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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Toxicology
  [SJR: 1.595]   [H-I: 76]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Maternal NO 2 exposure induces cardiac hypertrophy in male offspring via
           ROS-HIF-1α transcriptional regulation and aberrant DNA methylation
           modification of Csx/Nkx2.5
    • Authors: Yingying Zhang; Wei Yan; Xiaotong Ji; Huifeng Yue; Guangke Li; Nan Sang
      Abstract: Maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) poses a risk for morbidity and mortality in infantile congenital heart diseases and even adult cardiovascular diseases. However, the experimental evidence supporting these effects is insufficient, and the related regulatory mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal NO2 exposure causes cardiac hypertrophy-related consequences in offspring, and if so, how these adverse effects occur in the postnatal heart. The results indicate that in mice, maternal NO2 exposure causes cardiac hypertrophy in male offspring. This altered phenotype was accompanied by increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, bone morphogenetic protein 10 and β-myosin heavy chain and elevated activities of cardiomyocyte injury markers, including serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and kinases creatine phosphokinase (CK-MB) in serum. The cardiac-specific transcription factor Csx/Nkx2.5 played an important role in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte injury, and the action was associated with ROS-HIF-1α transcriptional regulation and DNA hypomethylation modification.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2166-3
  • Biomarker monitoring for food contaminants
    • Authors: Hermann M. Bolt
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2155-6
  • A novel genotoxin-specific qPCR array based on the metabolically competent
           human HepaRG ™ cell line as a rapid and reliable tool for improved in
           vitro hazard assessment
    • Authors: Gamze Ates; Birgit Mertens; Anja Heymans; Luc Verschaeve; Dimiter Milushev; Philippe Vanparys; Nancy H. C. Roosens; Sigrid C. J. De Keersmaecker; Vera Rogiers; Tatyana Y. Doktorova
      Abstract: Although the value of the regulatory accepted batteries for in vitro genotoxicity testing is recognized, they result in a high number of false positives. This has a major impact on society and industries developing novel compounds for pharmaceutical, chemical, and consumer products, as afflicted compounds have to be (prematurely) abandoned or further tested on animals. Using the metabolically competent human HepaRG™ cell line and toxicogenomics approaches, we have developed an upgraded, innovative, and proprietary gene classifier. This gene classifier is based on transcriptomic changes induced by 12 genotoxic and 12 non-genotoxic reference compounds tested at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, i.e., IC10 concentrations as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The resulting gene classifier was translated into an easy-to-handle qPCR array that, as shown by pathway analysis, covers several different cellular processes related to genotoxicity. To further assess the predictivity of the tool, a set of 5 known positive and 5 known negative test compounds for genotoxicity was evaluated. In addition, 2 compounds with debatable genotoxicity data were tested to explore how the qPCR array would classify these. With an accuracy of 100%, when equivocal results were considered positive, the results showed that combining HepaRG™ cells with a genotoxin-specific qPCR array can improve (geno)toxicological hazard assessment. In addition, the developed qPCR array was able to provide additional information on compounds for which so far debatable genotoxicity data are available. The results indicate that the new in vitro tool can improve human safety assessment of chemicals in general by basing predictions on mechanistic toxicogenomics information.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2172-5
  • New mechanistic insights on the metabolic-disruptor role of chlorpyrifos
           in apoE mice: a focus on insulin- and leptin-signalling pathways
    • Authors: Fiona Peris-Sampedro; Jordi Blanco; Maria Cabré; Pia Basaure; Laia Guardia-Escote; Jose L. Domingo; Domènec J. Sánchez; Maria Teresa Colomina
