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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Toxicology
  [SJR: 1.595]   [H-I: 76]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Correction to: An appraisal of critical effect sizes for the benchmark
           dose approach to assess dose–response relationships in genetic
    • Authors: Andreas Zeller; Gonzalo Duran-Pacheco; Melanie Guérard
      Abstract: In the original publication, Table 1 was incorrect (differences in the numerators of the fractions). The correct version of Table 1 (sums in the numerators) is given below.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2110-y
  • Standardisation of defined approaches for skin sensitisation testing to
           support regulatory use and international adoption: position of the
           International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods
    • Authors: S. Casati; K. Aschberger; J. Barroso; W. Casey; I. Delgado; T. S. Kim; N. Kleinstreuer; H. Kojima; J. K. Lee; A. Lowit; H. K. Park; M. J. Régimbald-Krnel; J. Strickland; M. Whelan; Y. Yang; Valérie Zuang
      Abstract: Skin sensitisation is the regulatory endpoint that has been at the centre of concerted efforts to replace animal testing in recent years, as demonstrated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) adoption of five non-animal methods addressing mechanisms under the first three key events of the skin sensitisation adverse outcome pathway. Nevertheless, the currently adopted methods, when used in isolation, are not sufficient to fulfil regulatory requirements on the skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals comparable to that provided by the regulatory animal tests. For this reason, a number of defined approaches integrating data from these methods with other relevant information have been proposed and documented by the OECD. With the aim to further enhance regulatory consideration and adoption of defined approaches, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal testing in collaboration with the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods hosted, on 4–5 October 2016, a workshop on the international regulatory applicability and acceptance of alternative non-animal approaches, i.e., defined approaches, to skin sensitisation assessment of chemicals used in a variety of sectors. The workshop convened representatives from more than 20 regulatory authorities from the European Union, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Brazil and China. There was a general consensus among the workshop participants that to maximise global regulatory acceptance of data generated with defined approaches, international harmonisation and standardisation are needed. Potential assessment criteria were defined for a systematic evaluation of existing defined approaches that would facilitate their translation into international standards, e.g., into a performance-based Test Guideline. Informed by the discussions at the workshop, the ICATM members propose practical ways to further promote the regulatory use and facilitate adoption of defined approaches for skin sensitisation assessments.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2097-4
  • Determining a threshold sub-acute dose leading to minimal physiological
           alterations following prolonged exposure to the nerve agent VX in rats
    • Authors: E. Bloch-Shilderman; I. Rabinovitz; I. Egoz; G. Yacov; N. Allon; U. Nili
      Abstract: VX, a potent inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE), is considered as one of the most toxic, persistent and least volatile nerve agents. VX is absorbed in various environmental surfaces and is gradually released long after its initial dispersal. Its toxicity is mainly caused by disrupting central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system activity, leading to potential long-term detrimental effects on health. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the threshold VX dose leading to minimal physiological alterations following prolonged VX exposure. Characterization of such a threshold is crucial for dealing with unresolved operative dilemmas such as when it is safe enough to resettle a population that has been evacuated from a VX-contaminated area. Rats, continuously exposed to various doses of VX (0.225–45 µg/kg/day) for 4 weeks via implanted mini-osmotic pumps, showed a dose-dependent and continuous decrease in ChE activity in whole blood, brain and muscles, ranging between 20 and 100%. Exposure to 13.5 µg/kg/day led to a stable low ChE activity level (~ 20%), accompanied by transient and negligible electrocorticogram spectral power transformations, especially in the theta and alpha brain wave frequencies, and a significant decrease in total brain M2 receptor density. These changes were neither accompanied by observable signs of intoxication nor by changes in motor function, circadian rhythm or TSPO level (a reliable marker of brain damage). Following exposure to lower doses of 2.25 and 0.225 µg/kg/day, the only change measured was a reduction in ChE activity of 60 and 20%, respectively. Based on these results, we delineate ChE inhibition as the physiological measure most susceptible to alterations following prolonged VX exposure, and determine for the first time the threshold sub-acute VX dose for minimal physiological effects (up to 20% reduction in ChE activity) in the rat as 0.225 µg/kg/day.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2108-5
