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Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 148, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1434-4726 - ISSN (Online) 0937-4477
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.737]   [H-I: 37]
  • Open partial horizontal laryngectomies: a proposal for classification by
           the working committee on nomenclature of the European Laryngological
    • Abstract: Abstract We present herein the proposal of the European Laryngological Society working committee on nomenclature for a systematic classification of open partial horizontal laryngectomies (OPHL). This is based on the cranio-caudal extent of laryngeal structures resected, instead of a number of different and heterogeneous variables present in existing nomenclatures, usually referring to eponyms, types of pexy, or inferior limit of resection. According to the proposed classification system, we have defined three types of OPHLs: Type I (formerly defined horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy), Type II (previously called supracricoid laryngectomy), and Type III (also named supratracheal laryngectomy). Use of suffixes “a” and “b” in Type II and III OPHLs reflects sparing or not of the suprahyoid epiglottis. Various extensions to one arytenoid, base of tongue, piriform sinus, and crico-arytenoid unit are indicated by abbreviations (ARY, BOT, PIR, and CAU, respectively). Our proposal is not intended to give a comprehensive algorithm of application of different OPHLs to specific clinical situations, but to serve as the basis for obtaining a common language among the head and neck surgical community. We therefore intend to present this classification system as a simple and intuitive teaching instrument, and a tool to be able to compare surgical series with each other and with non-surgical data.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Diffusion-weighted MRI in diagnosing thyroid cartilage invasion in
           laryngeal carcinoma
    • Abstract: Abstract The diagnosis of thyroid cartilage invasion in patients presenting with laryngeal carcinoma is essential for pre-therapeutic staging. Compared to CT, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a similar ability to define the interface between fat and tumor, but is superior for assessing muscle and cartilage invasion. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be indicated if there are equivocal findings in the CT, including possible cartilage invasion. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of diffusion-weighted MRI in predicting inner and outer thyroid cartilage laminae invasion in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. A prospective study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2013. The study included 26 patients. Twenty-three patients underwent total laryngectomy and three patients underwent partial laryngectomy. Histopathology reports of resected specimens and pre-operative staging were blind to the consultant radiologist who reviewed the scans to comment on thyroid cartilage invasion with special emphasis on inner and outer lamina invasion by conventional MRI criteria, contrast enhancement and DWI. The sensitivity, specificity, efficiency (correct classification rate), and positive and negative predictive values of MRI for identification of inner thyroid lamina invasion were: 93, 82, 88, 88 and 90 % respectively, while those of outer thyroid lamina invasion were: 85, 85, 85, 85 and 85 %, respectively. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed high validity and precision in detecting inner and outer thyroid lamina invasion. This can have an important impact on the decision making for management of laryngeal carcinoma.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Challenges in organizing effective oncology service: inter-European
           variability in the example of head and neck cancers
    • Abstract: Abstract The increasing worldwide burden of cancer makes it imperative that every country develop a comprehensive cancer control programme. In the past, cancer control in Central and Eastern Europe was inadequate, particularly when compared to many wealthier Western European countries. We analyse interregional differences in Europe to the approach to comprehensive cancer care, with a focus on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using the case of Poland as a representative example. Due to national plans major improvements have been achieved in the field of prevention and in radiotherapy delivery having a measurable and positive impact on treatment outcomes. In head and neck cancers a notable move towards multidisciplinary approach has been made, combining surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy accompanied by rehabilitation and social support. In Poland and several other Eastern and Central European countries a shortage of physicians in the field of oncology was noted. The main conclusion is that the special plans are needed in Central and Eastern Europe or those existing must be extended for another decade to fulfil the EU requirement of providing all European citizens with equal access to quality cancer care.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Prognostic significance and association of        class="a-plus-plus">Helicobacter pylori infection