      Abstract: Recently, we have provided evidence, suggesting that mice expressing the human apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) are more prone to develop an obesity-like phenotype and a diabetic profile when subchronically fed a chlorpyrifos (CPF)-supplemented diet. The aim of the current study was to examine the underlying mechanisms through which CPF alters both insulin- and leptin-signalling pathways in an APOE-dependent manner. Both adult apoE3- and E4-targeted replacement and C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CPF at 0 or 2 mg/kg body weight/day through the diet for 8 consecutive weeks. We determined the expression of JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT3, p-STAT3, SOCS3, IRS-1, p-IRS-1, AKT, p-AKT, GSK3β, p-GSK3β, and apoE in the liver, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of pon1, pon2, and pon3. CPF markedly disrupted both leptin and insulin homeostasis, particularly in apoE3 mice. Indeed, only CPF-fed apoE3 mice exhibited an increased phosphorylation ratio of STAT3, as well as increased total SOCS3 protein levels. Similarly, the exposure to CPF drastically reduced the phosphorylation ratio of both AKT and GSK3β, especially in apoE3 mice. Overall, CPF reduced the expression of the three pon genes, principally in C57BL/6 and apoE3 mice. These results provide notable mechanistic insights on the metabolic effects of the pesticide CPF, and attest the increased vulnerability of apoE3 carriers to its metabolic-disruptor role.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2174-3
  • Cell death mechanisms of the anti-cancer drug etoposide on human
           cardiomyocytes isolated from pluripotent stem cells
    • Authors: Harshal Nemade; Umesh Chaudhari; Aviseka Acharya; Jürgen Hescheler; Jan Georg Hengstler; Symeon Papadopoulos; Agapios Sachinidis
      Abstract: Etoposide (ETP) and anthracyclines are applied for wide anti-cancer treatments. However, the ETP-induced cardiotoxicity remains to be a major safety issue and the underlying cardiotoxic mechanisms are not well understood. This study is aiming to unravel the cardiotoxicity profile of ETP in comparison to anthracyclines using physiologically relevant human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs). Using xCELLigence real-time cell analyser (RTCA), we found that single high dose of ETP induces irreversible increase in hPSC-CMs beating rate and decrease in beating amplitude. We also identified 58 deregulated genes consisting of 33 upregulated and 25 downregulated genes in hPSC-CMs after ETP treatment. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis showed that most upregulated genes are enriched in GO categories like positive regulation of apoptotic process, regulation of cell death, and mitochondria organization, whereas most downregulated genes were enriched in GO categories like cytoskeletal organization, muscle contraction, and Ca2+ ion homeostasis. Moreover, we also found upregulation in 5 miRNAs (has-miR-486-3p, has-miR-34c-5p, has-miR-4423-3p, has-miR-182-5p, and has-miR-139-5p) which play role in muscle contraction, arginine and proline metabolism, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy also confirmed the cytoskeletal and mitochondrial damage in hPSC-CMs treated with ETP, as well as noticeable alterations in intracellular calcium handling and mitochondrial membrane potential were also observed. The apoptosis inhibitor, Pifithrin-α, found to protect hPSC-CMs from ETP-induced cardiotoxicity, whereas hPSC-CMs treated with ferroptosis inhibitor, Liproxstatin-1, showed significant recovery in hPSC-CMs functional properties like beating rate and amplitude after ETP treatment. We suggest that the damage to mitochondria is a major contributing factor involved in ETP-induced cardiotoxicity and the activation of the p53-mediated ferroptosis pathway by ETP is likely the critical pathway in ETP-induced cardiotoxicity. We also conclude that the genomic biomarkers identified in this study will significantly contribute to develop and predict potential cardiotoxic effects of novel anti-cancer drugs in vitro.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2170-7
  • Proteomic alterations of brain subcellular organelles caused by low-dose
           copper exposure: implication for Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Haitao Yu; Dian Wang; Liangyu Zou; Zaijun Zhang; Hua Xu; Feiqi Zhu; Xiaohu Ren; Benhong Xu; Jianhui Yuan; Jianjun Liu; Peter S. Spencer; Xifei Yang
