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e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 172, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)
European J. of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 13)

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Journal Cover European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1434-4726 - ISSN (Online) 0937-4477
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.737]   [H-I: 37]
  • Does perioperative dexamethasone affect voice-related quality of life
           after thyroidectomy?
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study is to assess the impact of perioperative dexamethasone on post-thyroidectomy voice outcomes. This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data in a tertiary referral center. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on adult patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Exclusion criteria were: previous neck surgery, thyroid lobectomy, neck dissection or other procedure together with thyroidectomy, pathological findings on laryngeal examination, preoperative or postoperative steroid therapy, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, and postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. In all patients, flexible laryngoscopy was performed and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores were obtained the day before, 48 h and 1 month after surgery. Patients’ medical records were reviewed to find the patients who had received dexamethasone by the anesthesiologist as nausea and vomiting prophylaxis or analgesia. Thus, two groups of patients were formed: dexamethasone (D) group and non-steroid (NS) group. Mann–Whitney test used to compare VHI between the two groups. 122 patients fulfilled the criteria. D group consisted of 50 patients (44 females; mean age 53.16 ± 17.61), in which a single IV dose of 8 mg dexamethasone had been administered perioperative, and NS group consisted of 72 patients (58 females; mean age 50.53 ± 13.60), where no steroids had been administered. No significant difference was noticed between D and NS groups for preoperative VHI score, VHI scores 48 h and 1 month after surgery. In our study, a single perioperative IV dose of 8 mg dexamethasone did not seem to add any benefit on voice-related quality of life after thyroid surgery.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Analysis of impact noise induced by hitting of titanium head golf driver
    • Abstract: Abstract The hitting of titanium head golf driver against golf ball creates a short duration, high frequency impact noise. We analyzed the spectra of these impact noises and evaluated the auditory hazards from exposure to the noises. Noises made by 10 titanium head golf drivers with five maximum hits were collected, and the spectra of the pure impact sounds were studied using a noise analysis program. The noise was measured at 1.7 m (position A) and 3.4 m (position B) from the hitting point in front of the hitter and at 3.4 m (position C) behind the hitting point. Average time duration was measured and auditory risk units (ARUs) at position A were calculated using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans. The average peak levels at position A were 119.9 dBA at the sound pressure level (SPL) peak and 100.0 dBA at the overall octave level. The average peak levels (SPL and overall octave level) at position B were 111.6 and 96.5 dBA, respectively, and at position C were 111.5 and 96.7 dBA, respectively. The average time duration and ARUs measured at position A were 120.6 ms and 194.9 units, respectively. Although impact noises made by titanium head golf drivers showed relatively low ARUs, individuals enjoying golf frequently may be susceptible to hearing loss due to the repeated exposure of this intense impact noise with short duration and high frequency. Unprotected exposure to impact noises should be limited to prevent cochleovestibular disorders.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Erratum to: The correlation of serum levels of leptin, leptin receptor and
           NO x (NO 2 − and NO 3 − ) in patients with obstructive sleep
           apnea syndrome
    • PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Long-term safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment
           of sleep disordered breathing: a meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is used in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), particularly in the alleviation of snoring. The literature provides evidence that the short-term results are promising; however, the long-term efficacy is a matter of contention. In this article, we present the results of a literature search of studies that use RFA in the treatment of SDB which have a follow-up time of greater than a year. RFA was found to be a safe technique with minimal morbidity. The overall Visual Analogue score from six studies showed the overall mean improvement to be 4.3 (confidence intervals 3.4–5.12). Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), improved significantly in five of the studies analysed. Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), improved significantly in six of the studies analysed. In conclusion, the evidence suggests that RFA for SDB results in a significant improvement in follow-up times of at least a year. Since RFA can be applied in a clinic setting and leads to minimal disruption to daily life, this treatment option can be considered for those unwilling to participate in the more traditional surgical options for SDB.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • A minimally invasive endoscopic transnasal approach to the craniovertebral
