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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2350 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access  
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Archives of Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.541
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide impairs female
           reproductive outcomes and induces second-generation adverse effects in
           Wistar rats
    • Authors: María M. Milesi; Virginia Lorenz; Guillermina Pacini; María R. Repetti; Luisina D. Demonte; Jorgelina Varayoud; Enrique H. Luque
      Abstract: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most globally used herbicides raising the risk of environmental exposition. Here, we investigated whether perinatal exposure to low doses of a GBH alters the female reproductive performance, and/or induced second-generation effects related to congenital anomalies or growth alterations. Pregnant rats (F0) received a GBH through food, in a dose of 2 mg (GBH-LD: GBH-low dose group) or 200 mg (GBH-HD: GBH-high dose group) of glyphosate/kg bw/day from gestational day (GD) 9 until weaning. Body weight gain and vaginal canal-opening of F1 females were recorded. Sexually mature F1 females were mated to evaluate their reproductive performance by assessing the pregnancy rate, and on GD19, the number of corpora lutea, the implantation sites (IS) and resorption sites. To analyze second-generation effects on F2 offspring, we analyzed the fetal morphology on GD19, and assessed the fetal length and weight, and the placental weight. GBH exposure neither altered the body weight gain of F1 females, nor vaginal opening onset. Although all GBH-exposed F1 rats became pregnant, a lower number of IS was detected. F2 offspring from both GBH groups showed delayed growth, evidenced by lower fetal weight and length, associated with a higher incidence of small for gestational age fetuses. In addition, higher placental weight and placental index were found in F2 offspring from GBH-HD dams. Surprisingly, structural congenital anomalies (conjoined fetuses and abnormally developed limbs) were detected in the F2 offspring from GBH-HD group. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to low doses of a GBH impaired female reproductive performance and induced fetal growth retardation and structural congenital anomalies in F2 offspring.
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2236-6
  • The HDAC6/8/10 inhibitor TH34 induces DNA damage-mediated cell death in
           human high-grade neuroblastoma cell lines
    • Authors: Fiona R. Kolbinger; Emily Koeneke; Johannes Ridinger; Tino Heimburg; Michael Müller; Theresa Bayer; Wolfgang Sippl; Manfred Jung; Nikolas Gunkel; Aubry K. Miller; Frank Westermann; Olaf Witt; Ina Oehme
      Abstract: High histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 and HDAC10 expression levels have been identified as predictors of exceptionally poor outcomes in neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. HDAC8 inhibition synergizes with retinoic acid treatment to induce neuroblast maturation in vitro and to inhibit neuroblastoma xenograft growth in vivo. HDAC10 inhibition increases intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutics through interference with lysosomal homeostasis, ultimately leading to cell death in cultured neuroblastoma cells. So far, no HDAC inhibitor covering HDAC8 and HDAC10 at micromolar concentrations without inhibiting HDACs 1, 2 and 3 has been described. Here, we introduce TH34 (3-(N-benzylamino)-4-methylbenzhydroxamic acid), a novel HDAC6/8/10 inhibitor for neuroblastoma therapy. TH34 is well-tolerated by non-transformed human skin fibroblasts at concentrations up to 25 µM and modestly impairs colony growth in medulloblastoma cell lines, but specifically induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in several human neuroblastoma cell lines. In addition to the induction of DNA double-strand breaks, HDAC6/8/10 inhibition also leads to mitotic aberrations and cell-cycle arrest. Neuroblastoma cells display elevated levels of neuronal differentiation markers, mirrored by formation of neurite-like outgrowths under maintained TH34 treatment. Eventually, after long-term treatment, all neuroblastoma cells undergo cell death. The combination of TH34 with plasma-achievable concentrations of retinoic acid, a drug applied in neuroblastoma therapy, synergistically inhibits colony growth (combination index (CI) < 0.1 for 10 µM of each). In summary, our study supports using selective HDAC inhibitors as targeted antineoplastic agents and underlines the therapeutic potential of selective HDAC6/8/10 inhibition in high-grade neuroblastoma.
