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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Archives of Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.541
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Propiconazole is an activator of AHR and causes concentration additive
           effects with an established AHR ligand
    • Authors: Constanze Knebel; Juliane Kebben; Ivano Eberini; Luca Palazzolo; Helen S. Hammer; Roderich D. Süssmuth; Tanja Heise; Stefanie Hessel-Pras; Alfonso Lampen; Albert Braeuning; Philip Marx-Stoelting
      Pages: 3471 - 3486
      Abstract: Consumers are exposed to pesticide residues and other food contaminants via the diet. Both can exert adverse effects on different target organs via the activation of nuclear receptor pathways. Hepatotoxic effects of the widely used triazole fungicide propiconazole (Pi) are generally attributed to the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) or the pregnane X receptor (PXR). We now investigated the effects of Pi on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and possible mixture toxicity when Pi is present in combination with BbF, an AHR ligand. In silico docking simulations indicate that Pi can bind to human AHR. Subsequent dual luciferase reporter gene assays in human HepG2 cells showed that Pi activates the AHR in vitro. This concentration-dependent activation was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analyses of the model AHR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in human HepaRG and HepG2 cells. In addition, induction of CYP1A1 protein levels and enzyme activity were recorded. Similarly, increased mRNA expression and enzyme activity of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 was observed in livers of rats treated with Pi for 28 days via the diet. Gene expression analysis in AHR-knockout HepaRG cells showed no induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, whereas gene expression in CAR-, and PXR-knockout cells was induced. Finally, mixture effects of Pi and BbF were analyzed in human cell lines: modeling of concentration–response curves revealed concentration additivity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the triazole Pi is an activator of AHR in silico, in vitro and in vivo and causes additive effects with an established AHR ligand.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2321-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Relevance of the incubation period in cytotoxicity testing with primary
           human hepatocytes
    • Authors: Xiaolong Gu; Wiebke Albrecht; Karolina Edlund; Franziska Kappenberg; Jörg Rahnenführer; Marcel Leist; Wolfgang Moritz; Patricio Godoy; Cristina Cadenas; Rosemarie Marchan; Tim Brecklinghaus; Laia Tolosa Pardo; José V. Castell; Iain Gardner; Bo Han; Jan G. Hengstler; Regina Stoeber
      Pages: 3505 - 3515
      Abstract: Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) remain the gold standard for in vitro testing in the field of pharmacology and toxicology. One crucial parameter influencing the results of in vitro tests is the incubation period with test compounds. It has been suggested that longer incubation periods may be critical for the prediction of repeated dose toxicity. However, a study that systematically analyzes the relationship between incubation period and cytotoxicity in PHHs is not available. To close this gap, 30 compounds were tested in a concentration-dependent manner for cytotoxicity in cultivated cryopreserved PHHs (three donors per compound) for 1, 2 and 7 days. The median of the EC50 values of all compounds decreased 1.78-fold on day 2 compared to day 1, and 1.89-fold on day 7 compared to day 1. Median values of EC50 ratios of all compounds at day 2 and day 7 were close to one but for individual compounds the ratio increased up to almost six. Strong correlations were obtained for EC50 on day 1 and day 7 (R = 0.985; 95% CI 0.960–0.994), day 1 and day 2 (R = 0.964; 95% CI 0.910–0.986), as well as day 2 and day 7 (R = 0.981; 95% CI 0.955–0.992). However, compound specific differences also occurred. Whereas, for example, busulfan showed a relatively strong increase on day 7 compared to day 1, cytotoxicity of acetaminophen did not increase during longer incubation periods. To validate the observed correlations, a publicly available data set, containing data on the cytotoxicity of human hepatocytes cultivated as spheroids for incubation periods of 5 and 14 days, was analyzed. A high correlation coefficient of EC50 values at day 5 and day 14 was obtained (R = 0.894; 95% CI 0.798–0.945). In conclusion, the median cytotoxicity of the test compounds increased between 1 and 2 days of incubation, with no or only a minimal further increase until day 7. It remains to be studied whether the different results obtained for some individual compounds after longer exposure periods would correspond better to human-repeated dose toxicity.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2302-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Whole genome sequencing analysis of small and large colony mutants from
           the mouse lymphoma assay
    • Authors: Xiaoqing Guo; Bohu Pan; Ji-Eun Seo; Ying Chen; Jian Yan; Nan Mei; Tao Chen
      Pages: 3585 - 3595
      Abstract: The Thymidine kinase (Tk) gene forward mutation assay, known as the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA), has been widely used for evaluating the genotoxicity of chemical agents. A striking morphological feature of Tk mutant colonies is the bimodal distribution of their sizes, with cells from the large colonies growing at a normal rate and cells from the small colonies growing at a slower rate than normal. To understand the molecular distinction for the different growth rates, we performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of the large and small colony mutants generated from the MLA. Three large colony and three small colony mutants generated from cells treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) or the vehicle control were selected for analysis. The WGS data were analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and chromosome copy number along chromosome 11, where the Tk gene is located. Although there were LOH alterations in both large and small colony mutants, copy number changes near Tk locus were found only in small colony mutants produced by the vehicle control and 4-NQO treatments. The chromosome copy number in the regions near the Tk locus increased from two to three or four in the spontaneous small colony mutants and decreased from two to one in the 4-NQO-induced small colony mutants. These results suggest that chromosome damage was repaired differently in the large and small colony mutants, resulting in significant chromosome alterations in the small colony mutants, but not in the large colony mutants. Thus, chromosome alterations near the Tk locus may play a major role in the inhibition of cell growth in the Tk small colony mutants.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2318-5
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • My experiences with the MAK Commission: a response to a recent editorial
    • Authors: Helmut Greim
      Pages: 3597 - 3598
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2343-4
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Two-photon based imaging reveals mechanisms of tissue damage
    • Authors: Mohamed M. M. Hashem
      Pages: 3599 - 3600
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2337-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Sex-specific differences in genotoxic and epigenetic effects of
           1,3-butadiene among mouse tissues
    • Authors: Lauren Lewis; Grace A. Chappell; Tetyana Kobets; Bridget E. O’Brian; Dewakar Sangaraju; Oksana Kosyk; Wanda Bodnar; Natalia Y. Tretyakova; Igor P. Pogribny; Ivan Rusyn
      Abstract: Exposure to environmental chemicals has been shown to have an impact on the epigenome. One example is a known human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene which acts primarily by a genotoxic mechanism, but also disrupts the chromatin structure by altering patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and histone modifications. Sex-specific differences in 1,3-butadiene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are well established; however, it remains unknown whether 1,3-butadiene-associated epigenetic alterations are also sex dependent. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that inhalational exposure to 1,3-butadiene will result in sex-specific epigenetic alterations. DNA damage and epigenetic effects of 1,3-butadiene were evaluated in liver, lung, and kidney tissues of male and female mice of two inbred strains (C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ). Mice were exposed to 0 or 425 ppm of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation (6 h/day, 5 days/week) for 2 weeks. Strain- and tissue-specific differences in 1,3-butadiene-induced DNA adducts and crosslinks were detected in the liver, lung and kidney; however, significant sex-specific differences in DNA damage were observed in the lung of C57BL/6J mice only. In addition, we assessed expression of the DNA repair genes and observed a marked upregulation of Mgmt in the kidney in female C57BL/6J mice. Sex-specific epigenetic effects of 1,3-butadiene exposure were evident in alterations of cytosine DNA methylation and histone modifications in the liver and lung in both strains. Specifically, we observed a loss of cytosine DNA methylation in the liver and lung of male and female 1,3-butadiene-exposed C57BL/6J mice, whereas hypermethylation was found in the liver and lung in 1,3-butadiene-exposed female CAST/EiJ mice. Our findings suggest that strain- and sex-specific effects of 1,3-butadiene on the epigenome may contribute to the known differences in cancer susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2374-x
       
