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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2353 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2353 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Toxicology
  [SJR: 1.595]   [H-I: 76]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Highlight report: N -acetyltransferase 2 and urinary bladder cancer risk
    • Authors: Meinolf Blaszkewicz
      Pages: 3205 - 3206
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2001-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in carcinogenesis and
           potential as an anti-cancer drug target
    • Authors: Siva Kumar Kolluri; Un-Ho Jin; Stephen Safe
      Pages: 3209 - 3209
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2026-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 9 (2017)
       
  • Immediate responses of the cockroach Blaptica dubia after the exposure to
           sulfur mustard
    • Authors: Tanja Popp; Robin Lüling; Ingrid Boekhoff; Thomas Seeger; Francisco Branoner; Thomas Gudermann; Horst Thiermann; Franz Worek; Dirk Steinritz
      Abstract: Abstract The chemical agent sulfur mustard (SM) causes erythema, skin blisters, ulcerations, and delayed wound healing. It is accepted that the underlying molecular toxicology is based on DNA alkylation. With an expected delay, DNA damage causes impairment of protein biosynthesis and disturbance of cell division. However, using the cockroach model Blaptica dubia, the presented results show that alkylating compounds provoke immediate behavior responses along with fast changes in the electrical field potential (EFP) of neurons, suggesting that lesions of DNA are probably not the only effect of alkylating compounds. Blaptica dubia was challenged with SM or 2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide (CEES). Acute toxicity was objectified by a disability score. Physiological behavior responses (antennae pullback reflex, escape attempts, and grooming) were monitored after exposure. To estimate the impact of alkylating agents on neuronal activity, EFP recordings of the antennae and the thoracic ganglion were performed. After contact to neat SM, a pullback reflex of the antennae was the first observation. Subsequently, a striking escape behavior occured which was characterized by persistent movement of the legs. In addition, an instantaneous processing of the electrical firing pattern from the antennae to the descending ganglia was detectable. Remarkably, comparing the toxicity of the applied alkylating agents, effects induced by CEES were much more pronounced compared to SM. In summary, our findings document immediate effects of B. dubia after exposure to alkylating substances. These fast responses cannot be interpreted as a consequence of DNA alkylation. Therefore, the dogma that DNA alkylation is the exclusive cause for SM toxicity has to be questioned.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2064-0
       
  • Usefulness of zebrafish larvae to evaluate drug-induced functional and
           morphological renal tubular alterations
    • Authors: Rita Gorgulho; Raquel Jacinto; Susana S. Lopes; Sofia A. Pereira; Erin M. Tranfield; Gabriel G. Martins; Emilio J. Gualda; Rico J. E. Derks; Ana C. Correia; Evelyne Steenvoorden; Petra Pintado; Oleg A. Mayboroda; Emilia C. Monteiro; Judit Morello
      Abstract: Abstract Prediction and management of drug-induced renal injury (DIRI) rely on the knowledge of the mechanisms of drug insult and on the availability of appropriate animal models to explore it. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) offers unique advantages for assessing DIRI because the larval pronephric kidney has a high homology with its human counterpart and it is fully mature at 3.5 days post-fertilization. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of zebrafish larvae as a model of renal tubular toxicity through a comprehensive analysis of the renal alterations induced by the lethal concentrations for 10% of the larvae for gentamicin, paracetamol and tenofovir. We evaluated drug metabolic profile by mass spectrometry, renal function with the inulin clearance assay, the 3D morphology of the proximal convoluted tubule by two-photon microscopy and the ultrastructure of proximal convoluted tubule mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy. Paracetamol was metabolized by conjugation and oxidation with further detoxification with glutathione. Renal clearance was reduced with gentamicin and paracetamol. Proximal tubules were enlarged with paracetamol and tenofovir. All drugs induced mitochondrial alterations including dysmorphic shapes (“donuts”, “pancakes” and “rods”), mitochondrial swelling, cristae disruption and/or loss of matrix granules. These results are in agreement with the tubular effects of gentamicin, paracetamol and tenofovir in man and demonstrate that zebrafish larvae might be a good model to assess functional and structural damage associated with DIRI.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2063-1
       
