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Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 0.684, h-index: 46)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 8)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 5)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 28)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 17)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 7)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.289, h-index: 23)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.651, h-index: 22)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.698, h-index: 38)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.666, h-index: 40)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 6)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.857, h-index: 31)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.367, h-index: 12)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.793, h-index: 83)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.041, h-index: 53)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 15)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.519, h-index: 14)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.781, h-index: 52)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 8)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 27)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 181, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 45)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 17)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.542, h-index: 7)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 14)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 5)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 11)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 22)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.185, h-index: 12)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.5, h-index: 29)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.319, h-index: 33)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 13)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 55)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 27)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 10)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 26)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 26)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.651, h-index: 46)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 53)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 22)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.601, h-index: 55)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 3)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 23)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 32)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 14)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 60)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.413, h-index: 27)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 46)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 42)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.002, h-index: 14)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.669, h-index: 34)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 58)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 85)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 57)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.161, h-index: 4)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 14)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.173, h-index: 8)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.268, h-index: 9)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 61)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 8)
Ethics and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 20)
Ethik in der Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Euphytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.709, h-index: 57)
Eurasian Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 10)
EURO J. of Transportation and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURO J. on Computational Optimization     Hybrid Journal  
EURO J. on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal  
Europaisches J. fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal  
European Actuarial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.737, h-index: 37)
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 12)
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 62)
European Biophysics J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 53)
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 51)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.773, h-index: 49)
European J. for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European J. for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 2)
European J. of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 17)
European J. of Applied Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.044, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 74)
European J. of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 69)
European J. of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European J. of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 25)
European J. of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.946, h-index: 60)
European J. of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 25)
European J. of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 25)

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Journal Cover European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
   [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1434-4726 - ISSN (Online) 0937-4477
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.737]   [H-I: 37]
  • The radiological diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis: the utility of
           histogram analysis using multidetector row CT
    • Abstract: Abstract Bone density measurements using high-resolution CT have been reported to be useful to diagnose fenestral otosclerosis. However, small region of interest (ROI) chosen by less-experienced radiologists may result in false-negative findings. Semi-automatic analysis such as CT histogram analysis may offer improved assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of CT histogram analysis in diagnosing fenestral otosclerosis. Temporal bone CT of consecutive patients with otosclerosis and normal controls was retrospectively analyzed. The control group consisted of the normal-hearing contralateral ears of patients with otitis media, cholesteatoma, trauma, facial nerve palsy, or tinnitus. All CT images were obtained using a 64-detector-row CT scanner with 0.5-mm collimation. AROI encompassing 10 × 10 pixels was placed in the bony labyrinth located anterior to the oval window. The mean CT value, variance and entropy were compared between otosclerosis patients and normal controls using Student’s t test. The number of pixels below mean minus SD in the control (%Lowcont) and total subjects (%Lowtotal) were also compared. In addition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) value for the discrimination between otosclerosis patients and normal controls was calculated. 51 temporal bones of 38 patients with otosclerosis and 30 temporal bones of 30 control subjects were included. The mean CT value was significantly lower in otosclerosis cases than in normal controls (p < 0.01). In addition, variance, entropy, %Lowcont and %Lowtotal were significantly higher in otosclerosis cases than in normal controls (p < 0.01, respectively). The AUC values for the mean CT value, %Lowcont and %Lowtotal were 0.751, 0.760 and 0.765, respectively. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that histogram analysis of CT image may be of clinical value in diagnosing otosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Is elective neck dissection indicated during salvage surgery for head and
           neck squamous cell carcinoma'