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2234-8
  • Sensitization of colorectal cancer cells to irinotecan by the Survivin
           inhibitor LLP3 depends on XAF1 proficiency in the context of mutated p53
    • Authors: Christian Steigerwald; Birgit Rasenberger; Markus Christmann; Maja T. Tomicic
      Abstract: Survivin is a well-established target in experimental cancer therapy. While hardly expressed in normal tissues, it is over-expressed in most human tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Different compartmentalization of Survivin enables its multiple functions as a key controller of cell division, apoptosis, stress-induced signaling and also of migration and metastasis. Because of the lack of its enzymatic activity, this oncoprotein is considered to be undruggable. Nevertheless, small-molecule interfacial inhibitors interfering with its dimerization and/or disrupting the Survivin-Ran protein complex were shown to be potent drugs causing Survivin proteasomal degradation and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Based on our results with different CRC cell lines, we show that the Survivin inhibitor LLP3 might be effective as mono-therapy in the subgroup of p53-proficient and also some p53-mutated tumors, independent of mismatch repair status. When combined with irinotecan, expression of the tumor suppressor X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis factor 1 (XAF1) plays a decisive role for sensitization of CRC cells to this first-line drug, however, only in the p53-mutated background. The combination treatment with IT should be avoided in p53-proficient tumors independent of XAF1 expression, since no sensitization to or even protection against moderate-toxic concentrations of IT might occur.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2240-x
  • Birth weights of newborns and pregnancy outcomes of environmentally
           boron-exposed females in Turkey
    • Authors: Yalçın Duydu; Nurşen Başaran; Aylin Üstündağ; Sevtap Aydın; Can Özgür Yalçın; Hatice Gül Anlar; Merve Bacanlı; Kaan Aydos; Cem Somer Atabekoğlu; Klaus Golka; Katja Ickstadt; Tanja Schwerdtle; Matthias Werner; Sören Meyer; Hermann M. Bolt
      Abstract: Boric acid and sodium borates are currently classified as being toxic to reproduction under “Category 1B” with the hazard statement of “H360 FD” in the European CLP regulation. This has prompted studies on boron-mediated reprotoxic effects in male workers in boron mining areas and boric acid production plants. By contrast, studies on boron-mediated developmental effects in females are scarce. The present study was designed to fill this gap. Hundred and ninety nine females residing in Bandirma and Bigadic participated in this study investigating pregnancy outcomes. The participants constituted a study group covering blood boron from low (< 100 ng B/g blood, n = 143) to high (> 150 ng B/g blood, n = 27) concentrations. The mean blood boron concentration and the mean estimated daily boron exposure of the high exposure group was 274.58 (151.81–975.66) ng B/g blood and 24.67 (10.47–57.86) mg B/day, respectively. In spite of the high level of daily boron exposure, boron-mediated adverse effects on induced abortion, spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), stillbirth, infant death, neonatal death, early neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomalies, sex ratio and birth weight of newborns were not observed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2238-4
  • Prenatal arsenic exposure is associated with increased plasma IGFBP3
           concentrations in 9-year-old children partly via changes in DNA
    • Authors: Anda R. Gliga; Karin Engström; Maria Kippler; Helena Skröder; Sultan Ahmed; Marie Vahter; Rubhana Raqib; Karin Broberg
      Abstract: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (As), a carcinogen and epigenetic toxicant, has been associated with lower circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and impaired growth in children of pre-school age. The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of exposure to As on IGF1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as well as DNA methylation changes in 9-year-old children. To this end, we studied 9-year-old children from a longitudinal mother–child cohort in rural Bangladesh (n = 551). Prenatal and concurrent exposure to As was assessed via concentrations in maternal urine at gestational week 8 and in child urine at 9 years, measured by HPLC-HG-ICPMS. Plasma IGF1 and IGFBP3 concentrations were quantified with immunoassays. DNA methylation was measured in blood mononuclear cells at 9 years in a sub-sample (n = 113) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, prenatal As (natural log-transformed), but not children’s concurrent urinary As, was positively associated with IGFBP3 concentrations (β = 76, 95% CI 19, 133). As concentrations were not associated with IGF1. DNA methylation analysis revealed CpGs associated with both prenatal As and IGFBP3. Mediation analysis suggested that methylation of 12 CpG sites for all children was mediator of effect for the association between prenatal As and IGFBP3. We also found differentially methylated regions, generally hypermethylated, that were associated with both prenatal As and IGFBP3. In all, our study revealed that prenatal exposure to As was positively associated with IGFBP3 concentrations in children at 9 years, independent of IGF1, and this association may, at least in part, be epigenetically mediated.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2239-3