  • Urinary excretion kinetics of the metabolite N -methylmalonamic acid
           (NMMA) after oral dosage of chloromethylisothiazolinone and
           methylisothiazolinone in human volunteers
    • Authors: T. Schettgen; T. Kraus
      Abstract: Abstract Methylisothiazolinone (MI) as well as the mixture of chloromethylisothiazolinone/methyl-iso-thiazolinone (MCI/MI, 3:1) are widespread biocides used in personal care products with potential consumer exposure. Their use is currently under discussion because of rising rates of skin sensitization against these substances in the general population. We have examined the human metabolism of methylisothiazolinone and chloromethylisothiazolinone after oral dosage of stable isotope-labelled analogues. Four human volunteers received 2 mg of labelled MI and MCI separately and at least 2 weeks apart. Consecutive and complete urine samples were collected over 48 h and were examined for the content of N-methylmalonamic acid (NMMA), a previously reported animal metabolite. NMMA represented 23.7 and 13.3% of the dose excreted in urine after dosage of MI and MCI, respectively, with more than 90% excreted within the first 24 h. Excretion of NMMA was rapid with mean half-lives of 6.1 and 7.6 h for MI and MCI, respectively. We have for the first time determined important human toxicokinetic data for the biocides MI and MCI that might be of relevance in future exposure and risk assessments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2051-5
       
  • Current pesticide dietary risk assessment in light of comparable animal
           study NOAELs after chronic and short-termed exposure durations
    • Authors: Jürg A. Zarn; Caitlyn D. O’Brien
      Abstract: Abstract Dietary risk assessment (DRA) of pesticides includes the estimation of chronic and acute exposures from crop residues, but assesses acute exposures only for pesticides with an acute reference dose (ARfD). Acute estimation uses high percentiles of food consumption surveys which are considerably higher than per capita lifetime averaged food consumption values which are used for chronic estimations. Assessing acute risks only for pesticides with an ARfD tacitly assumes that chronic risk assessment covers also intermittent occurring exposures which could significantly exceed chronic estimates. The present investigation conducted on 2200 rat studies from 436 pesticides provides evidence demonstrating that pesticides with and without ARfD have no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) which remain statistically unchanged in developmental, subacute, subchronic, reproductive and chronic toxicity studies covering exposure durations between 2 and 104 weeks. DRA of pesticides without ARfD needs reconsideration in light of equally high toxic dose levels after short- and long-term exposures, suggesting that intermittent exposures could be toxic, if they repeatedly exceed the acceptable chronic daily intake (ADI; conceptually the human counterpart of chronic animal NOAEL). As such risks are currently not assessed for pesticides without ARfD, the current DRA concept, which automatically presumes the use of low chronic exposure estimates entirely covers the risks of not acutely toxic pesticides, needs reconsideration. Furthermore, risks to intermittent occurring high exposures are probably also insufficiently assessed for pesticides where the ARfD is significantly higher than the ADI. As an example, the maximum residue limit for bifenazate in peaches is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2052-4
       
  • Rho-inhibiting C2IN-C3 fusion toxin inhibits chemotactic recruitment of
           human monocytes ex vivo and in mice in vivo
    • Authors: Tobias Martin; Amelie Möglich; Ina Felix; Christina Förtsch; Anne Rittlinger; Annette Palmer; Stephanie Denk; Julian Schneider; Lena Notbohm; Mona Vogel; Hartmut Geiger; Stephan Paschke; Markus Huber-Lang; Holger Barth
      Abstract: Abstract Bacterial protein toxins became valuable molecular tools for the targeted modulation of cell functions in experimental pharmacology and attractive therapeutics because of their potent and specific mode of action in human cells. C2IN-C3lim, a recombinant fusion toxin (~50 kDa) of the Rho-inhibiting C3lim from Clostridium (C.) limosum and a non-toxic portion of the C. botulinum C2 toxin (C2IN), is selectively internalized into the cytosol of monocytic cells where C3lim specifically ADP-ribosylates Rho A and -B, thereby inhibiting Rho-mediated signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that these unique features make C2IN-C3lim an attractive molecule for the targeted pharmacological down-regulation of Rho-mediated functions in monocytes. The analysis of the actin structure and the Rho ADP-ribosylation status implied that C2IN-C3lim entered the cytosol of primary human monocytes from healthy donors ex vivo within 1 h. Moreover, it inhibited the fMLP-induced chemotaxis of human monocytes in a Boyden chamber model ex vivo. Similarly, in a 3-dimensional ex vivo model of extravasation, single cell analysis revealed that C2IN-C3lim-treated cells were not able to move. In a clinically relevant mouse model of blunt chest trauma, the local application of C2IN-C3lim into the lungs after thorax trauma prevented the trauma-induced recruitment of monocytes into the lungs in vivo. Thus, C2IN-C3lim might be an attractive lead compound for novel pharmacological strategies to avoid the cellular damage response caused by monocytes in damaged tissue after trauma and during systemic inflammation. The results suggest that the pathophysiological role of clostridial C3 toxins might be a down-modulation of the innate immune system.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2058-y
       
