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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Archives of Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.541
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Anogenital distance as a toxicological or clinical marker for fetal
           androgen action and risk for reproductive disorders
    • Authors: Camilla Lindgren Schwartz; Sofie Christiansen; Anne Marie Vinggaard; Marta Axelstad; Ulla Hass; Terje Svingen
      Pages: 253 - 272
      Abstract: Male reproductive development is intricately dependent on fetal androgen action. Consequently, disrupted androgen action during fetal life can interfere with the development of the reproductive system resulting in adverse effects on reproductive function later in life. One biomarker used to evaluate fetal androgen action is the anogenital distance (AGD), the distance between the anus and the external genitalia. A short male AGD is strongly associated with genital malformations at birth and reproductive disorders in adulthood. AGD is therefore used as an effect readout in rodent toxicity studies aimed at testing compounds for endocrine activity and anti-androgenic properties, and in human epidemiological studies to correlate fetal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals to feminization of new-born boys. In this review, we have synthesized current data related to intrauterine exposure to xenobiotics and AGD measurements. We discuss the utility of AGD as a retrospective marker of in utero anti-androgenicity and as a predictive marker for male reproductive disorders, both with respect to human health and rodent toxicity studies. Finally, we highlight four areas that need addressing to fully evaluate AGD as a biomarker in both a regulatory and clinical setting.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2350-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • Skin sensitization testing needs and data uses by US regulatory and
           research agencies
    • Authors: Judy Strickland; Amber B. Daniel; David Allen; Cecilia Aguila; Surender Ahir; Simona Bancos; Evisabel Craig; Dori Germolec; Chandramallika Ghosh; Naomi L. Hudson; Abigail Jacobs; David M. Lehmann; Joanna Matheson; Emily N. Reinke; Nakissa Sadrieh; Stanislav Vukmanovic; Nicole Kleinstreuer
      Pages: 273 - 291
      Abstract: United States regulatory and research agencies may rely upon skin sensitization test data to assess the sensitization hazards associated with dermal exposure to chemicals and products. These data are evaluated to ensure that such substances will not cause unreasonable adverse effects to human health when used appropriately. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Food and Drug Administration, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the US Department of Defense are member agencies of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). ICCVAM seeks to identify opportunities for the use of non-animal replacements to satisfy these testing needs and requirements. This review identifies the standards, test guidelines, or guidance documents that are applicable to satisfy each of these agency’s needs; the current use of animal testing and flexibility for using alternative methodologies; information needed from alternative tests to fulfill the needs for skin sensitization data; and whether data from non-animal alternative approaches are accepted by these US federal agencies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2341-6
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • The role of roughage provision on the absorption and disposition of the
           mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in calves: from
           field observations to toxicokinetics
    • Authors: Bonnie Valgaeren; Léonard Théron; Siska Croubels; Mathias Devreese; Siegrid De Baere; Els Van Pamel; Els Daeseleire; Marthe De Boevre; Sarah De Saeger; Arnau Vidal; José Diana Di Mavungu; Philipp Fruhmann; Gerhard Adam; Alfons Callebaut; Calixte Bayrou; Vincent Frisée; Anne-Sophie Rao; Emilie Knapp; Arnaud Sartelet; Bart Pardon; Piet Deprez; Gunther Antonissen
      Pages: 293 - 310
      Abstract: A clinical case in Belgium demonstrated that feeding a feed concentrate containing considerable levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, 1.13 mg/kg feed) induced severe liver failure in 2- to 3-month-old beef calves. Symptoms disappeared by replacing the highly contaminated corn and by stimulating ruminal development via roughage administration. A multi-mycotoxin contamination was demonstrated in feed samples collected at 15 different veal farms in Belgium. DON was most prevalent, contaminating 80% of the roughage samples (mixed straw and maize silage; average concentration in positives: 637 ± 621 µg/kg, max. 1818 µg/kg), and all feed concentrate samples (411 ± 156 µg/kg, max. 693 µg/kg). In order to evaluate the impact of roughage provision and its associated ruminal development on the gastro-intestinal absorption and biodegradation of DON and its acetylated derivatives (3- and 15-ADON) in calves, a toxicokinetic study was performed with two ruminating and two non-ruminating male calves. Animals received in succession a bolus of DON (120 µg/kg bodyweight (BW)), 15-ADON (50 µg/kg BW), and 3-ADON (25 µg/kg) by intravenous (IV) injection or per os (PO) in a cross-over design. The absolute oral bioavailability of DON was much higher in non-ruminating calves (50.7 ± 33.0%) compared to ruminating calves (4.1 ± 4.5%). Immediately following exposure, 3- and 15-ADON were hydrolysed to DON in ruminating calves. DON and its acetylated metabolites were mainly metabolized to DON-3-glucuronide, however, also small amounts of DON-15-glucuronide were detected in urine. DON degradation to deepoxy-DON (DOM-1) was only observed to a relevant extent in ruminating calves. Consequently, toxicity of DON in calves is closely related to roughage provision and the associated stage of ruminal development.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2368-8
