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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
AAPS PharmSciTech
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Matrix Tablets for Controlled Release of Drugs Incorporated Using
           Capillary Absorption
    • Authors: Uroš Maver; Marko Milojević; Jan Štos; Samo Adrenšek; Odon Planinšek
      Abstract: Cost and time effectiveness make direct tableting still the favored method for tablet production. Among its most noticeable limitations in application is the non-uniformity (and/or inhomogeneities) in the contents of the resulting tablets, possibly leading to inconsistencies in required tablet properties. The efficiency of direct tableting is mostly affected by surface properties of the components to be tableted, which govern the final tablet mechanical and chemical properties and can influence the liquid capillary rise that the tablets exhibit after ingestion. By using capillary rise as a driving force, we developed a simple, yet powerful procedure for filling blank tablets with a repeatable drug amount. Blank tablets were prepared by direct compression of the excipient and filled with an organic solution of hydrochlorothiazide. Tablets were characterized regarding their structure and morphology, while their applicability was monitored using in vitro drug release studies. By utilizing the mentioned filling of blank tablets, we were able to incorporate the desired dose of the drug inside while maintaining the tablets initial mechanical properties. Moreover, most of the drug was incorporated in the tablet pores and the rest was homogeneously distributed over the tablet surface in the form of small particles, by which we also eliminated content non-uniformity (homogenous drug distribution through the tablet). To sum up, we not only developed a cheap, simple, and reproducible variation of direct tableting, but were also able to eliminate some of its biggest disadvantages (e.g., segregation of components, leading to inhomogeneities in contents, and incompatibility between different base ingredients due to their different surface properties). All mentioned make the proposed approach highly interesting for future use, especially in potential therapy individualization.
      PubDate: 2019-01-25
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1303-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Preparation, Pre-clinical and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Rapidly
           Absorbed Celecoxib Formulation
    • Authors: Réka Angi; Tamás Solymosi; Nikoletta Erdősi; Tamás Jordán; Balázs Kárpáti; Orsolya Basa-Dénes; Andrea Ujhelyi; John McDermott; Chris Roe; Stuart Mair; Zsolt Ötvös; László Molnár; Hristos Glavinas
      Abstract: Celecoxib (Celebrex®) is the only widely used NSAID that selectively inhibits the COX-2 isoenzyme. Celebrex® is absorbed slowly in the fasted state and food intake further delays absorption. In this work, an amorphous water dispersible granule formulation of celecoxib is described with in vitro characterization, preclinical and clinical data. The formulation exhibited very high passive permeability and apparent solubility, significantly outperforming the micronized celecoxib and the drug product Celebrex®. The granule formulation remained stable for at least 1 year in stability tests. In dog studies, tmax was 1 h with over 50% of Cmax reached within 15 min regardless of food intake. A phase 1 clinical trial was conducted with 12 volunteers at 100- and 200-mg doses. Celecoxib plasma concentrations reached 250 ng/ml, the effective therapeutic plasma level, in less than 15 min regardless of food or dose. The novel celecoxib formulation is rapidly absorbed, demonstrating the potential utility as an acute treatment offering advantages over the currently marketed product.