           junction in the paediatric population
    • PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Fallopian canal dehiscence at pediatric cholesteatoma surgery
    • Abstract: The objectives of the study were to investigate the characteristics of ears with dehiscence of the fallopian canal at the time of cholesteatoma surgery and the relationship between dehiscence and age, and to consider the reasons why the fallopian canal tends to be preserved in pediatric patients. This study included 37 ears with cholesteatoma in pediatric patients (mean age 9.2 years, age range 4–14 years) and 273 ears with cholesteatoma in non-pediatric patients (mean age 45 years, age range 15–84 years). Patients were treated between January 2006 and April 2012. All patients had undergone prior tympanoplasty under general anesthesia at our institution. Facial canal dehiscence was evaluated by inspection and through palpation by blunt picking after the pathological tissues had been removed. The size of fallopian canal dehiscence was not investigated in this study. The frequency of dehiscence of the fallopian canal according to the type of cholesteatoma and coexisting pathological conditions, including destruction of the stapes, presence of a labyrinthine fistula, and dural exposure, were compared between the pediatric and non-pediatric groups. The frequency of dehiscence in cases with destruction of the stapes was also compared between the pediatric and non-pediatric groups. Dehiscence of the fallopian canal occurred in 6 of 37 ears (16.8 %) in the pediatric group and 91 of 273 ears (33.3 %) in the non-pediatric group (p < 0.05). In congenital cholesteatoma, the frequency of dehiscence was lower in the pediatric group than in the non-pediatric group (p < 0.05). However, in other types of cholesteatoma there was no statistically difference between the two types of cholesteatoma. The frequency of the destruction of the stapes was higher in the pediatric group than in the non-pediatric group (43.2 vs. 16.5 %, p < 0.001). In patients with severe destruction of the stapes, the fallopian canal was preserved more frequently in the pediatric group than in the non-pediatric group (p < 0.05). The frequency of dehiscence of the fallopian canal at the time of cholesteatoma surgery was lower in the ears of pediatric patients than in the ears of non-pediatric patients. This is probably due to the difference in types of cholesteatoma between the two groups and other unknown mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Erratum to: Management of embedded metallic stents used in the treatment
           of grades III and IV subglottic, and upper tracheal stenosis in adults
    • PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • The intranasal Schirmer test: a preliminary study to quantify nasal
    • Abstract: Adequate secretion of the nasal mucosa is essential for normal nasal physiology. A “dry” nose is a frequent complaint of ENT patients. Measurement of secretion is currently impossible because of the absence of a recognized test. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of an intranasal Schirmer test in a large number of patients and to define standard values for nasal secretion. The test population comprised 159 healthy, non-smoking volunteers and 30 healthy smoking volunteers. All subjects were examined by nasal endoscopy for anatomic or mucosal disease. A Schirmer test strip was placed on both sides of the mucosa of the anterior nasal septum by anterior rhinoscopy. After 10 min in standardized conditions, the strip was removed and the wetted distance was measured. Active anterior rhinomanometry (ARR) and acoustic rhinometry (AR) were later performed. In the non-smoking group (n = 159), the median wetting distance of the test strip was 10.3 mm (range 3.6–35.0 mm). Age, gender, nasal geometry, and flow (according to ARR and AR) had no significant influence on nasal secretion. The test for normal distribution was negative. In the smoking group (n = 30), the median wetting distance was 8.4 mm (range 2.5–28.0 mm), significantly shorter than the wetting distance in the non-smoking group (p < 0.05). The Schirmer test offers a practical method to quantify mucosal humidification. The test is inexpensive and well tolerated by patients. In healthy people, wetting distances from 6 to 18 mm are considered normal.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Flunarizine in the prophylaxis of migrainous vertigo: a randomized
           controlled trial