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • Exploring sex differences in human health risk assessment for PFNA and
           PFDA using a PBPK model
    • Authors: Sook-Jin Kim; Eun-Jeong Choi; Go-Wun Choi; Yong-Bok Lee; Hea-Young Cho
      Pages: 311 - 330
      Abstract: Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference. A PBPK model of PFNA and PFDA was established based on an in vivo study in male and female rats. Analytes in biological samples (plasma, nine tissues, urine, and feces) were determined by ultra-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method. PFNA and PFDA showed a gender differences in the elimination half-life and volume of distribution. The tissue–plasma partition coefficients were the highest in the liver in both male and female rats. The predicted rat plasma and urine concentrations simulated and fitted were in good agreement with the observed values. The PBPK models of PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats were then extrapolated to a human PBPK model based on human physiological parameters. The external doses were calculated at 3.35 ng/kg/day (male) and 17.0 ng/kg/day (female) for PFNA and 0.530 ng/kg/day (male) and 0.661 ng/kg/day (female) for PFDA. Human risk assessment was estimated using Korean biomonitoring values considering the gender differences. This study provides valuable insight into human health risk assessment regarding PFNA and PFDA exposure.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2365-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • In vitro proteomic analysis of methapyrilene toxicity in rat hepatocytes
           reveals effects on intermediary metabolism
    • Authors: Albert Braeuning; Axel Oberemm; Tanja Heise; Ursula Gundert-Remy; Jan G. Hengstler; Alfonso Lampen
      Pages: 369 - 383
      Abstract: The antihistaminic drug methapyrilene was withdrawn from the market in 1979 because of hepatocarcinogenicity in rats. Since then, the drug has been used as a model hepatotoxin especially for transcriptomic analyses using material from in vivo studies. Much less transcriptomics data are available from in vitro studies, and no studies have investigated proteomic effects of methapyrilene in vitro. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the proteomic response of primary rat hepatocytes to methapyrilene, to broaden our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of methapyrilene toxicity, and to compare the results of collagen sandwich-cultured hepatocytes to in vivo data. In vitro methapyrilene concentrations (0.39 µM, 6.25 µM, and 100 µM) were chosen to cover an in vivo-relevant range. Based on published pharmacokinetic data they correspond to concentrations in portal vein blood for previously in vivo-tested doses of methapyrilene, up to a concentration showing slight cytotoxicity. Analysis of proteomic alterations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass-spectrometric protein identification demonstrated consistent and concentration-dependent effects of methapyrilene, in particular on mitochondrial proteins. Data suggest substantial deregulation of amino acid and ammonia metabolism and effects on mitochondrial energy supply pathways. The effects identified in vitro concur well with into previous in vivo observations. Several effects, for example, the influence of methapyrilene on S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, have not been described previously. The data suggest that already non-toxic concentrations of methapyrilene alter components of the intermediary metabolism, such as branched-chain amino acid metabolism, as well as urea and tricarboxylic cycle enzymes. In summary, data substantially add to our knowledge on molecular mechanisms of methapyrilene hepatotoxicity at the protein level.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2360-3
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • Characterisation of the NRF2 transcriptional network and its response to
           chemical insult in primary human hepatocytes: implications for prediction
           of drug-induced liver injury
    • Authors: Ian M. Copple; Wouter den Hollander; Giulia Callegaro; Fiona E. Mutter; James L. Maggs; Amy L. Schofield; Lucille Rainbow; Yongxiang Fang; Jeffrey J. Sutherland; Ewa C. Ellis; Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg; Stephen W. Fenwick; Christopher E. Goldring; Bob van de Water; James L. Stevens; B. Kevin Park
      Pages: 385 - 399
