Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.644
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-072X - ISSN (Online) 0302-8933
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Searching for mechanisms of action of antimicrobials
    • Abstract: Abstract Although development of antimicrobial resistance by bacteria is a natural phenomenon, the antibiotic resistance crisis is a reality that leads us in a gap of antimicrobial alternatives on therapeutics. Considering this cruel reality and committed to contribute to look for new antibacterial agents, this manuscript presents a review of easy laboratory methods that evaluate the mode of action of compounds, since it is a basic requirement for the discovery and development of new drugs. The literature was screened by searching the keywords “mode of action”, “antibiotic”, “antimicrobial activity”, “inhibition mode”, “method” and “bacteria” in Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct and BVS in a period of time from 2000 to 2019. This review demonstrates the wide variety of methods that can be employed in research on mechanisms of action of antibacterial substances. Therefore, we compiled different protocols (presented in the supplementary material), available in the literature, with the purpose of facilitating the start of experiments.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Rahnella aceris sp. nov., isolated from sap drawn from Acer pictum
    • Abstract: Abstract A Gram-reaction-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated SAP-19T, was isolated from sap extracted from Acer pictum in Mt. Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea and its taxonomic statue was investigated by a polyphasic approach including genome- and 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses. Cells were motile, short rods and showed growth at 20–30 °C, pH 4–9 and 0–6% (w/v) NaCl. The whole genome- and 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses exhibited that strain SAP-19T belongs to the genus Rahnella and forms a tight cluster with Rahnella aquatilis. The isolate shared average nucleotide identity of 92.7% and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.6% with the type strain of Rahnella aquatilis. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16:0 and C17:0cyclo. The G + C content of the genome was 52.3%. The low average nucleotide identity (92.7%) and digital DNA relatedness (48.6%) values between the isolate and the most closely related strain showed that the isolate can be considered a different genospecies. On the basis of combined data obtained in this study, strain SAP-19T (= KACC 21744T = NBRC 114407T) represents a novel species of the genus Rahnella, for which the name Rahnella aceris sp. nov. is proposed.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Identification of an antiviral compound isolated from Pistacia lentiscus
    • Abstract: Abstract This study screened mastic gum (Pistacia lentiscus L.) for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), coxsackievirus type B3, and adenovirus type 5. The organs of this plant (leaves, stem, and seed) were macerated sequentially using solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol). Only the methanol extract of stem exhibited significant activity against HSV-2. This extract showed anti-HSV-2 activity with a selectivity index of 51 (50% cytotoxic concentration = 186 µg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration = 3.63 µg/mL), and demonstrated direct inhibition against this virus with a virucidal selectivity index of 620 (50% virucidal concentration = 0.30 µg/mL). A bio-guided assay involving thin-layer chromatography led to the isolation of two active compounds, which have been identified as dammaradienone and dammaradienol using high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. P. lentiscus has been widely studied for other biological activities. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of P. lentiscus L. exhibiting antiviral activity.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Microbiological quality and safety of commercialized thalassotherapy
           products based on marine mud and algae extracts in Tunisia