  • Microscopy-based high-throughput assays enable multi-parametric analysis
           to assess adverse effects of nanomaterials in various cell lines
    • Authors: Iris Hansjosten; Juliane Rapp; Luisa Reiner; Ruben Vatter; Susanne Fritsch-Decker; Ravindra Peravali; Taina Palosaari; Elisabeth Joossens; Kirsten Gerloff; Peter Macko; Maurice Whelan; Douglas Gilliland; Isaac Ojea-Jimenez; Marco P. Monopoli; Louise Rocks; David Garry; Kenneth Dawson; Peter J. F. Röttgermann; Alexandra Murschhauser; Joachim O. Rädler; Selina V. Y. Tang; Pete Gooden; Marie-France A. Belinga-Desaunay; Abdullah O. Khan; Sophie Briffa; Emily Guggenheim; Anastasios Papadiamantis; Iseult Lynch; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Silvia Diabaté; Carsten Weiss
      Abstract: Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) selected from a library of over 120 different MNMs with varied compositions, sizes, and surface coatings were tested by four different laboratories for toxicity by high-throughput/-content (HT/C) techniques. The selected particles comprise 14 MNMs composed of CeO2, Ag, TiO2, ZnO and SiO2 with different coatings and surface characteristics at varying concentrations. The MNMs were tested in different mammalian cell lines at concentrations between 0.5 and 250 µg/mL to link physical–chemical properties to multiple adverse effects. The cell lines are derived from relevant organs such as liver, lung, colon and the immune system. Endpoints such as viable cell count, cell membrane permeability, apoptotic cell death, mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal acidification and steatosis have been studied. Soluble MNMs, Ag and ZnO, were toxic in all cell types. TiO2 and SiO2 MNMs also triggered toxicity in some, but not all, cell types and the cell type-specific effects were influenced by the specific coating and surface modification. CeO2 MNMs were nearly ineffective in our test systems. Differentiated liver cells appear to be most sensitive to MNMs, Whereas most of the investigated MNMs showed no acute toxicity, it became clear that some show adverse effects dependent on the assay and cell line. Hence, it is advised that future nanosafety studies utilise a multi-parametric approach such as HT/C screening to avoid missing signs of toxicity. Furthermore, some of the cell type-specific effects should be followed up in more detail and might also provide an incentive to address potential adverse effects in vivo in the relevant organ.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2106-7
  • Palytoxin congeners
    • Authors: Jiri Patocka; Eugenie Nepovimova; Qinghua Wu; Kamil Kuca
      Abstract: Palytoxin, isolated from a zoanthid of the genus Palythoa, is the most potent marine toxin known. Intoxication by palytoxin leads to vasoconstriction, hemorrhage, ataxia, muscle weakness, ventricular fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, ischemia and death. Palytoxin and its numerous derivatives (congeners) may enter the food chain and accumulate mainly in fishes and crabs, causing severe human intoxication and death following ingestion of contaminated products. Furthermore, toxic effects in individuals exposed via inhalation or skin contact to marine aerosol in coincidence with Ostreopsis blooms, have been reported. Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata are a concern in the Mediterranean Sea, since this species produces a wide range of palytoxin-like compounds listed among the most potent marine toxins. Thus, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis spp. has recently posed a problem of risk assessment for human health. Palytoxin has a strong potential for toxicity in humans and animals, and currently this toxin is of great concern worldwide. This review summarized and discussed the pharmacology and toxicology data of palytoxin and its congeners, including their cytotoxicity, human and animal toxicities. Moreover, the risk assessment and their control strategies including prevention and treatment assays were evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2105-8
  • A novel, integrated in vitro carcinogenicity test to identify genotoxic
           and non-genotoxic carcinogens using human lymphoblastoid cells
    • Authors: Eleanor C. Wilde; Katherine E. Chapman; Leanne M. Stannard; Anna L. Seager; Katja Brüsehafer; Ume-Kulsoom Shah; James A. Tonkin; M. Rowan Brown; Jatin R. Verma; Ann T. Doherty; George E. Johnson; Shareen H. Doak; Gareth J. S. Jenkins