      Abstract: The transcription factor NRF2, governed by its repressor KEAP1, protects cells against oxidative stress. There is interest in modelling the NRF2 response to improve the prediction of clinical toxicities such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI). However, very little is known about the makeup of the NRF2 transcriptional network and its response to chemical perturbation in primary human hepatocytes (PHH), which are often used as a translational model for investigating DILI. Here, microarray analysis identified 108 transcripts (including several putative novel NRF2-regulated genes) that were both downregulated by siRNA targeting NRF2 and upregulated by siRNA targeting KEAP1 in PHH. Applying weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to transcriptomic data from the Open TG-GATES toxicogenomics repository (representing PHH exposed to 158 compounds) revealed four co-expressed gene sets or ‘modules’ enriched for these and other NRF2-associated genes. By classifying the 158 TG-GATES compounds based on published evidence, and employing the four modules as network perturbation metrics, we found that the activation of NRF2 is a very good indicator of the intrinsic biochemical reactivity of a compound (i.e. its propensity to cause direct chemical stress), with relatively high sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive/negative predictive values. We also found that NRF2 activation has lower sensitivity for the prediction of clinical DILI risk, although relatively high specificity and positive predictive values indicate that false positive detection rates are likely to be low in this setting. Underpinned by our comprehensive analysis, activation of the NRF2 network is one of several mechanism-based components that can be incorporated into holistic systems toxicology models to improve mechanistic understanding and preclinical prediction of DILI in man.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2354-1
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • In vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) by PBTK modeling for animal-free
           risk assessment approaches of potential endocrine-disrupting compounds
    • Authors: Eric Fabian; Caroline Gomes; Barbara Birk; Tabitha Williford; Tzutzuy Ramirez Hernandez; Christian Haase; Rene Zbranek; Bennard van Ravenzwaay; Robert Landsiedel
      Pages: 401 - 416
      Abstract: While in vitro testing is used to identify hazards of chemicals, nominal in vitro assay concentrations may misrepresent potential in vivo effects and do not provide dose–response data which can be used for a risk assessment. We used reverse dosimetry to compare in vitro effect concentrations-to-in vivo doses causing toxic effects related to endocrine disruption. Ten compounds (acetaminophen, bisphenol A, caffeine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, fenarimol, flutamide, genistein, ketoconazole, methyltestosterone, and trenbolone) have been tested in the yeast estrogen screening (YES) or yeast androgen-screening (YAS) assays for estrogen and androgen receptor binding, as well as the H295R assay (OECD test guideline no. 456) for potential interaction with steroidogenesis. With the assumption of comparable concentration–response ratios of these effects in the applied in vitro systems and the in vivo environment, the lowest observed effect concentrations from these assays were extrapolated to oral doses (LOELs) by reverse dosimetry. For extrapolation, an eight-compartment Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic (PBTK) rat model based on in vitro and in silico input data was used. The predicted LOEL was then compared to the LOEL actually observed in corresponding in vivo studies (YES/YAS assay versus uterotrophic or Hershberger assay and steroidogenesis assay versus pubertal assay or generation studies). This evaluation resulted in 6 out of 10 compounds for which the predicted LOELs were in the same order of magnitude as the actual in vivo LOELs. For four compounds, the predicted LOELs differed by more than tenfold from the actual in vivo LOELs. In conclusion, these data demonstrate the applicability of reverse dosimetry using a simple PBTK model to serve in vitro–in silico-based risk assessment, but also identified cases and test substance were the applied methods are insufficient.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2372-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • Calyx junction dismantlement and synaptic uncoupling precede hair cell
           extrusion in the vestibular sensory epithelium during sub-chronic
           3,3′-iminodipropionitrile ototoxicity in the mouse
    • Authors: Erin A. Greguske; Maria Carreres-Pons; Blanca Cutillas; Pere Boadas-Vaello; Jordi Llorens
      Pages: 417 - 434
