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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2329 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2329 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Archives of Toxicology
  [SJR: 1.595]   [H-I: 76]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-0738 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5761
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Imaging mass spectrometry in drug development and toxicology
    • Authors: Oskar Karlsson; Jörg Hanrieder
      Pages: 2283 - 2294
      Abstract: Abstract During the last decades, imaging mass spectrometry has gained significant relevance in biomedical research. Recent advances in imaging mass spectrometry have paved the way for in situ studies on drug development, metabolism and toxicology. In contrast to whole-body autoradiography that images the localization of radiolabeled compounds, imaging mass spectrometry provides the possibility to simultaneously determine the discrete tissue distribution of the parent compound and its metabolites. In addition, imaging mass spectrometry features high molecular specificity and allows comprehensive, multiplexed detection and localization of hundreds of proteins, peptides and lipids directly in tissues. Toxicologists traditionally screen for adverse findings by histopathological examination. However, studies of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning toxicological and pathologic findings induced by candidate drugs or toxins are important to reach a mechanistic understanding and an effective risk assessment strategy. One of IMS strengths is the ability to directly overlay the molecular information from the mass spectrometric analysis with the tissue section and allow correlative comparisons of molecular and histologic information. Imaging mass spectrometry could therefore be a powerful tool for omics profiling of pharmacological/toxicological effects of drug candidates and toxicants in discrete tissue regions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of imaging mass spectrometry, with particular focus on MALDI imaging mass spectrometry, and its use in drug development and toxicology in general.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1905-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated deregulation of
           myeloid and sebaceous gland stem/progenitor cell homeostasis
    • Authors: Karl Walter Bock
      Pages: 2295 - 2301
      Abstract: Abstract Studies of TCDD toxicity stimulated identification of the responsible aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a multifunctional, ligand-activated transcription factor of the basic helix–loop–helix/Per-Arnt-Sim family. Accumulating evidence suggests a role of this receptor in homeostasis of stem/progenitor cells, in addition to its known role in xenobiotic metabolism. (1) Regulation of myelopoiesis is complex. As one example, AHR-mediated downregulation of human CD34+ progenitor differentiation to monocytes/macrophages is discussed. (2) Accumulation of TCDD in sebum leads to deregulation of sebocyte differentiation via Blimp1-mediated inhibition of c-Myc signaling and stimulation of Wnt-mediated proliferation of interfollicular epidermis. The resulting sebaceous gland atrophy and formation of dermal cysts may explain the pathogenesis of chloracne, the hallmark of TCDD toxicity. (3) TCDD treatment of confluent liver stem cell-like rat WB-F344 cells leads to release from cell–cell contact inhibition via AHR-mediated crosstalk with multiple signaling pathways. Further work is needed to delineate AHR function in crosstalk with other signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1965-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Adverse effects of levamisole in cocaine users: a review and risk
    • Authors: Tibor Markus Brunt; Jorrit van den Berg; Ed Pennings; Bastiaan Venhuis
      Pages: 2303 - 2313
      Abstract: Abstract The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis. Females are more susceptible for both agranulocytosis and vasculitis. Another complication reported with levamisole-adulterated cocaine is leukoencephalopathy, a disabling and potentially fatal neurological disorder caused by cerebral demyelination. In this review, all adverse effects associated with therapeutic levamisole and levamisole-adulterated cocaine are described. In addition, this review provides an update of the pharmacology of levamisole, its metabolism, including toxic metabolites and metabolites that are relevant for levamisole’s addition to cocaine. Special emphasis is put on the immunopathology and the dose–effect relationship of chronic levamisole exposure. Finally, a risk assessment is provided based on the current level of levamisole adulteration in street cocaine, the dose range calculated per gram and the pattern of chronic exposure in heavy or dependent users.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1947-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Pan-European inter-laboratory studies on a panel of in vitro cytotoxicity
