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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Archives of Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.541
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Retraction Note to: Mouse models of intestinal inflammation and cancer
    • Abstract: The original article can be found online.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Correction to: Xenobiotica-metabolizing enzymes in the skin of rat, mouse,
           pig, guinea pig, man, and in human skin models
    • Abstract: This article is published with the incorrect copyright holder name in the HTML article as “© Springer 2018”. The correct copyright line should read “The Author(s) 2018” (as it appears in the article PDF).
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • The MAK-commission: finding solutions to society’s future challenges
    • PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Contemporary trends in toxicological research on arsenic
    • PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and
           PPARα-mediated species differences in triclosan-induced liver toxicity
    • Abstract: Triclosan, a widely used broad spectrum anti-bacterial agent, is hepatotoxic in rodents and exhibits differential effects on mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) in vitro; however, the mechanism underlying triclosan-induced liver toxicity has not been elucidated. This study examined the role of mouse and human PPARα in triclosan-induced liver toxicity by comparing the effects between wild-type and PPARα-humanized mice. Female mice of each genotype received dermal applications of 0, 58, or 125 mg triclosan/kg body weight daily for 13 weeks. Following the treatment, triclosan caused an increase in liver weight and relative liver weight only in wild-type mice. The expression levels of PPARα target genes cytochrome P450 4A and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 were increased in livers of both wild-type and PPARα-humanized mice, indicating that triclosan activated PPARα. Triclosan also elevated the expression levels of peroxisomal membrane protein PMP70 and catalase in the livers of both genotypes, suggesting that triclosan promoted the production of hepatocyte peroxisomes. There was an enhanced expression of cyclin D1, c-myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and Ki67, and a higher percentage of BrdU-labeled hepatocytes in wild-type mice, but not in PPARα-humanized mice, demonstrating triclosan-activated PPARα had differential effects on the hepatocyte proliferation. These findings imply that the differential effects of triclosan-activated PPARα on cell proliferation may play a role in the species differences in triclosan-induced liver toxicity.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Discovery of rubiarbonone C as a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 4F
           enzymes
    • Abstract: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, particularly CYP4A/4F, are the major ω-hydroxylases of arachidonic acid (AA) that can produce 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). Although there are dissimilarities in substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and gene regulation between CYP4A and CYP4F, selective CYP4A or 4F inhibitors are currently unavailable. Therefore, this study was designed to develop CYP4F selective inhibitors using a novel inhibitory assay of 20-HETE formation. The assay was established using pooled human kidney microsomes (HKMs) and human recombinant CYP4 enzymes incubated with 1,2,3,4,5-13C AA (13C5 AA) as a substrate to minimize interference by endogenous AA. The intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) values were 9.5 µL/min/mg for HKMs and 0.02, 0.9, and 10.1 µL/min/pmol for CYP4A11, CYP4F2, and CYP4F3B, respectively, which suggests a major role for CYP4F in ω-hydroxylation of AA. To validate the assay, we tested well-known pan-CYP4 inhibitor HET0016 along with 50 compounds derived from natural products. Of the screened compounds, rubiarbonone C showed the most potent inhibitory activity. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of rubiarbonone C against CYP4A11, CYP4F2, and 4F3B were > 50, 4.2, and 4.2 µM, respectively. Moreover, epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation from 13C5 AA was not inhibited by up to 30 µM rubiarbonone C. Meanwhile, in pooled human liver microsomes, CYP1, 2, and 3 family enzymes involved in drug metabolism were not substantially inhibited by rubiarbonone C. Thus, rubiarbonone C is a selective inhibitor of CYP4F and can be used to discriminate among CYP4 family enzymes and evaluate their roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Carbon nanotubes and crystalline silica induce matrix remodeling and
           contraction by stimulating myofibroblast transformation in a
           three-dimensional culture of human pulmonary fibroblasts: role of
           dimension and rigidity