      Abstract: The cellular and molecular events that precede hair cell (HC) loss in the vestibular epithelium during chronic ototoxic exposure have not been widely studied. To select a study model, we compared the effects of sub-chronic exposure to different concentrations of 3,3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) in the drinking water of two strains of mice and of both sexes. In subsequent experiments, male 129S1/SvImJ mice were exposed to 30 mM IDPN for 5 or 8 weeks; animals were euthanized at the end of the exposure or after a washout period of 13 weeks. In behavioral tests, IDPN mice showed progressive vestibular dysfunction followed by recovery during washout. In severely affected animals, light and electron microscopy observations of the vestibular epithelia revealed HC extrusion towards the endolymphatic cavity. Comparison of functional and ultrastructural data indicated that animals with fully reversible dysfunction did not have significant HC loss or stereociliary damage, but reversible dismantlement of the calyceal junctions that characterize the contact between type I HCs (HCI) and their calyx afferents. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed the loss of calyx junction proteins, Caspr1 and Tenascin-C, during exposure and their recovery during washout. Synaptic uncoupling was also recorded, with loss of pre-synaptic Ribeye and post-synaptic GluA2 puncta, and differential reversibility among the three different kinds of synaptic contacts existing in the epithelium. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that some of these changes are at least in part explained by gene expression modifications. We concluded that calyx junction dismantlement and synaptic uncoupling are early events in the mouse vestibular sensory epithelium during sub-chronic IDPN ototoxicity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2339-0
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • A systematic analysis of Nrf2 pathway activation dynamics during repeated
           xenobiotic exposure
    • Authors: Luc J. M. Bischoff; Isoude A. Kuijper; Johannes P. Schimming; Liesanne Wolters; Bas ter Braak; Jan P. Langenberg; Daan Noort; Joost B. Beltman; Bob van de Water
      Pages: 435 - 451
      Abstract: Oxidative stress leads to the activation of the Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. While most studies have focused on the activation of the Nrf2 pathway after single chemical treatment, little is known about the dynamic regulation of the Nrf2 pathway in the context of repeated exposure scenarios. Here we employed single cell live imaging to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of the Nrf2 pathway during repeated exposure, making advantage of two HepG2 fluorescent protein reporter cell lines, expressing GFP tagged Nrf2 or sulfiredoxin 1 (Srxn1), a direct downstream target of Nrf2. High throughput live confocal imaging was used to measure the temporal dynamics of these two components of the Nrf2 pathway after repeated exposure to an extensive concentration range of diethyl maleate (DEM) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ). Single treatment with DEM or tBHQ induced Nrf2 and Srxn1 over time in a concentration-dependent manner. The Nrf2 response to a second treatment was lower than the response to the first exposure with the same concentration, indicating that the response is adaptive. Moreover, a limited fraction of individual cells committed themselves into the Nrf2 response during the second treatment. Despite the suppression of the Nrf2 pathway, the second treatment resulted in a three-fold higher Srxn1-GFP response compared to the first treatment, with all cells participating in the response. While after the first treatment Srxn1-GFP response was linearly related to Nrf2-GFP nuclear translocation, such a linear relationship was less clear for the second exposure. siRNA-mediated knockdown demonstrated that the second response is dependent on the activity of Nrf2. Several other, clinically relevant, compounds (i.e., sulphorophane, nitrofurantoin and CDDO-Me) also enhanced the induction of Srxn1-GFP upon two consecutive repeated exposure. Together the data indicate that adaptation towards pro-oxidants lowers the Nrf2 activation capacity, but simultaneously primes cells for the enhancement of an antioxidant response which depends on factors other than just Nrf2. These data provide further insight in the overall dynamics of stress pathway activation after repeated exposure and underscore the complexity of responses that may govern repeated dose toxicity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2353-2
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • Absorption of blue light by cigarette smoke components is highly toxic for
           retinal pigmented epithelial cells
    • Authors: Corinne Zinflou; Patrick J. Rochette
      Pages: 453 - 465
      Abstract: Lesion to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a crucial event in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Tobacco smoking and high-energy visible blue (HEV; 400–500 nm) light exposure are major environmental risk factors for AMD. Individually, they have been shown to cause damage to the RPE. Tobacco smoke contains toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that can accumulate in RPE and which absorb HEV light. It can thus be postulated that the interaction between both factors in RPE cells can have a synergic toxic effect to the RPE. To test this hypothesis, cultured human RPE cells (ARPE19) were treated with nanomolar concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP), then exposed to HEV light using an irradiation system that mimics the solar spectrum normally transmitted to the retina through the human ocular media. Using mitochondrial network morphology changes and key features of AMD-related RPE defects such as apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress, we demonstrate that a synergistic phototoxicity is generated when nanomolar concentrations (≤ 500 nM) of IcdP interact with sub-lethal amounts of HEV light. Indeed, we found IcdP to be at least 3000 times more toxic for RPE cells when irradiated with HEV light. This synergy translates into disruption of mitochondrial network, ROS enhanced accumulation and apoptosis of RPE cells. Our results underline an important interplay between two environmental risk factors involved in AMD progression and strongly indicate that IcdP, upon interaction with HEV light, may initiate the biological mechanisms underlying the association between cigarette smoking and AMD-related RPE degeneration.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2344-3