           and pro-inflammation assays for nanoparticles
    • Authors: Jean-Pascal Piret; Olesja M. Bondarenko; Matthew S. P. Boyles; Martin Himly; Ana R. Ribeiro; Federico Benetti; Caroline Smal; Braulio Lima; Annegret Potthoff; Monica Simion; Elise Dumortier; Paulo Emilio C. Leite; Luciene Bottentuit Balottin; José Mauro Granjeiro; Angela Ivask; Anne Kahru; Isabella Radauer-Preiml; Ulrike Tischler; Albert Duschl; Christelle Saout; Sergio Anguissola; Andrea Haase; An Jacobs; Inge Nelissen; Superb K. Misra; Olivier Toussaint
      Pages: 2315 - 2330
      Abstract: Abstract The rapid development of nanotechnologies and increased production and use of nanomaterials raise concerns about their potential toxic effects for human health and environment. To evaluate the biological effects of nanomaterials, a set of reliable and reproducible methods and development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) is required. In the framework of the European FP7 NanoValid project, three different cell viability assays (MTS, ATP content, and caspase-3/7 activity) with different readouts (absorbance, luminescence and fluorescence) and two immune assays (ELISA of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1-β and TNF-α) were evaluated by inter-laboratory comparison. The aim was to determine the suitability and reliability of these assays for nanosafety assessment. Studies on silver and copper oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were performed, and SOPs for particle handling, cell culture, and in vitro assays were established or adapted. These SOPs give precise descriptions of assay procedures, cell culture/seeding conditions, NPs/positive control preparation and dilutions, experimental well plate preparation, and evaluation of NPs interference. The following conclusions can be highlighted from the pan-European inter-laboratory studies: Testing of NPs interference with the toxicity assays should always be conducted. Interference tests should be designed as close as possible to the cell exposure conditions. ATP and MTS assays gave consistent toxicity results with low inter-laboratory variability using Ag and CuO NPs and different cell lines and therefore, could be recommended for further validation and standardization. High inter-laboratory variability was observed for Caspase 3/7 assay and ELISA for IL1-β and TNF-α measurements.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1897-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Toxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by commensal bacteria
           from human skin
    • Authors: Juliane Sowada; Lisa Lemoine; Karsten Schön; Christoph Hutzler; Andreas Luch; Tewes Tralau
      Pages: 2331 - 2341
      Abstract: Abstract The ubiquitous occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) leads to constant human exposure at low levels. Toxicologically relevant are especially the high-molecular weight substances due to their (pro-)carcinogenic potential. Following ingestion or uptake, the eukaryotic phase I metabolism often activates these substances to become potent DNA binders, and unsurprisingly metabolism and DNA-adduct formation of model substances such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are well studied. However, apart from being subjected to eukaryotic transformations PAHs are also carbon and energy sources for the myriads of commensal microbes inhabiting man’s every surface. Yet, we know little about the microbiome’s PAH-metabolism capacity and its potentially adverse impact on the human host. This study now shows that readily isolable skin commensals transform B[a]P into a range of highly cyto- and genotoxic metabolites that are excreted in toxicologically relevant concentrations during growth. The respective bacterial supernatants contain a mixture of established eukaryotic as well as hitherto unknown prokaryotic metabolites, the combination of which leads to an increased toxicity. Altogether we show that PAH metabolism of the microbiome has to be considered a potential hazard.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1964-3
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • DTNI: a novel toxicogenomics data analysis tool for identifying the
           molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of toxic compounds
    • Authors: Diana M. Hendrickx; Terezinha Souza; Danyel G. J. Jennen; Jos C. S. Kleinjans
      Pages: 2343 - 2352