  • CoQ 0 -induced mitochondrial PTP opening triggers apoptosis via
           ROS-mediated VDAC1 upregulation in HL-60 leukemia cells and suppresses
           tumor growth in athymic nude mice/xenografted nude mice
    • Authors: You-Cheng Hseu; Varadharajan Thiyagarajan; Ting-Tsz Ou; Hsin-Ling Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogs with variable numbers of isoprenoid units have been demonstrated as anticancer and antioxidant/pro-oxidant molecules. This study examined the in vitro and in vivo antitumor and apoptosis activities of CoQ0 (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, zero isoprenoid side-chains) through upregulation of the Voltage‐dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) signaling pathway on human promyelocytic leukemia. CoQ0 (0–40 μg/mL) treatment significantly reduced HL-60 cell viability, and up-regulated mitochondrial VDAC1 expression. CoQ0 treatment triggers intracellular ROS generation, calcium release, ΔΨm collapse and PTP opening in HL-60 cells. CoQ0 treatment induced apoptosis, which was associated with DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 and PARP activation, and Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation. Annexin V-PI staining indicated that CoQ0 promotes late apoptosis. Furthermore, the blockade of CoQ0-induced ROS production by antioxidant NAC pretreatment substantially attenuated CoQ0-induced apoptosis. The activation of p-GSK3β expression, cyclophilin D inhibition, and p53 activation through ROS are involved in CoQ0-induced HL-60 apoptotic cell death. Notably, ROS-independent p38 activation is involved in CoQ0-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 cells. In addition, the silencing of VDAC1 also prevented CoQ0-induced mitochondrial translocation of Bax, activation of caspase-3, and reduction in Bcl-2. Intriguingly, VDAC1 silencing did not prevent ROS production induced by CoQ0, which in turn indicates that CoQ0 induced ROS-mediated VDAC1 and then mitochondrial apoptosis in HL-60 cells. In vivo results revealed that CoQ0 is effective in delaying tumor incidence and reducing the tumor burden in HL-60-xenografted nude mice. Taken together, CoQ0 could be a promising anticancer agent for the treatment of human promyelocytic leukemia through upregulation of VDAC1 signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2050-6
       
  • Alterations in epididymal proteomics and antioxidant activity of mice
           exposed to fluoride
    • Authors: Zilong Sun; Sujuan Li; Yuxiang Yu; Hongyu Chen; Mohammad Mehdi Ommati; Ram Kumar Manthari; Ruiyan Niu; Jundong Wang
      Abstract: Abstract It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique. Results showed that 211 proteins were differentially expressed in both 25 and 100 mg/L NaF groups. Some of them have been proved to be important for reproduction, such as low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (Lrp2), cytochrome c, testis-specific (Cyct), sorbitol dehydrogenase (Sord), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), acrosin, beta-defensin 126, cysteine-rich secretory protein (Crisp) 1, and Crisp2. Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested cellular process, organelle and catalytic activity account for high percent and number of differentially expressed proteins. 171 pathways were found after the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, among which the representative maps, such as ribosome, focal adhesion, and phagosome, were involved. Different functional categories post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; cytoskeleton; energy production and conversion are implicated in the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) of proteins analysis. Subsequently, the effect of NaF on the antioxidant activity in epididymis, especially glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes, was evaluated. Results exhibited high fluoride caused low total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), high methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), decreased reduced glutathione (GSH), and the glutathione-related enzymes [GSH peroxidase (GPx), GSH reductase (GR), and GSH S-transferase (GST)] changes in activity, protein, and mRNA expressions. In summary, NaF decreased the antioxidant activity of epididymis, especially glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes, as well as iTRAQ results, providing new explanations for the low sperm quality induced by fluoride.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2054-2
       