  • Autophagy and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity
    • Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. APAP overdose can induce acute liver injury in humans, which is responsible for approximately 50% of total cases of acute liver failure in the United States and some European countries. Currently, the metabolism of APAP in the body has been extensively investigated; however, the exact mechanisms for APAP hepatotoxicity are not well understood. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses play a critical role in the pathogenesis of APAP hepatotoxicity. Autophagy is a catabolic machinery aimed at recycling cellular components and damaged organelles in response to a variety of stimuli, such as nutrient deprivation and toxic stress. Increasing evidence supports that autophagy is involved in the pathophysiological process of APAP-induced liver injury. In this review, we summarized the changes of autophagy in the liver following APAP intoxication and discussed the role and its possible mechanisms of autophagy in APAP hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, this review highlights the crosstalk between mitophagy, oxidative stress and inflammation in APAP-induced liver injury and presents some possible molecular mechanisms by which activated autophagy protects against APAP-induced liver injury.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2237-5
  • Aged rats are more vulnerable than adolescents to
           “ecstasy”-induced toxicity
    • Authors: R. Feio-Azevedo; V. M. Costa; D. J. Barbosa; A. Teixeira-Gomes; I. Pita; S. Gomes; F. C. Pereira; M. Duarte-Araújo; J. A. Duarte; F. Marques; E. Fernandes; M. L. Bastos; F. Carvalho; J. P. Capela
      Abstract: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) is a widespread drug of abuse with known neurotoxic properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the differential toxic effects of MDMA in adolescent and aged Wistar rats, using doses pharmacologically comparable to humans. Adolescent (post-natal day 40) (3 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) and aged (mean 20 months old) (2 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) rats received MDMA intraperitoneally. Animals were killed 7 days later, and the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum brain areas were dissected, and heart, liver and kidneys were collected. MDMA caused hyperthermia in both treated groups, but aged rats had a more dramatic temperature elevation. MDMA promoted serotonergic neurotoxicity only in the hippocampus of aged, but not in the adolescents’ brain, and did not change the levels of dopamine or serotonin metabolite in the striatum of both groups. Differential responses according to age were also seen regarding brain p-Tau levels, a hallmark of a degenerative brain, since only aged animals had significant increases. MDMA evoked brain oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of aged, and in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and striatum brain areas of adolescents according to protein carbonylation, but only decreased GSH levels in the hippocampus of aged animals. The brain maturational stage seems crucial for MDMA-evoked serotonergic neurotoxicity. Aged animals were more susceptible to MDMA-induced tissue damage in the heart and kidneys, and both ages had an increase in liver fibrotic tissue content. In conclusion, age is a determinant factor for the toxic events promoted by “ecstasy”. This work demonstrated special susceptibility of aged hippocampus to MDMA neurotoxicity, as well as impressive damage to the heart and kidney tissue following “ecstasy”.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2226-8
  • Comparison of iohexol and iodixanol induced nephrotoxicity, mitochondrial
           damage and mitophagy in a new contrast-induced acute kidney injury rat
    • Authors: Wei Cheng; Fei Zhao; Cheng-Yuan Tang; Xu-Wei Li; Min Luo; Shao-Bin Duan
      Abstract: Recent progress in angiography and interventional therapy has revived interest in comparison of nephrotoxicity of low-or iso-osmolar contrast media, but detailed mechanisms and effective treatments of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remain elusive. We established a new model of CI-AKI and compared the nephrotoxicity of iohexol and iodixanol with a focus on renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and mitophagy. Our results showed that 48-h dehydration plus furosemide injection before iohexol administration successfully induced CI-AKI in rats. Compared with iodixanol, iohexol induced a greater decrease in renal function, more severe morphological damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, an increased number of apoptotic cells, decreased antioxidative enzymes with activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in renal tissue. Renal contrast media kinetics showed the immediate excretion of iohexol and the transient renal accumulation of iodixanol. Plasma mtDNA Tc numbers were positively correlated with markers of renal mitochondrial disruption but negatively correlated with the level of serum creatinine and the score of tubular injury. Of note, iodixanol appeared to induce a stronger activation of mitophagy than iohexol, evidenced by greater protein levels of LC3II and PINK1/Parkin in the renal tissue of iodixanol-treated rats. Taken together, our results indicate that iohexol induced more severe nephrotoxicity than iodixanol in vivo due to apoptosis, destruction of antioxidative defense machinery, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, mitochondrial damage and mitophagy. Plasma mtDNA may serve as a biological marker for renal mitochondrial disruption and damage in CI-AKI. Antioxidative defense and mitophagy are involved in the process of CI-AKI and may be promising targets of therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2225-9