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • PGC-1β modulates statin-associated myotoxicity in mice
    • Authors: François Singh; Joffrey Zoll; Urs Duthaler; Anne-Laure Charles; Miljenko V. Panajatovic; Gilles Laverny; Thomas G. McWilliams; Daniel Metzger; Bernard Geny; Stephan Krähenbühl; Jamal Bouitbir
      Pages: 487 - 504
      Abstract: Statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and lower serum LDL-cholesterol levels. Statins are generally well tolerated, but can be associated with potentially life-threatening myopathy of unknown mechanism. We have shown previously that statins impair PGC-1β expression in human and rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that PGC-1β may play a role in statin-induced myopathy. PGC-1β is a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of important genes in mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidative capacity and energy metabolism. The principle aim of the current study was to investigate the interaction between atorvastatin and PGC-1β in more detail. We therefore treated wild-type mice and mice with selective skeletal muscle knockout of PGC-1β (PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice) with oral atorvastatin (5 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. At the end of treatment, we determined body parameters, muscle function, structure, and composition as well as the function of muscle mitochondria, mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of apoptotic pathways. In wild-type mice, atorvastatin selectively impaired mitochondrial function in glycolytic muscle and caused a conversion of oxidative type IIA to glycolytic type IIB myofibers. Conversely, in oxidative muscle of wild-type mice, atorvastatin enhanced mitochondrial function via activation of mitochondrial biogenesis pathways and decreased apoptosis. In PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice, atorvastatin induced a switch towards glycolytic fibers, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, increased mitochondrial ROS production, impaired mitochondrial proliferation and induced apoptosis in both glycolytic and oxidative skeletal muscle. Our work reveals that atorvastatin mainly affects glycolytic muscle in wild-type mice and demonstrates the importance of PGC-1β for oxidative muscle integrity during long-term exposure to a myotoxic agent.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2369-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • Long-term and mechanistic evaluation of drug-induced liver injury in
           Upcyte human hepatocytes
    • Authors: Laia Tolosa; Nuria Jiménez; María Pelechá; José V. Castell; Mª José Gómez-Lechón; M. Teresa Donato
      Pages: 519 - 532
      Abstract: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) constitutes one of the most frequent reasons of restricted-use warnings as well as withdrawals of drugs in postmarketing and poses an important concern for the pharmaceutical industry. The current hepatic in vivo and in vitro models for DILI detection have shown clear limitations, mainly for studies of long-term hepatotoxicity. For this reason, we here evaluated the potential of using Upcytes human hepatocytes (UHH) for repeated-dose long-term exposure to drugs. The UHH were incubated with 15 toxic and non-toxic compounds for up to 21 days using a repeated-dose approach, and, in addition to conventional examination of effects on viability, the mechanisms implicated in cell toxicity were also assessed by means of high-content screening. The UHH maintained the expression and activity levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes for up to 21 days of culture and became more sensitive to the toxic compounds after extended exposures, showing inter-donor differences which would reflect variability among the population. The assay also allowed to detect the main mechanisms implicated in the toxicity of each drug as well as identifying special susceptibilities depending on the donor. UHH can be used for a long-term repeated detection of DILI at clinically relevant concentrations and also offers key mechanistic features of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This system is therefore a promising tool in preclinical testing of human relevance that could help to reduce and/or replace animal testing for drug adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2349-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2019)
  • Toxicity of blue led light and A2E is associated to mitochondrial dynamics
           impairment in ARPE-19 cells: implications for age-related macular