  • Early life arsenic exposure, infant and child growth, and morbidity: a
           systematic review
    • Authors: Anisur Rahman; Caroline Granberg; Lars-Åke Persson
      Abstract: Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested a negative association between early life arsenic exposure and fetal size at birth, and subsequently with child morbidity and growth. However, our understanding of the relationship between arsenic exposure and morbidity and growth is limited. This paper aims to systematically review original human studies with an analytical epidemiological study design that have assessed arsenic exposure in fetal life or early childhood and evaluated the association with one or several of the following outcomes: fetal growth, birth weight or other birth anthropometry, infant and child growth, infectious disease morbidity in infancy and early childhood. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, TOXLINE, Web of Science, SciFinder and Scopus databases filtered for human studies. Based on the predefined eligibility criteria, two authors independently evaluated the studies. A total of 707 studies with morbidity outcomes were identified, of which six studies were eligible and included in this review. For the growth outcomes, a total of 2959 studies were found and nine fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. A majority of the papers (10/15) emanated from Bangladesh, three from the USA, one from Romania and one from Canada. All included studies on arsenic exposure and morbidity showed an increased risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. The findings in the studies of arsenic exposure and fetal, infant, and child growth were heterogeneous. Arsenic exposure was not associated with fetal growth. There was limited evidence of negative associations between arsenic exposures and birth weight and growth during early childhood. More studies from arsenic-affected low- and middle-income countries are needed to support the generalizability of study findings.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2061-3
       
  • Hepatotoxicity of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes
    • Authors: Tomáš Zárybnický; Iva Boušová; Martin Ambrož; Lenka Skálová
      Abstract: Abstract Public interest in natural therapies has increased significantly over past decades. Herbs and herbal products are extensively consumed worldwide and they are generally considered as safe. However, this may not always be true as many cases of herb-induced liver injury are reported every year. The liver is a frequent target tissue of toxicity from all classes of toxicants as liver structure and function predispose it to high sensitivity to xenobiotics. The present review is focused on the hepatotoxic properties of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, plant secondary metabolites that represent the major components of essential oils wildly used in folk medicines, pharmaceutical industry and cosmetics. Most of these terpenes easily enter the human body by oral absorption, penetration through the skin, or inhalation leading to measurable blood concentrations. Several studies showed that some monoterpenes (e.g., pulegone, menthofuran, camphor, and limonene) and sesquiterpenes (e.g., zederone, germacrone) exhibited liver toxicity, which is mainly based on reactive metabolites formation, increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defense. There is a high probability that many other terpenes, without sufficiently known metabolism and effects in human liver, could also exert hepatotoxicity. Especially terpenes, that are important components of essential oils with proved hepatotoxicity, should deserve more attention. Intensive research in terpenes metabolism and toxicity represent the only way to reduce the risk of liver injury induced by essential oils and other terpenes-containing products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2062-2
       