      Abstract: Excessive copper intake can lead to neurotoxicity, but there is a lack of comprehensive understanding on the potential impact of copper exposure especially at a low-dose on brain. We used 3xTg-AD mice to explore the potential neurotoxicity of chronic, low-dose copper treatment (0.13 ppm copper chloride in drinking water) on behavior and the brain hippocampal mitochondrial and nuclear proteome. Low-dose copper increased the spatial memory impairment of these animals, increased accumulation of intracellular amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42), decreased ATP content, increased the positive staining of 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of DNA oxidative damage, and caused apoptosis and a decrease in synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) revealed modulation of 24 hippocampal mitochondrial proteins (14 increased and 10 decreased) in copper-treated vs. untreated 3xTg-AD mice. Nuclear proteomic analysis revealed 43 modulated hippocampal nuclear proteins (25 increased and 18 decreased) in copper-treated 3xTg-AD vs. untreated mice. Classification of modulated mitochondrial and nuclear proteins included functional categories such as energy metabolism, synaptic-related proteins, DNA damage and apoptosis-related proteins, and oxidative stress-related proteins. Among these differentially expressed mitochondrial and nuclear proteins, nine proteins were abnormally expressed in both hippocampus mitochondria and nuclei, including electron transport chain-related proteins NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10 (NDUAA), cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit Rieske (UCRI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5B (COX5B), and ATP synthase subunit d (ATP5H), glycolytic-related pyruvate kinase PKM (KPYM) and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha (ODPA). Furthermore, we found coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an endogenous mitochondrial protective factor/antioxidant, modulated the expression of 12 differentially expressed hippocampal proteins (4 increased and 8 decreased), which could be classified in functional categories such as glycolysis and synaptic-related proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, implying that CoQ10 improved synaptic function, suppress oxidative stress, and regulate glycolysis. For the proteomics study, we validated the expression of several proteins related to synapses, DNA and apoptosis. The data confirmed that synapsin-2, a synaptic-related protein, was significantly decreased in both mitochondria and nuclei of copper-exposed 3xTg-AD mice. In mitochondria, dynamin-1 (DYN1), an apoptosis-related proteins, was significantly decreased. In the cellular nuclei, paraspeckle protein 1 (PSPC1) and purin-rich element-binding protein alpha (Purα), two DNA damage-related proteins, were significantly decreased and increased, respectively. We conclude that low-dose copper exposure exacerbates the spatial memory impairment of 3xTg-AD mice and perturbs multiple biological/pathogenic processes by dysregulating the mitochondrial and nuclear proteome. Exposure to copper might therefore contribute to the evolution of AD.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2163-6
  • Lymphocyte surface markers and cytokines are suitable for detection and
           potency assessment of skin-sensitizing chemicals in an in vitro model of
           allergic contact dermatitis: the LCSA-ly
    • Authors: Janna Frombach; Anna Sonnenburg; Björn-Dirk Krapohl; Torsten Zuberbier; Matthias Peiser; Ralf Stahlmann; Maximilian Schreiner
      Abstract: Allergic contact dermatitis is a widespread health disorder and occupational skin disease. Hence, screening for contact-sensitizing chemicals is highly relevant to toxicology, dermatology, and occupational medicine. The use of animal tests for this purpose is constrained by ethical considerations, need for high-throughput screening, and legislation (e.g., for cosmetics in the European Union). T cell activation is the final and most specific key event of the “adverse outcome pathway” for skin sensitization and therefore a promising target for the development of in vitro sensitization assays. We present a novel in vitro sensitization assay with a lymphocyte endpoint as an add-on to the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA): the LCSA-ly. While the LCSA measures dendritic cell activation, the LCSA-ly offers the option for an additional lymphocyte endpoint which can be measured concurrently. We incorporated lymphocytes in our previously established coculture of primary human keratinocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells and tested nine substances: five sensitizers [2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) 1.25–15 µmol/l, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) 15.6–125 µmol/l, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) 50–1000 µmol/l, coumarin, and resorcinol (both: 250–1500 µmol/l)] and four non-sensitizers (monochlorobenzene, caprylic acid, glycerol, and salicylic acid (all: 125–1000 µmol/l)]. DNCB and MBT increased a