    • Abstract: Abstract A total of 15 samples of thalassotherapy products, distributed in Tunisia in their intact and final state of production, was analyzed to determine their microbiological safety status. The result shows the absence of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coliforms). The incidence of contamination by Gram-positive Bacilli (mesophelic bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic spore forming bacteria, anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria) was found to be higher in products composed by mud and extract of alga. The biochemical and molecular identification of the major contaminant show that Bacilli were the most covered from 75% of the thalassotherapy products. Mineral analysis (organic matter, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na d K, Al, Si and Ti) shows strong composition on Aluminum and Silica. Cytotoxicity study of six thalassotherapy products and three essential oil extracts (Menthol, Clove and Eucalyptus) did not show any cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, antibacterial acitivity of 5 essentila oils, against 30 isolates of the genus Bacillus and 10 reference strains, has been characterized showing an interesting bactericidal potential of the extract of menthol and Eucalyptus.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Comparative study of antimicrobial activity between some medicine plants
           and recombinant Lactoferrin peptide against some pathogens of cultivated
           button mushroom
    • Abstract: Abstract The adverse effects of chemical pesticides on human health and environment cannot be ignored, hence it seems that novel alternative compounds should be applied to control plant pathogens. Among various alternative sources, natural compounds such as plant essential oils, plant extracts and recombinant antimicrobial peptides are of significance. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimicrobial activity of plants essential oils and plant extracts of six medicinal plants (Lippia citriodora, Ferula gummosa, Bunium persicum, Mentha piperita, Plantago major and Salvadora persica) along with a chimera peptide of camel lactoferrin, which is the most important antimicrobial component of camel milk, against Pseudomonas tolaasii and Trichoderma harzianum as pathogens of white button mushroom. The antibacterial activity test was conducted under in vitro conditions through disc diffusion method. The results showed that chimera camel lactoferrin peptide, with the highest amount of inhibitory zone (14.63 mm in 20 μg/mL concentration), has a significant difference in antibacterial activity compared to other treatments. Ferula gummosa conferred no antibacterial activity. Also, the results of antifungal effects indicated that plant essential oils and extracts have more antifungal activity than recombinant peptide. Generally, L. citriodora, B. persicum, M. piperita treatments could completely prevent growth of fungal in in vitro conditions. Therefore, using the mentioned plants can be a good replacement for reducing the chemical pesticides against pathogenic agents of button mushroom, without any adverse effects on environment and human health.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Buffalo dung-inhabiting bacteria enhance the nutrient enrichment of soil
           and proximate contents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was aimed to study the effect of bacteria inhabiting in buffalo dung on nutritional properties of soil and plant. Three beneficial bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter xiangfangensis were isolated from buffalo dung to evaluate for their effects individually as well as in consortium. The combined effect of P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa showed a significant enhancement in different biological parameters of Foeniculum vulgare such as primary branch (99.32%), secondary branch (98.32%), number of umbels (87.62%), number of umbellets (99.85%), number of seeds (104.94%), grain yield (62.38%), biological yield (35.99%), and harvest index (19.48%). Consortium of these potent bacteria also enhanced proximate constituents such as total ash (49.79%), ether extract (63.06%), crude fibre (48.91%), moisture content (33.40%), dry matter (31.45%), acid insoluble ash (33.20%), and crude protein (40.73%). A highly significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) was found between nitrogen (r = 0.97), phosphorous (r = 0.95), and potassium (r = 0.97) contents of soil. This research enhances the knowledge of the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on nutrient properties of soil and fennel which deliver a new index for healthier use in organic agricultural practices.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137, the first non- Streptomyces
           actinobacterium, produces holomycin after cystine feeding
