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Showing 1 - 200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)
Astrophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Archives of Toxicology
  [SJR: 1.595]   [H-I: 76]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • The intestinal barrier as an emerging target in the toxicological
           assessment of mycotoxins
    • Authors: Peyman Akbari; Saskia Braber; Soheil Varasteh; Arash Alizadeh; Johan Garssen; Johanna Fink-Gremmels
      Pages: 1007 - 1029
      Abstract: Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of fungal species, are the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Risk assessment of mycotoxins focused as yet on their mutagenic, genotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. Recently, there is an increasing awareness of the adverse effects of various mycotoxins on vulnerable structures in the intestines. In particular, an impairment of the barrier function of the epithelial lining cells and the sealing tight junction proteins has been noted, as this could result in an increased translocation of luminal antigens and pathogens and an excessive activation of the immune system. The current review aims to provide a summary of the available evidence regarding direct effects of various mycotoxins on the intestinal epithelial barrier. Available data, based on different cellular and animal studies, show that food-associated exposure to certain mycotoxins, especially trichothecenes and patulin, affects the intestinal barrier integrity and can result in an increased translocation of harmful stressors. It is therefore hypothesized that human exposure to certain mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol, as the major trichothecene, may play an important role in etiology of various chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, and in the prevalence of food allergies, particularly in children.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1794-8
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Impact of phase I metabolism on uptake, oxidative stress and genotoxicity
           of the emerging mycotoxin alternariol and its monomethyl ether in
           esophageal cells
    • Authors: Christine Tiessen; Doris Ellmer; Hannes Mikula; Gudrun Pahlke; Benedikt Warth; Helge Gehrke; Kristin Zimmermann; Elke Heiss; Johannes Fröhlich; Doris Marko
      Pages: 1213 - 1226
      Abstract: Studies on the genotoxicity of Alternaria mycotoxins focus primarily on the native compounds. Alternariol (AOH) and its methyl ether (AME) have been reported to represent substrates for cytochrome P450 enzymes, generating hydroxylated metabolites. The impact of these phase I metabolites on genotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, the synthesis and the toxicological effects of the metabolites 4-hydroxy alternariol (4-OH-AOH) and 4-hydroxy alternariol monomethyl ether (4-OH-AME) are presented and compared to the effects of the parent molecules. Although the two phase I metabolites contain a catecholic structure, which is expected to be involved in redox cycling, only 4-OH-AOH increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human esophageal cells (KYSE510), 4 times more pronounced than AOH. No ROS induction was observed for 4-OH-AME, although the parent compound showed some minor impact. Under cell-free conditions, both metabolites inhibited topoisomerase II activity comparable to their parent compounds. In KYSE510 cells, both metabolites were found to enhance the level of transient DNA–topoisomerase complexes in the ICE assay. Although the level of ROS was significantly increased by 4-OH-AOH, neither DNA strand breaks nor enhanced levels of formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites were observed. In contrast, AOH induced significant DNA damage in KYSE510 cells. Less pronounced or even absent effects of hydroxylated metabolites compared to the parent compounds might at least partly be explained by their poor cellular uptake. Glucuronidation as well as sulfation appear to have only a minor influence. Instead, methylation of 4-OH-AOH seems to be the preferred way of metabolism in KYSE510 cells, whereby the toxicological relevance of the methylation product remains to be clarified.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1801-0
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Glucuronidation of 4- tert -octylphenol in humans, monkeys, rats, and
           mice: an in vitro analysis using liver and intestine microsomes
    • Authors: Nobumitsu Hanioka; Takashi Isobe; Susumu Ohkawara; Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa; Hideto Jinno
      Pages: 1227 - 1232