    • Abstract: Pulmonary fibrosis is a poorly understood pathologic condition. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials with potentials for broad applications. CNTs can induce pulmonary fibrosis in animals, a cause for concern for exposed workers and consumers. Given the large number of CNTs available on the market and the seemingly infinite number of ways these particles can be modified in ways that may affect toxicity, in vitro models that can be used to quickly and effectively investigate the relative fibrogenicity of CNTs are much needed. Here we analyzed the fibrogenic potentials of six CNTs of varying physical properties and crystalline silica using two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D, respectively) in vitro models. WI38-VA13 human pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with CNTs or silica, with TGF-β1, a known inducer of fibroblast differentiation, as positive control. The cells were examined for fibrotic matrix alterations, including myofibroblast transformation, matrix remodeling, and matrix contraction. While all tested CNTs induced myofibroblast differentiation in 2D and 3D cultures, the 3D culture allowed the examination of myofibroblast clustering, collagen deposition and rearrangement, cell division, and matrix contraction in response to fibrogenic exposures, processes critical for fibrosis in vivo. At 1 µg/ml, MWCNTs elicit higher induction of myofibroblast differentiation and matrix remodeling than SWCNTs. Among MWCNTs, those with the highest and lowest aspect ratios produced the largest effects, which were comparable to those by TGF-β1 and higher than those by silica. Thus, the 3D collagen-based model enables the study of matrix fibrotic processes induced by CNTs and silica particles directly and effectively.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Fluoride induces apoptosis and autophagy through the IL-17 signaling
           pathway in mice hepatocytes
    • Abstract: Previous studies have reported that excessive fluoride exposure induced liver damage. However, the underlying mechanism of fluoride-induced hepatic toxicity is still unclear. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the fluoride-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and IL-17 signaling pathway-related genes to explore the possible mechanisms of NaF-induced liver injury in mice. For this, 48 male mice were allotted randomly to four groups, treated with deionized water, 25, 50, 100 mg/L NaF for 150 days continuously. Our results suggested that treatment with NaF decreased the PAS staining-positive area, with a concomitant increase in liver score, and serum ALT and AST levels which indicated that NaF induced the liver injury. In addition, the qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting results indicated that NaF exposure activated IL-17 signaling, apoptosis, and autophagy pathways. In summary, these results suggested that NaF induced apoptosis and autophagy in liver by activating the IL-17 signaling pathway, eventually leading to impaired liver function.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • PBDE-47 and PBDE mixture (DE-71) toxicities and liver transcriptomic
           changes at PND 22 after in utero/postnatal exposure in the rat
    • Abstract: Pentabromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE) are found in human tissue, in household dust, and in the environment, and a particular concern is the potential for the induction of cancer pathways from these fat-soluble persistent organic pollutants. Only one PBDE cancer study has been conducted and that was for a PBDE mixture (DE-71). Because it is not feasible to test all PBDE congeners in the environment for cancer potential, it is important to develop a set of biological endpoints that can be used in short-term toxicity studies to predict disease outcome after long-term exposures. In this study, PBDE-47 was selected as the test PBDE congener to evaluate and compare toxicity to that of the carcinogenic PBDE mixture. The toxicities of PBDE-47 and the PBDE mixture were evaluated at PND 22 in Wistar Han rat (Crl: WI (Han)) pups after in utero/postnatal exposure (0, 0.1, 15, or 50 mg/kg; dams, GD6-21; pups, PND 12-PND 21; oral gavage daily dosing). By PND 22, PBDE-47 caused centrilobular hypertrophy and fatty change in liver, and reduced serum thyroxin (T4) levels; similar effects were also observed after PBDE mixture exposure. Transcriptomic changes in the liver included induction of cytochrome p450 transcripts and up-regulation of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway transcripts and ABC membrane transport transcripts. Decreases in other transport transcripts (ABCG5 & 8) provided a plausible mechanism for lipid accumulation, characterized by a treatment-related liver fatty change after PBDE-47 and PBDE mixture exposure. The benchmark dose calculation based on liver transcriptomic data was generally lower for PBDE-47 than for the PBDE mixture. The up-regulation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and changes in metabolic transcripts after PBDE-47 and PBDE mixture exposure suggest that PBDE-47, like the PBDE mixture (NTP 2016, TR 589), could be a liver toxin/carcinogen after long-term exposure.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • The role of formation of pyrrole–ATP synthase subunit beta adduct in
           pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity
    • Abstract: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are one of the most significant groups of hepatotoxic phytotoxins. It is well-studied that metabolic activation of PAs generates reactive pyrrolic metabolites that rapidly bind to cellular proteins to form pyrrole–protein adducts leading to hepatotoxicity. Pyrrole–protein adducts all contain an identical core pyrrole moiety regardless of structures of the different PAs; however, the proteins forming pyrrole–protein adducts are largely unknown. The present study revealed that ATP synthase subunit beta (ATP5B), a critical subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, was a protein bound to the reactive pyrrolic metabolites forming pyrrole–ATP5B adduct. Using both anti-ATP5B antibody and our prepared anti-pyrrole–protein antibody, pyrrole–ATP5B adduct was identified in the liver of