    • Authors: Agustina Alaimo; Guadalupe García Liñares; Juan Marco Bujjamer; Roxana Mayra Gorojod; Soledad Porte Alcon; Jimena Hebe Martínez; Alicia Baldessari; Hernán Edgardo Grecco; Mónica Lidia Kotler
      Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial retinal disease characterized by a progressive loss of central vision. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration is a critical event in AMD. It has been associated to A2E accumulation, which sensitizes RPE to blue light photodamage. Mitochondrial quality control mechanisms have evolved to ensure mitochondrial integrity and preserve cellular homeostasis. Particularly, mitochondrial dynamics involve the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion to preserve a healthy mitochondrial network. The present study aims to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying photodamage-induced RPE cell death with particular focus on the involvement of defective mitochondrial dynamics. Light-emitting diodes irradiation (445 ± 18 nm; 4.43 mW/cm2) significantly reduced the viability of both unloaded and A2E-loaded human ARPE-19 cells and increased reactive oxygen species production. A2E along with blue light, triggered apoptosis measured by MC540/PI-flow cytometry and activated caspase-3. Blue light induced mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance towards mitochondrial fragmentation in both non-loaded and A2E-loaded cells which correlated with the deregulation of mitochondria-shaping proteins level (OPA1, DRP1 and OMA1). To our knowledge, this is the first work reporting that photodamage causes mitochondrial dynamics deregulation in RPE cells. This process could possibly contribute to AMD pathology. Our findings suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics may be a valuable strategy for treating retinal degeneration diseases, such as AMD.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02409-6
  • Pulmonary and pleural toxicity of potassium octatitanate fibers, rutile
           titanium dioxide nanoparticles, and MWCNT-7 in male Fischer 344 rats
    • Authors: Mohamed Abdelgied; Ahmed M. El-Gazzar; David B. Alexander; William T. Alexander; Takamasa Numano; Masaaki Iigou; Aya Naiki-Ito; Hiroshi Takase; Khaled Abbas Abdou; Akihiko Hirose; Yuhji Taquahashi; Jun Kanno; Mona Abdelhamid; Hiroyuki Tsuda; Satoru Takahashi
      Abstract: Potassium octatitanate (K2O·8TiO2, POT) fibers are used as an alternative to asbestos. Their shape and biopersistence suggest that they are possibly carcinogenic. However, inhalation studies have shown that respired POT fibers have little carcinogenic potential. We conducted a short-term study in which we administered POT fibers, and anatase and rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles (a-nTiO2, r-nTiO2) to rats using intra-tracheal intra-pulmonary spraying (TIPS). We found that similarly to other materials, POT fibers were more toxic than non-fibrous nanoparticles of the same chemical composition, indicating that the titanium dioxide composition of POT fibers does not appear to account for their lack of carcinogenicity. The present report describes the results of the 3-week and 52-week interim killing of our current 2-year study of POT fibers, with MWCNT-7 as a positive control and r-nTiO2 as a non-fibrous titanium dioxide control. Male F344 rats were administered 0.5 ml vehicle, 62.5 µg/ml and 125 µg/ml r-nTiO2 and POT fibers, and 125 µg/ml MWCNT-7 by TIPS every other day for 2 weeks (eight doses: total doses of 0.25 and 0.50 mg/rat). At 1 year, POT and MWCNT-7 fibers induced significant increases in alveolar macrophage number, granulation tissue in the lung, bronchiolo-alveolar cell hyperplasia and thickening of the alveolar wall, and pulmonary 8-OHdG levels. The 0.5 mg POT- and the MWCNT-7-treated groups also had increased visceral and parietal pleura thickness, increased mesothelial cell PCNA labeling indices, and a few areas of visceral mesothelial cell hyperplasia. In contrast, in the r-nTiO2-treated groups, none of the measured parameters were different from the controls.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02410-z
  • Lack of adverse effects in subchronic and chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity
           studies on the glyphosate-resistant genetically modified maize NK603 in
           Wistar Han RCC rats
    • Authors: Pablo Steinberg; Hilko van der Voet; Paul W. Goedhart; Gijs Kleter; Esther J. Kok; Maria Pla; Anna Nadal; Dagmar Zeljenková; Radka Aláčová; Júlia Babincová; Eva Rollerová; Soňa Jaďuďová; Anton Kebis; Elena Szabova; Jana Tulinská; Aurélia Líšková; Melinda Takácsová; Miroslava Lehotská Mikušová; Zora Krivošíková; Armin Spök; Monica Racovita; Huib de Vriend; Roger Alison; Clare Alison; Wolfgang Baumgärtner; Kathrin Becker; Charlotte Lempp; Marion Schmicke; Dieter Schrenk; Annette Pöting; Joachim Schiemann; Ralf Wilhelm