      PubDate: 2019-01-25
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1270-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Investigation of the Compatibility of the Skin PAMPA Model with Topical
           Formulation and Acceptor Media Additives Using Different Assay Setups
    • Authors: Melanie Köllmer; Parinaz Mossahebi; Elena Sacharow; Sascha Gorissen; Nicole Gräfe; Dirk-Heinrich Evers; Michael E. Herbig
      Abstract: The Skin Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) is a 96-well plate–based skin model with an artificial membrane containing free fatty acid, cholesterol, and synthetic ceramide analogs to mimic the stratum corneum (SC) barrier. The current study evaluates the compatibility of lipophilic solvents/penetration enhancer, topical emulsions containing different emulsifier systems, and organic acceptor media additives with the artificial membrane of the assay. Additionally, different assay setups (standard setup: donor in bottom plate versus modified setup: donor in top plate) were compared. Methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), and propylparaben (PP) were used as model permeants and internal standards for proper assay execution. The permeation order of the parabens (MP > EP > PP) remained the same with different lipophilic solvents, and the ranking of lipophilic solvents was comparable under standard and modified conditions (isopropyl myristate, IPM > dimethyl isosorbide, DMI ≥ propylene glycol, PG > diisopropyl adipate, DIPA). Pre-incubation of the Skin PAMPA plates with IPM, DIPA, and DMI, as well as with formulations that contain non-ionic emulsifiers, and acceptor solutions containing DMSO or EtOH (≤ 50%) for 4 h did not increase the percentage of permeated parabens in the main experiment, suggesting that those compounds do not make the artificial membrane more permeable. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed that acceptor solutions with ≤ 50% DMSO or EtOH do not extract stearic acid, cholesterol, and certramides at standard assay conditions. Hence, if certain constraints are considered, the Skin PAMPA model can be used as a pre-screening tool for topical formulation selection.
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1305-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Bioavailability of Ginsenoside-Modified
           Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Containing Curcumin
    • Authors: Ajay Vijayakumar; Rengarajan Baskaran; Jeong-Heum Baek; Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy; Bong Kyu Yoo
      Abstract: Our aim was to investigate the cellular uptake, in vitro cytotoxicity and bioavailability of ginsenoside-modified nanostructured lipid carrier loaded with curcumin (G-NLC). The formulation was prepared by melt emulsification technique, in which water was added to the melted lipids and homogenized to give a uniform suspension of NLC (without ginsenoside) and G-NLC. Cellular uptake of curcumin in two colon cancer cell lines (HCT116 and HT29) was increased when administered using both NLC and G-NLC compared to control (curcumin dissolved into DMSO) as measured by fluorescence microscopy. Ginsenoside modification resulted in 2.0-fold and 1.4-fold increases in fluorescence intensity in HCT116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, compared to plain NLC. In vitro cytotoxicity (assessed by MTT assay) had a dose-dependent relationship with curcumin concentration for both NLC and G-NLC. Although G-NLC was taken up more readily in HCT116 cells, ginsenoside modification did not produce a significant increase in cytotoxic effect; a significant increase was observed in HT29 cells. Oral administration of G-NLC in ten colon cancer patients produced an appreciable plasma level of unbound curcumin (2.9 ng/mL). In conclusion, introduction of ginsenoside into NLC enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of curcumin as well as its oral bioavailability, and this strategy can be used to improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of colon cancer with similar genotype to HT29.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1295-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Paclitaxel-loaded Nanolipidic Carriers with Improved Oral Bioavailability
           and Anticancer Activity against Human Liver Carcinoma
    • Authors: Harshita; Md Abul Barkat; Md Rizwanullah; Sarwar Beg; Faheem Hyder Pottoo; Sahabjada Siddiqui; Farhan J. Ahmad
      Abstract: The poorly water-soluble chemotherapeutic agents, paclitaxel (PTX), exhibit serious clinical side effects upon oral administration due to poor aqueous solubility and a high degree of toxic effects due to non-specific distribution to healthy tissues. In our efforts, we formulated biocompatible dietary lipid-based nanostructured lipidic carriers (NLCs) to enhance the oral bioavailability of PTX for treatment of the liver cancer. A three-factor, three-level Box–Behnken design was employed for formulation and optimization of PTX-loaded NLC formulations. PTX-loaded NLC formulation prepared by melt-emulsification in which glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was used as solid lipid and soybean oil as liquid lipid, while poloxamer 188 and Tween 80 (1:1) incorporated as a surfactant. In vitro drug release investigation was executed by