  • Quantification of N -phenyl-2-naphthylamine by gas chromatography and
           isotope-dilution mass spectrometry and its percutaneous absorption ex vivo
           under workplace conditions
    • Authors: Eike Maximilian Marek; Stephan Koslitz; Tobias Weiss; Manigé Fartasch; Gerhard Schlüter; Heiko Udo Käfferlein; Thomas Brüning
      Abstract: Abstract N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine (P2NA) is an antioxidant used to protect rubbers from flex-cracking. P2NA can be converted in vivo to 2NA, one of the most potent bladder carcinogens. Here, we report the specific and ultra-sensitive quantification of P2NA in the receptor fluid of Franz diffusion cells by gas chromatography and isotope-dilution tandem-mass spectroscopy (GC–MS/MS). The experimental conditions were optimized to minimize losses of P2NA due to surface absorption on glass, plastic, and rubber material, and subsequently validated. Static and dynamic diffusion cell conditions were used to study the percutaneous penetration of P2NA into freshly prepared porcine skin. The experimental settings closely resembled those of the printing industry in the 1960s/1970s in Germany where P2NA-containing solutions in dichloromethane have been used. P2NA penetrated the skin at very low levels (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/cm2/h) with a cumulative penetrated amount of 0.80 ± 0.26 µg/cm2, a lag time of 6.33 ± 2.21 h and under dynamic conditions. Compared to the receptor fluid, 10–40-fold higher concentrations were found in the skin, predominantly in the dermis and the stratum corneum. Dichloromethane acted as a penetration enhancer by increasing the cumulative penetrated amounts and the recovery of P2NA in both the receptor fluid and the skin, while shortening its lag time. However, the flux remained unaffected. Due to its accumulation in subcutaneous layers, we finally proved that P2NA is continuously released into the receptor fluid despite exposure cessation up to 160 h. Overall, the results show that close attention has to be paid to dermal absorption of P2NA in exposed workers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2046-2
       
  • Developmental exposure of decabromodiphenyl ether impairs subventricular
           
    • Abstract: Abstract Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are additive flame retardants widely used in various products (e.g., textiles, consumer electronics, and plastics). Strong evidence indicates that PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants that can cause neurodevelopmental disabilities and cognitive defects. Currently, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) is the only PBDE permitted for production in most countries. This study investigated the impact of BDE 209 on postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of ICR mice. For this purpose, pregnant ICR mice were orally administrated a daily dose of 0, 20 or 100 mg/kg BDE 209 from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 16. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and in vivo postnatal electroporation were performed to label the newly generated cells in the SVZ. On PND 16, a reduction of type-B stem cells was found in the 100 mg/kg group. BDE 209 also decreased the number of newborn cells and Calretinin+ interneurons in granule cell layer at the dose of 100 mg/kg. In addition, we observed impaired neuronal migration and dendritic development of newborn olfactory granule cells in both 20 and 100 mg/kg groups. In conclusion, developmental exposure to BDE 209 produces adverse effects on SVZ neurogenesis and dendritic growth of mouse offspring. These findings suggest a potential risk of BDE 209 in human neurodevelopment.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2059-x
       
  • Erratum to: Highlight report: co-cultures of hepatocytes and macrophages
           for hepatotoxicity testing
    • Authors: Abdel-latif Seddek; Aya A. Abbas
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2044-4
       
  • Investigations on the dose–response relationship of combined exposure to
           low doses of three anti-androgens in Wistar rats
    • Authors: Steffen Schneider; Karma C. Fussell; Stephanie Melching-Kollmuss; Roland Buesen; Sibylle Gröters; Volker Strauss; Xiaoqi Jiang; Bennard van Ravenzwaay
      Abstract: Abstract The current investigation examines whether combined exposure to three anti-androgens (flutamide, prochloraz, vinclozolin) result in interference with endocrine homeostasis when applied at very low dose levels, and whether the results of combined exposure are more pronounced than to the individual compounds. A pre–post-natal in vivo study design was chosen with more parameters than regulatory testing protocols require (additional endpoints addressing hormone levels, morphology and histopathological examinations). Dose levels were chosen to represent the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), and the acceptable daily intake for each individual substance. Anti-androgenic changes were observable at the effect level (LOAEL) but not at lower exposures. Nipple/areola counts appeared to be a sensitive measure of effect, in addition to male sex organ weights at sexual maturation, and finally gross findings. The results indicate the absence of evidence for effects at low or very low dose levels. No (adverse) effects were seen at the NOAEL dose. A non-monotonic dose–response relationship was not evident. Combined exposure at LOAEL level resulted in enhanced responses for anogenital index, number of areolas/nipples, delayed preputial separation and reduced ventral prostate weight in comparison to the individual compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2053-3
       