  • Humoral and cellular immune response in Wistar Han RCC rats fed two
           genetically modified maize MON810 varieties for 90 days (EU 7th Framework
           Programme project GRACE)
    • Abstract: The genetically modified maize event MON810 expresses a Bacillus thuringiensis-derived gene, which encodes the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab to control some lepidopteran insect pests such as the European corn borer. It has been claimed that the immune system may be affected following the oral/intragastric administration of the MON810 maize in various different animal species. In the frame of the EU-funded project GRACE, two 90-day feeding trials, the so-called studies D and E, were performed to analyze the humoral and cellular immune responses of male and female Wistar Han RCC rats fed the MON810 maize. A MON810 maize variety of Monsanto was used in the study D and a MON810 maize variety of Pioneer Hi-Bred was used in the study E. The total as well as the maize protein- and Cry1Ab-serum-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE levels, the proliferative activity of the lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of the granulocytes and monocytes, the respiratory burst of the phagocytes, a phenotypic analysis of spleen, thymus and lymph node cells as well as the in vitro production of cytokines by spleen cells were analyzed. No specific Cry1Ab immune response was observed in MON810 rats, and anti-maize protein antibody responses were similar in MON810 and control rats. Single parameters were sporadically altered in rats fed the MON810 maize when compared to control rats, but these alterations are considered to be of no immunotoxicological significance.
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2230-z
  • Ethanol addictively enhances the in vitro cardiotoxicity of cocaine
           through oxidative damage, energetic deregulation, and apoptosis
    • Abstract: Cocaine (COC) is frequently consumed in polydrug abuse settings, and ethanol (EtOH) is the most prominent co-abused substance. Clinical data and experimental evidence suggest that the co-administration of COC with EtOH can be more cardiotoxic than EtOH or COC alone, but information on the molecular pathways involved is scarce. Since these data are crucial to potentiate the identification of therapeutic targets to treat intoxications, we sought to (i) elucidate the type of interaction that occurs between both substances, and (ii) assess the mechanisms implicated in the cardiotoxic effects elicited by COC combined with EtOH. For this purpose, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to COC (104 µM–6.5 mM) and EtOH (977 µM–4 M), individually or combined at a molar ratio based on blood concentrations of intoxicated abusers (COC 1: EtOH 9; 206 µM–110 mM). After 24 h, cell metabolic viability was recorded by the MTT assay and mixture toxicity expectations were calculated using the independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA) models. EtOH (EC50 305.26 mM) proved to act additively with COC (EC50 2.60 mM) to significantly increase the drug in vitro cardiotoxicity, even when both substances were combined at individually non-cytotoxic concentrations. Experimental mixture testing (EC50 19.18 ± 3.36 mM) demonstrated that the cardiotoxicity was fairly similar to that predicted by IA (EC50 22.95 mM) and CA (EC50 21.75 mM), supporting additivity. Concentration-dependent increases of intracellular ROS/RNS and GSSG, depletion of GSH and ATP, along with mitochondrial hyperpolarization and activation of intrinsic, extrinsic, and common apoptosis pathways were observed both for single and combined exposures. In general, the mixture exhibited a toxicological profile that mechanistically did not deviate from the single drugs, suggesting that interventions such as antioxidant administration might aid in the clinical treatment of this type of polydrug intoxication. In a clinical perspective, the observed additive mixture effect may reflect the increased hazards at which users of this combination are exposed to in recreational settings.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2227-7
  • The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 are required for the growth and
           survival of renal carcinoma cells
    • Authors: Nicole Kiweler; Boris Brill; Matthias Wirth; Ines Breuksch; Teresa Laguna; Cornelia Dietrich; Susanne Strand; Günter Schneider; Bernd Groner; Falk Butter; Thorsten Heinzel; Walburgis Brenner; Oliver H. Krämer