dialysis bag approach, which indicated initial burst effect with > 60% drug release within a 4-h time period. Moreover, PTX-NLCs indicated high entrapment (86.48%) and drug loading efficiency (16.54%). In vitro cytotoxicity study of PTX-NLCs performed on HepG2 cell line by MTT assay indicated that PTX-NLCs exhibited comparatively higher cytotoxicity than commercial formulation (Intaxel®). IC50 values of PTX-NLCs and Intaxel® after 24-h exposure were found to be 4.19 μM and 11.2 μM. In vivo pharmacokinetic study in Wistar rats also indicated nearly 6.8-fold improvement in AUC and Cmax of the drug from the PTX-NLCs over the PTX suspension. In a nutshell, the observed results construed significant enhancement in the biopharmaceutical attributes of PTX-NLCs as a potential therapy for the management of human liver carcinoma.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1304-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Methods to Assess Mixing of Pharmaceutical Powders
    • Authors: Allison Crouter; Lauren Briens
      Abstract: The pharmaceutical manufacturing process consists of several steps, each of which must be monitored and controlled to ensure quality standards are met. The level of blending has an impact on the final product quality; therefore, it is important to be able to monitor blending progress and identify an end-point. Currently, the pharmaceutical industry assesses blend content and uniformity through the extraction of samples using thief probes followed by analytical methods, such as spectroscopy, to determine the sample composition. The development of process analytical technologies (PAT) can improve product monitoring with the aim of increasing efficiency, product quality and consistency, and creating a better understanding of the manufacturing process. Ideally, these are inline methods to remove issues related to extractive sampling and allow direct monitoring of the system using various sensors. Many technologies have been investigated, including spectroscopic techniques such as near-infrared spectroscopy, velocimetric techniques that may use tracers, tomographic techniques, and acoustic emissions monitoring. While some techniques have demonstrated potential, many have significant disadvantages including the need for equipment modification, specific requirements of the material, expensive equipment, extensive analysis, the location of the probes may be critical and/or invasive, and lastly, the technique may only be applicable to the development phase. Both the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies should be considered in application to a specific system.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1286-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Novel Inhalable Ciprofloxacin Dry Powders for Bronchiectasis Therapy:
           Mannitol–Silk Fibroin Binary Microparticles with High-Payload and
           Improved Aerosolized Properties
    • Authors: Chunxia Liu; Ling Lin; Zhengwei Huang; Qiaoli Wu; Junhuang Jiang; Li Lv; Xiaoxia Yu; Guilan Quan; Guocheng Li; Chuanbin Wu
      Abstract: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a chronic respiratory disease associated with the high morbidity and mortality. Long-term intermittent therapy by inhalable antibiotics has recently emerged as an effective approach for NCFB treatment. However, the effective delivery of antibiotics to the lung requires administering a high dose to the site of infection. Herein, we investigated the novel inhalable silk-based microparticles as a promising approach to deliver high-payload ciprofloxacin (CIP) for NCFB therapy. Silk fibroin (SF) was applied to improve drug-payload and deposit efficiency of the dry powder particles. Mannitol was added as a mucokinetic agent. The dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of CIP microparticles were evaluated in vitro in terms of the aerodynamic performance, particle size distribution, drug loading, morphology, and their solid state. The optimal formulation (highest drug loading, 80%) exhibited superior aerosolization performance in terms of fine particle fraction (45.04 ± 0.84%), emitted dose (98.10 ± 1.27%), mass median aerodynamic diameter (3.75 ± 0.03 μm), and geometric standard deviation (1.66 ± 0.10). The improved drug loading was due to the electrostatic interactions between the SF and CIP by adsorption, and the superior aerosolization efficiency would be largely attributed to the fluffy and porous cotton-like property and low-density structure of SF. The presented results indicated the novel inhalable silk-based DPI microparticles of CIP could provide a promising strategy for the treatment of NCFB.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1291-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Sustained Release Bilayer Tablet of Ibuprofen and Phenylephrine
           Hydrochloride: Preparation and Pharmacokinetics in Beagle Dogs
    • Authors: Chunli Zhu; Siyuan Xu; Xiaopeng Han; Wei Wang; Wei He; Lifang Yin; Lei Yang; Chao Qin