      Abstract: Human exposure to carcinogens occurs via a plethora of environmental sources, with 70–90% of cancers caused by extrinsic factors. Aberrant phenotypes induced by such carcinogenic agents may provide universal biomarkers for cancer causation. Both current in vitro genotoxicity tests and the animal-testing paradigm in human cancer risk assessment fail to accurately represent and predict whether a chemical causes human carcinogenesis. The study aimed to establish whether the integrated analysis of multiple cellular endpoints related to the Hallmarks of Cancer could advance in vitro carcinogenicity assessment. Human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6, MCL-5) were treated for either 4 or 23 h with 8 known in vivo carcinogens, with doses up to 50% Relative Population Doubling (maximum 66.6 mM). The adverse effects of carcinogens on wide-ranging aspects of cellular health were quantified using several approaches; these included chromosome damage, cell signalling, cell morphology, cell-cycle dynamics and bioenergetic perturbations. Cell morphology and gene expression alterations proved particularly sensitive for environmental carcinogen identification. Composite scores for the carcinogens’ adverse effects revealed that this approach could identify both DNA-reactive and non-DNA reactive carcinogens in vitro. The richer datasets generated proved that the holistic evaluation of integrated phenotypic alterations is valuable for effective in vitro risk assessment, while also supporting animal test replacement. Crucially, the study offers valuable insights into the mechanisms of human carcinogenesis resulting from exposure to chemicals that humans are likely to encounter in their environment. Such an understanding of cancer induction via environmental agents is essential for cancer prevention.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2102-y
  • Linking site-specific loss of histone acetylation to repression of gene
           expression by the mycotoxin ochratoxin A
    • Authors: Elisabeth Limbeck; Jens T. Vanselow; Julian Hofmann; Andreas Schlosser; Angela Mally
      Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent renal carcinogen but its mechanism has not been fully resolved. In vitro and in vivo gene expression studies consistently revealed down-regulation of gene expression as the predominant transcriptional response to OTA. Based on the importance of specific histone acetylation marks in regulating gene transcription and our recent finding that OTA inhibits histone acetyltransferases (HATs), leading to loss of acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins, we hypothesized that OTA-mediated repression of gene expression may be causally linked to HAT inhibition and loss of histone acetylation. In this study, we used a novel mass spectrometry approach employing chemical 13C-acetylation of unmodified lysine residues for quantification of post-translational acetylation sites to identify site-specific alterations in histone acetylation in human kidney epithelial cells (HK-2) exposed to OTA. These results showed OTA-mediated hypoacetylation at almost all lysine residues of core histones, including loss of acetylation at H3K9 and H3K14, which are hallmarks of gene activation. ChIP-qPCR used to establish a possible link between H3K9 or H3K14 hypoacetylation and OTA-mediated down-regulation of selected genes (AMIGO2, CLASP2, CTNND1) confirmed OTA-mediated H3K9 hypoacetylation at promoter regions of these genes. Integrated analysis of OTA-mediated genome-wide changes in H3K9 acetylation identified by ChIP-Seq with published gene expression data further demonstrated that among OTA-responsive genes almost 80% of hypoacetylated genes were down-regulated, thus confirming an association between H3K9 acetylation status and gene expression of these genes. However, only 7% of OTA repressed genes showed loss of H3K9 acetylation within promoter regions. Interestingly, however, GO analysis and functional enrichment of down-regulated genes showing loss of H3K9 acetylation at their respective promoter regions revealed enrichment of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, including a number of transcription factors that are predicted to directly or indirectly regulate the expression of 98% of OTA repressed genes. Thus, it is possible that histone acetylation changes in a fairly small set of genes but with key function in transcriptional regulation may trigger a cascade of events that may lead to overall repression of gene expression. Taken together, our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between loss of H3K9 acetylation as a consequence of OTA-mediated inhibition of HATs and repression of gene expression by OTA, thereby affecting cellular processes critical to tumorigenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2107-6
  • Effect of six oximes on acutely anticholinesterase inhibitor-induced
           oxidative stress in rat plasma and brain
    • Authors: Evica Antonijevic; Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic; Kamil Musilek; Andrea Kosvancova; Kamil Kuca; Danijela Djukic-Cosic; Vesna Spasojevic-Kalimanovska; Biljana Antonijevic