      Abstract: Novel therapies are required for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is associated with inoperable disease and patient death. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic modifiers and potential drug targets. Additional information on molecular pathways that are altered by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in RCC cells is warranted. It should equally be delineated further which individual members of the 18 mammalian HDACs determine the survival and tumor-associated gene expression programs of such cells. Most importantly, an ongoing dispute whether HDACi promote or suppress metastasis-associated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has to be resolved before HDACi are considered further as clinically relevant drugs. Here we show how HDACi affect murine and primary human RCC cells. We find that these agents induce morphological alterations resembling the metastasis-associated EMT. However, individual and proteomics-based analyses of epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins and of EMT-associated transcription factors (EMT-TFs) reveal that HDACi do not trigger EMT. Pathway deconvolution analysis identifies reduced proliferation and apoptosis induction as key effects of HDACi. Furthermore, these drugs lead to a reduction of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ), which is a key driver of RCC metastasis formation. Accordingly, HDACi reduce the pulmonary spread of syngeneic transplanted renal carcinoma cells in mice. Specific genetic elimination of the histone deacetylases HDAC1/HDAC2 reflects the effects of pharmacological HDAC inhibition regarding growth suppression, apoptosis, and the downregulation of E-cadherin and PDGFRβ. Thus, these epigenetic modifiers are non-redundant gatekeepers of cell fate and precise pharmacological targets.
      PubDate: 2018-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2229-5
  • Galunisertib modifies the liver fibrotic composition in the Abcb4Ko mouse
    • Abstract: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β stimulates extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition during development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, the most important risk factor for the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. In liver cancer, TGF-β is responsible for a more aggressive and invasive phenotype, orchestrating remodeling of the tumor microenvironment and triggering epithelial–mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. This is the scientific rationale for targeting the TGF-β pathway via a small molecule, galunisertib (intracellular inhibitor of ALK5) in clinical trials to treat liver cancer patients at an advanced disease stage. In this study, the hypothesis that galunisertib modifies the tissue microenvironment via inhibition of the TGF-β pathway is tested in an experimental preclinical model. At the age of 6 months, Abcb4ko mice—a well-established model for chronic liver disease development and progression—are treated twice daily with galunisertib (150 mg/kg) via oral gavage for 14 consecutive days. Two days after the last treatment, blood plasma and livers are harvested for further assessment, including fibrosis scoring and ECM components. The reduction of Smad2 phosphorylation in both parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells following galunisertib administration confirms the treatment effectiveness. Damage-related galunisertib does not change cell proliferation, macrophage numbers and leucocyte recruitment. Furthermore, no clear impact on the amount of fibrosis is evident, as documented by PicroSirius red and Gomori-trichome scoring. On the other hand, several fibrogenic genes, e.g., collagens (Col1α1 and Col1α2), Tgf-β1 and Timp1, mRNA levels are significantly downregulated by galunisertib administration when compared to controls. Most interestingly, ECM/stromal components, fibronectin and laminin-332, as well as the carcinogenic β-catenin pathway, are remarkably reduced by galunisertib-treated Abcb5ko mice. In conclusion, TGF-β inhibition by galunisertib interferes, to some extent, with chronic liver progression, not by reducing the stage of liver fibrosis as measured by different scoring systems, but rather by modulating the biochemical composition of the deposited ECM, likely affecting the fate of non-parenchymal cells.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2231-y
  • Chronic ingestion of deoxynivalenol at human dietary levels impairs
           intestinal homeostasis and gut microbiota in mice
    • Abstract: The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereals and their by-products in areas with a moderate climate. Produced by Fusarium species, it is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in cereal crops worldwide, and the most frequently occurring type B trichothecene in Europe. Due to its toxic properties, high stability and prevalence, the presence of DON in the food chain could represent a major public health risk. However, despite its well-known acute toxicological effects, information on the adverse effects of realistic exposure remains limited. We orally exposed mice during 9 months to DON at doses relevant for currently estimated human intake and explored the impact on various gut health parameters. DON exposure induced recruitment of regulatory B cells, and activation of regulatory T cells and dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Several inflammatory parameters were increased in colon of DON-exposed mice, whereas inversely inflammatory markers were decreased in ileum. Histomorphological impairments were observed from the duodenum to the colon. Both colon and jejunum presented a hyperproliferation of epithelial cells and an increased expression of mature absorptive cells markers. Finally, DON exposure reshaped gut microbial structure and drastically disturbed the abundance of several bacterial phyla, families, and genera, leading to dysbiosis. Chronic oral exposure to human relevant doses of DON induces several disturbances of gut homeostasis with likely pathological implications for susceptible individuals.