    • Abstract: Migrainous vertigo is a common cause of dizziness presenting to an otorhinolaryngology/otoneurology clinic. Although it causes a substantial burden to the individual and society there are no randomized controlled trails on prophylactic medication for this condition. Flunarizine, a calcium channel blocker has been used effectively in both migraine and vestibular conditions. This randomized control trial was undertaken in a tertiary academic referral center to evaluate the efficacy of flunarizine in patients with migrainous vertigo when compared to non-specific vestibular treatment of betahistine and vestibular exercises. The effect of flunarizine on two particularly disabling symptoms of vertigo and headache was studied. A total of 48 patients who were diagnosed with definitive migrainous vertigo completed the study of 12 weeks duration. Patients in arm A received 10-mg flunarizine daily along with betahistine 16 mg and paracetamol 1 gm during episodes, and arm B received only betahistine and paracetamol during episodes. Symptom scores were noted at the start of the study and at the end of 12 weeks. Analysis of the frequency of vertiginous episodes showed a significant difference between arm A and arm B (p = 0.010) and improvement in severity of vertigo between the two groups (p = 0.046). Headache frequency and severity did not improve to a significant degree in arm A as compared to arm B. The main side effects were weight gain and somnolence and this was not significantly different between the two groups. Flunarizine (10 mg) is effective in patients with migrainous vertigo who suffer from considerable vestibular symptoms.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Effects of the depth of anesthesia on distortion product otoacoustic
    • Abstract: To analyze the effects of the depth of anesthesia on inner ear function measured with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at 2f 1 − f 2. Thirty patients who underwent tonsillectomy under general anesthesia (GA) were included. Patients were assigned randomly to one of two groups: group 1 (n = 15) received propofol, group 2 (n = 15) sevoflurane as anesthetic agent. The sedation level was assessed by the bispectral index system. DPOAE measurements were performed before premedication (T 1), 5 min after premedication (T 2), 3 min after induction of general anesthesia (T 3) and every 10 min (T 4, T 5) thereafter until the end of surgery at about 23 min post-anesthetic induction, while sedation levels were obtained starting at the beginning until the end of anesthesia. After premedication, both blood oxygen saturation and heart rate decreased. Following induction of anesthesia systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, while, as expected, the level of sedation increased. Analyzing the propofol and sevoflurane group separately, both groups showed comparable overall courses of DPOAE levels at higher frequencies (2.8 kHz p = 0.310, 4 kHz p = 0.193, 6 kHz p = 0.269, 8 kHz p = 0.223) and no changes of DPOAE levels compared with baseline values were observed. At T5 the 1 kHz DPOAE level increased in the propofol group and slightly decreased in the sevoflurane group (p < 0.001). While the 1.4 kHz DPOAE level in the propofol group did not change over time the 1.4 kHz DPOAE level decreased in the sevoflurane group (baseline to T 4 p = 0.045; Baseline to T 5 p = 0.004). While overall there were different courses between these two groups in the 2 kHz DPOAE level, in the post hoc analysis only a tendency in the change from baseline to T 4 could be observed (p = 0.082). These results indicate that while the amplitudes of certain DPOAEs were influenced by GA, the depth of anesthesia had no effect on this measure of cochlear function in clinical routine. Therefore, DPOAE measurements in sedation and during GA are useful but the effect of anesthetic agents on DPOAE levels needs to be taken into account when analyzing the test.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Multidimensional scale of perceived social support in patients with
           obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    • Abstract: Social support is a very important aspect of debilitating diseases. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disabling disease that impairs a patient’s quality of life and affects a patient’s environment. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) is used to measure the perception of the sufficiency of social support for individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of the MSPSS to the Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI), age and gender in patients with OSAS. In this study, 183 subjects with a diagnosis of OSAS were enrolled. Patients were evaluated with the MSPSS in terms of age, gender and polysomnography results. According to the results of this study, the MSPSS has found to be higher in men than in women with OSAS and higher in moderate-severe OSAS than in mild OSAS. The MSPSS can be an important indicator of how patients cope with the disease.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Management of embedded metallic stents used in the treatment of grades III
           and IV subglottic, and upper tracheal stenosis in adults
