun Lee; Dong-Wook Kim; Beom-Jin Lee; Jun-Bom Park
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare sustained release (SR) matrix tablets using a direct compression incorporated with a post-heating process. Allopurinol was selected due to the water-soluble property and Compritol 888 ATO® (also known as glyceryl behenate) was used as an SR matrix-forming agent. The API, SR material, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate (lubricant) were mixed and prepared into a tablet by a direct compression method. The compressed tablets were stored in a dry oven at four temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90°C) and for three time periods (15, 30, 45 min). The DSC and PXRD data indicated that the crystallinity of the API was not altered by the post-heating method. However, SEM images demonstrated that Compritol 888 ATO® was melted by the post-heating method, and that the melted Compritol 888 ATO® could form a strong matrix. This strong matrix led to the significant sustained release behavior of hydrophilic APIs. As little as 3 mg of Compritol 888 ATO® (0.65% of total tablet weight), when heated at 80°C for 15 min, showed sustained release over 10 h. The post-heating method exerted a significant influence on lipid-based matrix tablets and allowed a reduction in the amount of material required for a water-soluble drug. This will also provide a valuable insight into lipid-based SR tablets and will allow their application to higher quality products and easier processing procedures.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1128-7
       
  • Research Progress of Raman Spectroscopy in Drug Analysis
    • Authors: Wen-ting Wang; Hua Zhang; Yuan Yuan; Ya Guo; Shi-xin He
      Abstract: Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic analysis technique that enables rapid qualitative and quantitative detection based on inelastic collision and Raman scattering intensity. This review detailed the generation principle, instrument composition, influencing factors, and common classifications of Raman spectrum. Furthermore, it summarized and forecast the research progress of Raman spectroscopy in the field of drug analysis simultaneously over the past decade, including the identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), qualitative and quantitative studies of pharmaceutical preparations, detection of illicit drugs, the identification of Chinese herbal medicines, and the combination with other technologies. The development of Raman spectroscopy in other fields is additionally summarized.
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1135-8
       
  • Preparation, Characterization and Pharmacokinetics Evaluation of the
           Compound Capsules of Ibuprofen Enteric-Coated Sustained-Release Pellets
           and Codeine Phosphate Immediate-Release Pellets
    • Authors: Ling Dong; Feifei Yang; Zhihong Zhu; Yue Yang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Mingzhu Ye; Weisan Pan; Hao Pan
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to prepare ibuprofen enteric-coated sustained-release pellets (IB-SRPs) and codeine phosphate immediate-release pellets (CP-IRPs) to play a synergistic role in analgesia. The pellets were developed by extrusion-spheronization and fluidized bed coating technology. The single-factor investigation was used to determine the optimal prescription and process. The sustained-release membrane of IB-SRPs was water-insoluble ethyl cellulose (EC), triethyl citrate (TEC) was used as plasticizer, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMCP) was chose as porogen. Besides, the immediate-release layer of CP-IRPs was gastric-soluble coating film. The ibuprofen and codeine phosphate compound capsules (IB-CP SRCs) were prepared by IB-SRPs and CP-IRPs packed together in capsules with the optimum doses of 200 and 13 mg, respectively. The prepared pellets were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and dissolution test. Pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs indicated that the optimized IB-CP SRCs had smaller individual differences and better reproducibility comparing with commercial available tablets. Additionally, IB-CP SRCs achieved consistency with in vivo and in vitro tests. Therefore, IB-CP SRCs could play a great role in rapid and long-term analgesic.
      PubDate: 2018-08-08
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1119-8
       