      PubDate: 2018-05-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2228-6
  • Revisiting the stress paradigm for silica nanoparticles: decoupling of the
           anti-oxidative defense, pro-inflammatory response and cytotoxicity
    • Abstract: Engineered amorphous silica nanoparticles (nanosilica) are widely used in industry yet can induce adverse effects, which might be classified according to the oxidative stress model. However, the underlying mechanisms as well as the potential interactions of the three postulated different tiers of toxicity—i.e. oxidative-, pro-inflammatory- and cytotoxic-stress response—are poorly understood. As macrophages are primary targets of nanoparticles, we used several macrophage models, primarily murine RAW264.7 macrophages, and monitored pro-inflammatory and anti-oxidative reactions as well as cytotoxicity in response to nanosilica at max. 50 µg/mL. Special attention was given to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as potential regulators of the cellular stress response. Indeed, according to the oxidative stress model, also nanosilica elicits an, albeit modest, anti-oxidative response as well as pronounced pro-inflammatory reactions and cytotoxicity in macrophages. Interestingly however, these three tiers of toxicity seem to operate separately of each other for nanosilica. Specifically, impeding the anti-oxidative response by scavenging of reactive oxygen species does not prevent the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic response. Furthermore, blocking the pro-inflammatory response by inhibition of MAPKs does not impair cell death. As hazard assessment has been guided by the prevailing assumption of a dose-dependent coupling of sequential tiers of toxicity, identification of critical physico-chemical parameters to assist the safe-by-design concept should be enabled by simply monitoring one of the toxicity read-outs. Our results indicate a more complex scenario in the case of nanosilica, which triggers independent pleiotropic effects possibly also related to different material properties and primary cellular targets.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2223-y
  • The impact of desorption kinetics from albumin on hepatic extraction
           efficiency and hepatic clearance: a model study
    • Abstract: Until now, the question whether slow desorption of compounds from transport proteins like the plasma protein albumin can affect hepatic uptake and thereby hepatic metabolism of these compounds has not yet been answered conclusively. This work now combines recently published experimental desorption rate constants with a liver model to address this question. For doing so, the used liver model differentiates the bound compound in blood, the unbound compound in blood and the compound within the hepatocytes as three well-stirred compartments. Our calculations show that slow desorption kinetics from albumin can indeed limit hepatic metabolism of a compound by decreasing hepatic extraction efficiency and hepatic clearance. The extent of this decrease, however, depends not only on the value of the desorption rate constant but also on how much of the compound is bound to albumin in blood and how fast intrinsic metabolism of the compound in the hepatocytes is. For strongly sorbing and sufficiently fast metabolized compounds, our calculations revealed a twentyfold lower hepatic extraction efficiency and hepatic clearance for the slowest known desorption rate constant compared to the case when instantaneous equilibrium between bound and unbound compound is assumed. The same desorption rate constant, however, has nearly no effect on hepatic extraction efficiency and hepatic clearance of weakly sorbing and slowly metabolized compounds. This work examines the relevance of desorption kinetics in various example scenarios and provides the general approach needed to quantify the effect of flow limitation, membrane permeability and desorption kinetics on hepatic metabolism at the same time.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2224-x
  • Intermittent convection-enhanced delivery of GDNF into rhesus monkey
           putamen: absence of local or cerebellar toxicity
    • Authors: Matthias Luz; Philip C. Allen; John Bringas; Chris Boiko; Diane E. Stockinger; Kristen J. Nikula; Owen Lewis; Max Woolley; H. Christian Fibiger; Krystof Bankiewicz; Erich Mohr