      Abstract: Abstract Unravelling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) influenced by chemicals is a major challenge in systems toxicology. Because toxicant-induced GRNs evolve over time and dose, the analysis of global gene expression data measured at multiple time points and doses will provide insight in the adverse effects of compounds. Therefore, there is a need for mathematical methods for GRN identification from time-over-dose-dependent data. One of the current approaches for GRN inference is Time Series Network Identification (TSNI). TSNI is based on ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the time evolution of the expression of each gene, which is assumed to be dependent on the expression of other genes and an external perturbation (i.e. chemical exposure). Here, we present Dose-Time Network Identification (DTNI), a method extending TSNI by including ODE describing how the expression of each gene evolves with dose, which is supposed to depend on the expression of other genes and the exposure time. We also adapted TSNI in order to enable inclusion of time-over-dose-dependent data from multiple compounds. Here, we show that DTNI outperforms TSNI in inferring a toxicant-induced GRN. Moreover, we show that DTNI is a suitable method to infer a GRN dose- and time-dependently induced by a group of compounds influencing a common biological process. Applying DTNI on experimental data from TG-GATEs, we demonstrate that DTNI provides in-depth information on the mode of action of compounds, in particular key events and potential molecular initiating events. Furthermore, DTNI also discloses several unknown interactions which have to be verified experimentally.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1922-5
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated
           by lipid droplet enlargement through Fsp27
    • Authors: Hye Young Kim; Woo Young Kwon; Yeon A. Kim; Yoo Jin Oh; Seung Hee Yoo; Mi Hwa Lee; Ju Yong Bae; Jong-Min Kim; Young Hyun Yoo
      Pages: 2353 - 2363
      Abstract: Abstract Although epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) lead to insulin resistance, the mechanism underlying PCBs-induced insulin resistance has remained unsolved. In this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo effects of PCB-118 (dioxin-like PCB) and PCB-138 (non-dioxin-like PCB) on adipocyte differentiation, lipid droplet growth, and insulin action. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with PCB-118 or PCB-138 during adipocyte differentiation. For in vivo studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered PCB-118 or PCB-138 (37.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and we examined adiposity and whole-body insulin action. PCB-118 and PCB-138 significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and increased the lipid droplet (LD) size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In mice, both PCBs increased adipose mass and adipocyte size. Furthermore, both PCBs induced insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Expression of fat-specific protein 27 (Fsp27), which is localized to LD contact sites, was increased in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice. Depletion of Fsp27 by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of LD enlargement and attenuation of insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An anti-diabetic drug, metformin, attenuated insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the reduced expression of Fsp27 protein and LD size. This study suggests that PCB exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by LD enlargement through Fsp27.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1889-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Activation of nuclear receptor CAR by an environmental pollutant
           perfluorooctanoic acid
    • Authors: Taiki Abe; Mirei Takahashi; Makoto Kano; Yuto Amaike; Chizuru Ishii; Kazuhiro Maeda; Yuki Kudoh; Toru Morishita; Takuomi Hosaka; Takamitsu Sasaki; Susumu Kodama; Atsushi Matsuzawa; Hiroyuki Kojima; Kouichi Yoshinari
      Pages: 2365 - 2374
      Abstract: Abstract Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are environmental pollutants showing high accumulation, thermochemical stability and hepatocarcinogenicity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α is suggested to mediate their toxicities, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. Previous reports also imply a possible role of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a key transcription factor for the xenobiotic-induced expression of various genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition as well as hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we have investigated whether PFCAs activate CAR. In wild-type but not Car-null mice, mRNA levels of Cyp2b10, a CAR target gene, were increased by PFOA treatment. PFCA treatment induced the nuclear translocation of CAR in mouse livers. Since CAR activators are divided into two types, ligand-type activators and phenobarbital-like indirect activators, we investigated whether PFCAs are CAR ligands or not using the cell-based reporter gene assay that can detect CAR ligands but not indirect activators. As results, neither PFCAs nor phenobarbital increased reporter activities. Interestingly, in mouse hepatocytes, pretreatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid prevented an increase in Cyp2b10 mRNA levels induced by phenobarbital as reported, but not that by PFOA. Finally, in human hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells, PFOA treatment increased mRNA levels of CYP2B6, a CAR target gene, as did phenobarbital. Taken together, our present results suggest that PFCAs including PFOA are indirect activators of mouse and human CAR and that the mechanism might be different from that for phenobarbital. The results imply a role of CAR in the hepatotoxicity of PFCAs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1888-3