      Abstract: Beside the key inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), involvement of oxidative stress in organophosphate (OP)-induced toxicity has been supported by experimental and human studies. On the other hand, according to our best knowledge, possible antioxidant properties of oximes, the only causal antidotes to OP-inhibited AChE, have been examined only by a few studies. Thus, we have determined the effect of four conventional (obidoxime, trimedoxime, pralidoxime, asoxime) and two promising experimental oximes (K027, K203) on dichlorvos (DDVP)-induced oxidative changes in vivo. Wistar rats (5/group) were treated with oxime (5% LD50 i.m) immediately after DDVP challenge (75% LD50 s.c). Oxidative stress biomarkers were determined in plasma and brain 60 min after the treatment: prooxidative—superoxide anion (O2 ·−) and total oxidative status (TOS); antioxidative—superoxide dismutase (SOD), total thiol (SH) groups, total antioxidant status (TAS) and paraoxonase (PON1); tissue oxidative stress burden—prooxidative–antioxidative balance (PAB) and oxidative stress index (OSI); oxidative tissue damage—malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP). All oximes were able to attenuate DDVP-induced oxidative stress in rat plasma and brain. Changes of determined parameters in brain were not as prominent as it was seen in plasma. Based on OSI, better abilities of oxime K027, K203 and obidoxime to maintain DDVP-induced oxidative stress in rat brain were shown as compared to trimedoxime, pralidoxime and asoxime. Oximes can influence the complex in vivo redox processes that might contribute to their overall therapeutic efficacy. Further research is needed to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2101-z
  • Changes in the expression of genes involved in the ovarian function of
           rats caused by daily exposure to 3-methylcholanthrene and their prevention
           by α-naphthoflavone
    • Authors: Eric Alejandro Rhon-Calderón; Carlos Alejandro Toro; Alejandro Lomniczi; Rocío Alejandra Galarza; Alicia Graciela Faletti
      Abstract: Daily exposure to low doses of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) during the pubertal period in rats disrupts both follicular growth and ovulation. Thus, to provide new insights into the toxicity mechanism of 3MC in the ovary, here we investigated the effect of daily exposure to 3MC on selected ovarian genes, the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the level of epigenetic remodeling of histone post-transcriptional modifications. Immature rats were daily injected with 3MC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg) and mRNA expression of genes involved in different ovarian processes were evaluated. Of the 29 genes studied, 18 were up-regulated, five were down-regulated and six were not altered. To assess whether AhR was involved in these changes, we used the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. 3MC increased AhR binding to promoter regions of genes involved in Notch signaling (Hes1, Jag1), activation of primordial follicles (Cdk2), cell adhesion (Icam1), stress and tumor progression (Dnajb6), apoptosis (Bax, Caspase-9) and expression of growth and transcription factors (Igf2, Sp1). Studying the trimethylation and acetylation of histone 3 (H3K4me3 and H3K9Ac, respectively) of these genes, we found that 3MC increased H3K4me3 in Cyp1a1, Jag1, Dnajb6, Igf2, Notch2, Adamts1, Bax and Caspase-9, and H3K9Ac in Cyp1a1, Jag1, Cdk2, Dnajb6, Igf2, Icam1, and Sp1. Co-treatment with α-naphthoflavone (αNF), a specific antagonist of AhR, prevented almost every 3MC-induced changes. Despite the low dose used in these experiments, daily exposure to 3MC induced changes in both gene expression and epigenomic remodeling, which may lead to premature ovarian failure.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2096-5
  • Comparative developmental toxicity of a comprehensive suite of polycyclic
           aromatic hydrocarbons
    • Authors: Mitra C. Geier; Anna C. Chlebowski; Lisa Truong; Staci L. Massey Simonich; Kim A. Anderson; Robert L. Tanguay
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants that occur in complex mixtures. Several PAHs are known or suspected mutagens and/or carcinogens, but developmental toxicity data is lacking for PAHs, particularly their oxygenated and nitrated derivatives. Such data are necessary to understand and predict the toxicity of environmental mixtures. 123 PAHs were assessed for morphological and neurobehavioral effects for a range of concentrations between 0.1 and 50 µM, using a high throughput early-life stage zebrafish assay, including 33 parent, 22 nitrated, 17 oxygenated, 19 hydroxylated, 14 methylated, 16 heterocyclic, and 2 aminated PAHs. Additionally, each PAH was evaluated for AHR activation, by assessing CYP1A protein expression using whole animal immunohistochemistry (IHC). Responses to PAHs varied in a structurally dependent manner. High-molecular weight PAHs were significantly more developmentally toxic than the low-molecular weight PAHs, and CYP1A expression was detected in five distinct tissues, including vasculature, liver, skin, neuromasts and yolk.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2068-9
  • Correction to: Quantification of N -phenyl-2-naphthylamine by gas
           chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry and its percutaneous