  • Bisphenol A exposure perturbs visual function of adult cats by remodeling
           the neuronal activity in the primary visual pathway
    • Authors: Guangwei Xu; Fan Hu; Xuan Wang; Bing Zhang; Yifeng Zhou
      Abstract: Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA), a common environmental xenoestrogen, has been implicated in physiological and behavioral impairment, but the neuronal basis remains elusive. Although various synaptic mechanisms have been shown to mediate BPA-induced brain deficits, there are almost no reports addressing its underlying physiological mechanisms at the individual neuron level, particularly in the primary visual system. In the present study, using multiple-channel recording technique, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the primary visual system of cats to various direction stimuli both before and after BPA exposure. The results showed that the orientation selectivity of neurons in the primary visual cortex (area 17, A17) was obviously decreased after 2 h of intravenous BPA administration (0.2 mg/kg). Moreover, there were worse performances of information transmission of A17 neurons, presenting markedly decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To some extent, these functional decreases were attributable to the altered information inputs from lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), which showed an increased spontaneous activity. Additionally, local injection of BPA (3.3 μg/ml) in A17 resulted in an obvious increase in orientation selectivity and a decrease in neuronal activity, involving enhanced activity of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. In conclusion, our results first demonstrate that acute BPA exposure can restrict the visual perception of cats, mainly depending on the alteration of the LGN projection, not the intercortical interaction. Importantly, BPA-induced-brain deficits might not only be confined to the cortical level but also occur as early as at the subcortical level.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2047-1
       
  • Selective determination of mandelic acid in urine using molecularly
           imprinted polymer in microextraction by packed sorbent
    • Authors: Esmaeel Soleimani; Abdulrahman Bahrami; Abbas Afkhami; Farshid Ghorbani Shahna
      Abstract: Abstract Mandelic acid (MA) is a major metabolite of ethylbenzene and styrene. For the first time, a selective, fast, and easy-to-use procedure was developed for the determination of MA in urine samples. The new procedure is based on MIMEPS, the combination of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC–UV) was used for the separation and determination of MA. The bulk polymerization method was used to synthesize the MIP, and the MIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The selectivity of the MIP was investigated in the presence of interferents. In addition, we investigated the various parameters that affect the performance of the MEPS, including the pH of the sample, the number of extraction cycles, sample volume, and the types and volumes of the washing and elution solvents. A six-point calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.2–20 µg/mL (R 2 = 0.9994). The extraction recovery was more than 88.8%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.06 and 0.2 µg/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 3.6–4.7% and 3.8–5.1%, respectively. The accuracy was −8.4 to −11.1%. The optimized procedure was selective, sensitive, and rapid, and it was both user friendly and environmentally friendly. The sample preparation process took only about 5 min, so the MIMEPS–HPLC–UV procedure is recommended as an alternative for the biomonitoring of workers exposed to ethylbenzene and/or styrene.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2057-z
       
  • Zoledronate dysregulates fatty acid metabolism in renal tubular epithelial
           cells to induce nephrotoxicity
    • Authors: Lili Cheng; Mengmeng Ge; Zhou Lan; Zhilong Ma; Wenna Chi; Wenhua Kuang; Kun Sun; Xinbin Zhao; Ye Liu; Yaqian Feng; Yuedong Huang; Maoguo Luo; Liping Li; Bin Zhang; Xiaoyu Hu; Lina Xu; Xiaohui Liu; Yi Huo; Haiteng Deng; Jinliang Yang; Qiaoran Xi; Yonghui Zhang; Julie A. Siegenthaler; Ligong Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Zoledronate is a bisphosphonate that is widely used in the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. However, zoledronate induces significant nephrotoxicity associated with acute tubular necrosis and renal fibrosis when administered intravenously. There is speculation that zoledronate-induced nephrotoxicity may result from its pharmacological activity as an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this report, human proximal tubular HK-2 cells and mouse models were combined to dissect the molecular pathways underlying nephropathy caused by zoledronate treatments. Metabolomic and proteomic assays revealed that multiple cellular processes were significantly disrupted, including the TGFβ pathway, fatty acid metabolism and small GTPase signaling in zoledronate-treated HK-2 cells (50 μM) as compared with those in controls. Zoledronate treatments in cells (50 μM) and mice (3 mg/kg) increased TGFβ/Smad3 pathway activation to induce fibrosis and kidney injury, and specifically elevated lipid accumulation and expression of fibrotic proteins. Conversely, fatty acid transport protein Slc27a2 deficiency or co-administration of PPARA agonist fenofibrate (20 mg/kg) prevented zoledronate-induced lipid accumulation and kidney fibrosis in mice, indicating that over-expression of fatty acid transporter SLC27A2 and defective fatty acid β-oxidation following zoledronate treatments were significant factors contributing to its nephrotoxicity. These pharmacological and genetic studies provide an important mechanistic insight into zoledronate-associated kidney toxicity that will aid in development of therapeutic prevention and treatment options for this nephropathy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2048-0
       