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Human pregnane X receptor is activated by dibenzazepine carbamate-based
           inhibitors of constitutive androstane receptor
    • Authors: Judith Jeske; Björn Windshügel; Wolfgang E. Thasler; Matthias Schwab; Oliver Burk
      Pages: 2375 - 2390
      Abstract: Abstract Unintentional activation of xenosensing nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) by clinical drug use is known to produce severe side effects in patients, which may be overcome by co-administering antagonists. However, especially antagonizing CAR is hampered by the lack of specific inhibitors, which do not activate PXR. Recently, compounds based on a dibenzazepine carbamate scaffold were identified as potent CAR inhibitors. However, their potential to activate PXR was not thoroughly investigated, even if the lead compound was named “CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1” (CINPA1). Thus, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the interaction of CINPA1 and four analogs with PXR. Cellular assays were used to investigate intra- and intermolecular interactions and transactivation activity of PXR as a function of the compounds. Modulation of PXR target gene expression was analyzed in primary human hepatocytes. Ligand binding to PXR was investigated by molecular docking and limited proteolytic digestion. We show here that CINPA1 induced the assembly of the PXR ligand-binding domain, released co-repressors from and recruited co-activators to the receptor. CINPA1 and its analogs induced the PXR-dependent activation of a CYP3A4 reporter gene and CINPA1 induced the expression of endogenous cytochrome P450 genes in primary hepatocytes, while not consistently inhibiting CAR-mediated induction. Molecular docking revealed favorable binding of CINPA1 and analogs to the PXR ligand-binding pocket, which was confirmed in vitro. Altogether, our data provide consistent evidence that compounds with a dibenzazepine carbamate scaffold, such as CINPA1 and its four analogs, bind to and activate PXR.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1948-3
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases are involved in hepatocanalicular
           dysfunction and cholestasis induced by oxidative stress
    • Authors: Flavia D. Toledo; Cecilia L. Basiglio; Ismael R. Barosso; Andrea C. Boaglio; Andrés E. Zucchetti; Enrique J. Sánchez Pozzi; Marcelo G. Roma
      Pages: 2391 - 2403
      Abstract: Abstract In previous studies, we showed that the pro-oxidant model agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH) induces alterations in hepatocanalicular secretory function by activating Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C isoforms (cPKC), via F-actin disorganization followed by endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters relevant to bile formation (Mrp2, Bsep). Since mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) may be downstream effectors of cPKC, we investigated here the involvement of the MAPKs of the ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK types in these deleterious effects. tBuOOH (100 µM, 15 min) increased the proportion of the active, phosphorylated forms of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, and panspecific PKC inhibition with bisindolylmaleimide-1 (100 nM) or selective cPKC inhibition with Gö6976 (1 μM) prevented the latter two events. In isolated rat hepatocyte couplets, tBuOOH (100 µM, 15 min) decreased the canalicular vacuolar accumulation of the fluorescent Bsep and Mrp2 substrates, cholylglycylamido fluorescein, and glutathione-methylfluorescein, respectively, and selective inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD098059), JNK1/2 (SP600125), and p38MAPK (SB203580) partially prevented these alterations. In in situ perfused rat livers, these three MAPK inhibitors prevented tBuOOH (75 µM)-induced impairment of bile flow and the decrease in the biliary output of the Bsep and Mrp2 substrates, taurocholate, and dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, respectively. The changes in Bsep/Mrp2 and F-actin localization induced by tBuOOH, as assessed by (immuno)fluorescence staining followed by analysis of confocal images, were prevented total or partially by the MAPK inhibitors. We concluded that MAPKs of the ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK types are all involved in cholestasis induced by oxidative stress, by promoting F-actin rearrangement and further endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters critical for bile formation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1898-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of triclosan attenuates its