      Abstract: 4-tert-Octylphenol (4-tOP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. It is mainly metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the glucuronidation of 4-tOP in humans, monkeys, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of 4-tOP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis–Menten model for humans and monkeys, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m, V max, and CL int values of human liver microsomes were 0.343 µM, 11.6 nmol/min/mg protein, and 33.8 mL/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestine microsomes followed the Michaelis–Menten model for humans, monkeys, and rats, and the biphasic model for mice. The K m, V max, and CL int values of human intestine microsomes were 0.743 µM, 0.571 nmol/min/mg protein, and 0.770 mL/min/mg protein, respectively. The CL int values estimated by Eadie–Hofstee plots were in the order of mice (high-affinity phase) (3.0) > humans (1.0) ≥ monkeys (0.9) > rats (high-affinity phase) (0.4) for liver microsomes, and monkeys (10) > mice (high-affinity phase) (5.6) > rats (1.4) > humans (1.0) for intestine microsomes. The percentages of the CL int values of intestine microsomes to liver microsomes were in the order of monkeys (27 %) > rats (high-affinity phase in liver microsomes) (7.9 %) > mice (high-affinity phase in liver and intestine microsomes) (4.2 %) > humans (2.3 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward 4-tOP markedly differ among species and imply that species differences are strongly associated with the toxicities of alkylphenols.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1800-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs steroidogenesis in ovarian follicular
           cells of prepuberal mice
    • Authors: Fang-Nong Lai; Jing-Cai Liu; Lan Li; Jun-Yu Ma; Xue-Lian Liu; Yu-Ping Liu; Xi-Feng Zhang; Hong Chen; Massimo De Felici; Paul W. Dyce; Wei Shen
      Pages: 1279 - 1292
      Abstract: Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer which is widely used in the manufacture of plastics. As a common environmental contaminant and recognized endocrine disrupting chemical, DEHP is able to deregulate the functions of a variety of tissues, including the reproductive system both in males and females. In order to investigate the possible effects of DEHP on the first wave of folliculogenesis, occurring in the mouse ovary postnatally, mice were administered 20 or 40 μg/kg DEHP through intraperitoneal injection at days 5, 10 and 15 post partum (dpp). Following DEHP treatment the gene expression profile of control and exposed ovaries was compared by microarray analyses at 20 dpp. We found that in the exposed ovaries DEHP significantly altered the transcript levels of several immune response and steroidogenesis associated genes. In particular, DEHP significantly decreased the expression of genes essential for androgen synthesis by theca cells including Lhcgr, Cyp17a1, Star and Ldlr. Immunohistochemistry and immune flow cytometry confirmed reduced expression of LHCGR and CYP17A1 proteins in the exposed theca cells. These effects were associated to a significant reduction in ovarian concentrations of progesterone, 17β-estradiol and androstenedione along with a reduction of LH in the serum. Although we did not find a significant reduction of the number of primary, secondary or antral follicles in the DEHP exposed ovaries when compared to controls, we did observe that theca cells showed an altered structure of the nuclear envelope, fewer mitochondria, and mitochondria with a reduced number of cristae. Collectively, these results demonstrate a deleterious effect of DEHP exposure on ovarian steroidogenesis during the first wave of folliculogenesis that could potentially affect the correct establishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the onset of puberty.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1790-z
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Pseudocatalytic scavenging of the nerve agent VX with human blood
           components and the oximes obidoxime and HI-6
    • Authors: Timo Wille; Jens von der Wellen; Horst Thiermann; Franz Worek
      Pages: 1309 - 1318
      Abstract: Despite six decades of extensive research in medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning, a broad spectrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator is not yet available. One current approach is directed toward synthesizing oximes with high affinity and reactivatability toward butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma to generate an effective pseudocatalytic scavenger. An interim solution could be the administration of external AChE or BChE from blood products to augment pseudocatalytic scavenging with slower but clinically approved oximes to decrease nerve agent concentrations in the body. We here semiquantitatively investigate the ability of obidoxime and HI-6 to decrease the inhibitory activity of VX with human AChE and BChE from whole