  • Characterization of Inclusion Complex of Coenzyme Q10 with the New Carrier
           CD-MOF-1 Prepared by Solvent Evaporation
    • Authors: Yutaka Inoue; Ayumi Nanri; Isamu Murata; Ikuo Kanamoto
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of a solid dispersion of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)/cyclodextrin metal organic frameworks-1 (CD-MOF-1). As a result of the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), it was confirmed that the CD-MOF-1 was changed from the α form to the β form by evaporation (EVP). A diffraction peak due to melting of CoQ10 disappeared the EVP (CoQ10/CD-MOF-1 = 1/2). The structure of this complex is presumed to be similar to the β form of CD-MOF-1. As a result of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the endothermic peak due to the melting of CoQ10 disappeared the EVP (CoQ10/CD-MOF-1 = 1/2). As a result of the near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectroscopy, findings suggested the hydrogen bond in formation between the CH group in the isoprene side chains of CoQ10 and the OH group of CD-MOF-1. Therefore, the formation of crystal solid dispersion in CoQ10/CD-MOF-1 was suggested. As a result of the dissolution test in distilled water, the EVP (CoQ10/CD-MOF-1 = 1/2) had better dissolution in comparison to CoQ10 alone. Furthermore, also in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) in vivo, the EVP (CoQ10/CD-MOF-1 = 1/2) had better dissolution in the human body than CoQ10 alone. From the results of 2D-nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) NMR spectroscopy, CD-MOF-1 could not include the benzoquinone ring of CoQ10. It was confirmed that the isoprene side chain was included. Therefore, it was suggested that CD-MOF-1 useful as a novel drug carrier for CoQ10.
      PubDate: 2018-08-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1136-7
       
  • Medicated Chewing Gums (MCGs): Composition, Production, and Mechanical
           Testing
    • Authors: Turki Al Hagbani; Sami Nazzal
      Abstract: Medicated chewing gums (MCGs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. They have been defined as solid single-dose preparations, which may contain more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with base consisting primarily of gum that has to be chewed for a certain period of time. They mainly contain a tasteless masticatory gum base as the core with other minor nonmasticatory ingredients, such as flavors and sweeteners. Despite their advantages in drug delivery, MCGs remain a niche product due to the complexity of their formulation, lack of acceptable testing methods, and intricacy of their manufacturing. Few studies have been reported on their use, and most of the information on their composition and production could be found in patent search. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of gum composition, manufacturing process, and characterization. Due to the scarcity of studies concerning the evaluation of the mechanical properties of MCGs, greater emphasis was placed on the available performance tests and procedures for the estimation of their mechanical and textural properties. While very few tests have been recommended by the official pharmacopeias, several tests have been suggested for assessing the mechanical properties of MCGs in vitro. Properties, such as chewiness, elasticity, and firmness, of chewing gums during mastication are imperative quality attributes that have been found to strongly correlate with gum composition and mouth feel.
      PubDate: 2018-08-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1123-z
       
  • The Sensitivity of In Vitro Permeation Tests to Chemical Penetration
           Enhancer Concentration Changes in Fentanyl Transdermal Delivery Systems
    • Authors: Soo Hyeon Shin; Jukkarin Srivilai; Sarah A. Ibrahim; Caroline Strasinger; Dana C. Hammell; Hazem E. Hassan; Audra L. Stinchcomb
      Abstract: Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) are frequently incorporated into transdermal delivery systems (TDSs) to improve drug delivery and to reduce the required drug load in formulations. However, the minimum detectable effect of formulation changes to CPE-containing TDSs using in vitro permeation tests (IVPT), a widely used method to characterize permeation of topically applied drug products, remains unclear. The objective of the current exploratory study was to investigate the sensitivity of IVPT in assessing permeation changes with CPE concentration modifications and subsequently the feasibility of IVPT’s use for support of quality control related to relative CPE concentration variation in a given formulation. A series of drug-in-adhesive (DIA) fentanyl TDSs with different amounts of CPEs were prepared, and IVPT studies utilizing porcine and human skin were performed. Although IVPT could discern TDSs with different amounts of CPE by significant differences in flux profiles, maximum flux (Jmax) values, and total permeation amounts, the magnitudes of the CPE increment needed to see such significant differences were very high (43–300%) indicating that IVPT may have limitations in detecting small changes in CPE amounts in some TDSs. Possible reasons for such limitations include formulation polymer and/or other excipients, type of CPE, variability associated with IVPT, skin type used, and disrupted stratum corneum (SC) barrier effects caused by CPEs.
      PubDate: 2018-08-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1130-0
       