  • In vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) by PBTK modeling for animal-free
           risk assessment approaches of potential endocrine-disrupting compounds
    • Authors: Eric Fabian; Caroline Gomes; Barbara Birk; Tabitha Williford; Tzutzuy Ramirez Hernandez; Christian Haase; Rene Zbranek; Bennard van Ravenzwaay; Robert Landsiedel
      Abstract: While in vitro testing is used to identify hazards of chemicals, nominal in vitro assay concentrations may misrepresent potential in vivo effects and do not provide dose–response data which can be used for a risk assessment. We used reverse dosimetry to compare in vitro effect concentrations-to-in vivo doses causing toxic effects related to endocrine disruption. Ten compounds (acetaminophen, bisphenol A, caffeine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, fenarimol, flutamide, genistein, ketoconazole, methyltestosterone, and trenbolone) have been tested in the yeast estrogen screening (YES) or yeast androgen-screening (YAS) assays for estrogen and androgen receptor binding, as well as the H295R assay (OECD test guideline no. 456) for potential interaction with steroidogenesis. With the assumption of comparable concentration–response ratios of these effects in the applied in vitro systems and the in vivo environment, the lowest observed effect concentrations from these assays were extrapolated to oral doses (LOELs) by reverse dosimetry. For extrapolation, an eight-compartment Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic (PBTK) rat model based on in vitro and in silico input data was used. The predicted LOEL was then compared to the LOEL actually observed in corresponding in vivo studies (YES/YAS assay versus uterotrophic or Hershberger assay and steroidogenesis assay versus pubertal assay or generation studies). This evaluation resulted in 6 out of 10 compounds for which the predicted LOELs were in the same order of magnitude as the actual in vivo LOELs. For four compounds, the predicted LOELs differed by more than tenfold from the actual in vivo LOELs. In conclusion, these data demonstrate the applicability of reverse dosimetry using a simple PBTK model to serve in vitro–in silico-based risk assessment, but also identified cases and test substance were the applied methods are insufficient.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2372-z
       