           cytotoxicity in hepatic cells
    • Authors: Yuanfeng Wu; Priyanka Chitranshi; Lucie Loukotková; Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa; Frederick A. Beland; Jie Zhang; Jia-Long Fang
      Pages: 2405 - 2423
      Abstract: Abstract Triclosan is a widely used broad-spectrum anti-bacterial agent. The objectives of this study were to identify which cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms metabolize triclosan and to examine the effects of CYP-mediated metabolism on triclosan-induced cytotoxicity. A panel of HepG2-derived cell lines was established, each of which overexpressed a single CYP isoform, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2A7, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP4A11, and CYP4B1. The extent of triclosan metabolism by each CYP was assessed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with online radiochemical detection. Seven isoforms were capable of metabolizing triclosan, with the order of activity being CYP1A2 > CYP2B6 > CYP2C19 > CYP2D6 ≈ CYP1B1 > CYP2C18 ≈ CYP1A1. The remaining 11 isoforms (CYP2A6, CYP2A7, CYP2A13, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP4A11, and CYP4B1) had little or no activity toward triclosan. Three metabolites were detected: 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorocatechol, and 5′-hydroxytriclosan. Consistent with the in vitro screening data, triclosan was extensively metabolized in HepG2 cells overexpressing CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2C18, and these cells were much more resistant to triclosan-induced cytotoxicity compared to vector cells, suggesting that CYP-mediated metabolism of triclosan attenuated its cytotoxicity. In addition, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chlorocatechol were less toxic than triclosan to HepG2/vector cells. Conjugation of triclosan, catalyzed by human glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs), also occurred in HepG2/CYP-overexpressing cells and primary human hepatocytes, with a greater extent of conjugation being associated with higher cell viability. Co-administration of triclosan with UGT or SULT inhibitors led to greater cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes, indicating that glucuronidation and sulfonation of triclosan are detoxification pathways. Among the 18 CYP-overexpressing cell lines, an inverse correlation was observed between cell viability and the level of triclosan in the culture medium. In conclusion, human CYP isoforms that metabolize triclosan were identified, and the metabolism of triclosan by CYPs, UGTs, and SULTs decreased its cytotoxicity in hepatic cells.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1893-6
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Acidic cellular microenvironment modifies carcinogen-induced DNA damage
           and repair
    • Authors: Q. Shi; L. Maas; C. Veith; F. J. Van Schooten; R. W. Godschalk
      Pages: 2425 - 2441
      Abstract: Abstract Chronic inflammation creates an acidic microenvironment, which plays an important role in cancer development. To investigate how low pH changes the cellular response to the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), we incubated human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549 and BEAS-2B) with nontoxic doses of B[a]P using culturing media of various pH’s (extracellular pH (pHe) of 7.8, 7.0, 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5) for 6, 24 and 48 h. In most incubations (pHe 7.0–6.5), the pH in the medium returned to the physiological pH 7.8 after 48 h, but at the lowest pH (pHe < 6.0), this recovery was incomplete. Similar changes were observed for the intracellular pH (pHi). We observed that acidic conditions delayed B[a]P metabolism and at t = 48 h, and the concentration of unmetabolized extracellular B[a]P and B[a]P-7,8-diol was significantly higher in acidic samples than under normal physiological conditions (pHe 7.8) for both cell lines. Cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1/CYP1B1) expression and its activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity) were repressed at low pHe after 6 and 24 h, but were significantly higher at t = 48 h. In addition, a DNA repair assay showed that the incision activity was ~80% inhibited for 6 h at low pHe and concomitant exposure to B[a]P. However, at t = 48 h, the incision activity recovered to more than 100% of the initial activity observed at neutral pHe. After 48 h, higher B[a]P-DNA adduct levels and γ-H2AX foci were observed at low pH samples than at pHe 7.8. In conclusion, acidic pH delayed the metabolism of B[a]P and inhibited DNA repair, ultimately leading to increased B[a]P-induced DNA damage.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1907-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Dose–response relationship of temozolomide, determined by the Pig-a ,