      Abstract: Cold is a global common infectious disease accompanied by symptoms such as headache and stuffy nose. Ibuprofen (IBU) and phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE) were commonly used for common cold due to their different effects in relieving fever and the main symptoms such as nasal congestion and high sinus pressure. However, the commercial tablets of IBU and PE have to be administered 2 to 3 times per day due to their short half-life, with inconvenience for patient and fluctuations of plasma concentration. Bilayer tablet technology was utilized to design the IBU-PE sustained release tablets because of the significantly different solubility of IBU and PE in release media. The formulations of IBU layer and PE layer contain different viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as sustained-release matrix, hydrophilic diluent, and traditional glidant and lubricant. The sustained release bilayer tablet exhibited satisfying sustained release performance with the mechanisms of diffusion and matrix erosion. Compared with the conventional tablets, the IBU-PE sustained release bilayer tablet expressed significantly sustained-release behavior with decreased Cmax and prolonged Tmax in fasted conditions for IBU and PE. Though IBU of IBU-PE sustained release bilayer tablet was bioequivalent to the commercial IBU tablet, the relative bioavailability of PE from the bilayer tablets was 87.49 ± 20.00% (90% confidence interval was 72.3 to 102.5%), indicating bioinequivalence probably due to the “first pass” effect.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1271-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Lipid-Based Nanocarriers for Lymphatic Transportation
    • Authors: Nikhar Vishwakarma; Anamika Jain; Rajeev Sharma; Nishi Mody; Sonal Vyas; Suresh P. Vyas
      Abstract: The effectiveness of any drug is dependent on to various factors like drug solubility, bioavailability, selection of appropriate delivery system, and proper route of administration. The oral route for the delivery of drugs is undoubtedly the most convenient, safest and has been widely used from past few decades for the effective delivery of drugs. However, despite of the numerous advantages that oral route offers, it often suffers certain limitations like low bioavailability due to poor water solubility as well as poor permeability of drugs, degradation of the drug in the physiological pH of the stomach, hepatic first-pass metabolism, etc. The researchers have been continuously working extensively to surmount and address appropriately the inherent drawbacks of the oral drug delivery. The constant and continuous efforts have led to the development of lipid-based nano drug delivery system to overcome the aforesaid associated challenges of the oral delivery through lymphatic transportation. The use of lymphatic route has demonstrated its critical and crucial role in overcoming the problem associated and related to low bioavailability of poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drugs by bypassing intestinal absorption and possible first-pass metabolism. The current review summarizes the bonafide perks of using the lipid-based nanocarriers for the delivery of drugs using the lymphatic route. The lipid-based nanocarriers seem to be a promising delivery system which can be optimized and further explored as an alternative to the conventional dosage forms for the enhancement of oral bioavailability of drugs, with better patient compliance, minimum side effect, and improved the overall quality of life.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1293-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Enhanced Oral Absorption of Amisulpride Via a Nanostructured Lipid
           Carrier-Based Capsules: Development, Optimization Applying the
           Desirability Function Approach and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Study
    • Authors: Abd El-Halim I. El Assasy; Niha F. Younes; Amal I. A. Makhlouf
      Abstract: Amisulpride (AMS), a second generation antipsychotic, suffers from low oral bioavailability (48%). This might be due to its pH-dependent solubility or being a substrate of P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were proposed in this study to enhance the oral absorption of AMS. AMS-NLCs were prepared by solvent evaporation technique according to (21.41.31) factorial design, whereas the type of solid lipid (tripalmitin or Gelucire® 43/1), lipid to drug ratio (7:1, 10:1, or 13:1) and type of external suspending medium (double distilled water, 0.5% TSP pH 12, 1% HPMC or 2.5% glycerin) were the independent variables. The average entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the prepared formulations ranged from 29.01 to 69.06%, 184.9 to 708.75 nm, 0.21 to 0.59, and − 21 to − 33.55 mV, respectively. AMS-NLCs were optimized according to the desirability function to maximize the entrapment efficiency and minimize the particle size. Formulae G12, G10, and G7 with the highest desirability values of 0.915, 0.84, and 0.768, respectively, were chosen for further investigations. Novel AMS-NLCs capsules were prepared from the lyophilized formulations (TG7 and MG10) to enhance stability and increase patient compliance. The capsules were evaluated in terms of weight variation, content uniformity, and in vitro release pattern. The pharmacokinetics of AMS-NLCs capsules (formula TG7) were tested in rabbits compared to the commercial Amipride® tablets. The relative bioavailability of AMS-NLCs capsules was found to be 252.78%. In conclusion, the NLC-based capsules show potential to improve the oral bioavailability of AMS.