subset of IL-23 receptor+/IFN-γ receptor 1 (CD119)+ lymphocytes. DNCB, PPD, and MBT enhanced a subunit of the IL-4 receptor (CD124) and a memory marker (CD44) on lymphocytes. Remarkably, DNCB, PPD, and MBT raised IL-4 concentrations in coculture supernatants while IFN-γ levels decreased, which might point to Th2 activation in vitro. Coumarin, resorcinol, and non-sensitizers did not alter any of the tested surface markers or cytokines. IL-17 was not affected by any of the substances. Relative strength of sensitizers according to lymphocyte markers was DNCB > PPD > MBT, which corresponds to earlier results from the LCSA without lymphocyte endpoint, the murine local lymph node assay, and human data. This study is the first to prove the suitability of lymphocyte surface markers for sensitization testing and potency assessment.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2164-5
  • Effects of bisphenol A on ovarian follicular development and female
           germline stem cells
    • Authors: Xiaoqin Zhu; Geng G. Tian; Baoli Yu; Yanzhou Yang; Ji Wu
      Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most frequently detected emerging pollutants in the environment, has been implicated in adverse effects in male and female reproduction at extremely low concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the effects and potential mechanism of BPA on mouse ovarian follicular development and female germline stem cells (FGSCs). Female CD-1 adult mice were administered gradient concentrations of BPA (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal injection. We found that the number of atretic ovarian follicles was significantly increased at high BPA concentrations. Additionally, the numbers of primordial follicles, primary follicles, and corpus luteum (CL) were significantly reduced at high BPA concentrations. Interestingly, the number of FGSCs was remarkably reduced in BPA-treated ovaries. Furthermore, the increased apoptotic rate of FGSCs in vitro was triggered by BPA accompanied by increased BPA concentrations. To investigate the mechanism of BPA in ovarian follicular development, 193 differentially expressed proteins were identified in BPA-treated ovaries by the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-coupled 2D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. A total of 106 proteins were downregulated and 85 proteins were upregulated. Among these proteins, the apoptosis-related protein SAFB-like transcriptional modulator (SLTM) was remarkably upregulated, and this result was consistent with western blotting. Taken together, our results suggest that an ovarian follicular development, especially, the development of primordial follicles, primary follicles, and the CL, is inhibited by high BPA concentrations, and the ovarian follicle atresia is initiated by BPA through upregulated expression of SLTM. Furthermore, BPA induces apoptosis of cultured FGSCs. The effect of BPA on ovarian follicular development and FGSCs, especially the effect on FGSCs, suggests a novel mechanism of how BPA causes female infertility.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2167-2
  • Cytochrome b 5 impacts on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of benzo[ a
           ]pyrene and its DNA adduct formation: studies in hepatic cytochrome b 5
           /P450 reductase null (HBRN) mice
    • Authors: Lindsay Reed; Iveta Mrizova; Frantisek Barta; Radek Indra; Michaela Moserova; Klaus Kopka; Heinz H. Schmeiser; C. Roland Wolf; Colin J. Henderson; Marie Stiborova; David H. Phillips; Volker M. Arlt
      Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental pollutant that, based on evidence largely from in vitro studies, exerts its genotoxic effects after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450s. In the present study, Hepatic Reductase Null (HRN) and Hepatic Cytochrome b 5 /P450 Reductase Null (HBRN) mice have been used to study the role of P450s in the metabolic activation of BaP in vivo. In HRN mice, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), the electron donor to P450, is deleted specifically in hepatocytes. In HBRN mice the microsomal haemoprotein cytochrome b 5 , which can also act as an electron donor from cytochrome b 5 reductase to P450s, is also deleted in the liver. Wild-type (WT), HRN and HBRN mice were treated by i.p. injection with 125 mg/kg body weight BaP for 24 h. Hepatic microsomal fractions were isolated from BaP-treated and untreated mice. In vitro incubations carried out with BaP-pretreated microsomal fractions, BaP and DNA resulted in significantly higher BaP–DNA adduct formation with WT microsomal fractions compared to those from HRN or HBRN mice. Adduct formation (i.e. 