blood, erythrocyte membranes, erythrocytes, plasma, clinically available fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cells. The main findings are that whole blood showed a VX concentration-dependent decrease in inhibitory activity with HI-6 being more potent than obidoxime. Using erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes again, HI-6 was more potent compared to obidoxime. With freshly prepared plasma, obidoxime and HI-6 showed comparable results for the decrease in VX. The use of the clinically available blood products revealed that packed red blood cells showed similar kinetics as fresh erythrocytes. Fresh frozen plasma resulted in a slower and incomplete decrease in inhibitory plasma compared to freshly prepared plasma. In conclusion, the administration of blood products in combination with available oximes augments pseudocatalytic scavenging and might be useful to decrease the body load of persistent, highly toxic nerve agents.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1776-x
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • In vivo imaging of systemic transport and elimination of xenobiotics and
           endogenous molecules in mice
    • Authors: Raymond Reif; Ahmed Ghallab; Lynette Beattie; Georgia Günther; Lars Kuepfer; Paul M. Kaye; Jan G. Hengstler
      Pages: 1335 - 1352
      Abstract: We describe a two-photon microscopy-based method to evaluate the in vivo systemic transport of compounds. This method comprises imaging of the intact liver, kidney and intestine, the main organs responsible for uptake and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous molecules. The image quality of the acquired movies was sufficient to distinguish subcellular structures like organelles and vesicles. Quantification of the movement of fluorescent dextran and fluorescent cholic acid derivatives in different organs and their sub-compartments over time revealed significant dynamic differences. Calculated half-lives were similar in the capillaries of all investigated organs but differed in the specific sub-compartments, such as parenchymal cells and bile canaliculi of the liver, glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules of the kidney and lymph vessels (lacteals) of the small intestine. Moreover, tools to image immune cells, which can influence transport processes in inflamed tissues, are described. This powerful approach provides new possibilities for the analysis of compound transport in multiple organs and can support physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, in order to obtain more precise predictions at the whole body scale.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1906-5
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • High-content imaging-based BAC-GFP toxicity pathway reporters to assess
           chemical adversity liabilities
    • Authors: Steven Wink; Steven Hiemstra; Bram Herpers; Bob van de Water
      Pages: 1367 - 1383
      Abstract: Adaptive cellular stress responses are paramount in the healthy control of cell and tissue homeostasis and generally activated during toxicity in a chemical-specific manner. Here, we established a platform containing a panel of distinct adaptive stress response reporter cell lines based on BAC-transgenomics GFP tagging in HepG2 cells. Our current panel of eleven BAC-GFP HepG2 reporters together contains (1) upstream sensors, (2) downstream transcription factors and (3) their respective target genes, representing the oxidative stress response pathway (Keap1/Nrf2/Srxn1), the unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum (Xbp1/Atf4/BiP/Chop) and the DNA damage response (53bp1/p53/p21). Using automated confocal imaging and quantitative single-cell image analysis, we established that all reporters allowed the time-resolved, sensitive and mode-of-action-specific activation of the individual BAC-GFP reporter cell lines as defined by a panel of pathway-specific training compounds. Implementing the temporal pathway activity information increased the discrimination of training compounds. For a set of >30 hepatotoxicants, the induction of Srxn1, BiP, Chop and p21 BAC-GFP reporters correlated strongly with the transcriptional responses observed in cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes. Together, our data indicate that a phenotypic adaptive stress response profiling platform will allow a high throughput and time-resolved classification of chemical-induced stress responses, thus assisting in the future mechanism-based safety assessment of chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1781-0
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Cytotoxic effects of the anthraquinone derivatives
           1′-deoxyrhodoptilometrin and ( S )-(−)-rhodoptilometrin isolated from
           the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp.