      PubDate: 2019-01-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1283-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Folate-Functionalized Thiomeric Nanoparticles for Enhanced Docetaxel
           Cytotoxicity and Improved Oral Bioavailability
    • Authors: Muhammad Sajjad; Muhammad Imran Khan; Sara Naveed; Sana Ijaz; Omer Salman Qureshi; Syed Atif Raza; Gul Shahnaz; Muhammad Farhan Sohail
      Abstract: To achieve remotely directed delivery of anticancer drugs, surface-decorated nanoparticles with ligands are reported. In this study, folic acid– and thiol-decorated chitosan nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel (DTX-NPs) were prepared for enhanced cellular internalization in cancer cells and improved oral absorption. The DTX-NPs were explored through in vitro and in vivo parameters for various parameters. The DTX-NPs were found to be monodisperse nanoparticles with an average particle size of 158.50 ± 0.36 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.36 ± 0.0, a zeta potential of + 18.30 ± 2.52 mV, and an encapsulation efficiency of 71.47 ± 5.62%. The drug release from DTX-NPs followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with about 78% of drug release in 12 h. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies against folate receptor, positive MDA-MBB-231 cancerous cells showed improved cytotoxicity with IC50 of 0.58 μg/mL, which is significantly lower as compared to docetaxel (DTX). Ex vivo permeation enhancement showed an efflux ratio of 0.99 indicating successful transport across the intestine. Oral bioavailability was significantly improved as Cmax and AUC were higher than DTX suspension. Overall, the results suggest that DTX-NPs can be explored as a promising carrier for oral drug delivery.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1297-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Abuse Deterrent Immediate Release Egg-Shaped Tablet (Egglets) Using 3D
           Printing Technology: Quality by Design to Optimize Drug Release and
    • Authors: Pavan Kumar Nukala; Siddhant Palekar; Manali Patki; Ketan Patel
      Abstract: Opioid abuse is a growing problem and has become a national health crisis over the past decade in the USA. Oral ingestion, snorting, and injection are the most commonly employed routes of abuse for an immediate release product. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an egg-shaped tablet (egglet) using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing technology. Drug-loaded polymeric filaments (1.5 mm) were prepared using hot melt extrusion (HME) followed by printing into egglets of different sizes and infill densities. Based on printability and crush resistance, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was found to be the most suitable polymer for the preparation of abuse deterrent egglets. Further, egglets were evaluated and optimized for mechanical manipulation using household equipment, milling, particle size distribution, solvent extraction, and drug release as per the FDA guidance (November 2017). A multifactorial design was used to optimize egglets for solvent extraction and drug release. Extreme hardness (> 500 N) and very large particle size (> 1 mm) on mechanical manipulation confirmed the snorting deterring property while less than 15% drug extraction in 5 min (% Sext) demonstrated the deterrence for injection abuse. Quality target product profile D85 < 30 min and % Sext < 15 was achieved with egglets of 6 mm diameter, 45% infill density, and 15% w/w drug loading. Dose of drug can be easily customized by varying dimension and infill density without altering the composition. HME coupled with FDM 3D printing could be a promising tool in the preparation of patient-tailored, immediate release abuse deterrent formulation.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1298-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Effect of Mild Hyperthermia on Transdermal Absorption of Nicotine from
    • Authors: Apoorva Panda; Purnendu Kumar Sharma; S. Narasimha Murthy