      Abstract: In 2012, a controversial study on the long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and the glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified (GM) maize NK603 was published. The EC-funded G-TwYST research consortium tested the potential subchronic and chronic toxicity as well as the carcinogenicity of the glyphosate-resistant genetically modified maize NK603 by performing two 90-day feeding trials, one with GM maize inclusion rates of 11 and 33% and one with inclusion rates of up to 50%, as well as a 2-year feeding trial with inclusion rates of 11 and 33% in male and female Wistar Han RCC rats by taking into account OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals and EFSA recommendations on the safety testing of whole-food/feed in laboratory animals. In all three trials, the NK603 maize, untreated and treated once with Roundup during its cultivation, and the conventional counterpart were tested. Differences between each test group and the control group were evaluated. Equivalence was assessed by comparing the observed difference to differences between non-GM reference groups in previous studies. In case of significant differences, whether the effects were dose-related and/or accompanied by changes in related parameters including histopathological findings was evaluated. It is concluded that no adverse effects related to the feeding of the NK603 maize cultivated with or without Roundup for up to 2 years were observed. Based on the outcome of the subchronic and combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies, recommendations on the scientific justification and added value of long-term feeding trials in the GM plant risk assessment process are presented.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02400-1
  • Urinary metabolites of the UV filter octocrylene in humans as biomarkers
           of exposure
    • Authors: Daniel Bury; Hendrik Modick-Biermann; Edgar Leibold; Thomas Brüning; Holger M. Koch
      Abstract: Octocrylene (OC) is a UV filter used in sun screens and other personal care products, but also in polymers and food contact materials for stabilization. In this study, we investigate human OC metabolism and urinary excretion after oral dosage of approx. 5 mg OC [≙ 61.8–89.5 µg/(kg body weight)] in three male volunteers. In a screening approach, we tentatively identified six urinary OC metabolites. For three, renal elimination kinetics was quantitatively investigated using authentic standards: the sidechain oxidation product 2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenyl acrylate (5OH–OC), the beta-oxidation product 2-(carboxymethyl)butyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenyl acrylate (dinor OC carboxylic acid; DOCCA), and the ester hydrolysis product 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylic acid (CPAA). CPAA was the major urinary metabolite, representing 45% (range 40–50%) of the OC dose. 5OH–OC and DOCCA were only minor metabolites with low, but highly consistent renal conversion factors of 0.008% (0.005–0.011%) and 0.13% (0.11–0.16%), respectively. Peak urinary metabolite concentrations were observed between 3.2 h and 4.2 h postdose. All three metabolites were excreted with biphasic elimination kinetics, with considerably longer elimination half-lives for DOCCA (1st phase: 3.0 h; 2nd phase: 16 h) and CPAA (5.7 h and 16 h) compared to 5OH–OC (1.3 h and 6.4 h). 99% of all 5OH–OC was excreted within 24 h compared to 82% of DOCCA and 77% of CPAA. After dermal exposure, we detected the same metabolites with similar ratios in urine, however, at much lower concentrations and with considerably delayed elimination.
      PubDate: 2019-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02408-7
  • Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles induce glucose metabolic dysfunction
           in vitro via the generation of reactive oxygen species
    • Authors: Tae Hwan Shin; Chan Seo; Da Yeon Lee; Moongi Ji; Balachandran Manavalan; Shaherin Basith; Suresh Kumar Chakkarapani; Seong Ho Kang; Gwang Lee; Man Jeong Paik; Chan Bae Park
      Abstract: Nanoparticles are a useful material in biomedicine given their unique properties and biocompatibility; however, there is increasing concern regarding the potential toxicity of nanoparticles with respect to cell metabolism. Some evidence suggests that nanoparticles can disrupt glucose and energy homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the metabolomic, transcriptomic, and integrated effects of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate dye [MNPs@SiO2(RITC)] on glucose metabolism in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analysed the metabolite profiles of 14 organic acids (OAs), 20 amino acids (AAs), and 13 fatty acids (FAs) after treatment with 0.1 or 1.0 µg/µl MNPs@SiO2(RITC) for 12 h. The metabolic changes were highly related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and glucose metabolism. Additionally, effects on the combined metabolome and transcriptome or “metabotranscriptomic network” indicated a relationship between ROS generation and glucose metabolic dysfunction. In the experimental validation, MNPs@SiO2(RITC) treatment significantly decreased the amount of glucose in cells and was associated with a reduction in glucose uptake efficiency. Decreased glucose uptake efficiency was also related to ROS generation and impaired glucose metabolism in the metabotranscriptomic network. Our results suggest that exposure to high concentrations of MNPs@SiO2(RITC) produces maladaptive alterations in glucose metabolism and specifically glucose uptake as well as related metabolomic and transcriptomic disturbances via increased ROS generation. These findings further indicate that an integrated metabotranscriptomics approach provides useful and sensitive toxicological assessment for nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02402-z