           comet, and micronucleus assay
    • Authors: M. Guérard; G. Johnson; S. Dertinger; G. Duran-Pacheco; J. Funk; A. Zeller
      Pages: 2443 - 2453
      Abstract: Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ), a monofunctional alkylating agent, was selected as a model compound to determine its quantitative genotoxic dose–response relationship in different tissues (blood, liver, and jejunum) and endpoints [Pig-a-, comet-, and micronucleus assay (MNT)] in male rats. TMZ was administered p.o. over 5 consecutive days (day 1–5), followed by a treatment-free period of 50 days (day 6–56) and a final administration prior to necropsy (day 57–59). TMZ showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in all interrogated endpoints. A statistically significant increase in Pig-a mutant phenotypes was observed on day 44 starting at 7.5 mg/kg/day for mutant reticulocytes (for RETCD59−) and at 3.75 mg/kg/day for mutant red blood cells (RBCCD59−), respectively. In addition, a statistically significant increase in cytogenetic damage, as measured by micronucleated reticulocytes, was observed starting at 3.75 mg/kg/day on day 3 and 1.5 mg/kg/day on day 59. DNA strand breaks, as detected by the comet assay, showed a dose-dependent and statistically significant increase in liver, blood, and jejunum starting at doses of 3.75, 3.75, and 7.5 mg/kg/day, respectively. The dose–response relationships of the Pig-a, MNT, and comet data were analyzed for possible points of departure (PoD) using the benchmark-dose (BMD) software PROAST with different critical effect sizes (CES) (BMD0.1, BMD0.5, BMD1, and BMD1SD). Overall, PoD values show a high concordance between different tissues and endpoints, underlining the suitability of this experimental design to explore quantitative dose–response relationships in a variety of different tissues and endpoints, while minimizing animal use.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1923-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Patulin transformation products and last intermediates in its biosynthetic
           pathway, E- and Z-ascladiol, are not toxic to human cells
    • Authors: Joanna Tannous; Selma P. Snini; Rhoda El Khoury; Cécile Canlet; Philippe Pinton; Yannick Lippi; Imourana Alassane-Kpembi; Thierry Gauthier; André El Khoury; Ali Atoui; Ting Zhou; Roger Lteif; Isabelle P. Oswald; Olivier Puel
      Pages: 2455 - 2467
      Abstract: Abstract Patulin is the main mycotoxin contaminating apples. During the brewing of alcoholic beverages, this mycotoxin is degraded to ascladiol, which is also the last precursor of patulin. The present study aims (1) to characterize the last step of the patulin biosynthetic pathway and (2) to describe the toxicity of ascladiol. A patE deletion mutant was generated in Penicillium expansum. In contrast to the wild strain, this mutant does not produce patulin but accumulates high levels of E-ascladiol with few traces of Z-ascladiol. This confirms that patE encodes the patulin synthase involved in the conversion of E-ascladiol to patulin. After purification, cytotoxicities of patulin and E- and Z-ascladiol were investigated on human cell lines from liver, kidney, intestine, and immune system. Patulin was cytotoxic for these four cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, both E- and Z-ascladiol were devoid of cytotoxicity. Microarray analyses on human intestinal cells treated with patulin and E-ascladiol showed that the latter, unlike patulin, did not alter the whole human transcription. These results demonstrate that E- and Z-ascladiol are not toxic and therefore patulin detoxification strategies leading to the accumulation of ascladiol are good approaches to limit the patulin risk.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1900-y
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • The role of epigenetic modifiers in extended cultures of functional
           hepatocyte-like cells derived from human neonatal mesenchymal stem cells
    • Authors: M. Cipriano; J. C. Correia; S. P. Camões; N. G. Oliveira; P. Cruz; H. Cruz; M. Castro; J. L. Ruas; J. M. Santos; J. P. Miranda
      Pages: 2469 - 2489
      Abstract: Abstract The development of predictive in vitro stem cell-derived hepatic models for toxicological drug screening is an increasingly important topic. Herein, umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hnMSCs) underwent hepatic differentiation using an optimized three-step core protocol of 24 days that mimicked liver embryogenesis with further exposure to epigenetic markers, namely the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), the cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). FGF-2 and FGF-4 were also tested to improve endoderm commitment and foregut induction during Step 1 of the differentiation protocol, being HHEX expression increased with FGF-2 (4 ng/mL). DMSO (1%, v/v) when added at day 10 enhanced cell morphology, glycogen storage ability, enzymatic activity and induction