  • Acetaminophen cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells is associated with a decoupling
           of glycolysis from the TCA cycle, loss of NADPH production, and
           suppression of anabolism
    • Authors: Volker Behrends; Guro F. Giskeødegård; Natalia Bravo-Santano; Michal Letek; Hector C. Keun
      Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used analgesics worldwide, and overdoses are associated with lactic acidosis, hepatocyte toxicity, and acute liver failure due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatoma cell lines typically lack the CYP450 activity to generate the reactive metabolite of APAP observed in vivo, but are still subject to APAP cytotoxicity. In this study, we employed metabolic profiling and isotope labelling approaches to investigate the metabolic impact of acute exposure to cytotoxic doses of APAP on the widely used HepG2 cell model. We found that APAP exposure leads to limited cellular death and substantial growth inhibition. Metabolically, we observed an up-regulation of glycolysis and lactate production with a concomitant reduction in carbon from glucose entering the pentose-phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. This was accompanied by a depletion of cellular NADPH and a reduction in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and the amino acids serine and glycine. These events were not associated with lower reduced glutathione levels and no glutathione conjugates were seen in cell extracts. Co-treatment with a specific inhibitor of the lactate/H+ transporter MCT1, AZD3965, led to increased apoptosis in APAP-treated cells, suggesting that lactate accumulation could be a cause of cell death in this model. In conclusion, we show that APAP toxicity in HepG2 cells is largely independent of oxidative stress, and is linked instead to a decoupling of glycolysis from the TCA cycle, lactic acidosis, reduced NADPH production, and subsequent suppression of the anabolic pathways required for rapid growth.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2371-0
       
  • Compound selection and annotation to validate the predictivity of in vitro
           toxicity assays for use in drug discovery, in response to Commentary by
           Dr. Zink (Zink, D. Arch Toxicol (2018))
    • Authors: Anna-Karin Sjögren; Jorrit J. Hornberg
      PubDate: 2018-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2359-9
       
  • Re: Gi et al . 2018, In vivo positive mutagenicity of 1,4-dioxane and
           quantitative analysis of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in rats,
           Archives of Toxicology 92:3207–3221
    • Authors: Paul A. White; Andreas Zeller; Stefan Pfuhler; George E. Johnson
      PubDate: 2018-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2370-1
       