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-operative complications of using balloon-expandable metallic stents in treatment of benign, major subglottic and tracheal stenosis in adult patients whom conventional therapy has failed and to demonstrate how to deal with these complications in the long run. A retrospective review of five cases; adlut patiets with benign, major subglottic and upper tracheal stenosis whom were treated with balloon expandable metallic stents at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, in the years between 2008 and 2013. Granulation tissue formed in five of the four cases and restenosis occurred. Other complications encountered were stent infection and dislodgment. The complications were managed by removing the stents surgically via a laryngofissure incision and required the placement of a Montgomery T-tube. Managing the restenosis due to granulation tissue formation around the metallic stents is best achieved by removing the embedded metallic stents surgically via open technique and then by placement of a Montgomery T-tube as a bridging option to successful decannulation. Open surgical procedures remain the mainstay treatment for advanced airway stenosis.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Elective management of cervical and parotid lymph nodes in stage N0
           cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a decision
    • Abstract: There is uncertainty regarding the threshold for recommending elective regional nodal treatment in the management of stage N0 cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (cSCCHN). Elective treatment in the form of nodal surgery or irradiation is associated with morbidity. However, patients managed with careful observation sometimes present with advanced disease which often require more extensive therapy or may be unsalvageable altogether. We used decision analysis to examine the tradeoffs and benefits of different management approaches in the stage N0 patient. A decision tree comprising the three different treatment strategies was built: surveillance, elective nodal dissection (END) and elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Probabilities of nodal recurrence and likelihood of successful salvage were obtained from the literature. A convenience sample of patients previously treated for metastatic and non-metastatic cSCCHN was interviewed using the standard gamble technique to determine utility for post-treatment health states. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the effect on the expected utility was examined. When the probability of occult metastasis was >19 %, ENI resulted in a higher expected utility than observation. When the probability of occult metastasis exceeds 25 %, END has a higher expected utility compared to observation. Given the current available evidence, a wait-and-see approach is justified in patients with a probability of occult metastases <19 %.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Newly designed double-vascularized nasoseptal flap to prevent restenosis
           after endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure (Draf III): laboratory
    • Abstract: Despite advances in endoscopic approaches, instrumentations and imaging guidance systems, the management of frontal sinus is still challenging. Failure of the endoscopic procedure and restenosis of the newly formed ostium have been demonstrated even with large frontal sinusotomy. We describe a newly designed double nasoseptal flap to cover the bare bone after endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure (EMLP). Five fresh, double-injected cadavers were dissected through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Posteriorly based nasoseptal flap on one side and laterally based nasoseptal flap on the other side were harvested before performing wide EMLP. Feasibility of the procedure, versatility of the flap, coverage area and measurements were calculated. Harvesting the mucoperichondrial/mucoperiosteal flap over the septectomy site was straightforward step. Two different designed flaps (one on each side) are more practical to avoid torsion of the flap. The flap measures 2 × 3 cm on average that was able to cover the bare bone of the anterior and posterior wall of frontal sinus. Osteoneogenesis and progressive osteoplastic activity after EMLP plays a major role in restenosis of frontal sinus. Vascularized nasoseptal flap helps in preventing closure of the newly formed ostium. Applying these flaps over the bare bone enhances the healing process and minimizes the crust formation.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Frontal sinus obliteration with autologous calvarial bone graft:
           indications and results