      Abstract: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has demonstrated neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects in rodent and nonhuman primate models of Parkinson’s disease. However, continuous intraputamenal infusion of GDNF (100 µg/day) resulted in multifocal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in a 6-month toxicity study in rhesus monkeys. It was hypothesized that continuous leakage of GDNF into the cerebrospinal fluid compartment during the infusions led to down-regulation of GDNF receptors on Purkinje cells, and that subsequent acute withdrawal of GDNF then mediated the observed cerebellar lesions. Here we present the results of a 9-month toxicity study in which rhesus monkeys received intermittent intraputamenal infusions via convection-enhanced delivery. Animals were treated with GDNF (87.1 µg; N = 14) or vehicle (N = 6) once every 4 weeks for a total of 40 weeks (11 treatments). Four of the GDNF-treated animals were utilized in a satellite study assessing the impact of concomitant catheter repositioning prior to treatment. In the main study, eight animals (5 GDNF, 3 control) were euthanized at the end of the treatment period, along with the four satellite study animals, while the remaining eight animals (5 GDNF, 3 control) were euthanized at the end of a 12-week recovery period. There were no GDNF-related adverse effects and in particular, no GDNF-related microscopic findings in the brain, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, or trigeminal ganglia. Therefore, 87.1 µg/4 weeks is considered the no observed adverse effect level for GDNF in rhesus monkeys receiving intermittent, convection-enhanced delivery of GDNF for 9 months.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2222-z
  • FRZB1 rs2242070 polymorphisms is associated with brick tea type skeletal
           fluorosis in Kazakhs, but not in Tibetans, China
    • Authors: Yanmei Yang; Qiaoshi Zhao; Yang Liu; Xiaona Liu; Yanru Chu; Huazhu Yan; Yumei Fan; Simeng Huo; Limei Wang; Qun Lou; Ning Guo; Dianjun Sun; Yanhui Gao
      Abstract: Skeletal fluorosis is a metabolic bone and joint disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones. Compared with Kazakhs, Tibetans are more likely to develop moderate and severe brick tea type skeletal fluorosis, although they have similar fluoride exposure. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in frizzled-related protein (FRZB) have been associated with osteoarthritis, but their association with the risk of skeletal fluorosis has not been reported. In this paper, we investigated the association of three SNPs (rs7775, rs2242070 and rs9288087) in FRZB1with brick tea type skeletal fluorosis risk in a cross-sectional case–control study conducted in Sinkiang and Qinghai, China. A total of 598 individuals, including 308 Tibetans and 290 Kazakhs, were enrolled in this study, in which cases and controls were 221 and 377, respectively. The skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed according to the Chinese diagnostic criteria of endemic skeletal fluorosis (WS192-2008). The fluoride content in tea water or urine was detected using the fluoride ion electrode. SNPs were assessed using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Binary logistic regressions found evidence of association with rs2242070 AA genotype in only Kazakh participants [odds ratio (OR) 0.417, 95% CI 0.216–0.807, p = 0.009], but not in Tibetans. When stratified by age, this protective effect of AA genotype in rs2242070 was pronounced in Kazakh participants aged 46–65 (OR 0.321, 95% CI 0.135–0.764, p = 0.010). This protective association with AA genotype in rs2242070 in Kazakhs also appeared to be stronger with tea fluoride intake > 3.5 mg/day (OR 0.396, 95% CI 0.182–0.864, p = 0.020). Our data suggest there might be differential genetic influence on skeletal fluorosis risk in Kazakh and Tibetan participants and that this difference might be modified by tea fluoride intake.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2217-9
  • Computational identification of structural factors affecting the mutagenic
           potential of aromatic amines: study design and experimental validation
    • Authors: Svetoslav H. Slavov; Iva Stoyanova-Slavova; William Mattes; Richard D. Beger; Beat J. Brüschweiler
      Abstract: A grid-based, alignment-independent 3D-SDAR (three-dimensional spectral data–activity relationship) approach based on simulated 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts augmented with through-space interatomic distances was used to model the mutagenicity of 554 primary and 419 secondary aromatic amines. A robust modeling strategy supported by extensive validation including randomized training/hold-out test set pairs, validation sets, “blind” external test sets as well as experimental validation was applied to avoid over-parameterization and build Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2004) compliant models. Based on an experimental validation set of 23 chemicals tested in a two-strain Salmonella typhimurium Ames assay, 3D-SDAR was able to achieve performance comparable to 5-strain (Ames) predictions by Lhasa Limited’s Derek and Sarah Nexus for the same set. Furthermore, mapping of the most frequently occurring bins on the primary and secondary aromatic amine structures allowed the identification of molecular features that were associated either positively or negatively with mutagenicity. Prominent structural features found to enhance the mutagenic potential included: nitrobenzene moieties, conjugated π-systems, nitrothiophene groups, and aromatic hydroxylamine moieties. 