           absorption ex vivo under workplace conditions
    • Authors: Eike Maximilian Marek; Stephan Koslitz; Tobias Weiss; Manigé Fartasch; Gerhard Schlüter; Heiko Udo Käfferlein; Thomas Brüning
      Abstract: The article ‘Quantification of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine by gas chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry and its percutaneous absorption ex vivo under workplace conditions’ written by Heiko Udo Käfferlein, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 12th September 2017 without open access.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2095-6
  • Activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor participates
           downstream of GPR30 in estradiol-17β- d -glucuronide-induced cholestasis
           in rats
    • Authors: Ismael R. Barosso; Gisel S. Miszczuk; Nadia Ciriaci; Romina B. Andermatten; Paula M. Maidagan; Valeria Razori; Diego R. Taborda; Marcelo G. Roma; Fernando A. Crocenzi; Enrique J. Sánchez Pozzi
      Abstract: Estradiol-17β-d-glucuronide (E17G), through the activation of different signaling proteins, induces acute endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters in rat, including multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Abcc2) and bile salt export pump (Abcb11), generating cholestasis. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor that can potentially interact with proteins activated by E17G. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of IGF-1R in the effects of E17G in isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) and isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. In vitro, IGF-1R inhibition by tyrphostin AG1024 (TYR, 100 nM), or its knock-down with siRNA, strongly prevented E17G-induced impairment of Abcc2 and Abcb11 function and localization. The protection by TYR was not additive to that produced by wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor, 100 nM), and both protections share the same dependency on microtubule integrity, suggesting that IGF-1R shared the signaling pathway of PI3K/Akt. Further analysis of the activation of Akt and IGF-1R induced by E17G indicated a sequence of activation GPR30-IGF-1R-PI3K/Akt. In IPRL, an intraportal injection of E17G triggered endocytosis of Abcc2 and Abcb11, and this was accompanied by a sustained decrease in the bile flow and the biliary excretion of Abcc2 and Abcb11 substrates. TYR did not prevent the initial decay, but it greatly accelerated the recovery to normality of these parameters and the reinsertion of transporters into the canalicular membrane. In conclusion, the activation of IGF-1R is a key factor in the alteration of canalicular transporter function and localization induced by E17G, and its activation follows that of GPR30 and precedes that of PI3K/Akt.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2098-3
  • Predicting in vivo effect levels for repeat-dose systemic toxicity using
           chemical, biological, kinetic and study covariates
    • Authors: Lisa Truong; Gladys Ouedraogo; LyLy Pham; Jacques Clouzeau; Sophie Loisel-Joubert; Delphine Blanchet; Hicham Noçairi; Woodrow Setzer; Richard Judson; Chris Grulke; Kamel Mansouri; Matthew Martin
      Abstract: In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was developed. Systemic effect levels were curated from ToxRefDB, HESS-DB and COSMOS-DB from numerous study types totaling 4379 in vivo studies for 1247 chemicals. Observed systemic effects in mammalian models are a complex function of chemical dynamics, kinetics, and inter- and intra-individual variability. To address this complex problem, systemic effect levels were modeled at the study-level by leveraging study covariates (e.g., study type, strain, administration route) in addition to multiple descriptor sets, including chemical (ToxPrint, PaDEL, and Physchem), biological (ToxCast), and kinetic descriptors. Using random forest modeling with cross-validation and external validation procedures, study-level covariates alone accounted for approximately 15% of the variance reducing the root mean squared error (RMSE) from 0.96 log10 to 0.85 log10 mg/kg/day, providing a baseline performance metric (lower expectation of model performance). A consensus model developed using a combination of study-level covariates, chemical, biological, and kinetic descriptors explained a total of 43% of the variance with an RMSE of 0.69 log10 mg/kg/day. A benchmark model (upper expectation of model performance) was also developed with an RMSE of 0.5 log10 mg/kg/day by incorporating study-level covariates and the mean effect level per chemical. To achieve a representative chemical-level prediction, the minimum study-level predicted and observed effect level per chemical were compared reducing the RMSE from 1.0 to 0.73 log10 mg/kg/day, equivalent to 87% of predictions falling within an order-of-magnitude of the observed value. Although biological descriptors did not improve model performance, the final model was enriched for biological descriptors that indicated xenobiotic metabolism gene expression, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity, demonstrating the importance of accounting for kinetics and non-specific bioactivity in predicting systemic effect levels. Herein, we generated an externally predictive model of systemic effect levels for use as a safety assessment tool and have generated forward predictions for over 30,000 chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2067-x
  • Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic
    • Authors: Geir Bjørklund; Joachim Mutter; Jan Aaseth
      Abstract: This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning. Combination therapy with BAL and CaEDTA was previously recommended in cases of severe acute Pb poisoning with encephalopathy. We suggest that BAL in such cases acted as a shuttling Pb transporter from the intra- to the extracellular space. The present paper discusses if a combination of the extracellularly distributed DMSA with the ionophore, Monensin may provide a less toxic combination for Pb mobilization by increasing both the efflux of intracellularly deposited Pb and the urinary Pb excretion. Anyhow, oral therapy with DMSA should be continued with several intermittent courses. DMPS and DMSA are also promising antidotes in Hg poisoning, whereas DMPS seems to be a more efficient agent against As poisoning. However, new insight indicates that a combination of low-dosed BAL plus DMPS could be a preferred antidotal therapy to obtain mobilization of the intracerebral deposits into the circulation for subsequent rapid urinary excretion.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2100-0
  • Multiple microRNAs function as self-protective modules in
           acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in humans
    • Authors: Dianke Yu; Leihong Wu; Pritmohinder Gill; William H. Tolleson; Si Chen; Jinchun Sun; Bridgett Knox; Yaqiong Jin; Wenming Xiao; Huixiao Hong; Yong Wang; Zhen Ren; Lei Guo; Nan Mei; Yongli Guo; Xi Yang; Leming Shi; Yinting Chen; Linjuan Zeng; Kostiantyn Dreval; Volodymyr Tryndyak; Igor Pogribny; Hong Fang; Tieliu Shi; Sandra McCullough; Sudeepa Bhattacharyya; Laura Schnackenberg; William Mattes; Richard D. Beger; Laura James; Weida Tong; Baitang Ning
      Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure. Yet the mechanisms underlying adaptive tolerance toward APAP-induced liver injury are not fully understood. To better understand molecular mechanisms contributing to adaptive tolerance to APAP is an underpinning foundation for APAP-related precision medicine. In the current study, the mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles derived from next generation sequencing data for APAP-treated (5 and 10 mM) HepaRG cells and controls were analyzed systematically. Putative miRNAs targeting key dysregulated genes involved in APAP hepatotoxicity were selected using in silico prediction algorithms, un-biased gene ontology, and network analyses. Luciferase reporter assays, RNA electrophoresis mobility shift assays, and miRNA pull-down assays were performed to investigate the role of miRNAs affecting the expression of dysregulated genes. Levels of selected miRNAs were measured in serum samples obtained from children with APAP overdose (58.6–559.4 mg/kg) and from healthy controls. As results, 2758 differentially expressed genes and 47 miRNAs were identified. Four of these miRNAs (hsa-miR-224-5p, hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-449a, and hsa-miR-877-5p) suppressed drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) levels involved in APAP-induced liver injury by downregulating HNF1A, HNF4A and NR1I2 expression. Exogenous transfection of these miRNAs into HepaRG cells effectively rescued them from APAP toxicity, as indicated by decreased alanine aminotransferase levels. Importantly, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-877-5p levels were significantly elevated in serum samples obtained from children with APAP overdose compared to health controls. Collectively, these data indicate that hsa-miR-224-5p, hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-449a, and hsa-miR-877-5p suppress DME expression involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and they contribute to an adaptive response in hepatocytes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2090-y
  • PFOS induces proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and malignant
           phenotype in human breast epithelial cells
    • Authors: Paula Pierozan; Oskar Karlsson