    • Authors: Wim Wätjen; Sherif S. Ebada; Anja Bergermann; Yvonni Chovolou; Frank Totzke; Michael H. G. Kubbutat; Wenhan Lin; Peter Proksch
      Pages: 1485 - 1495
      Abstract: We investigated cytotoxic effects of the anthraquinone derivatives 1′-deoxyrhodoptilometrin (SE11) and (S)-(−)-rhodoptilometrin (SE16) isolated from the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp. in two tumor cell lines (C6 glioma, Hct116 colon carcinoma). Both compounds showed cytotoxic effects, with SE11 [IC50-value (MTT assay): 13.1 µM in Hct116 cells] showing a higher potency to induce apoptotic and necrotic cell death. No generation of oxidative stress was detectable (DCF assay), and also no modulation of Nrf2/ARE and NFκB signaling could be shown. Investigation of 23 protein kinases associated with cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis showed that both compounds were potent inhibitors of distinct kinases, e.g., IGF1-receptor kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and EGF receptor kinase with SE11 being a more potent compound (IC50 values: 5, 18.4 and 4 µM, respectively). SE11 caused a decrease in ERK phosphorylation which may be a consequence of the inhibition of EGF receptor kinase by this compound. Since an inhibition of the EGF receptor/MAPK pathway is an important target for diverse cytostatic drugs, we suggest that the anthraquinone derivative 1′-deoxyrhodoptilometrin (SE11) may be an interesting lead structure for the development of new anticancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1787-7
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Phtalates: new cardiovascular health disruptors?
    • Authors: Giovanna Muscogiuri; Annamaria Colao
      Pages: 1513 - 1517
      Abstract: Phtalates are commonly found in several household products such as food packaging, furniture and toys. Humans are exposed to phtalates through different ways such as inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Due to the abundance of plastic in our society, the exposure to phtalates is ubiquitous. A growing body of evidence investigated the association of phtalate exposure with cardiovascular risk factors, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Phtalates are thought to contribute to obesity through their binding and activation of PPARγ receptor that in turn results in the upregulation of adipocyte production. Phtalates are also known to interfere with insulin signaling and to increase oxidative stress. All these mechanisms contribute to the onset of insulin resistance. Recent evidences support a role of phtalates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Thus, the aim of this communication was to summarize the current evidences dealing with the association of phtalates and cardiovascular risk factors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1780-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Why did researchers not use realistic doses in animal studies of bisphenol
    • Authors: Wolfgang Völkel
      Pages: 1519 - 1522
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1840-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 3 (2017)
  • Answer to the comment of Hai Lu et al. regarding “Hepatotoxicity by
           combination treatment of temozolomide, artesunate and Chinese herbs in a
           glioblastoma multiforme patient: case report and review of the literature.
           Arch Toxicol (2016)”
    • Authors: Thomas Efferth; Ursula Schöttler; Sanjeev Krishna; Peter Schmiedek; Frederik Wenz; Frank A. Giordano
      PubDate: 2017-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1958-1
  • Risks of dioxins resulting from high exposure via breast-feeding?
    • Authors: Klaus Abraham
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1952-7
  • Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate in a convenience sample of U.S.