rats, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and HepaRG hepatocytes treated with retrorsine, a well-studied representative hepatotoxic PA. HepaRG cells were then used to further explore the consequence of pyrrole–ATP5B adduct formation. After treatment with retrorsine, significant amounts of pyrrole–ATP5B adduct were formed in HepaRG cells, resulting in remarkably reduced ATP synthase activity and intracellular ATP level. Subsequently, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiration were reduced, leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. Moreover, pre-treatment of HepaRG cells with a mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore inhibitor significantly reduced retrorsine-induced toxicity, further revealing that mitochondrial dysfunction caused by pyrrole–ATP5B adduct formation significantly contributed to PA intoxication. Our findings for the first time identified ATP5B as a protein covalently bound to the reactive pyrrolic metabolites of PAs to form pyrrole–ATP5B adduct, which impairs mitochondrial function and significantly contributes to PA-induced hepatotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Immunological impact of graphene oxide sheets in the abdominal cavity is
           governed by surface reactivity
    • Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is an oxidised form of graphene that has attracted commercial interest in multiple applications, including inks, printed electronics and spray coatings, which all raise health concerns due to potential creation of inhalable aerosols. Although a number of studies have discussed the toxicity of GO sheets, the in vivo impact of their lateral dimensions is still not clear. Here, we compared the effects of large GO sheets (l-GO, 1–20 µm) with those of small GO sheets (s-GO, < 1 µm) in terms of mesothelial damage and peritoneal inflammation, after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in mice. To benchmark the outcomes, long and rigid multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that were shown to be associated with asbestos-like pathogenicity on the mesothelium were also tested. Our aim was to assess whether lateral dimensions can be a predictor of inflammogenicity for GO sheets in a similar fashion as length is for MWCNTs. While long MWCNTs dispersed in 0.5% BSA induced a granulomatous response on the diaphragmatic mesothelium and immune cell recruitment to the peritoneal cavity, GO sheets dispersed under similar conditions did not cause any response, regardless of their lateral dimensions. We further interrogated whether tuning the surface reactivity of GO by testing different dispersions (5% dextrose instead of 0.5% BSA) may change the biological outcome. Although the change of dispersion did not alter the impact of GO on the mesothelium (i.e. no granuloma), we observed that, when dispersed in protein-free 5% dextrose solution, s-GO elicited a greater recruitment of monocytic cells to the peritoneal cavity than l-GO, or when dispersed in protein-containing solution. Such recruitment coincided with the greater ability of s-GO to interact in vivo with peritoneal macrophages and was associated with a greater surface reactivity in comparison to l-GO. In conclusion, large dimension was not a determining factor of the immunological impact of GO sheets after i.p. administration. For an equal dose, GO sheets with lateral dimensions similar to the length of long MWCNTs were less pathogenic than the MWCNTs. On the other hand, surface reactivity and the ability of some smaller GO sheets to interact more readily with immune cells seem to be key parameters that can be tuned to improve the safety profile of GO. In particular, the choice of dispersion modality, which affected these two parameters, was found to be of crucial importance in the assessment of GO impact in this model. Overall, these findings are essential for a better understanding of the parameters governing GO toxicity and inflammation, and the rational design of safe GO-based formulations for various applications, including biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • The mycotoxin alternariol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced
           inflammation in THP-1 derived macrophages targeting the NF-κB signalling
           pathway
    • Abstract: Alternariol (AOH) is a secondary metabolite formed by black mold of the genus Alternaria alternata. Due to limited hazard and occurrence data, AOH is still considered as an “emerging mycotoxin” and, as such, not monitored and regulated yet. Recent studies indicate immunosuppressive effects in vitro by altering the expression of CD molecules and proinflammatory cytokines, which are indispensable in mounting an innate immune response. However, the mode of action by which AOH exerts its immunosuppressive effects has not been unraveled yet. The present study aimed to characterise the impact of AOH on the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, the expression of NF-κB target cytokines and involved regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs). In THP-1 derived macrophages, AOH (1–20 µM) was found to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB pathway activation, decrease secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and to induce secretion of the anti-inflammatory IL-10. Thereby, a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA levels was monitored, varying between short- and long-term exposure. Concomitantly, AOH (2–20 µM) affected the transcription levels of miR-146a and miR-155 in LPS-stimulated THP-1 derived macrophages dose-dependently by down- and upregulation, respectively. In contrast, transcription of miR-16 and miR-125b, two other immune-related miRNAs, was not modulated. In the absence of a LPS stimulus, AOH (20 µM) did not affect basal NF-κB activity, but increased IL-10 transcription. Collectively, our results indicate, that AOH itself does not induce a proinflammatory immune response in human macrophages; however, in an inflamed environment it possesses the ability to repress inflammation by targeting the NF-κB signalling pathway and regulatory miRNAs.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • 3,3ʹ-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) promotes dendritic arborization in primary