      Abstract: Application of heat (hyperthermic conditions) on skin is known to enhance drug transfer and facilitate skin penetration of molecules. The aim of this work was to study the effect of hyperthermia on the drug release and skin permeation from nicotine transdermal patches. The drug release and skin permeation were characterized by in vitro release test and in vitro permeation test. The temperature was maintained at 32 °C as control (simulating normal physiological skin temperature) and 42 °C as hyperthermia condition. The in vitro release test was carried out using USP apparatus 5-Paddle over disk method for a transdermal patch. Skin permeation study was carried out across porcine skin using the flow through cells (PermeGear, Inc.) with an active diffusion area of 0.94 cm2. Mechanistic studies (parameters such as partition coefficient, TEWL and electrical resistivity) were also performed to understand the mechanisms involved in determining the influence of hyperthermia on drug delivery from transdermal patches of nicotine. The rate and extent of drug release from nicotine patch was not significantly different at two temperatures (Cumulative release after 12 h was 43.99 ± 3.29% at 32 °C and 53.70 ± 5.14% at 42 °C). Whereas, in case of in vitro permeation studies, the nicotine transdermal permeation flux for patch was threefold higher at 42 °C (100.1 ± 14.83 μg/cm2/h) than at 32 °C (33.3 ± 14.83 μg/cm2/h). The mechanistic studies revealed that the predominant mechanism of enhancement of drug permeation by hyperthermia condition is by the way of increasing the skin permeability. There is a potential concern of dumping of higher dose of nicotine via transdermal route.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1299-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Optimal Selection of Incoming Materials from the Inventory for Achieving
           the Target Drug Release Profile of High Drug Load Sustained-Release Matrix
    • Authors: Yi Zhang; Bing Xu; Xin Wang; Shengyun Dai; Xinyuan Shi; Yanjiang Qiao
      Abstract: In the pharmaceutical process, raw material (including APIs and excipients) variability can be delivered to the final product, and lead to batch-to-batch and lot-to-lot variances in its quality, finally impacting the efficacy of the drug. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) sustained-release matrix tablet was taken as the model formulation. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose with the viscosity of 4000 mPa·s (HPMCK4M) from different vendors and batches were collected and their physical properties were characterized by the SeDeM methodology. The in-vitro dissolution profiles of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from matrix tablets made up of different batches HPMC K4M displayed significant variations. Multi-block partial least squares (MB-PLS) modeling results further demonstrated that physical properties of excipients played dominant roles in the drug release. In order to achieve the target drug release profile with respect to those far from the criteria, the optimal selection method of incoming materials from the available was established and validated. This study provided novel insights into the control of the input variability of the process and amplified the application of the SeDeM expert system, emphasizing the importance of the physical information of the raw materials in the drug manufacturing process.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1268-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Spray-Dried Succinylated Soy Protein Microparticles for Oral Ibuprofen
    • Authors: Maria Antonieta Anaya Castro; Isabelle Alric; Fabien Brouillet; Jérôme Peydecastaing; Sophie Girod Fullana; Vanessa Durrieu
      Abstract: The potential value of succinylated soy protein (SPS) as a wall material for the encapsulation of ibuprofen (IBU), a model hydrophobic drug, by spray-drying was investigated. A succinylation rate of 93% was obtained for soy protein isolate, with a molar ratio of 1/1.5 (NH2/succinic anhydride). The solubility profile at 37°C showed that this chemical modification decreased the solubility of the protein below its isoelectric point, whereas solubility increased in alkaline conditions. Various SPS/IBU ratios (90/10, 80/20, and 60/40) were studied and compared with the same ratio of soy protein isolate (SPI/IBU). High encapsulation efficiency was achieved (91–95%). Microparticles were spherical and between 4 and 8 μm in diameter. The spray-drying of protein/IBU solutions appeared to be beneficial, as it resulted in an amorphous solid dispersion of IBU within the microparticles, coupled with an increase in the thermal stability of IBU. In vitro release was evaluated in acidic (pH 1.2 in the presence of pepsin) and neutral (pH 6.8) conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IBU was released significantly more slowly at pH 1.2, for both proteins. However, this slowing was particularly marked for SPS, for which rapid (within 2 h) and complete release was observed at pH 6.8. These results validate the hypothesis that SPS is suitable for use as a coating material for hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) due to its pH sensitivity, which should delay IBU release in the gastrointestinal tract.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1250-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Development and Characterization of a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery
           System Comprised of Rice Bran Oil for Poorly Soluble Drugs
    • Authors: Georgios K. Eleftheriadis; Panagiota Mantelou; Christina Karavasili; Paschalina Chatzopoulou; Dimitrios Katsantonis; Maria Irakli; Aggeliki Mygdalia; Ioannis S. Vizirianakis; Dimitrios G. Fatouros
      Abstract: Poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability are limiting factors in the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In a formulation approach to overcome these limitations, rice bran (RB) oil was evaluated as drug carrier in the development of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). The performance of RB in formulations incorporating Kolliphor RH40 or Kolliphor EL as surfactants and Transcutol HP as cosolvent was compared to a common oil vehicle, corn oil (CO). Serial dilutions of the preconcentrates were performed in various media [distilled water and simulated intestinal fluids mimicking fasted state (FaSSIF) and fed state (FeSSIF)] and at different dilution ratios to simulate the in vivo droplets’ behavior. The developed SNEDDS were assessed by means of phase separation, droplet size, polydispersity index, and ζ-potential. Complex ternary diagrams were constructed to identify compositions exhibiting monophasic behavior, droplet size < 100 nm, and polydispersity index (PDI) < 0.25. Multifactor analysis and response surface areas intended to determine the factors significantly affecting droplet size. The oil capacity to accommodate lipophilic drugs was assessed via fluorescence spectroscopy based on the solvatochromic behavior of Nile Red. Solubility studies were performed to prepare fenofibrate- and itraconazole-loaded SNEDDS and assess their droplet size, whereas dissolution experiments were conducted in simulated intestinal fluids. Caco-2 cell viability studies confirmed the safety of the SNEDDS formulations at 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions after cell exposure in culture for 4 h. The obtained results showed similar performance between RB and CO supporting the potential of RB as oil vehicle for the effective oral delivery of lipophilic compounds.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1274-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Oral Delivery of Methylthioadenosine to the Brain Employing Solid Lipid
           Nanoparticles: Pharmacokinetic, Behavioral, and Histopathological
    • Authors: Pramod Kumar; Gajanand Sharma; Varun Gupta; Ramanpreet Kaur; Kanika Thakur; Ruchi Malik; Anil Kumar; Naveen Kaushal; Om Prakash Katare; Kaisar Raza
      Abstract: The present study aimed to orally deliver methylthioadenosine (MTA) to the brain employing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for the management of neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis. The stearic acid–based SLNs were below 100 nm with almost neutral zeta potential and offered higher drug entrapment and drug loading. Cuprizone-induced demyelination model in mice was employed to mimic the multiple sclerosis–like conditions. It was observed that the MTA-loaded SLNs were able to maintain the normal metabolism, locomotor activity, motor coordination, balancing, and grip strength of the rodents in substantially superior ways vis-à-vis plain MTA. Histopathological studies of the corpus callosum and its subsequent staining with myelin staining dye luxol fast blue proved the potential of MTA-loaded SLNs in the remyelination of neurons. The pharmacokinetic studies provided the evidences for improved bioavailability and enhanced bioresidence supporting the pharmacodynamic findings. The studies proved that SLN-encapsulated MTA can be substantially delivered to the brain and can effectively remyelinate the neurons. It can reverse the multiple sclerosis–like symptoms in a safer and effective manner, that too by oral route.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1296-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Detailed Morphological Characterization of Nanocrystalline Active
           Ingredients in Solid Oral Dosage Forms Using Atomic Force Microscopy
    • Authors: Kumiko Sakai-Kato; Kunie Nanjo; Yuki Takechi-Haraya; Yukihiro Goda; Haruhiro Okuda; Ken-ichi Izutsu