           adults from 2000 to 2016
    • Authors: Manori J. Silva; Lee-Yang Wong; Ella Samandar; James L. Preau; Antonia M. Calafat; Xiaoyun Ye
      Abstract: Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a plasticizer used in a variety of commercial applications, but data on Americans’ exposure to DEHTP do not exist. We investigated the exposure to DEHTP in a convenience group of U.S. adults by analyzing urine collected anonymously in 2000 (N = 44), 2009 (N = 61), 2011 (N = 81), 2013 (N = 92), and 2016 (N = 149) for two major DEHTP oxidative metabolites: mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP). For comparison, we also quantified the analogous DEHP metabolites mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP). We detected MECPTP, MEHHP, and MECPP in all samples collected in 2016 with geometric means of 13.1, 4.1, and 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; we detected MEHHTP in 91% of the samples (geometric mean = 3.1 ng/mL). Concentrations of MECPTP correlated well with those of MEHHTP (R 2 = 0.8, p < 0.001), but did not significantly correlate with those of MEHHP (p > 0.05) suggesting different sources of exposure to DEHP and DEHTP. We also evaluated the fraction of the metabolites eliminated in their free (i.e., unconjugated) form. The median percent of unconjugated species was lower for the DEHP metabolites (MECPP [45.5%], MEHHP [1.9%]) compared to the DEHTP metabolites (MECPTP [98.8%], MEHHTP [21.2%]). Contrary to the downward trend from 2000 to 2016 in urinary concentrations of MEHHP and MECPP, we observed an upward trend for MEHHTP and MECPTP. These preliminary data suggest that exposure to DEHTP may be on the rise. Nevertheless, general population exposure data using MEHHTP and MECPTP as exposure biomarkers would increase our understanding of exposure to DEHTP, one of the known DEHP alternatives.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1956-3
  • Adverse effects of levamisole in cocaine users: a review and risk
    • Authors: Tibor Markus Brunt; Jorrit van den Berg; Ed Pennings; Bastiaan Venhuis
      Abstract: The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis. Females are more susceptible for both agranulocytosis and vasculitis. Another complication reported with levamisole-adulterated cocaine is leukoencephalopathy, a disabling and potentially fatal neurological disorder caused by cerebral demyelination. In this review, all adverse effects associated with therapeutic levamisole and levamisole-adulterated cocaine are described. In addition, this review provides an update of the pharmacology of levamisole, its metabolism, including toxic metabolites and metabolites that are relevant for levamisole’s addition to cocaine. Special emphasis is put on the immunopathology and the dose–effect relationship of chronic levamisole exposure. Finally, a risk assessment is provided based on the current level of levamisole adulteration in street cocaine, the dose range calculated per gram and the pattern of chronic exposure in heavy or dependent users.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1947-4
  • Phenyl valerate esterase activity of human butyrylcholinesterase
    • Authors: Iris Mangas; Eugenio Vilanova; Jorge Estévez
      Abstract: Phenyl valerate is used for detecting and measuring neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and has been used for discriminating esterases as potential target in hen model of organophosphorus delayed neuropathy. In previous studies we observed that phenyl valerate esterase (PVase) activity of an enzymatic fraction in chicken brain might be due to a butyrylcholinesterase protein (BuChE), and it was suggested that this enzymatic fraction could be related to the potentiation/promotion phenomenon of the organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). In this work, PVase activity of purified human butyrylcholinesterase (hBuChE) is demonstrated and confirms the novel observation that a relationship of BuChE with PVase activities is also relevant for humans, as is, therefore the potential role in toxicity for humans. The KM and catalytic constant (kcat) were estimated as 0.52/0.72 µM and 45,900/49,200 min−1 respectively. Furthermore, this work studies the inhibition by preincubation of PVase and cholinesterase activities of hBuChE with irreversible inhibitors (mipafox, iso-OMPA or PMSF), showing that these inhibitors interact similarly in both activities with similar second-order inhibition constants. Acethylthiocholine and phenyl valerate partly inhibit PVase and cholinesterase activities, respectively. All these observations suggest that both activities occur in the same active center. The interaction with a reversible inhibitor (ethopropazine) showed that the cholinesterase activity was more sensitive than the PVase activity, showing that the sensitivity for this reversible inhibitor is affected by the nature of the substrate. The present work definitively establishes the capacity of BuChE to hydrolyze the carboxylester phenyl valerate using a purified enzyme (hBuChE). Therefore, BuChE should be considered in the research of organophosphorus targets of toxicity related with PVase proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1946-5