           rat cortical neurons via a CREB-dependent mechanism
    • Abstract: PCB 11 (3,3ʹ-dichlorobiphenyl), a contemporary congener produced as a byproduct of current pigment production processes, has recently emerged as a prevalent worldwide pollutant. We recently demonstrated that exposure to PCB 11 increases dendritic arborization in vitro, but the mechanism(s) mediating this effect remain unknown. To address this data gap, primary cortical neuron–glia co-cultures derived from neonatal Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed for 48 h to either vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PCB 11 at concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 nM in the absence or presence of pharmacologic antagonists of established molecular targets of higher chlorinated PCBs. Reporter cell lines were used to test activity of PCB 11 at the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and thyroid hormone receptor (THR). PCB 11 lacked activity at the AhR and THR, and antagonism of these receptors had no effect on the dendrite-promoting activity of PCB 11. Pharmacologic antagonism of various calcium channels or treatment with antioxidants also did not alter PCB 11-induced dendritic arborization. In contrast, pharmacologic blockade or shRNA knockdown of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) significantly decreased dendritic growth in PCB 11-exposed cultures, suggesting PCB 11 promotes dendritic growth via CREB-mediated mechanisms. Since CREB signaling is crucial for normal neurodevelopment, and perturbations of CREB signaling have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, our findings suggest that this contemporary pollutant poses a threat to the developing brain, particularly in individuals with heritable mutations that promote CREB signaling.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Deepoxy-deoxynivalenol retains some immune-modulatory properties of the
           parent molecule deoxynivalenol in piglets
    • Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most abundant trichothecene in food and feed. It causes both acute and chronic disorders of the human and animal intestine, liver and the immune system. The structural basis for the toxicity of DON has not been fully elucidated. Using the pig as a target and a model species for human, the toxicity of DON and its deepoxy-metabolite (DOM-1) was compared. Animals were exposed by gavage to 1 and 0.5 nmol toxin/kg b.w./day for 2 and 3 weeks respectively. Whatever the dose/duration, DOM-1 was less toxic than DON in terms of weight gain and emesis. In the 3-week experiment, animals were vaccinated with ovalbumin, and their immune response was analyzed in addition to tissue morphology, biochemistry and hematology. DON impaired the morphology of the jejunum and the ileum, reduced villi height, decreased E-cadherin expression and modified the intestinal expression of cytokines. Similarly, DON induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by the lesion score and the blood biochemistry. By contrast, DOM-1 only induced minimal intestinal toxicity and did not trigger hepatotoxicity. As far as the immune response was concerned, the effects of ingesting DOM-1 were similar to those caused by DON, as measured by histopathology of lymphoid organs, PCNA expression and the specific antibody response. Taken together, these data demonstrated that DOM-1, a microbial detoxification product of DON, was not toxic in the sensitive pig model but retained some immune-modulatory properties of DON, especially its ability to stimulate a specific antibody response during a vaccination protocol.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • GC–MS metabolomics reveals disturbed metabolic pathways in primary mouse
           hepatocytes exposed to subtoxic levels of
           3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
    • Abstract: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a well-known hepatotoxic drug. Although its toxicity has been thoroughly studied at high concentrations, there is still insufficient knowledge on possible alterations of cell function at subtoxic concentrations, which are in fact more representative concentrations of intoxication scenarios. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) metabolomics approach was used to investigate the metabolic changes in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) exposed to two subtoxic concentrations of MDMA (LC01 and LC10) for 24 h. Metabolomic profiling of both intracellular metabolites and volatile metabolites in the extracellular medium of PMH was performed. Multivariate analysis showed that the metabolic pattern of cells exposed to MDMA discriminates from the controls in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to LC10 MDMA induces a significant increase in some intracellular metabolites, including oleic acid and palmitic acid, and a decrease in glutamate, aspartate, 5-oxoproline, fumarate, malate, phosphoric acid, α-ketoglutarate and citrate. Extracellular metabolites such as acetophenone, formaldehyde, pivalic acid, glyoxal and 2-butanone were found significantly increased after exposure to MDMA, compared to controls, whereas 4-methylheptane, 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptene, nonanal, among others, were found significantly decreased. The panel of discriminatory metabolites is mainly involved in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid metabolism, glutamate metabolism, antioxidant defenses and possibly changes in the liver enzyme machinery. Overall, these results highlight the potential of the intra- and extracellular metabolome to study alterations triggered by subtoxic concentrations of MDMA in hepatic cell functions, which represents a more realistic appraisal of early toxicity events posed by exposure to this drug. In addition, these results also revealed some metabolites that may be used as potential biomarkers indicative of early events in the hepatotoxicity induced by MDMA.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Arsenic induces autophagy in developmental mouse cerebral cortex and
           hippocampus by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway: involvement of
           blood–brain barrier’s tight junction proteins
    • Abstract: For the past decade, there has been an increased concern about the health risks from arsenic (As) exposure, because of its neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. The exact mechanism underlying As-induced neurotoxicity during sensitive periods of brain development remains unclear, especially the role of blood–brain barrier’s (BBB) tight junction (TJ) proteins during As-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we highlight the involvement of TJ proteins in As-induced autophagy in cerebral cortex and hippocampus during developmental periods [postnatal day (PND) 21, 28, 35 and 42]. Here, the administration of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) at doses of 0.15 mg or 1.5 mg or 15 mg As2O3/L in drinking water from gestational to lactational and continued to the pups till PND42 resulted in a significant decrease in the mRNA expression levels of TJ proteins (Occludin, Claudin, ZO-1 and ZO-2) and Occludin protein expression level. In addition, As exposure significantly decreased PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and p62 with a concomitant increase in Beclin1, LC3I, LC3II, Atg5 and Atg12. Moreover, As exposure also significantly downregulated the protein expression levels of mTOR with a concomitant upregulation of Beclin 1, LC3 and Atg12 in all the developmental age points. However, no significant alterations were observed in low and medium dose-exposed groups of PND42. Histopathological analysis in As-exposed mice revealed decreased number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus; and neurons with degenerating axons, shrinkage of cells, remarkable vacuolar degeneration in cytoplasm, karyolysis and pyknosis in cerebral cortex. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of autophagosomes and vacuolated axons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the mice exposed to high dose As at PND21 and 42. The severities of changes were found to more persist in the cerebral cortex than in the hippocampus of As-exposed mice. Finally, we conclude that the leaky BBB in cerebral cortex and hippocampus may facilitate the transfer of As and induces autophagy by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in an age-dependent manner, i.e., among the four different developmental age points, PND21 animals were found to be more vulnerable to the As-induced neurotoxicity than the other three age points.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Low doses of widely consumed cannabinoids (cannabidiol and cannabidivarin)
           cause DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human-derived cells
    • Abstract: Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidivarin (CBDV) are natural cannabinoids which are consumed in increasing amounts worldwide in cannabis extracts, as they prevent epilepsy, anxiety, and seizures. It was claimed that they may be useful in cancer therapy and have anti-inflammatory properties. Adverse long-term effects of these drugs (induction of cancer and infertility) which are related to damage of the genetic material have not been investigated. Therefore, we studied their DNA-damaging properties in human-derived cell lines under conditions which reflect the exposure of consumers. Both compounds induced DNA damage in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) experiments in a human liver cell line (HepG2) and in buccal-derived cells (TR146) at low levels (≥ 0.2 µM). Results of micronucleus (MN) cytome assays showed that the damage leads to formation of MNi which reflect chromosomal aberrations and leads to nuclear buds and bridges which are a consequence of gene amplifications and dicentric chromosomes. Additional experiments indicate that these effects are caused by oxidative base damage and that liver enzymes (S9) increase the genotoxic activity of both compounds. Our findings show that low concentrations of CBD and CBDV cause damage of the genetic material in human-derived cells. Furthermore, earlier studies showed that they cause chromosomal aberrations and MN in bone marrow of mice. Fixation of damage of the DNA in the form of chromosomal damage is generally considered to be essential in the multistep process of malignancy, therefore the currently available data are indicative for potential carcinogenic properties of the cannabinoids.