  • Specific effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on neuroendocrine gene
           expression in the developing hypothalamus of male rats
    • Authors: Na Gao; Ruixia Hu; Yujing Huang; Long Dao; Caifeng Zhang; Yongzhe Liu; Lina Wu; Xutong Wang; Weiling Yin; Andrea C. Gore; Zengrong Sun
      Abstract: Abstract Endocrine disrupting chemicals may disrupt developing neuroendocrine systems, especially when the exposure occurs during a critical period. This study aimed to investigate whether prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a major component of plasticizers used worldwide, disrupted the development of a network of genes important for neuroendocrine function in male rats. Pregnant rats were treated with corn oil (vehicle control), 2, 10 or 50 mg/kg DEHP by gavage from gestational day 14 to 19. The neuroendocrine gene expressions were quantified using a 48-gene Taqman qPCR array in the whole hypothalamus of neonatal rats (postnatal day 1) and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of adult rats (postnatal day 70). Immunofluorescent signals of ERα and CYP19 were detected using the confocal microscopy in adult AVPV, MPN and ARC. The results showed that prenatal DEHP exposure perturbed somatic and reproductive development of offspring. Eleven genes were down-regulated in neonatal hypothalamus and showed non-monotonic dose–response relationships, that the 10 mg/kg DEHP dosage was associated with the greatest number of gene expression changes. Different from this, 14 genes were altered in adult AVPV, MPN and ARC and most of alterations were found in the 50 mg/kg DEHP group. Also, 50 mg/kg DEHP reduced ERα expression in the ARC, but no alterations were observed in CYP19 expression. These results indicated that prenatal DEHP exposure may perturb hypothalamic gene programming and the influences are permanent. The effects showed dependence on developmental stages and nuclei region.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2049-z
       
  • Early response of glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant
           defense systems to Tl(I)- and Tl(III)-mediated oxidative stress in
           adherent pheochromocytoma (PC12adh) cells
    • Authors: Lis C. Puga Molina; Damiana M. Salvatierra Fréchou; Sandra V. Verstraeten
      Abstract: Abstract Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that causes oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we evaluated the production of oxygen (ROS)- and nitrogen (RNS)-reactive species in adherent PC12 (PC12adh) cells exposed for 0.5–6 h to Tl(I) or Tl(III) (10–100 µM). In this system, Tl(I) induced mostly H2O2 generation while Tl(III) induced H2O2 and ONOO·− generation. Both cations enhanced iNOS expression and activity, and decreased CuZnSOD expression but without affecting its activity. Tl(I) increased MnSOD expression and activity but Tl(III) decreased them. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity remained unaffected throughout the period assessed. Oxidant levels returned to baseline values after 6 h of incubation, suggesting a response of the antioxidant defense system to the oxidative insult imposed by the cations. Tl also affected the glutathione-dependent system: while Tl(III) increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression and activity, Tl(I) and Tl(III) decreased glutathione reductase (GR) expression. However, GR activity was mildly enhanced by Tl(III). Finally, thioredoxin-dependent system was evaluated. Only Tl(I) increased 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prx) expression, although both cations increased their activity. Tl(I) increased cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) and decreased mitochondrial (TrxR2) expression. Tl(III) had a biphasic effect on TrxR1 expression and slightly increased TrxR2 expression. Despite of this, both cations increased total TrxR activity. Obtained results suggest that in Tl(I)-exposed PC12adh cells, there is an early response to oxidative stress mainly by GSH-dependent system while in Tl(III)-treated cells both GSH- and Trx-dependent systems are involved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2056-0
       
 
 
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