  • Caenorhabditis elegans as a powerful alternative model organism to promote
           research in genetic toxicology and biomedicine
    • Authors: Sebastian Honnen
      Abstract: In view of increased life expectancy the risk for disturbed integrity of genetic information increases. This inevitably holds the implication for higher incidence of age-related diseases leading to considerable cost increase in health care systems. To develop preventive strategies it is crucial to evaluate external and internal noxae as possible threats to our DNA. Especially the interplay of DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair (DR) mechanisms needs further deciphering. Moreover, there is a distinct need for alternative in vivo test systems for basic research and also risk assessment in toxicology. Especially the evaluation of combinational toxicity of environmentally present genotoxins and adverse effects of clinically used DNA damaging anticancer drugs is a major challenge for modern toxicology. This review focuses on the applicability of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to unravel and tackle scientific questions related to the biological consequences of genotoxin exposure and highlights methods for studying DDR and DR. In this regard large-scale in vivo screens of mixtures of chemicals and extensive parallel sequencing are highlighted as unique advantages of C. elegans. In addition, concise information regarding evolutionary conserved molecular mechanisms of the DDR and DR as well as currently available data obtained from the use of prototypical genotoxins and preferential read-outs of genotoxin testing are discussed. The use of established protocols, which are already available in the community, is encouraged to facilitate and further improve the implementation of C. elegans as a powerful genetic model system in genetic toxicology and biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1944-7
  • The highly bioactive molecule and signal substance 6-formylindolo[3,2- b
           ]carbazole (FICZ) plays bi-functional roles in cell growth and apoptosis
           in vitro
    • Authors: Afshin Mohammadi-Bardbori; Farzaneh Bastan; Amin-Reza Akbarizadeh
      Abstract: The maintenance of cellular homeostasis is a complex process that is governed by the receipt of prototypical growth and death signals. The endogenous functions of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in cellular homeostasis are not well understood. We aimed to establish whether the disturbance of endogenously activated AHR can influence cell growth, and if so, what mechanism(s) are involved. Cell growth was measured in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 wild-type and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)-deficient c37 cells. In other sets of experiments, HepG2 cells were exposed to different doses of FICZ (0.01nM–1 µM) alone or in combination with 50 nM of the CYP1A1 inhibitor 3′methoxy-4′nitro-flavone (MNF). CYP1A1 enzyme activity, cell viability, oxidative stress, and several endpoints of apoptosis were measured. FICZ treatment at a high concentration or in combination with MNF induced sustained CYP1A1 activity and led to oxidative stress and activation of apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. In comparison with the wild-type Hepa-1 cells, c37 cells lacking CYP1A1 activity proliferated faster in normal medium which contains trace levels of FICZ. Besides, in HepG2 cells, FICZ stimulated cell growth at low concentrations but inhibited cell growth at high concentrations. Based on these findings, we propose that CYP1A1 inhibitors, by increasing the levels of the endogenous ligand FICZ, change the cell growth kinetics and trigger cell death and apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Since AHR controls multiple cellular functions, a wide range of toxicity can be expected by disturbing its endogenous functions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1950-9
  • Human pregnane X receptor is activated by dibenzazepine carbamate-based
           inhibitors of constitutive androstane receptor
    • Authors: Judith Jeske; Björn Windshügel; Wolfgang E. Thasler; Matthias Schwab; Oliver Burk