    • Abstract: Abstract Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 is an actinobacterium isolated from Algerian Saharan soil. This strain has the ability to produce several dithiolopyrrolone antibiotic derivatives depending on the precursors added to the culture medium. This group of antibiotics is known for their potent antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Holomycin is a member of the dithiolopyrrolone group of antibiotics, and has already been isolated from several species of actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces and also from some Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, holomycin was produced for the first time in the culture broth of a non-Streptomyces actinobacteria. This antibiotic was induced by adding 5 mM of L-cystine as precursor to the semi-synthetic fermentation broth of Sa. algeriensis NRRL B-24137 and then fully identified after HPLC purification. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of holomycin were determined against several pathogenic microorganisms, including Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 Klebsiella pneumoniae CIP 82.91, Listeria monocytogenes CIP 82110, Staphylococcus aureus CIP 7625, Aspergillus carbonarius M333, Fusarium culmorum FC1, Candida albicans IPA 200. This antibiotic showed a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, inhibiting a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and micro-fungi.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Towards sustainable yield improvement: field inoculation of soybean with
           Bradyrhizobium and co-inoculation with Azospirillum in Mozambique
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of sole inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) with Bradyrhizobium and co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and Azospirillum on nodulation, plant growth and yields were investigated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 cropping seasons under field conditions in Mozambique. The treatments included (1) Control (non-inoculated control, with symbiosis depending on indigenous rhizobia), (2) Urea (non-inoculated, receiving 200 kg ha−1 of N), (3) Sole inoculation with B. diazoefficiens strain USDA 110, and (4) Co-inoculation with B. diazoefficiens strain USDA 110 and A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6, evaluated in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Nodule number and dry weight, shoot dry weight, biological and grain yields, grain dry weight, and harvest index were evaluated. In general, both sole inoculation and co-inoculation enhanced nodulation in relation to control. Sole inoculation increased grain yield by 22% (356 kg ha−1), the same enhancement magnitude attained under mineral N treatment, suggesting that Bradyrhizobium inoculation provides ecological and economic sustainability to the soybean crop in Mozambique or other countries with similar agro-climatic conditions. Co-inoculation did not increase grain yields in relation to neither the control nor sole inoculation, indicating that further research with adapted and high yielding soybean varieties along with effective rhizobial strains is required in Mozambique to attune the beneficial Azospirillum–plant cultivar–rhizobia interactions that have been reported in other countries for several legumes, including soybean.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Bacillus aerolatus sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Bacillus,
           isolated from bioaerosols in a school playground
    • Abstract: Abstract A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium with a single flagellum, and a motile strain, designated CX253, was isolated from bioaerosols. The isolate is facultatively anaerobic, is able to grow at 25–45 ℃ (optimum 37 ℃) and pH 6.5–10.0 (optimum 7.5), and can tolerate up to 5.0% NaCl (w/v) under aerobic conditions. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall of strain CX253T is meso-diaminopimelic acid, while major isoprenoid quinone is menaquinone 6 (MK-6) along with a smaller amount of MK-7 (20%). The polar lipid profile is composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids and glycolipids. The major cellular fatty acid is iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and genome sequence grouped strain CX253T into the genus Bacillus. The strain was most closely related to Bacillus thermotolerans CCTCC AB 2012108 T by comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence (97.2% similarity) and to Bacillus wudalianchiensis CCTCC AB 2015266 T by comparison of gyrB gene sequence (80.1% similarity). The draft genome of strain CX253T comprised 3,929,195 bp with a G + C content of 43.3 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain CX253T and phylogenetically related Bacillus species were lower than 95% and 70%, respectively. Thus, the polyphasic evidence generated through phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic methods confirmed that strain CX253T (= GDMCC 1.1608 T = KACC 21318 T) was a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus aerolatus sp. nov. is proposed.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of Apis cerana in Yunnan using
           high-throughput sequencing