      Abstract: The characterization of nanocrystalline active ingredients in multicomponent formulations for the design and manufacture of products with increased bioavailability is often challenging. The purpose of this study is to develop an atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging method for the detailed morphological characterization of nanocrystalline active ingredients in multicomponent oral formulations. The AFM images of aprepitant and sirolimus nanoparticles in aqueous suspension show that their sizes are comparable with those measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The method also provides information on a wide-sized range of particles, including small particles that can often only be detected by DLS when larger particles are removed by additional filtration steps. An expected advantage of the AFM method is the ability to obtain a detailed information on particle morphology and stiffness, which allows the active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipient (titanium dioxide) particles to be distinguished. Selective imaging of particles can also be achieved by varying the surface properties of the AFM solid substrate, which allows to control the interactions between the substrate and the active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipient particles. AFM analysis in combination with other methods (e.g., DLS), should facilitate the rational development of formulations based on nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1259-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • Formulation and Evaluation of a Novel Oral Oil-Based Suspension Using
           Micro-environmental pH-Modifying Solid Dispersion
    • Authors: Shudong Zhang; Qiang Wan; Yidan Xing; Jiafeng Ding; Shizhuang Yang; Weiwei Sun; Mengmeng Lu; Baoliang Pan
      Abstract: Drugs with pH-dependent solubility that have poor water solubility can be identified in the drug discovery pipeline. Some of them have poor oral absorption, which can result in insufficient efficacy. Micro-environmental pH-modifying solid dispersion (micro pHm SD) is a promising approach to overcome the poor oral absorption of these drugs. In the present study, toltrazuril (TOL), a weakly acidic drug with poor aqueous and pH-dependent solubility, was used as a model drug. Using micro pHm SD, a novel oral oil-based suspension of TOL SD (TSDS) was developed, and the stability of this formulation was evaluated based on particle size, settling volume ratio, redispersibility, thermal stability, and drug content. The optimized soybean oil-based TSDS (S-TSDS) had high physicochemical stability and good histocompatibility with common inflammatory reactions. The results of the in vitro dissolution analysis showed that S-TSDS rapidly and markedly released the drug and provided higher efficacy and longer persistence against coccidiosis (above 90.9%) in rabbits. This technique could increase the oral absorption and bioavailability of new drug candidates.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1222-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
  • An Evaluation of Curcumin-Encapsulated Chitosan Nanoparticles for
           Transdermal Delivery
    • Authors: Rajesh Sreedharan Nair; Andrew Morris; Nashiru Billa; Chee-Onn Leong
      Abstract: Curcumin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were synthesised and evaluated in vitro for enhanced transdermal delivery. Zetasizer® characterisation of three different formulations of curcumin nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) showed the size ranged from 167.3 ± 3.8 nm to 251.5 ± 5.8 nm, the polydispersity index (PDI) values were between 0.26 and 0.46 and the zeta potential values were positive (+ 18.1 to + 20.2 mV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images supported this size data and confirmed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. All the formulations showed excellent entrapment efficiency above 80%. FTIR results demonstrate the interaction between chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and confirm the presence of curcumin in the nanoparticle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of Cu-NPs indicate the presence of curcumin in a disordered crystalline or amorphous state, suggesting the interaction between the drug and the polymer. Drug release studies showed an improved drug release at pH 5.0 than in pH 7.4 and followed a zero order kinetics. The in vitro permeation studies through Strat-M® membrane demonstrated an enhanced permeation of Cu-NPs compared to aqueous curcumin solution (p ˂ 0.05) having a flux of 0.54 ± 0.03 μg cm−2 h−1 and 0.44 ± 0.03 μg cm−2 h−1 corresponding to formulations 5:1 and 3:1, respectively. The cytotoxicity assay on human keratinocyte (HaCat) cells showed enhanced percentage cell viability of Cu-NPs compared to curcumin solution. Cu-NPs developed in this study exhibit superior drug release and enhanced transdermal permeation of curcumin and superior percentage cell viability. Further ex vivo and in vivo evaluations will be conducted to support these findings.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1279-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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