      Abstract: Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a synthetic fluorosurfactant widely used in the industry and a prominent environmental toxicant. PFOS is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to mammalian species. Growing evidence suggests that PFOS has the potential to interfere with estrogen homeostasis, posing a risk of endocrine-disrupting effects. Recently, concerns about a potential link between PFOS and breast cancer have been raised, but the mechanisms underlying its actions as a potential carcinogen are unknown. By utilizing cell proliferation assays, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and cell migration/invasion assays, we examined the potentially tumorigenic activity of PFOS (100 nM–1 mM) in MCF-10A breast cell line. The results showed that the growth of MCF-10A cells exposed to 1 and 10 µM PFOS was higher compared to that of the control. Mechanistic studies using 10 µM PFOS demonstrated that the compound promotes MCF-10A proliferation through accelerating G0/G1-to-S phase transition of the cell cycle after 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment. In addition, PFOS exposure increased CDK4 and decreased p27, p21, and p53 levels in the cells. Importantly, treatment with 10 µM PFOS for 72 h also stimulated MCF-10A cell migration and invasion, illustrating its capability to induce neoplastic transformation of human breast epithelial cells. Our experimental results suggest that exposure to low levels of PFOS might be a potential risk factor in human breast cancer initiation and development.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2077-8
  • Effects of arsenolipids on in vitro blood-brain barrier model
    • Authors: S. M. Müller; F. Ebert; G. Raber; S. Meyer; J. Bornhorst; S. Hüwel; H.-J. Galla; K. A. Francesconi; T. Schwerdtle
      Abstract: Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), a subgroup of arsenolipids (AsLs) occurring in fish and edible algae, possess a substantial neurotoxic potential in fully differentiated human brain cells. Previous in vivo studies indicating that AsHCs cross the blood–brain barrier of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster raised the question whether AsLs could also cross the vertebrate blood–brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we investigated the impact of several representatives of AsLs (AsHC 332, AsHC 360, AsHC 444, and two arsenic-containing fatty acids, AsFA 362 and AsFA 388) as well as of their metabolites (thio/oxo-dimethylpropionic acid, dimethylarsinic acid) on porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCECs, in vitro model for the blood–brain barrier). AsHCs exerted the strongest cytotoxic effects of all investigated arsenicals as they were up to fivefold more potent than the toxic reference species arsenite (iAsIII). In our in vitro BBB-model, we observed a slight transfer of AsHC 332 across the BBB after 6 h at concentrations that do not affect the barrier integrity. Furthermore, incubation with AsHCs for 72 h led to a disruption of the barrier at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. The subsequent immunocytochemical staining of three tight junction proteins revealed a significant impact on the cell membrane. Because AsHCs enhance the permeability of the in vitro blood–brain barrier, a similar behavior in an in vivo system cannot be excluded. Consequently, AsHCs might facilitate the transfer of accompanying foodborne toxicants into the brain.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2085-8
  • Acute regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 localization
           and activity by cAMP and estradiol-17β- d -glucuronide in rat intestine
           and Caco-2 cells
    • Authors: Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti; Agostina Arias; Maite Rocío Arana; Juan Pablo Rigalli; Camila Juliana Domínguez; Felipe Zecchinati; María Laura Ruiz; Silvina Stella Maris Villanueva; Aldo Domingo Mottino
      Abstract: Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) is an ATP-dependent transporter expressed at the brush border membrane of the enterocyte that confers protection against absorption of toxicants from foods or bile. Acute, short-term regulation of intestinal MRP2 activity involving changes in its apical membrane localization was poorly explored. We evaluated the effects of dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP), a permeable analog of cAMP, and estradiol-17β-d-glucuronide (E217G), an endogenous derivative of estradiol, on MRP2 localization and activity using isolated rat intestinal sacs and Caco-2 cells, a model of human intestinal epithelium. Changes in MRP2 localization were studied by Western blotting of plasma membrane (PM) vs. intracellular membrane (IM) fractions in both experimental models, and additionally, by confocal microscopy in Caco-2 cells. After 30 min of exposure, db-cAMP-stimulated sorting of MRP2 from IM to PM both in rat jejunum and Caco-2 cells at 10 and 100 µM concentrations, respectively, with increased excretion of the model substrate 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione. In contrast, E217G (400 µM) induced internalization of MRP2 together with impairment of transport activity. Confocal microscopy analysis performed in Caco-2 cells confirmed Western blot results. In the particular case of E217G, MRP2 exhibited an unusual pattern of staining compatible with endocytic vesiculation. Use of selective inhibitors demonstrated the participation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and classic calcium-dependent protein kinase C in db-cAMP and E217G effects, respectively. We conclude that localization of MRP2 in intestine may be subjected to a dynamic equilibrium between plasma membrane and intracellular domains, thus allowing for rapid regulation of MRP2 function.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2092-9