  • Effect of the Interaction Between an Ionic Surfactant and Polymer on the
           Dissolution of a Poorly Soluble Drug
    • Authors: Vaishnavi Parikh; Suhas G. Gumaste; Shivaji Phadke
      Abstract: Surfactants are commonly incorporated in conventional and enabled formulations to enhance the rate and extent of dissolution of drugs exhibiting poor aqueous solubility. Generally the interactions between the drug and excipients are systematically evaluated, however, limited attention is paid towards understanding the effect of interaction between functional excipients and its impact on the performance of the product. In the current study, the effect of potential interaction between a nonionic polymer binder, povidone, and anionic surfactant docusate sodium on the rate and extent of dissolution of a drug exhibiting poor aqueous solubility was evaluated by varying the proportions of the binder and the surfactant in the formulation. Potential complexation or aggregation between the excipients was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements of the aqueous solutions of docusate sodium, povidone, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The rate and extent of drug release was found to decrease with an increase in the proportion of docusate sodium and povidone in the formulations. Difference in magnitude of surface charge (zeta potential) of docusate sodium in presence of povidone indicated potential surfactant-polymer aggregation during dissolution which was corroborated by CAC/CMC values derived from fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. The decrease in the rate of drug release was attributed to an increase in the viscosity of the microenvironment of dissolving particles due to the interaction of docusate sodium and povidone in the aqueous media during dissolution. These findings highlight the importance of systematic evaluation of the interaction of ionic surfactants with the polymeric components within the formulation to ensure the appropriate selection of the type of surfactant as well as its proportion in the formulation.
      PubDate: 2018-08-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1125-x
       
  • Skin Permeation and Oxidative Protection Effect of Soybean Isoflavones
           from Topical Nanoemulsions—a Comparative Study of Extracts and Pure
           Compounds
    • Authors: Patricia Inês Back; Luisa Rodrigues Furtado; Marina Cardoso Nemitz; Lucélia Albarello Balestrin; Flávia Nathiely Silveira Fachel; Henrique Mautone Gomes; Roselena Silvestri Schuh; José Cláudio Moreira; Gilsane Lino von Poser; Helder Ferreira Teixeira
      Abstract: Soybean isoflavone-rich extracts have been considered as promising skin antiaging products due to their antioxidant activity. This study investigates the effect of soybean isoflavone forms on porcine ear skin permeation/retention from topical nanoemulsions and their potential in protecting skin against oxidative damage caused by UVA/UVB light. Soybean non-hydrolyzed (SNHE) and hydrolyzed (SHE) extracts, mainly composed of genistin and genistein, were produced. Nanoemulsions containing SNHE (NESNHE) and SHE (NESHE) were prepared by spontaneous emulsification procedure and yielded monodispersed nanoemulsions. A delay of isoflavone release was observed after extracts incorporation into nanoemulsions when compared to a propyleneglycol dispersion of pure compounds. An increase of isoflavone skin retention from nanoemulsions was also achieved. However, from extracts, a higher amount of genistin (NESNHE) and a lower amount of genistein (NESHE) were detected in the skin in comparison to pure isoflavones. Finally, the protection of porcine ear skin by formulations against UVA/UVB oxidative stress was evaluated. Extract-loaded nanoemulsions offered better skin protection than pure isoflavones. Skin lipids were similarly protected by NESHE and NESNHE, whereas skin proteins were more protected by NESNHE. Overall, nanoemulsions containing isoflavone-rich soybean extracts may be considered a better topical formulation aiming skin protection from UVA/UVB oxidative damage.
      PubDate: 2018-08-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1133-x
       
  • Correction to: Preparation and Optimization of Fast-Disintegrating Tablet
           Containing Naratriptan Hydrochloride Using D-Optimal Mixture Design
    • Authors: Samia M. Omar; Fathy I. AbdAlla; Noha M. Abdelgawad
      Abstract: During the production process, an editorial error occurred where the typesetter placed the ± symbol on the right side of the values in Table IV, whereas the symbol should be placed on the left side. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1110-4
       
 
 
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