    • Abstract: Abstract Gut microbes play an important role in host disease and health. The Asian honey bee Apis cerana is an important pollinator of agricultural crops in China. However, there are still few studies on the structure and composition of the microbiota in the intestine of A. cerana, especially A. cerana in Yunnan. To understand the species and composition of the microbiota in the intestine of A. cerana in Yunnan, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to carry out 16S rRNA sequencing on 50 samples from Kunming, Xishuangbanna and Mengzi. The results show that both from the phylum level and the genus level, the structure and abundance of the microbiota in the gut of A. cerana from the three regions tended to be the same. At the phylum level, the abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and other species was high in A. cerana from different areas. At the genus level, the abundance of Lactobacillus, Gilliamella, Snodgrassella, Apibacter, Candidatus Schmidhempelia and other species was high in A. cerana from different areas. Due to its unique geographical environment and climatic conditions, at the genus level, the diversity of bacterial communities in Xishuangbanna was significantly lower than that in the other two regions, which was about 100 genera less. In conclusion, our results reveal the composition and structure of the intestinal microbiota of bees in Yunnan and deepen our understanding of the intestinal microbiota of bees.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Amelioration effect of salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria on
           growth and physiological properties of rice ( Oryza sativa ) under
           salt-stressed conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract For sustainable agriculture in saline soil, extensive exploitation of salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria and other symbiotic bacteria is required. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of native salt-tolerant rice rhizobacteria for plant growth promotion under salt stress. A total of 188 bacteria were screened for assessing salt-tolerant capacity and nine isolates tolerating 12% NaCl (w/v) concentration were selected. Biochemical and molecular identification revealed that the salt-tolerant bacteria belonged to Bacillus sp, Exiguobacterium sp, Enterobacter sp, Lysinibacillus sp, Stenotrophomonas sp, Microbacterium sp, and Achromobacter sp. The increase in NaCl concentration from 2 to 4% decreases the PGP activities such as IAA production, P solubilization, K solubilization, and nitrate reduction. The effects of inoculation of salt-tolerant bacteria on the growth and different physiological properties of rice (Oryza sativa) were studied. It was found that the salinity affected the root and shoot length of the control plants; however, bacterial inoculant were found to effectively promote the growth of paddy under salinity stress. Further, bacterial inoculants substantially enhanced total chlorophyll, proline, total phenol, and oxidative damage such as electrolyte leakage and membrane stability index under salt stress. This study suggests that salt-tolerant PGP bacteria may be used for cultivation of O. sativa in salinized agricultural lands.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Larkinella punicea sp. nov., isolated from manganese mine soil
    • Abstract: Abstract Strain ZZJ9T is a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from manganese mine soil. Strain ZZJ9T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Larkinella rosea 15J16-1T3AT (97.1%), Larkinella terrae 15J8-8T (97.0%), Larkinella knui 15J6-3T6T (96.8%), and Larkinella ripae 15J11-1T (95.3%). The genome size of strain ZZJ9T was 8.01 Mb and the DNA G+C content was 51.8 mol%. ANI values among strain ZZJ9T and Larkinella rosea 52004 T, Larkinella knui KCTC 42998T, and Larkinella terrae 52001T were 80.5%, 82.7%, and 80.5%, respectively. dDDH values among strain ZZJ9T and Larkinella rosea 52004T, Larkinella knui KCTC 42998T, and Larkinella terrae 52001T were 23.5%, 26.0%, and 23.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the genome of strain ZZJ9T contained 6302 predicted protein-coding genes and 3114 (49%) of them had classificatory functions. The major quinone of strain ZZJ9T was menaquinone-7 and the main cellular fatty acids were C16:1ω5c (39.5%), iso-C15:0 (25.6%), and iso-C17:0 3OH (11.5%). The polar lipids of strain ZZJ9T were phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified lipid, and two unidentified aminolipids. Based on the results of phylogenetic, genome, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic analytical, strain ZZJ9T represents a novel species of the genus Larkinella, for which the name Larkinella punicea sp. Nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZZJ9T (= KCTC 62876T = CCTCC AB 2018215T).