  • Adverse outcome pathways: opportunities, limitations and open questions
    • Authors: Marcel Leist; Ahmed Ghallab; Rabea Graepel; Rosemarie Marchan; Reham Hassan; Susanne Hougaard Bennekou; Alice Limonciel; Mathieu Vinken; Stefan Schildknecht; Tanja Waldmann; Erik Danen; Ben van Ravenzwaay; Hennicke Kamp; Iain Gardner; Patricio Godoy; Frederic Y. Bois; Albert Braeuning; Raymond Reif; Franz Oesch; Dirk Drasdo; Stefan Höhme; Michael Schwarz; Thomas Hartung; Thomas Braunbeck; Joost Beltman; Harry Vrieling; Ferran Sanz; Anna Forsby; Domenico Gadaleta; Ciarán Fisher; Jens Kelm; David Fluri; Gerhard Ecker; Barbara Zdrazil; Andrea Terron; Paul Jennings; Bart van der Burg; Steven Dooley; Annemarie H. Meijer; Egon Willighagen; Marvin Martens; Chris Evelo; Enrico Mombelli; Olivier Taboureau; Alberto Mantovani; Barry Hardy; Bjorn Koch; Sylvia Escher; Christoph van Thriel; Cristina Cadenas; D. Kroese; Bob van de Water; Jan G. Hengstler
      Abstract: Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a recent toxicological construct that connects, in a formalized, transparent and quality-controlled way, mechanistic information to apical endpoints for regulatory purposes. AOP links a molecular initiating event (MIE) to the adverse outcome (AO) via key events (KE), in a way specified by key event relationships (KER). Although this approach to formalize mechanistic toxicological information only started in 2010, over 200 AOPs have already been established. At this stage, new requirements arise, such as the need for harmonization and re-assessment, for continuous updating, as well as for alerting about pitfalls, misuses and limits of applicability. In this review, the history of the AOP concept and its most prominent strengths are discussed, including the advantages of a formalized approach, the systematic collection of weight of evidence, the linkage of mechanisms to apical end points, the examination of the plausibility of epidemiological data, the identification of critical knowledge gaps and the design of mechanistic test methods. To prepare the ground for a broadened and appropriate use of AOPs, some widespread misconceptions are explained. Moreover, potential weaknesses and shortcomings of the current AOP rule set are addressed (1) to facilitate the discussion on its further evolution and (2) to better define appropriate vs. less suitable application areas. Exemplary toxicological studies are presented to discuss the linearity assumptions of AOP, the management of event modifiers and compensatory mechanisms, and whether a separation of toxicodynamics from toxicokinetics including metabolism is possible in the framework of pathway plasticity. Suggestions on how to compromise between different needs of AOP stakeholders have been added. A clear definition of open questions and limitations is provided to encourage further progress in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2045-3
  • Arylamine N -acetyltransferase 1 in situ N -acetylation on CD3+ peripheral
           blood mononuclear cells correlate with NATb mRNA and NAT1 haplotype
    • Authors: Raúl A. Salazar-González; Eneida Turiján-Espinoza; David W. Hein; Perla C. Niño-Moreno; Silvia Romano-Moreno; Rosa C. Milán-Segovia; Diana P. Portales-Pérez
      Abstract: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is responsible for the activation and elimination of xenobiotic compounds and carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 modify both drug efficacy and toxicity. Previous studies have suggested a role for NAT1 in the development of several diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate NAT1 protein expression and in situ N-acetylation capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as their possible associations with the expression of NAT1 transcript and NAT1 genotype. We report NAT1 protein, mRNA levels, and N-acetylation in situ activity for PBMC obtained from healthy donors. NAT1-specific protein expression was higher in CD3+ cells than other major immune cell subtypes (CD19 or CD56 cells). N-acetylation of pABA varied markedly among the PBMC of participants, but correlated very significantly with levels of NAT1 transcripts. NAT1*4 subjects showed significantly (p = 0.017) higher apparent pABA V max of 71.3 ± 3.7 versus the NAT1*14B subjects apparent V max of 58.5 ± 2.5 nmoles Ac-pABA/24 h/million cells. Levels of pABA N-acetylation activity at each concentration of substrate evaluated also significantly correlated with NAT1 mRNA levels for all samples (p < 0.0001). This highly significant correlation was maintained for samples with the NAT1*4 (p = 0.002) and NAT1*14B haplotypes (p = 0.0106). These results provide the first documentation that NAT1-catalyzed N-acetylation in PBMC is higher in T cell than in other immune cell subtypes and that individual variation in N-acetylation capacity is dependent upon NAT1 mRNA and NAT1 haplotype.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2082-y
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