  • The role of roughage provision on the absorption and disposition of the
           mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in calves: from
           field observations to toxicokinetics
    • Authors: Bonnie Valgaeren; Léonard Théron; Siska Croubels; Mathias Devreese; Siegrid De Baere; Els Van Pamel; Els Daeseleire; Marthe De Boevre; Sarah De Saeger; Arnau Vidal; José Diana Di Mavungu; Philipp Fruhmann; Gerhard Adam; Alfons Callebaut; Calixte Bayrou; Vincent Frisée; Anne-Sophie Rao; Emilie Knapp; Arnaud Sartelet; Bart Pardon; Piet Deprez; Gunther Antonissen
      Abstract: A clinical case in Belgium demonstrated that feeding a feed concentrate containing considerable levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, 1.13 mg/kg feed) induced severe liver failure in 2- to 3-month-old beef calves. Symptoms disappeared by replacing the highly contaminated corn and by stimulating ruminal development via roughage administration. A multi-mycotoxin contamination was demonstrated in feed samples collected at 15 different veal farms in Belgium. DON was most prevalent, contaminating 80% of the roughage samples (mixed straw and maize silage; average concentration in positives: 637 ± 621 µg/kg, max. 1818 µg/kg), and all feed concentrate samples (411 ± 156 µg/kg, max. 693 µg/kg). In order to evaluate the impact of roughage provision and its associated ruminal development on the gastro-intestinal absorption and biodegradation of DON and its acetylated derivatives (3- and 15-ADON) in calves, a toxicokinetic study was performed with two ruminating and two non-ruminating male calves. Animals received in succession a bolus of DON (120 µg/kg bodyweight (BW)), 15-ADON (50 µg/kg BW), and 3-ADON (25 µg/kg) by intravenous (IV) injection or per os (PO) in a cross-over design. The absolute oral bioavailability of DON was much higher in non-ruminating calves (50.7 ± 33.0%) compared to ruminating calves (4.1 ± 4.5%). Immediately following exposure, 3- and 15-ADON were hydrolysed to DON in ruminating calves. DON and its acetylated metabolites were mainly metabolized to DON-3-glucuronide, however, also small amounts of DON-15-glucuronide were detected in urine. DON degradation to deepoxy-DON (DOM-1) was only observed to a relevant extent in ruminating calves. Consequently, toxicity of DON in calves is closely related to roughage provision and the associated stage of ruminal development.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2368-8
       
  • The hemoglobin adduct N -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine as biomarker of
           dietary exposure to glycidyl esters: a controlled exposure study in humans
           
    • Authors: Klaus Abraham; Jan Hielscher; Tobias Kaufholz; Hans Mielke; Alfonso Lampen; Bernhard Monien
      Abstract: Fatty acid esters of glycidol (glycidyl esters) are heat-induced food contaminants predominantly formed during industrial deodorization of vegetable oils and fats. After consumption, the esters are digested in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a systemic exposure to the reactive epoxide glycidol. The compound is carcinogenic, genotoxic and teratogenic in rodents, and rated as probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). Assessment of exposure from occurrence and consumption data is difficult, as lots of different foods containing refined oils and fats may contribute to human exposure. Therefore, assessment of the internal exposure using the hemoglobin adduct of glycidol, N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine (2,3-diHOPr-Val), may be promising, but a proof-of-principle study is needed to interpret adduct levels with respect to the underlying external exposure. A controlled exposure study was conducted with 11 healthy participants consuming a daily portion of about 36 g commercially available palm fat with a relatively high content of ester-bound glycidol (8.7 mg glycidol/kg) over 4 weeks (total amount 1 kg fat, individual doses between 2.7 and 5.2 µg/kg body weight per day). Frequent blood sampling was performed to monitor the 2,3-diHOPr-Val adduct levels during formation and the following removal over 15 weeks, using a modified Edman degradation and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS). Results demonstrated for the first time that the relatively high exposure during the intervention period was reflected in corresponding distinct increases of 2,3-diHOPr-Val levels in all participants, following the expected slope for hemoglobin adduct formation and removal over time. The mean adduct level increased from 4.0 to 12.2 pmol 2,3-diHOPr-Val/g hemoglobin. By using a nonlinear mixed model, values for the adduct level/dose ratio (k, mean 0.082 pmol 2,3-diHOPr-Val/g hemoglobin per µg glycidol/kg body weight) and the adduct lifetime (τ, mean 104 days, likely the lifetime of the erythrocytes) were determined. Interindividual variability was generally low. 2,3-DiHOPr-Val was therefore proven to be a biomarker of the external dietary exposure to fatty acid esters of glycidol. From the background adduct levels observed in our study, a mean external glycidol exposure of 0.94 µg/kg body weight was estimated. This value is considerably higher than current estimates for adults using occurrence and consumption data of food. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed (other oral or inhalational glycidol sources, endogenous formation, exposure to other chemicals also forming the adduct 2,3-diHOPr-Val). Further research is necessary to clarify the issue.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2373-y
       