           in pharyngolaryngeal cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) serologic status of patients who underwent for curative resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx and their prognosis. From April 2004 to March 2005, we included eighty patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Control group consisted of 20 healthy patients and 10 patients with Reinke’s edema. Serologic status was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for immunoglobulin G. Patients were followed for 5 years. H. pylori-positive serologic status was statistically significant for the case subjects (70.6 v/s 29.4 %; p < 0.001). Mean overall and disease-free survival were 50.7 months (range 46.9–54.5) and 52.1 months (range 48.3–55.7), respectively. H. pylori-positive serologic status was not associated with a poor prognosis in the Cox regression model (p = 0.77). We observed a positive association between H. pylori infection and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. But we fail to confirm that the presence of H. pylori infection is associated with poor outcome or a higher recurrence rate.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Is the grading system of the severity of the OSAHS used presently rational
           or not': from the view of incidence of hypertension in different
           severity groups
    • Abstract: Abstract The grading system of the severity of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) used presently showed that the severe OSAHS had an extensive range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (≥30, even over 100). So this grading system is not rational. From Jan 1999 to June 2011, there were 2,618 patients complaining of snoring took the polysomnography. The patients were divided into 11 groups according to their AHI. Frequencies of OSAHS with hypertension in each group were tested using crosstabs. The incidence of hypertension was increased as the increasing of AHI. Crosstab analysis showed that there were four cutoff points of AHI (5, 30, 50, 100). There was a significant difference in the incidence of hypertension between the groups of AHI more than the cutoff point and AHI less than the cutoff point. So from the view of hypertension in each group, we recommend that the AHI <5 should be considered as normal or simple snorer, AHI = 5–30 as mild degree of OSAHS, AHI = 30–50 as moderate degree of OSAHS, AHI = 50–100 as severe degree of OSAHS, and AHI ≥100 as profound degree of OSAHS.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Septoplasty: under general or sedation anesthesia. Which is more
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of the study was to assess the more efficacious anesthesia method in septal surgery. The prospective study was conducted at an academic secondary referral center. A prospective chart review of 60 patients, between the ages of 16 and 65, who underwent septal surgery under general (GA) or sedation (SDA) anesthesia during 1-year period was done. Mean age of the patients was 44.30 ± 13.29. Patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthesia method: general (group 1) or sedation (group 2). Intraoperative hemodynamic variables, surgery time, intraoperative blood loss volume, length of hospital stay, postoperative vomiting and nausea, postoperative pain score according to the visual analog scale (VAS) and cost analysis of each method were compared. Thirty-six males and 24 females with a mean age 44.30 ± 13.29 were included to the study. Total operation time, operation time, intraoperative and postoperative bleeding volume, postoperative nausea and vomiting, duration of hospital stay after surgery, were better in group 2. Postoperative pain scores and patient satisfaction about surgery were not statistically different. Cost of anesthesia in group 1 per patient was $44.35 ± 10.81 and in group 2, $16.29 ± 11.88 (p < 0.01). Hospital stay after surgery was much longer in group 1 than group 2 (p < 0.01). Using SDA is better in many ways including cost-effectiveness than using GA for septoplasty operation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • A stereological study on the correlation of inferior turbinate hypertrophy
           and paranasal sinus disease
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between inferior turbinate size and paranasal sinus opacification on computerized tomography (CT) scans. Paranasal sinus CT scans of a total of 185 patients (92 males, 93 females) were examined in terms of sinus opacification. Sizes of the inferior turbinates were measured using stereological method and these sizes in normal and opacified paranasal sinuses are compared using one-way analysis of variance. Scans of 185 patients (93 female, 92 male) aged between 12 and 84 (mean 37.85 ± 16.27) years were examined in this study. Sizes of the inferior turbinates were found to be increased significantly in case of opacification of ipsilateral maxillary and anterior ethmoid sinuses (p = 0.000 and p = 0.4, respectively) on both sides. On the other hand, such a relationship could not be demonstrated for sizes of inferior turbinates with opacified or non-opacified posterior ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid sinuses. In conclusion, the combination of CT and the Cavalieri principle can provide an unbiased, direct, and assumption-free estimate of the regions of interest. The presented method can be efficiently applied without any need for special software, additional equipment, or personnel than that required for routine CT in daily use. Paranasal sinus disease, especially the inflammatory diseases of maxillary and anterior ethmoid sinuses, must be carefully investigated in cases with inferior turbinate hypertrophy.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Impact of subject’s position and acoustic stimulus type on
           vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in normal subjects