    • Abstract: Despite increasing advances in endonasal frontal sinus surgery, frontal sinus obliteration (FSO) is sometimes necessary after failure of other surgical techniques. This procedure has been reported with autologous tissue or synthetic material, but few studies have reported results with autologous calvarial bone graft. The aim of this study was to report our experience with osteoplastic FSO calvarial bone graft. A retrospective review was performed on 11 patients operated upon for FSO with autologous calvarial bone graft from 2005 to 2011. Obliteration was indicated for chronic symptomatic frontal sinusitis with nasofrontal duct stenosis in five cases of nasal polyposis with a history of endoscopic sinus surgery, two cases of frontal trauma, two of surgery for frontal inverted papilloma and two of chronic frontal purulent sinusitis. Ten patients had a history of one or two previous functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) procedures. On outcome assessment, eight patients had no residual complaints after FSO and all patients showed improvement in symptoms. Frontal sinus obliteration with autologous calvarial bone graft showed low donor site morbidity and good aesthetic results. This procedure should be considered in severe frontal sinusitis after repeated FESS procedures have failed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Evaluation of the maximum isometric tongue force of healthy volunteers
    • Abstract: The forces of specific muscle groups have been well described for nearly all parts of the human body. Interestingly, data for the tongue and its forces are rare. In light of ongoing development of systems for managing the tongue (retaining, advancing, suspending or stabilizing), especially in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, knowledge of the maximum tongue force is important for the conceptual design of those systems. The maximum tongue force in a sagittal direction was documented using a custom-built device that included a tongue clamp and a piezoelectric sensor to capture force measurements. Once positioned securely in the device, participants were asked to move the tongue in a posterior sagittal direction, with maximum force, in each of three test positions. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (29 male) were included in the study. Tongue force measurements were collected three times in three different tongue positions. Thirty-three participants had repeated measurements to investigate any potential learning effect. The maximum force of the human tongue in a posterior sagittal direction showed high inter-individual variation and ranged from 3.2 to 52.4 Newton (N; mean 14.1 ± 7.5 N), when measured from a “neutral protrusion or resting” tongue position. The “retracted” and “maximal protrusion” testing positions yielded lower maximum tongue forces. Men (m) showed statistically significantly higher tongue forces than women (w) (m: 16.0 ± 8.4 N, w: 11.0 ± 4.3 N), and there was a positive correlation with BMI and a negative correlation with age. Comparing the first measurement session with the second session (per patient) showed higher mean maximum forces in the second session, but with no statistical significance. The maximum tongue force data showed substantial inter- and intra-individual variability and gender dependency. Some male individuals produced very high forces. These forces should be considered for the future conception and development of tongue management systems and the mechanical stress to which these systems may be exposed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Extensive nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: the maxillary swing approach
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome using the maxillary swing approach for the management of extensive nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. A retrospective analysis in a tertiary care center revealed five cases with extensive nasal angiofibromas operated using the maxillary swing approach between 2010 and 2012. All patients had tumor extension to the lateral-most portions of the infratemporal fossa with complete occupation and destruction of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus causing abutment to the cavernous sinus and complete involvement of the pterygopalatine fossa and pterygoid base. One patient displayed full occupancy of the maxillary sinus as a consequence of erosion of the posterior and medial walls of the maxillary sinus, while another had severe temporal lobe compression through the roof of the infratemporal fossa. All patients underwent tumor excision using the maxillary swing approach. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year after surgery. The maxillary swing approach gave optimal exposure of the entire central skull base including the infratemporal fossa and its extreme lateral and superior aspects. Adequate tumor exposure and vascular control could be achieved in all cases resulting in complete tumor excision. The mean operative time was 4.5 h. Post-operative healing was satisfactory with palatal fistula formation in two cases and all patients remaining disease-free up to the present time. One had minimal misalignment of the halves of the upper jaw and two had epiphora, of which one required dacryocystorhinostomy. The maxillary swing is an effective approach in the management of extensive nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and leads to optimal anatomical exposure with minimal morbidity.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Experience of head and neck extracranial schwannomas in a whole