3D-SDAR was also able to capture “true” negative contributions that are particularly difficult to detect through alternative methods. These include sulphonamide, acetamide, and other functional groups, which not only lack contributions to the overall mutagenic potential, but are known to actively lower it, if present in the chemical structures of what otherwise would be potential mutagens.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2216-x
  • Prediction of deoxynivalenol toxicokinetics in humans by in vitro-to-in
           vivo extrapolation and allometric scaling of in vivo animal data
    • Authors: Christiane Kruse Fæste; Lada Ivanova; Amin Sayyari; Ulrik Hansen; Tore Sivertsen; Silvio Uhlig
      Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent mycotoxin in cereals worldwide. It can cause adverse health effects in humans and animals, and maximum levels in food and feed have been implemented by food authorities based on risk assessments derived from estimated intake levels. The lack of human toxicokinetic data such as absorption, distribution, and elimination characteristics hinders the direct calculation of DON plasma levels and exposure. In the present study, we have, therefore, used in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation of depletion constants in hepatic microsomes from different species and allometric scaling of reported in vivo animal parameters to predict the plasma clearance [0.24 L/(h × kg)] and volume of distribution (1.24 L/kg) for DON in humans. In addition, we have performed a toxicokinetic study with oral and intravenous administration of DON in pigs to establish benchmark parameters for the in vitro extrapolation approach. The determined human toxicokinetic parameters were then used to calculate the bioavailability (50–90%), maximum concentration, and total exposure in plasma, and urinary concentrations under consideration of typical DON levels in grain-based food products. The results were compared to data from biomonitoring studies in human populations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2220-1
  • Association study of genetic variants in estrogen metabolic pathway genes
           and colorectal cancer risk and survival
    • Authors: Shuwei Li; Lisheng Xie; Mulong Du; Kaili Xu; Lingjun Zhu; Haiyan Chu; Jinfei Chen; Meilin Wang; Zhengdong Zhang; Dongying Gu
      Abstract: Although studies have investigated the association of genetic variants and the abnormal expression of estrogen-related genes with colorectal cancer risk, the evidence remains inconsistent. We clarified the relationship of genetic variants in estrogen metabolic pathway genes with colorectal cancer risk and survival. A case–control study was performed to assess the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten candidate genes with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A logistic regression model and Cox regression model were used to calculate SNP effects on colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival, respectively. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis was conducted using the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project dataset. The sequence kernel association test (SKAT) was used to perform gene-set analysis. Colorectal cancer risk and rs3760806 in SULT2B1 were significantly associated in both genders [male: OR = 1.38 (1.15–1.66); female: OR = 1.38 (1.13–1.68)]. Two SNPs in SULT1E1 were related to progression-free survival (PFS) [rs1238574: HR = 1.24 (1.02–1.50), P = 2.79 × 10−2; rs3822172: HR = 1.30 (1.07–1.57), P = 8.44 × 10−3] and overall survival (OS) [rs1238574: HR = 1.51 (1.16–1.97), P = 2.30 × 10−3; rs3822172: HR = 1.53 (1.67–2.00), P = 2.03 × 10−3]. Moreover, rs3760806 was an eQTL for SULT2B1 in colon samples (transverse: P = 3.6 × 10−3; sigmoid: P = 1.0 × 10−3). SULT2B1 expression was significantly higher in colorectal tumor tissues than in normal tissues in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (P < 1.0 × 10−4). Our results indicated that SNPs in estrogen metabolic pathway genes confer colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2195-y
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