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BaP [dG-N2-BPDE]) correlated with observed CYP1A activity and metabolite formation (i.e. BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol) when NADPH or NADH was used as enzymatic cofactors. BaP–DNA adduct levels (i.e. dG-N2-BPDE) in vivo were significantly higher (~ sevenfold) in liver of HRN mice than WT mice while no significant difference in adduct formation was observed in liver between HBRN and WT mice. Our results demonstrate that POR and cytochrome b 5 both modulate P450-mediated activation of BaP in vitro. However, hepatic P450 enzymes in vivo appear to be more important for BaP detoxification than its activation.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2162-7
  • Irritant-induced asthma to hypochlorite in mice due to impairment of the
           airway barrier
    • Authors: Sofie Van Den Broucke; Lore Pollaris; Greetje Vande Velde; Erik Verbeken; Benoit Nemery; Jeroen Vanoirbeek; Peter Hoet
      Abstract: Inhalation of commonly present irritants, such as chlorine and chlorine derivatives, can cause adverse respiratory effects, including irritant-induced asthma (IIA). We hypothesize that due to airway barrier impairment, exposure to hypochlorite (ClO-) can result in airway hypersensitivity. C57Bl/6 mice received an intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of the airway damaging agent naphthalene (NA, 200 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (mineral oil, MO). In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs were acquired before and at regular time points after the i.p. treatment. After a recovery period of 14 days an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with 0.003% active chlorine (in ClO-) or vehicle (distilled water, H2O) was given, followed by assessment of the breathing frequency. One day later, pulmonary function, along with pulmonary inflammation was determined. Lung permeability was assessed by means of total broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) protein content and plasma surfactant protein (SP)-D levels. In vivo micro-CT imaging revealed enlargement of the lungs and airways early after NA treatment, with a return to normal at day 14. When challenged i.n. with ClO-, NA-pretreated mice immediately responded with a sensory irritant response. Twenty-four hours later, NA/ClO- mice showed airway hyperreactivity (AHR), accompanied by a neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation. NA administration followed by ClO- induced airway barrier impairment, as shown by increased BAL protein and plasma SP-D concentrations; histology revealed epithelial denudation. These data prove that NA-induced lung impairment renders the lungs of mice more sensitive to an airway challenge with ClO-, confirming the hypothesis that incomplete barrier repair, followed by irritant exposure results in airway hypersensitivity.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2161-8
  • Innovative organotypic in vitro models for safety assessment: aligning
           with regulatory requirements and understanding models of the heart, skin,
           and liver as paradigms
    • Authors: Chris S. Pridgeon; Constanze Schlott; Min Wei Wong; Minne B. Heringa; Tobias Heckel; Joe Leedale; Laurence Launay; Vitalina Gryshkova; Stefan Przyborski; Rachel N. Bearon; Emma L. Wilkinson; Tahera Ansari; John Greenman; Delilah F. G. Hendriks; Sue Gibbs; James Sidaway; Rowena L. Sison-Young; Paul Walker; Mike J. Cross; B. Kevin Park; Chris E. P. Goldring
      Abstract: The development of improved, innovative models for the detection of toxicity of drugs, chemicals, or chemicals in cosmetics is crucial to efficiently bring new products safely to market in a cost-effective and timely manner. In addition, improvement in models to detect toxicity may reduce the incidence of unexpected post-marketing toxicity and reduce or eliminate the need for animal testing. The safety of novel products of the pharmaceutical, chemical, or cosmetics industry must be assured; therefore, toxicological properties need to be assessed. Accepted methods for gathering the information required by law for approval of substances are often animal methods. To reduce, refine, and replace animal testing, innovative organotypic in vitro models have emerged. Such models appear at different levels of complexity ranging from simpler, self-organized three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures up to more advanced scaffold-based co-cultures consisting of multiple cell types. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the field of toxicity testing with in vitro models for three major organ types: heart, skin, and liver. This review also examines regulatory aspects of such models in Europe and the UK, and summarizes best practices to facilitate the acceptance and appropriate use of advanced in vitro models.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2152-9
  • Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in mice is associated with microRNA
    • Authors: Cyrille Vandenbussche; Cynthia Van der Hauwaert; Edmone Dewaeles; Jessica Franczak; Marie-Flore Hennino; Viviane Gnemmi; Grégoire Savary; Quentin Tavernier; Nicolas Nottet; Agnès Paquet; Michaël Perrais; David Blum; Bernard Mari; Nicolas Pottier; François Glowacki; Christelle Cauffiez
      Abstract: Although Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug widely used in renal transplantation, its chronic use paradoxically induces nephrotoxic effects, in particular renal fibrosis, which is responsible for chronic allograft dysfunction and represents a major prognostic factor of allograft survival. As molecular pathways and mechanisms involved in Tacrolimus-induced fibrogenic response are poorly elucidated, we assessed whether miRNAs are involved in the nephrotoxic effects mediated by Tacrolimus. Treatment of CD-1 mice with Tacrolimus (1 mg/kg/d for 28 days) resulted in kidney injury and was associated with alteration of a gene expression signature associated with cellular stress, fibrosis and inflammation. Tacrolimus also affected renal miRNA expression, including miRNAs previously involved in fibrotic and inflammatory processes as “fibromirs” such as miR-21-5p, miR-199a-5p and miR-214-3p. In agreement with in vivo data, Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial cells exposed to Tacrolimus (25 and 50 µM) showed upregulation of miR-21-5p and the concomitant induction of epithelial phenotypic changes, inflammation and oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study suggests for the first time that miRNAs, especially fibromiRs, participate to Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxic effects. Therefore, targeting miRNAs may be a new therapeutic option to counteract Tacrolimus deleterious effects on kidney.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2158-3
  • Ethanol potentiates the genotoxicity of the food-derived mammary
           carcinogen PhIP in human estrogen receptor-positive mammary cells:
           mechanistic support for lifestyle factors (cooked red meat and ethanol)
           associated with mammary cancer
    • Authors: Durr-e-shahwar Malik; Rhiannon M. David; Nigel J. Gooderham
      Abstract: Consumption of cooked/processed meat and ethanol are lifestyle risk factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. Cooking meat generates heterocyclic amines such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Epidemiology, mechanistic and animal studies indicate that PhIP is a mammary carcinogen that could be causally linked to breast cancer incidence; PhIP is DNA damaging, mutagenic and oestrogenic. PhIP toxicity involves cytochrome P450 (CYP1 family)-mediated metabolic activation to DNA-damaging species, and transcriptional responses through Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen-receptor-α (ER-α). Ethanol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor strongly associated with breast cancer risk. Ethanol toxicity involves alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism to reactive acetaldehyde, and is also a substrate for CYP2E1, which when uncoupled generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage. Here, using human mammary cells that differ in estrogen-receptor status, we explore genotoxicity of PhIP and ethanol and mechanisms behind this toxicity. Treatment with PhIP (10−7–10−4 M) significantly induced genotoxicity (micronuclei formation) preferentially in ER-α positive human mammary cell lines (MCF-7, ER-α+) compared to MDA-MB-231 (ER-α−) cells. PhIP-induced CYP1A2 in both cell lines but CYP1B1 was selectively induced in ER-α(+) cells. ER-α inhibition in MCF-7 cells attenuated PhIP-mediated micronuclei formation and CYP1B1 induction. PhIP-induced CYP2E1 and ROS via ER-α-STAT-3 pathway, but only in ER-α (+) MCF-7 cells. Importantly, simultaneous treatments of physiological concentrations ethanol (10−3–10−1 M) with PhIP (10−7–10−4 M) increased oxidative stress and genotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, compared to the individual chemicals. Collectively, these data offer a mechanistic basis for the increased risk of breast cancer associated with dietary cooked meat and ethanol lifestyle choices.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2160-9
  • The development of an in vitro Pig-a assay in L5178Y cells