      Abstract: Unintentional activation of xenosensing nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) by clinical drug use is known to produce severe side effects in patients, which may be overcome by co-administering antagonists. However, especially antagonizing CAR is hampered by the lack of specific inhibitors, which do not activate PXR. Recently, compounds based on a dibenzazepine carbamate scaffold were identified as potent CAR inhibitors. However, their potential to activate PXR was not thoroughly investigated, even if the lead compound was named “CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1” (CINPA1). Thus, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the interaction of CINPA1 and four analogs with PXR. Cellular assays were used to investigate intra- and intermolecular interactions and transactivation activity of PXR as a function of the compounds. Modulation of PXR target gene expression was analyzed in primary human hepatocytes. Ligand binding to PXR was investigated by molecular docking and limited proteolytic digestion. We show here that CINPA1 induced the assembly of the PXR ligand-binding domain, released co-repressors from and recruited co-activators to the receptor. CINPA1 and its analogs induced the PXR-dependent activation of a CYP3A4 reporter gene and CINPA1 induced the expression of endogenous cytochrome P450 genes in primary hepatocytes, while not consistently inhibiting CAR-mediated induction. Molecular docking revealed favorable binding of CINPA1 and analogs to the PXR ligand-binding pocket, which was confirmed in vitro. Altogether, our data provide consistent evidence that compounds with a dibenzazepine carbamate scaffold, such as CINPA1 and its four analogs, bind to and activate PXR.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1948-3
  • A miRNA signature for an environmental heterocyclic amine defined by a
           multi-organ carcinogenicity bioassay in the rat
    • Authors: Ying-Shiuan Chen; Rong Wang; Wan-Mohaiza Dashwood; Christiane V. Löhr; David E. Williams; Emily Ho; Susanne Mertens-Talcott; Roderick H. Dashwood
      Abstract: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) produced during high-temperature cooking have been studied extensively in terms of their genotoxic/genetic effects, but recent work has implicated epigenetic mechanisms involving non-coding RNAs. Colon tumors induced in the rat by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) have altered microRNA (miRNA) signatures linked to dysregulated pluripotency factors, such as c-Myc and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). We tested the hypothesis that dysregulated miRNAs from PhIP-induced colon tumors would provide a “PhIP signature” for use in other target organs obtained from a 1-year carcinogenicity bioassay in the rat. Downstream targets that were corroborated in the rat were then investigated in human cancer datasets. The results confirmed that multiple let-7 family members were downregulated in PhIP-induced skin, colon, lung, small intestine, and Zymbal’s gland tumors, and were associated with c-myc and Hmga2 upregulation. PhIP signature miRNAs with the profile mir-21high/mir-126low/mir-29clow/mir-215low/mir-145low were linked to reduced Klf4 levels in rat tumors, and in human pan-cancer and colorectal cancer. It remains to be determined whether this PhIP signature has predictive value, given that more than 20 different genotoxic HCAs are present in the human diet, plus other agents that likely induce or repress many of the same miRNAs. Future studies should define more precisely the miRNA signatures of other HCAs, and their possible value for human risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1945-6
  • S- (3-Aminobenzanthron-2-yl)cysteine in the globin of rats as a novel type
           of adduct and possible biomarker of exposure to 3-nitrobenzanthrone, a
           potent environmental carcinogen
    • Authors: Igor Linhart; Iveta Hanzlíková; Jaroslav Mráz; Šárka Dušková
      Abstract: 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a potent environmental mutagen and carcinogen, is known to be activated in vivo to 3-benzanthronylnitrenium ion which forms both NH and C2-bound adducts with DNA and also reacts with glutathione giving rise to urinary 3-aminobenzanthron-2-ylmercapturic acid. In this study, acid hydrolysate of globin from rats dosed intraperitoneally with 3-NBA was analysed by HPLC/MS to identify a novel type of cysteine adduct, 3-aminobenzanthron-2-ylcysteine (3-ABA-Cys), confirmed using a synthesised standard. The 3-ABA-Cys levels in globin peaked after single 3-NBA doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg on day 2 to attain 0.25 and 0.49 nmol/g globin, respectively, thereafter declining slowly to 70–80% of their maximum values during 15 days. After dosing rats for three consecutive days with 1 mg 3-NBA/kg a significant cumulation of 3-ABA-Cys in globin was observed. 3-ABA-Cys was also found in the plasma hydrolysate. Herein, after dosing with 1 and 2 mg 3-NBA/kg the adduct levels peaked on day 1 at 0.15 and 0.51 nmol/ml plasma, respectively, thereafter declining rapidly to undetectable levels on day 15. In addition, sulphinamide adducts were also found in the exposed rats, measured indirectly as 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) split off from globin by mild acid hydrolysis. Levels of both types of adducts in the globin samples parallelled very well with 3-ABA/3-ABA-Cys ratio being around 1:8. In conclusion, 3-ABA-Cys is the first example of arylnitrenium-cysteine adduct in globin representing a new promising class of biomarkers to assess cumulative exposures to aromatic amines, nitroaromatics and heteroaromatic amines.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1943-8
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