    • Abstract: Abstract Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are currently considered a diagnostic tool for studying the vestibular system, specifically the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. This prospective study aimed at evaluating the impact of patient position and type of acoustic stimulus on VEMPs results using 60 healthy subjects who underwent otoscopy, pure tone audiometry and VEMPs in different conditions affecting their position and the type of acoustic stimulus. Corrected amplitude is significantly greater when the patient is seated and latency difference and amplitude asymmetry do not change with either patient position or type of stimulus. The results obtained in different test conditions are not comparable. Being seated is the most appropriate position for the test.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Relationship between behavioral hearing thresholds and estimated auditory
           steady-state response thresholds in children with a history of neonatal
    • Abstract: Abstract Increased serum bilirubin levels during infancy increase the risk of hearing loss in infants. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between pure-tone audiometry hearing thresholds and thresholds estimated using auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) in children with a history of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and to evaluate the usefulness of 90-Hz ASSR in estimating hearing thresholds in children. This study was conducted on 26 children (13 girls and 13 boys) who were aged 2.4–11 years and had a history of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (bilirubin level >17 mg/dL). ASSR thresholds were compared with behavioral thresholds and were interpreted after considering the amount and type of hearing loss. Of the 26 children, 12 had normal hearing thresholds, and 14 had varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. In general, a high correlation (r ≥ 0.81, p < 0.01) was found between the ASSR and behavioral thresholds. The highest correlation was observed at 2,000 Hz (r = 0.88, p < 0.01). No significant difference was observed (p > 0.13) between mean behavioral and ASSR thresholds at 52 studied ears. The results of this study showed that 90-Hz ASSR assessments provide reliable estimates of behavioral hearing thresholds in children who have a history of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and sensorineural hearing loss or normal hearing.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • The impact of ankylosing spondylitis on audiovestibular functions
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we aimed to evaluate the audiovestibular functions in the patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This prospective study was performed in collaboration by the Otolaryngology and Rheumatology Departments of Bozok University School of Medicine between May 1, 2012, and January 1, 2013. We studied 80 subjects consisting of 40 AS patients (37 men and 3 women) in whom the diagnosis confirmed by the criteria of New York and 40 healthy controls (35 men and 5 women). All participants were evaluated by routine audiologic (including tympanometric evaluation, pure-tone audiograms, speech tests) and vestibular studies (including spontaneous nystagmus, gaze, optokinetic, saccadic movements, smooth pursuit, caloric test and Dix–Hallpike tests). The tympanometric values did not show a statistically significant difference between the AS group and the healthy subjects (p > 0.05). At low frequencies (250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz) pure-tone audiologic evaluations also proved statistically non-significant results at mean air conduction thresholds (ACT) and bone conduction thresholds (BCT) between the AS and control groups (p > 0.05). At high frequencies (4,000, 6,000, and 8,000 Hz), the ACTs and BCTs in AS group were lower than control group which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The results of spontaneous nystagmus, gaze, optokinetic, canal paresis and saccadic movement tests between the two groups were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The comparison of smooth pursuit and Dix–Hallpike tests reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Videonystagmographic test (VNG) revealed central abnormalities in 7 patients (17.5 %), peripheral abnormalities in 16 patients (40 %), and mixed abnormalities in 3 patients (7.5 %). Our findings suggest a possible association between AS and audiovestibular system dysfunction. We assume that the hearing and vestibular disturbances in AS are more prevalent than previously recognized.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The current investigation showed that nNO levels were decreased at high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Endoscopic localization of the sphenopalatine foramen: do measurements
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods and measurements for localization of the sphenopalatine foramen (SPF) during endoscopic transnasal exposure. The study design consisted of descriptive anatomical study and the setting was in Microsurgical Cadaver Dissection Lab. Sixteen lateral nasal walls were dissected endoscopically to identify and localize the SPF. Multiple measurements were obtained from nasal sill (NS) to SPF, ethmoid crest (EC), and other related landmarks. The results showed that EC was identified in all sides with different degrees of projection. SPF extended below the inferior edge of EC, i.e., lying both in the superior and middle meatus, in 12 sides (75 %), while it was laying only in the superior meatus in 4 sides (25 %). An accessory foramen was identified in 3 sides (18.7 %), all of which were located in middle meatus. The distance from NS to SPF ranged widely from 55 to 76 mm (mean ± SD 64.4 ± 6 mm). The average angle of elevation formed between SPF to NS and nasal floor was 11.4° (range 11–12°). Although many previous studies have reported measurements to SPF, we do not believe these measurements are of practical help due to the wide range of measurements and the lack of standard reference points. The main constant landmark for SPF remains the EC. Since SPF frequently extends below EC, the mucoperiosteal flap should be extended below the inferior edge of this crest to avoid missing the middle meatal part of SPF or any accessory foramina.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • The effects of rise/fall time and plateau time on ocular vestibular evoked