           population-based single-center patient series
    • Abstract: Due to their rarity most of the literature concerning head and neck extracranial schwannomas consists of case reports and small patient series. The aim of the study was to describe population-based incidence, presenting signs and symptoms, management and outcome of head and neck extracranial schwannomas in a larger patient group. All the head and neck extracranial schwannoma patients managed during 1987–2008 at the Helsinki University Central Hospital with a referral area of 1.5 million inhabitants were searched. Altogether 47 patients were identified and subjected to retrospective chart review. Population-based incidence of head and neck extracranial schwannomas was 0.14/100,000/year. Eighty-eight percent of the patients had symptoms, which had lasted on average for 11.5 months prior to diagnosis. Presenting signs and symptoms were diverse depending on the affected nerve. Ninety-four percent of the patients were treated surgically. Sixty-four percent of the operations were macroscopically radical. The tumor capsule was intentionally left in place in 9 %. Surgery-related complications were detected in only 7 % of the patients, but 1 month postoperatively 52 % of them had symptoms, majority relating to different nerve deficits. Treatment of extracranial head and neck schwannomas remains challenging. The tumor is benign, and it grows slowly in a vast majority of cases, but its symptoms are highly variable. Correct timing of surgery is essential, as also patients who are preoperatively asymptomatic may suffer severe postoperative morbidity. Preoperative patient counseling needs to address the risks of neurological sequelae.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Superior canal dehiscence syndrome: clinical manifestations and radiologic
    • Abstract: The objective of this study is to describe the superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) and its vestibule–cochlear manifestations, while analyzing dehiscence size, audiogram and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) changes following dehiscence obliteration. We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary referral center. All Patients diagnosed and surgically treated for SCDS were operated through a middle fossa craniotomy (MFC). Clinical and radiological data were collected. The main outcome measures were Air-bone gaps, Pure-tone average (PTA), speech discrimination scores (SDS) and VEMP thresholds and were correlated to dehiscence size. 28 patients were included in this study with a mean dehiscence size of 4.68 mm. Phonophobia and imbalance were the most debilitating cochlear and vestibular symptoms, respectively. At 2 months postoperatively, low-frequency air-bone gaps showed a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001). SDS and PTA did not show any statistically significant changes 2 months postoperatively (p = 0.282 and p = 0.295, respectively). VEMP threshold differences between operated and contralateral ears were statistically significant preoperatively (p < 0.001) and non-significant 2 months postoperatively (p = 0.173). Dehiscence size only showed a statistically significant correlation with preoperative total cochlear symptoms, while remaining insignificant with all other variables measured. Air-bone gaps, VEMP and computerized tomography remain essential tools in diagnosing and following SCDS. Dehiscence size is an independent factor in the analysis of SCDS, with cochlear symptomatology being associated to dehiscence sizes. Finally, it is shown that overall symptomatology, audiometric results and VEMP thresholds return to normal values post-obliteration, confirming the continuing success of the MFC approach for SCDS obliteration
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • High nasal resistance may be a result rather than a cause of obstructive
           sleep apnea
    • Abstract: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show high nasal resistance (NR). The present study tested the hypothesis that nasal obstruction in OSA patients could be caused by pharyngeal narrow. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on NR in patients with OSA. Rhinomanometry was performed and the Mallampati score was recorded during wakefulness in a sitting position before and after UPPP for 33 patients with OSA. Thirty-three healthy volunteers were used as a control group. The NR in patients with OSA (0.37 ± 0.22 Pa/cm3/s) was significantly higher than that of the normal controls (0.19 ± 0.04 Pa/cm3/s) (p < 0.01). The NR decreased from 0.37 ± 0.22 to 0.20 ± 0.05 Pa/cm3/s (p < 0.01) after UPPP with the Mallampati score decreased from 3.00 ± 0.56 to 1.52 ± 0.57 (p < 0.01). However, NR values after UPPP were still higher than those of the control group, but there was no significant difference between those two groups (p = 0.34). The present study showed that the high NR may not be completely attributable to nasal anatomic obstruction, but may result from pharyngeal narrow in OSA. High NR may be a result of OSA rather than a cause.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
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