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Draft genome sequence of Parvularcula flava strain NH6-79  T , revealing
           its role as a cellulolytic enzymes producer
    • Abstract: Abstract To date, the genus Parvularcula consists of 6 species and no potential application of this genus was reported. Current study presents the genome sequence of Parvularcula flava strain NH6-79 T and its cellulolytic enzyme analysis. The assembled draft genome of strain NH6-79 T consists of 9 contigs and 7 scaffolds with 3.68 Mbp in size and GC content of 59.87%. From a total of 3,465 genes predicted, 96 of them are annotated as glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Within these GHs, 20 encoded genes are related to cellulosic biomass degradation, including 12 endoglucanases (5 GH10, 4 GH5, and 3 GH51), 2 exoglucanases (GH9) and 6 β-glucosidases (GH3). In addition, highest relative enzyme activities (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase) were observed at 27th hour when the strain was cultured in the carboxymethyl cellulose/Avicel®-containing medium for 45 h. The combination of genome analysis with experimental studies indicated the ability of strain NH6-79 T to produce extracellular endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase. These findings suggest the potential of Parvularcula flava strain NH6-79 T in cellulose-containing biomass degradation and that the strain could be used in cellulosic biorefining process.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Bacillus tepidiphilus sp. nov., isolated from tepid spring
    • Abstract: Abstract A novel Bacillus strain, designated SYSU G01002T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from tepid spring in Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain SYSU G01002T shared the highest sequence identity with the type strain of Bacillus alkalitolerans (97.7%). Strain SYSU G01002T grew at pH 6.0–8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0), at 28–55 °C (optimum, 45 °C) and in the presence of 0–2.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum in the absence of NaCl). It contained meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the cell-wall diamino acid and MK-7 as isoprenoid quinone. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 and C16:0. The polar were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and unidentified phospholipid. The genomic DNA G + C content was 38.0 mol %. The digital DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between SYSU G01002T and closely related members of the genus Bacillus were below the cut-off level recommended for interspecies identity. Based on the above results, strain SYSU G01002T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tepidiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain, SYSU G01002T (= KCTC 43131T = CGMCC 1.17491T).
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Understanding the survival mechanisms of Deinococcus radiodurans against
           oxidative stress by targeting thioredoxin reductase redox system
    • Abstract: Abstract The principal objective of this study is to determine the resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress by inhibiting its thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) antioxidant system. Treatment of D. radiodurans with different TrxR inhibitors such as ebselen, epigallocatechin gallate and auranofin displayed this organism sensitivity to H2O2 treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed that D. radiodurans showed greater resistance to H2O2 treatment. Further, it has also been noticed that TrxR redox system was suppressed by TrxR inhibitors and that this response might be associated with the oxidative stress-mediated cell death in D. radiodurans. Thus, TrxR inhibitors affect the resistance of the D. radiodurans through suppression of its thioredoxin redox pathway via the inhibition of TrxR. Results from this study proved that TrxR plays an important role as an antioxidant enzyme by scavenging intracellular ROS, and thus contributing to the resistance of D. radiodurans towards oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Antibacterial effect of Blumea balsamifera DC. essential oil against
           Haemophilus parasuis
    • Abstract: Abstract Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis), the cause of the Glasser’s disease, is a potentially pathogenic gram-negative organism that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of pigs. The extraction of Blumea balsamifera DC., as a traditional Chinese herb, has shown great bacteriostatic effect against several common bacteria. To study the antibacterial effect on H. parasuis in vitro, this study evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Blumea balsamifera DC. essential oil (BBO) as well as morphological changes in H. parasuis treated with it. Furthermore, changes in expression of total protein and key virulence factors were also assessed. Results showed that the MIC and MBC were 0.625 and 1.25 μg/mL, respectively. As the concentration of BBO increased, the growth curve inhibition became stronger. H. parasuis cells were damaged severely after treatment with BBO for 4 h, demonstrating plasmolysis and enlarged vacuoles, along with broken cell walls and membranes. Total protein and virulence factor expression in H. parasuis was significantly downregulated by BBO. Taken together, these results indicated a substantial antibacterial effect of BBO on H. parasuis.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Biodegradation of 3-chlorobenzoic acid with electron shuttle systems:
           pathways and molecular identification