           myogenic potentials
    • Abstract: Abstract Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) are strongly influenced by recording conditions and stimulus parameters. Throughout the published literature, a large variety of stimuli is used for eliciting oVEMP. Our objective was to determine the effects of different rise/fall times and plateau times on oVEMP amplitudes and latencies. 32 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. 500 Hz air-conducted tone bursts with the parameters rise–plateau–fall time 0–4–0, 4–0–4, 2–2–2 and 2–4–2 ms were used for eliciting oVEMP. For all stimuli, response prevalences were 100 %. The 4–0–4 ms stimulus generated the smallest amplitudes, whereas the 2–2–2 and 0–4–0 ms stimuli achieved the largest amplitudes. n1 and p1 latencies were significantly shorter for the 0–4–0 ms than for the other stimuli, whereas latencies in response to the 4–0–4 ms stimulus were prolonged. Hence, a variety of stimuli is suitable for evoking oVEMP in healthy subjects. We recommend a 2–2–2 ms stimulus for clinical testing of oVEMP elicited by air conducted sound, because it reproducibly generates oVEMP without exposing the ear to unnecessary amounts of acoustic energy.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Mean platelet volume: is it a parameter associated with idiopathic
           sensorineural hearing loss'
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil
           cancer in the HPV era
    • Abstract: Abstract Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998–2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan–Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from “classical” OPC, with unique prognostic features.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Are computed tomography and densitometric measurements useful in
           otosclerosis with mixed hearing loss' A retrospective clinical study
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between extent of otosclerotic foci and audiological findings in otosclerotic patients with mixed hearing loss using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and also to measure the density of bony labyrinth in otosclerotic patients and compared with control group. This was a retrospective study. Twenty-five patients with clinical otosclerosis and mixed hearing loss were included in the study. The average threshold of air-bone conductions (AC, BC) within the 0.5–4 kHz frequency range, and average air bone gap (ABG) were calculated. Eleven patients with normal HRCT who received cochlear implant were included in the study as the control group. The lesions in HRCT were staged according to their extension. Eight different points of the otic capsule in each patient were measured using HRCT. Fifty ears total, from 25 patients, had bilateral otosclerosis. The mean AC of all the ears was 63 dB, mean BC was 35.2 dB, and mean ABG was 27.8 dB. HRCT staging indicated 22 ears had Grade 1, 21 ears had Grade 2, and 7 ears had Grade 3 lesions. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean AC, BC of ears with Grade 1 and Grade 2 when compared with the mean AC, BC of ears with Grade 3. When comparing the densitometric measurements of fissula ante fenestram localizations, a statistically significant difference was observed. HRCT examination and densitometric measurements in otosclerotic patients with mixed hearing loss presented significant results. We were unable to show a significant relationship between early stage and hearing thresholds, but there was a significant relationship in advanced stage. Densitometric measurements may provide significant results for otosclerosis, particularly for the FAF region when comparing with control group.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Prognostic value of tumor volumetry data of routine imaging data in a head
           and neck cancer registry
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of tumor volume (TV) measurements as prognosticator for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) from data of head and neck cancer (HNC) registries. TV measurements were performed in pre-treatment computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 392 unselected HNC patients. TV measurements were feasible in 275 patients (70 %). Median CT TV and MRI TV were 11.43 and 10.4 cm3, respectively. The CT TV was significantly different only between T1 and T4. CT TV was significantly different only between T1 and T4 (p = 0.041). MRI TV was significantly different between T1 and T4 (p = 0.003) as well as between T2 and T4 (p = 0.002). Median follow-up was 26.1 months. Median RFS was 80.7 months. Median OS was 66.5 months. On univariate analysis, significant prognostic factors for decreased RFS were advanced T stage (p = 0.010); M1 (p = 0.001) and an MRI TV > 10.4 cm3 (p = 0.001). Significant prognostic factors for a decreased OS were advanced T stage (p = 0.001), N+ (p = 0 006), M+ (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p < 0.001), CT TV (p = 0.005), and MRI TV (p = 0.012). On multivariate analysis for RFS, MRI TV was the best independent prognosticator (p = 0.003). On multivariate analysis for OS, T stage (p = 0.006) was a better prognosticator than CT or MRI TV. Using CT and MRI data sets of an unselected series of HNC patients in a cancer registry, TV measurements were not feasible in all patients. MRT TV was a powerful prognosticator for RFS.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Evaluation of functional results of CWD surgery with ossicular replacement