capacity. Moreover, the stability of the hepatic phenotype under the optimized differentiation conditions was examined up to day 34. Our findings showed that hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) acquired the ability to metabolize glucose, produce albumin and detoxify ammonia. Global transcriptional analysis of the HLCs showed a partial hepatic differentiation degree. Global analysis of gene expression in the different cells revealed shared expression of gene groups between HLCs and human primary hepatocytes (hpHeps) that were not observed between HepG2 and hpHeps. In addition, bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data placed HLCs between the HepG2 cell line and hpHeps and distant from hnMSCs. The enhanced hepatic differentiation observed was supported by the presence of the hepatic drug transporters OATP-C and MRP-2 and gene expression of the hepatic markers CK18, TAT, AFP, ALB, HNF4A and CEBPA; and by their ability to display stable UGT-, EROD-, ECOD-, CYP1A1-, CYP2C9- and CYP3A4-dependent activities at levels either comparable with or even higher than those observed in primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Overall, an improvement of the hepatocyte-like phenotype was achieved for an extended culture time suggesting a role of the epigenetic modifiers in hepatic differentiation and maturation and presenting hnMSC-HLCs as an advantageous alternative for drug discovery and in vitro toxicology testing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1901-x
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Answer to the comment of Hai Lu et al. regarding “Hepatotoxicity by
           combination treatment of temozolomide, artesunate and Chinese herbs in a
           glioblastoma multiforme patient: case report and review of the literature.
           Arch Toxicol (2016)”
    • Authors: Thomas Efferth; Ursula Schöttler; Sanjeev Krishna; Peter Schmiedek; Frederik Wenz; Frank A. Giordano
      Pages: 2491 - 2492
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1958-1
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Comments regarding “Hepatotoxicity by combination treatment of
           temozolomide, artesunate and Chinese herbs in a glioblastoma multiforme
           patient: case report review of the literature”
    • Authors: Hai Lu; Ruya Sheng; Chunhong Zhang; Ta-Ya Lee
      Pages: 2493 - 2494
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1915-4
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Dioscin-induced autophagy mitigates cell apoptosis through
           modulation of PI3K/Akt and ERK and JNK signaling pathways in human lung
           cancer cell lines
    • Authors: Ming-Ju Hsieh; Te-Lung Tsai; Yih-Shou Hsieh; Chau-Jong Wang; Hui-Ling Chiou
      Pages: 2495 - 2496
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1973-2
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 6 (2017)
  • Commentary to Merwin SJ, Obis T, Nunez Y, Re DB (2017) Organophosphate
           neurotoxicity to the voluntary motor system on the trail of
           environment-caused amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the known, the misknown,
           and the unknown. Arch Toxicol [Epub ahead of print].
    • Authors: Marcello Lotti; Angelo Moretto
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1992-z
  • Rabbit N -acetyltransferase 2 genotyping method to investigate role of
           acetylation polymorphism on N- and O-acetylation of aromatic and
           heterocyclic amine carcinogens
    • Authors: David W. Hein; Mark A. Doll
      Abstract: The rabbit was the initial animal model to investigate the acetylation polymorphism expressed in humans. Use of the rabbit model is compromised by lack of a rapid non-invasive method for determining acetylator phenotype. Slow acetylator phenotype in the rabbit results from deletion of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene. A relatively quick and non-invasive method for identifying the gene deletion was developed and acetylator phenotypes confirmed by measurement of N- and O-acetyltransferase activities in hepatic cytosols. Rabbit liver cytosols catalyzed the N-acetylation of sulfamethazine (p = 0.0014), benzidine (p = 0.0257), 4-aminobiphenyl (p = 0.0012), and the O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N–OH–PhIP; p = 0.002) at rates significantly higher in rabbits possessing NAT2 gene than rabbits with NAT2 gene deleted. In contrast, hepatic cytosols catalyzed the N-acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid (an N-acetyltransferase 1 selective substrate) at rates that did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between rabbits positive and negative for NAT2. The new NAT2 genotyping method facilitates use of the rabbit model to investigate the role of acetylator polymorphism in the metabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic amine drugs and carcinogens.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-1997-7
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