    • Abstract: Abstract A synergy of biodegradation and electron shuttle systems is a promising strategy for eliminating pollutants including chlorinated aromatic compounds. The present work studies the degradation products of 3-chlorobenzoic acid by Pseudomonas putida in the presence of an electron shuttle system (ESS) composed of citrate and pyruvate as electron donors and the pollutant as an electron acceptor. Chromatographic results showed different pathways involved in the biodegradation process under the influence of electron shuttle systems. These routes depend on oxidation and reduction reactions for output byproducts to be easily mineralized by the bacterium under investigation. A nucleotide sequence with about 380 bp of a ton B gene was detected in P. putida and it resembles Escherichia coli Ton B. The relatedness tree of the selected gene reveals a high similarity and is comparable to P. aeruginosa (100%) and the highest variation with that of P. citronellolis (21.99%). Accordingly, in the presence of electron shuttle systems, the genes responsible for bacterial influx were activated to ease the biodegradation process. In an application model, the remediated-water samples were handled by two recycling processes using Scenedesmus obliquus and Trigonella foenum-graecum to evaluate the efficiency of this non-conventional treatment. In conclusion, this strategy succeeded in remediating the polluted water with chlorinated aromatic compounds for further applications.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Deinococcus detaillensis sp. nov., isolated from humus soil in Antarctica
    • Abstract: Abstract A Gram-staining-positive, non-motile, coccus or short-rod-shaped bacterium, designated H1T, was isolated from a humus soil sample in the Detaille Island of Antarctica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence result indicated that strain H1T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with the type strain of Deinococcus alpinitundrae (96.2%). Growth of strain H1T occurred at 4–25 °C, pH 6.0–8.0 and in the presence of 0–1.0% NaCl (w/v). The respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C17:0 cyclo and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c). The polar lipids were aminoglycophospholipid, aminophospholipid, glycolipid and glycophospholipid. The cell wall peptidoglycan type was A3β. The genomic DNA G + C content was 61.3 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between strain H1T and the closely related Deinococcus members was below the cut-off level (95–96%) for species identification. Based on the above results, strain H1T represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus detaillensis sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain is H1T (= CGMCC 1.13938T = JCM 33291T).
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Mezoneuron benthamianum inhibits cell adherence, hyphae formation, and
           phospholipase production in Candida albicans
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-virulence activities of traditionally used Mezoneuron benthamianum leaves. Extracts were prepared using acetone and methanol, and the preliminary phytochemical screening was performed. The antioxidant activity was studied using the DPPH method. Anti-Candida albicans activity was established and the effect on the germ tube and phospholipase production, as well as on the host cell adherence was assessed. The extracts showed the presence of anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Gallic acid and trans-resveratrol were among the predominant phytochemicals found in M. benthamianum. The crude extracts presented significantly higher antioxidant activity than the ascorbic acid standard. At 0.39 mg/mL, acetone extract inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. At lower concentrations (200–50 µg/mL), it significantly inhibited the adherence ability (up to 51%), formation of hyphae (up to 65%), and the production of phospholipase. In conclusion, at high concentrations, M. benthamianum kills C. albicans, and at lower concentrations, it can inhibit the virulence properties of this pathogen. This study on crude extract validates the traditional use of this plant. However, further research is required to establish the anti-virulence activity of the two compounds and their therapeutic potential.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
  • Metagenomics analysis of fungal communities associated with postharvest
           diseases in pear fruits under the effect of management practices
    • Abstract: Abstract An amplicon metagenomic approach based on the ITS1 region of fungal rDNA was employed to identify the composition of fungal communities associated with diseases of pear fruits during postharvest storage. The sampled fruits were harvested at an orchard using routine management practices involving treatments with various chemical fungicides and were transferred to a storage packinghouse. Effective tags of reading sequences clustered into 53 OTUs whereas Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (83.4%) followed by Basidiomycota (15.8%). Our results revealed that four genera, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Alternaria and Cladosporium were the most abundant representing 59–95% of the relative abundance per sample. The interruption of chemical treatments during the last month before harvest altered the structure of the fungal community of fruits among untreated and treated samples, mainly in cases of relative abundance of Penicillium and Rhodotorula genera. We hypothesize that various antagonistic interactions might occur on fruit surfaces among the detected fungal genera whose relative abundances were affected by fungicide treatments. Interestingly, some common pre- and postharvest pear fungal pathogens were either less present (such as Moniliana), or undetected (such as Aspergillus, Venturia and Septoria) in untreated and treated samples.
      PubDate: 2020-11-01
       
 
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