           prosthesis due to cholesteatoma using computed tomography
    • Abstract: Abstract With the use of high-resolution computed tomography, this retrospective clinical study evaluated the factors affecting hearing in patients who were operated on due to chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma and underwent ossiculoplasty with titanium total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP). Fifteen patients with postoperative hearing results of 20 dB or less air-bone gap, and thirteen patients with postoperative hearing results of 21 dB or more air-bone gap were the subjects of this study. All patients were operated on due to chronic otitis media and underwent ossiculoplasty with titanium TORP. High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) and pure-tone audiometry were performed on each patient after an average of 17 months, postoperatively. Three-dimensional oblique CT cross-sections were analyzed with Vitrea 2® software. The presence of soft tissue in the middle ear and contact between the prosthesis head plate and the bone had an adverse effect on hearing (p < 0.05). The angle between the TORP and the oval window did not seem to affect the hearing results (p > 0.05). The study results indicate that an examination of the patients with poor postoperative hearing with HRCT may help find the possible cause and allow for the determination of the prosthesis location.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Clinical characteristics and surrogate markers of eosinophilic chronic
           rhinosinusitis in Southern China
    • Abstract: Abstract The surrogate markers for subclassifying eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) and non-ECRS remain elusive. We herein performed a cross-sectional study to assess the clinical implication of clinical symptoms, CT findings, blood eosinophil (EOS) examination based on histological examination of tissue eosinophilia in 105 adult CRS patients (including 72 with nasal polyps and 33 without nasal polyps) in southern China. We found the mean score of smell loss was significantly higher in ECRS subgroup than those in non-ECRS subgroup (p < 0.05), whereas the average ethmoid osteitis index in non-ECRS subgroup was significantly higher than that in ECRS subgroup (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found both the mean blood EOS number and ratio were significantly higher in ECRS subgroup than those in non-ECRS subgroup (p < 0.05). By applying receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we found blood EOS number had a sensitivity of 84.9 % and specificity of 84.4 % [area under the curve (AUC): 0.873] at the cutoff level of 0.16 × 109/L, and blood EOS ratio had a sensitivity of 89.0 % and specificity of 84.4 % (AUC: 0.863) at the cutoff level of 2.05 % in this cohort. Our findings indicated that smell loss score, ethmoid osteitis index and blood EOS number and ratio may be used for the differential diagnosis of ECRS as the surrogate markers.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy:
           ‘preference for left or right, true or mirror image'’
    • Abstract: Abstract There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in ‘normal’ human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in cosmetic appreciation of a left peripheral facial palsy compared to a right peripheral facial palsy' Pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House–Brackmann II–VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Forty-two patients and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. The primary ‘end’ point was the most attractive side in the pictures chosen by medical professionals and patients. The secondary ‘end’ points consisted of the preferences for the mirror or true image, and influences of the House–Brackmann score and age. Medical professionals preferred the photographs from patients with a right and left peripheral facial palsy (PFP) in, respectively, a mean of 44 % (41–48 %) and 56 % (52–59 %) of the pictures (p = 0.02). When comparing mirror and true image, patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image as most attractive in 90 and 10 %, respectively (p < 0.05). Patients with a right-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image in 30 and 70 %, respectively (p > 0.05). Subanalysis of patients with a PFP House–Brackmann score V and VI showed that medical professionals did not have a significant preference for a left nor right-sided facial palsy. Patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror image in all cases and patients with a right-sided palsy chose their mirror and true image in resp. 33 and 67 %. The House–Brackmann score (p = 0.52) and age (p = 0.73) of the patients did not influence preferences. This study, demonstrating that medical professionals find a right-sided facial palsy cosmetically less attractive than a left-sided, has clinical relevance. Patients, especially with a left-sided facial palsy, tend to choose for their mirror image, although this choice seems to be influenced by hemispheric specialization and familiarity.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
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