  • PGC-1β modulates statin-associated myotoxicity in mice
    • Authors: François Singh; Joffrey Zoll; Urs Duthaler; Anne-Laure Charles; Miljenko V. Panajatovic; Gilles Laverny; Thomas G. McWilliams; Daniel Metzger; Bernard Geny; Stephan Krähenbühl; Jamal Bouitbir
      Abstract: Statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and lower serum LDL-cholesterol levels. Statins are generally well tolerated, but can be associated with potentially life-threatening myopathy of unknown mechanism. We have shown previously that statins impair PGC-1β expression in human and rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that PGC-1β may play a role in statin-induced myopathy. PGC-1β is a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of important genes in mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidative capacity and energy metabolism. The principle aim of the current study was to investigate the interaction between atorvastatin and PGC-1β in more detail. We therefore treated wild-type mice and mice with selective skeletal muscle knockout of PGC-1β (PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice) with oral atorvastatin (5 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. At the end of treatment, we determined body parameters, muscle function, structure, and composition as well as the function of muscle mitochondria, mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of apoptotic pathways. In wild-type mice, atorvastatin selectively impaired mitochondrial function in glycolytic muscle and caused a conversion of oxidative type IIA to glycolytic type IIB myofibers. Conversely, in oxidative muscle of wild-type mice, atorvastatin enhanced mitochondrial function via activation of mitochondrial biogenesis pathways and decreased apoptosis. In PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice, atorvastatin induced a switch towards glycolytic fibers, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, increased mitochondrial ROS production, impaired mitochondrial proliferation and induced apoptosis in both glycolytic and oxidative skeletal muscle. Our work reveals that atorvastatin mainly affects glycolytic muscle in wild-type mice and demonstrates the importance of PGC-1β for oxidative muscle integrity during long-term exposure to a myotoxic agent.
      PubDate: 2018-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2369-7
       
  • Highlight report: Stem cell-based developmental toxicity tests
    • Authors: Florian Seidel
      PubDate: 2018-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2357-y
       
  • Highlight report: New applications of chimeric mice with humanized livers
    • Authors: Wiebke Albrecht
      PubDate: 2018-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2358-x
       
  • Highlight report the food additive dammar resin is a rat hepatocarcinogen
    • Authors: Tarek Ellethy; Mohamed Alsenbesy; Mohamed M. M. Hashem
      PubDate: 2018-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2362-1
       
  • Highlight Report: humanized mice reveal interspecies differences in
           triclosan hepatotoxicity
    • Authors: Reham Hassan; Ahmed Ghallab
      PubDate: 2018-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2361-2
       
  • 3D visualization of the biliary tree by X-ray phase-contrast computed
           tomography
    • Authors: Amruta Damle-Vartak
      PubDate: 2018-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2346-1
       
  • Highlight report: spheroids from stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells
    • Authors: Patrick Nell
      PubDate: 2018-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2347-0
       
  • Highlight report: the need of ‘fit-for-purpose’ controls for cell
           lines used in toxicity assays
    • Authors: Reham Hassan; Ahmed Ghallab; Abdel-latif Seddek
      PubDate: 2018-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2348-z
       
 
 
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