      PubDate: 2018-10-19
       
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α attenuates high-cholesterol
           diet-induced toxicity and pro-thrombotic effects in mice
    • Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is involved in the regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. A high-cholesterol (HC) diet increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD); however, it is unclear whether the toxic effects of cholesterol involve changes in thrombotic factor expression, and whether PPARα is necessary for such effects. To investigate this possibility, we fed a HC diet to wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null mice and measured cholesterol and triglyceride contents, liver histology, serum/plasma levels of coagulation factors, hepatic expression of the coagulation factors, liver/serum sulfatide levels, hepatic sulfatide metabolism, hepatic expression of lipid transporters, and hepatic oxidative stress and its relating enzymes. In Ppara-null mice, the HC diet caused triglyceride accumulation and exacerbated inflammation and oxidative stress in liver, increased levels of coagulation factors, including tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and carboxypeptidase B2 in blood and liver, and decreased levels of anti-thrombotic sulfatides in serum and liver. These changes were much less marked in WT mice. These findings imply that cholesterol overload exerts its toxic effects at least in part by enhancing thrombosis, secondary to abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Moreover, we reveal for the first time that PPARα can attenuate these toxic effects by transcriptional regulation of coagulation factors and sulfatides, in addition to its known effects of controlling lipid homeostasis and suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress. Therapies aimed at activating PPARα might prevent HC diet-induced CVD through modulating various pro- and anti-thrombotic factors.
      PubDate: 2018-10-19
       
  • Comparative pulmonary toxicity of a DWCNT and MWCNT-7 in rats
    • Abstract: Very little is known about the in vivo toxicity of inhaled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). In the present study, we compared the pulmonary toxicity of DWCNT to MWCNT-7, a well-known multi-walled carbon nanotube. Rats were divided into six groups: untreated, vehicle, low-dose DWCNT, high-dose DWCNT, low-dose MWCNT-7, and high-dose MWCNT-7. The test materials were administered by intra-tracheal intra-pulmonary spraying (TIPS) every other day for 15 days: the low-dose and high-dose groups were administered final total doses of 0.25 and 0.50 mg/rat of the test material. The animals were sacrificed 1 and 6 weeks after the final TIPS administration. Six weeks after the final TIPS administration, rats administered MWCNT-7 had high levels of macrophage infiltration into the lung with dense alveolar wall fibrous thickening throughout the lung; significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and total protein concentration in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid; an increase in the pulmonary cell PCNA index; slightly elevated levels of 8-OHdG DNA adducts in lung tissue DNA; a small but significant increase in protein concentration in the pleural cavity lavage fluid and an increase in the visceral mesothelial cell PCNA index. None of these parameters was increased in rats administered DWCNT. The primary lesion in rats administered DWCNT was scattered formation of granulation tissue containing internalized DWCNT fibers. Our data indicate that DWCNT has lower pulmonary and pleural toxicity than MWCNT-7.
      PubDate: 2018-10-19
       
  • Hepatic zonation of toxic metabolite formation: perspectives of
           matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging
    • Authors: Walaa Murad; Tahany Abbass; Abdel-latif Seddek
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2310-0
       
 
 
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