    • Authors: Rhiannon David; Emily Talbot; Bethany Allen; Amy Wilson; Usman Arshad; Ann Doherty
      Abstract: A recent flow cytometry-based in vivo mutagenicity assay involves the hemizygous phosphatidylinositol class A (Pig-a) gene. Pig-a forms the catalytic subunit of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase required for glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis. Mutations in Pig-a prevent GPI-anchor synthesis resulting in loss of cell-surface GPI-linked proteins. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate an in vitro Pig-a assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated cells (186.24–558.72 µg/ml; 24 h) were used for method development and antibodies against GPI-linked CD90.2 and stably expressed CD45 were used to determine GPI-status by flow cytometry. Antibody concentration and incubation times were optimised (0.18 µg/ml, 30 min, 4 °C) and Zombie Violet™ (viability marker; 0.5%, 30 min, RT) was included. The optimum phenotypic expression period was 8 days. The low background mutation frequency of GPI-deficiency [GPI(−)] in L5178Y cells (0.1%) constitutes a rare event, thus flow cytometry acquisition parameters were optimised; 104 cells were measured at medium flow rate to ensure a CV ≤ 30%. Spiking known numbers of GPI(−) cells into a wild-type population gave high correlation between measured and spiked numbers (R2 0.999). We applied the in vitro Pig-a assay to a selection of well-validated genotoxic and non-genotoxic compounds. EMS, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide dose dependently increased numbers of GPI(−) cells, while etoposide, mitomycin C, and a bacterial-specific mutagen did not. Cycloheximide and sodium chloride were negative. Sanger sequencing revealed Pig-a mutations in the GPI(−) clones. In conclusion, this in vitro Pig-a assay could complement the in vivo version, and follow up weak Ames positives and late-stage human metabolites or impurities.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2157-4
  • Identification of approved drugs as potent inhibitors of pregnane X
           receptor activation with differential receptor interaction profiles
    • Authors: Oliver Burk; Maria Kuzikov; Thales Kronenberger; Judith Jeske; Oliver Keminer; Wolfgang E. Thasler; Matthias Schwab; Carsten Wrenger; Björn Windshügel
      Abstract: Activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) results in the induction of first-pass metabolism and drug efflux. Hereby, PXR may cause adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure of drugs. PXR inhibition is thus an attractive option to minimise adverse effects or to improve therapeutic efficiencies; however, only a limited number of antagonists have been identified so far. We performed a cell-based high-throughput screen to identify PXR antagonists, using a library of approved and investigational drugs. Two approved drugs, pimecrolimus and pazopanib, emerged as novel potent antagonists of PXR activation, with IC50 values of 1.2 and 4.1 µM, respectively. We further characterised these with respect to receptor specificity, assembly of the PXR ligand-binding domain (LBD) and interactions with co-factors. In vitro and in silico assays were carried out to identify the site(s) of interaction with the PXR LBD. Primary human hepatocytes were used to investigate antagonism of the induction of endogenous PXR target genes. Pimecrolimus and pazopanib did not affect the transcriptional activity of other nuclear receptors. Both induced the release of co-repressor from PXR and likewise interfered with agonist-induced recruitment of co-activator. Cumulative evidence from cellular and in vitro assays, as well as molecular docking, suggested additional or exclusive binding outside the PXR ligand-binding pocket for both. The compounds differentially antagonised the induction of PXR-regulated genes by rifampicin in primary human hepatocytes. In conclusion, we here have identified two approved drugs as novel potent PXR inhibitors with differential receptor interaction profiles and gene selectivity in primary human hepatocytes.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2165-4
  • Flame retardants, hexabromocyclododecane (HCBD) and tetrabromobisphenol a
           (TBBPA), alter secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) from human
           immune cells
    • Authors: Sharia Yasmin; Margaret Whalen