  • Repetitive antidotal treatment is crucial in eliminating eye pathology,
           respiratory toxicity and death following whole-body VX vapor exposure in
           freely moving rats
    • Authors: E. Bloch-Shilderman; G. Yacov; L. Cohen; I. Egoz; H. Gutman; R. Gez; I. Rabinovitz; U. Nili
      Abstract: Exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent VX is extremely toxic, causing severe cholinergic symptoms. If not appropriately treated, death ultimately ensues. Based on our previously described whole-body vapor exposure system, we characterized in detail the clinical outcome, including respiratory dynamics, typical of whole-body exposure to lethal doses of VX vapor in freely moving rats. We further evaluated the efficacy of two different antidotal regimens, one comprising a single and the other repeated administration of antidotes, in countering the toxic effects of the exposure. We show that a 15 min exposure to air VX concentrations of 2.34–2.42 mg/m3 induced a late (15–30 min) onset of obvious cholinergic signs, which exacerbated over time, albeit without convulsions. Marked eye pathology was observed, characterized by pupil constriction to pinpoint, excessive lacrimation with red tears (chromodacryorrhea) and corneal damage. Respiratory distress was also evident, characterized by a three–fourfold increase in Penh values, an estimate of lung resistance, and by lung and diaphragm histological damage. A single administration of TAB (the oxime TMB-4, atropine and the anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic benactyzine) at the onset of clinical signs afforded only limited protection (66% survival), with clinical deterioration including weight loss, chromodacryorrhea, corneal damage, increased airway resistance and late death. In contrast, a combined therapy of TAB at the onset of clinical signs and repeated administration of atropine and toxogonin (ATOX) every 3–5 h, a maximum of five i.m. injections, led to 100% survival and a prompt recovery, accompanied by neither the above-described signs of eye pathology, nor by bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress. The necessity of recurrent treatments for successful elimination of VX vapor toxicity strongly supports continuous penetration of VX following termination of VX vapor exposure, most likely from a VX reservoir formed in the skin due to the exposure. This, combined with the above-described eye and respiratory pathology and absence of convulsions, are unique features of whole-body VX vapor exposure as compared to whole-body vapor exposure to other nerve agents, and should accordingly be considered when devising optimal countermeasures and medical protocols for treatment of VX vapor exposure.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02401-0
  • Toxicokinetics of N -ethyl-2-pyrrolidone and its metabolites in blood,
           urine and amniotic fluid of rats after oral administration
    • Authors: Daniel Bury; Anne Marie Saillenfait; Fabrice Marquet; Heiko U. Käfferlein; Thomas Brüning; Holger M. Koch
      Abstract: The toxicokinetics of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP), an embryotoxic organic solvent, has been studied in Sprague–Dawley rats after oral exposure. NEP and its metabolites 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI) were measured in plasma of pregnant and non-pregnant rats, and fetuses after NEP administration by gavage for 14 consecutive days at 50 mg/kg/day, and in plasma of non-pregnant rats after a single NEP administration. Additionally, amniotic fluid and 24-h urine samples of the pregnant rats were analyzed for NEP metabolites. Furthermore, 24-h urine samples from a repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in female (non-pregnant) and male rats administered developmentally non-toxic (0, 5, and 50 mg/kg/day) or toxic (250 mg/kg/day) doses of NEP were analyzed. Median peak plasma concentrations in non-pregnant rats after a single dose and repeated doses were 551 and 611 (NEP), 182 and 158 (5-HNEP), and 63.8 and 108 µmol/L (2-HESI), respectively; whereas in pregnant rats and fetuses 653 and 619 (NEP), 80.5 and 91.7 (5-HNEP) and 77.3 and 45.7 µmol/L (2-HESI) were detected. Times to reach maximum plasma concentrations for NEP, 5-HNEP, and 2-HESI were 1, 4, and 8 h, respectively, and were comparable to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and its corresponding metabolites. In pregnant rats, plasma elimination of NEP and metabolite formation/elimination was much slower compared to non-pregnant rats and efficient placental transfer of NEP was observed. Our data, overall, suggest differences in the toxicokinetics of chemicals between pregnant and non-pregnant rats which need to be addressed in risk assessment, specifically when assessing developmental toxicants such as NEP.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02404-x
  • Comment on ‘Perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide impairs
           female reproductive outcomes and induces second-generation adverse effects
           in Wistar rats’, Arch Toxicol 92:2629–2643
    • Authors: Francisco J. R. Paumgartten
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02386-w
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