      Abstract: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are flame retardants, used in a variety of applications, which contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. HBCD and TBBPA have been shown to alter the tumor killing function of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes and the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The current study examined the effects of HBCD and TBBPA on secretion of the critical pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) from human immune cells. Preparations of human immune cells that ranged in complexity were studied to determine if the effects of the compounds were consistent as the composition of the cell preparation became more heterogeneous. Cell preparations studied were: NK cells, monocyte-depleted (MD) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and PBMCs. Exposure of NK cells to higher concentrations of HBCD (5 and 2.5 µM) caused decreased secretion of TNFα. However, when the cell preparation contained T lymphocytes (MD-PBMCs and PBMCs) these same concentrations of HBCD increased TNFα secretion as did nearly all other concentrations. This suggests that HBCD’s ability to increase TNFα secretion from immune cells was dependent on the presence of T lymphocytes. In contrast, exposures to TBBPA decreased the secretion of TNFα from all immune cell preparations regardless of the composition of the cell preparation. Further, HBCD-induced increases in TNFα secretion utilized the p38 MARK pathway. Thus, both HBCD and TBBPA may have the capacity to disrupt the inflammatory response with HBCD having the potential to cause chronic inflammation.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2156-5
  • Anti-estrogenic activity of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate through
           disruption of co-activator recruitment: experimental and computational
    • Authors: Huiming Cao; Xun Li; Wenjuan Zhang; Ling Wang; Yu Pan; Zhen Zhou; Minjie Chen; Aiqian Zhang; Yong Liang; Maoyong Song
      Abstract: As a potential endocrine disruptor, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC) has previously been demonstrated to reduce expression of estrogen-dependent vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA in adult zebrafish. However, the underlying toxicity pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in TBC-induced endocrine disruption remain elusive. In the current study, E-Screen and MVLN assays were employed to explore the potential anti-estrogenic effects of TBC via the estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated signaling pathway. Within a dose range between 1 × 10− 9 and 1 × 10− 7 M, TBC significantly inhibited 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced cell proliferation in a breast cancer cell line. The luciferase activity induced by E2 was also significantly inhibited by TBC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, neither TBC nor E2 affected proliferation of the ERα-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. These experimental results confirmed that TBC has anti-estrogenic effects by affecting the ERα-mediated signaling pathway. By comparing TBC with known antagonists of ERα, we found that TBC has similar molecular structure as certain co-activator binding inhibitors. Therefore, using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, TBC was further predicted to competitively occupy the surface site of ERα rather than the canonical E2-binding pocket of ERα, thus disrupt subsequent co-activator recruitment and transcription activation. Our findings elucidate the anti-estrogenic mechanism of TBC at the atomic level and highlight the biological importance of surface sites of nuclear receptors for a risk assessment of potential environmental pollutants.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2159-2
  • Highlight report: ‘Big data in the 3R’s: outlook and
           recommendations’, a roundtable summary
    • Authors: C. Mahony; R. Currie; G. Daston; N. Kleinstreuer; B. van de Water
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2145-0
  • Reply to Zamani and Hassanian-Moghaddam, 2017: being specific and
           targeting disease-causing pathology matter in therapeutics
    • Authors: Mohammad Hossein Asghari; Milad Moloudizargari; Mohammad Abdollahi
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2154-7
  • Correction to: Selective determination of mandelic acid in urine using
           molecularly imprinted polymer in microextraction by packed sorbent
    • Authors: Esmaeel Soleimani; Abdulrahman Bahrami; Abbas Afkhami; Farshid Ghorbani Shahna
      Abstract: In the original publication of the article, there is an error in Fig. 2c. The authors would like to correct this error and the corrected version of Fig. 2c is as follow.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2153-8
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