    • Abstract: Abstract Among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with a negative neck who are initially treated with (chemo)radiotherapy, a number of cases will recur locally without obvious neck recurrence. There is little information available as to the most efficacious management of the neck in these cases. We have reviewed the literature to see what conclusions can be drawn from previous reports. We conducted a bibliography search on MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies published in the English language and those on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx were included. Data related to neck management were extracted from the articles. Twelve studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported only one treatment plan (either neck dissection or observation), while the others compared neck dissection to observation. The rate of occult metastases ranged from 3.4 to 12 %. The studies included a variable distribution of primary sites and stages of the recurrent primary tumors. The risk of occult neck node metastasis in a clinically rN0 patient correlated with tumor site and T stage. Observation of the neck can be suggested for patients with T1-2 glottic tumors, who recurred with less advanced tumors (rT1-2). For patients with more advanced laryngeal recurrences or recurrence at other high-risk sites, neck dissection could be considered for the rN0 patient, particularly if the neck was not included in the previous radiation fields.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Long-term functional outcome and satisfaction of patients with an active
           middle ear implant for sensorineural hearing loss compared to a matched
           population with conventional hearing aids
    • Abstract: Abstract The objectives of the study were to review the results of an active middle ear implant for sensorineural hearing loss in patients who were unable to wear or did not benefit from conventional hearing aids in comparison to patients with a matched degree of hearing loss successfully fitted with a conventional hearing aid. A retrospective chart review of 10 patients (10 ears) after implantation of an active middle ear implant and 12 patients (13 ears) with conventional hearing aids in one tertiary referral center was performed. Intervention for sensorineural hearing loss was the implantation of an active middle ear implant in one group or fitting of conventional hearing aids in the other group. Outcome measures were pure-tone audiometry (auditory thresholds, functional gain), speech audiometry (Freiburg Monosyllabic Test in quiet and in noise) and a quality-of-life questionnaire (Glasgow Benefit Inventory). Average functional gain was 25.2 ± 8.6 and 14.6 ± 10.8 dB, speech recognition score in noise was 36.6 ± 18.4 and 31.2 ± 19.2 % and in quiet was 66.0 ± 23.2 and 61.5 ± 23.8 %, Glasgow Benefit Inventory total score was 38.3 ± 32.3 and 24.8 ± 22.2 in patients with active middle ear implants and conventional hearing aids, respectively. In two patient groups matched for degree of sensorineural hearing loss, active middle ear implants provided comparable speech recognition and superior functional gain and quality of life compared to conventional hearing aids. Level of evidence: 4
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Adult-onset laryngomalacia: case reports and review of management
    • Abstract: Abstract Laryngomalacia is a dynamic airway condition characterised by inward collapse of flaccid supraglottic structures during inspiration. Although the most common cause of stridor in the paediatric population, adult-onset laryngomalacia remains a rare entity and its management, challenging. Two cases of adult-onset laryngomalacia are reported. A review of the English literature is performed and additional publications identified by hand-searching relevant papers; 13 case reports/series comprising 28 cases of adult-onset laryngomalacia were identified, divided into two main groups: idiopathic (6/28) and acquired (22/28). The aetiology of the acquired form includes neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Reported therapeutic measures used are laser supraglottoplasty, epiglottopexy, partial epiglottidectomy, defunctioning tracheostomy and intubation whilst correcting the underlying cause. The majority of patients only required one therapeutic procedure (follow-up of 2–24 months). A strong index of suspicion is required to diagnose adult-onset laryngomalacia aided by in-office laryngoscopy. The rarity of this condition prevents management-based randomised controlled trials.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Comparison of chirp versus click and tone pip stimulation for cervical
           vestibular evoked myogenic potentials
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study explored differences among cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) that were evoked by CE-chirp and click and tone pip in healthy controls, and tried to explain the differences of cVEMP between the three of them. Thirty normal volunteers were used as subjects for CE-chirp and click and tone-pip (Blackman pip) stimuli. The latency of P1, N1, peak-to-peak P1–N1 amplitude, and cVEMP interaural difference were obtained and analyzed. The response rates of cVEMP were 93 % for click and 100 % for both Blackman pip and CE-chirp, respectively. The P1 and N1 latencies of cVEMP evoked by CE-chirp were the shortest, followed by click, with Blackman pip the longest (F = 6,686.852, P < 0.001). All indices of cVEMP evoked by the three stimuli showed no significant difference between the left and right ears or between genders. cVEMP responses were significantly different between the three stimuli. Compared with the currently used stimulus, CE-chirp can evoke cVEMP with shorter latencies and demonstrates increased speed and reliability.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Single-incision transaxillary robotic total thyroidectomy for
           Graves’ disease: improved feasibility and safety with novel robotic
    • Abstract: Background Graves’ disease represents a relative contraindication for robotic thyroidectomy due to increased vascularity with a higher risk of intraoperative bleeding. With a novel robotic instrumentation, however, it is possible to reduce this risk considerably. Methods A 30-year-old female patient with Graves’ disease and keloid-prone olive skin underwent a single-incision transaxillary robotic total thyroidectomy through the left axilla using an 8-mm Fenestrated bipolar forceps instead of the standard 8-mm ProGrasp forceps. Results Total blood loss was 25 ml, and robotic console time was 132 min. There was no postoperative recurrent palsy. Postoperative parathormone level was 47 ng/l (preop.: 56 ng/l), and serum calcium level was normal at 2,17 mmol/l (preop.: 2,23 mmol/l). Conclusion Transaxillary robotic surgery (TARS) with unilateral single-incision access is feasible and safe for Graves’ disease with minimal blood loss and reduced risk of conversion thanks to the bipolar capability of the 8-mm Fenestrated bipolar forceps.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma
           patients after intensity-modulated radiation therapy
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients before and after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to analyze factors associated with the incidence of sinusitis following IMRT. We retrospectively analyzed 283 NPC patients who received IMRT in our hospital from March 2009 to May 2011. The diagnostic criteria for sinusitis are based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CT or MRI scans were performed before and after IMRT to evaluate the incidence of sinusitis. Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis were analyzed by log-rank univariate and logistic multivariate analyses. Among the 283 NPC patients, 128 (45.2 %) suffered from sinusitis before radiotherapy. The incidence rates of sinusitis in patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 NPC before radiotherapy were 22.6, 37.5, 46.8, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 14.548, p = 0.002). Among the 155 NPC patients without sinusitis before radiotherapy, the incidence rates of sinusitis at the end of radiotherapy and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy were 32.9, 43.2, 61.3, 68.4, 73.5, 69.7, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 86.461, p < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, nasal irrigation, and radiation dose to the nasopharynx were associated with the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.003, 0.006, 0.002, and 0.020). Multivariate analysis showed that T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, and nasal irrigation were influential factors for the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.002, 0.002, and 0.000). There was a higher incidence of sinusitis with higher T stage among NPC patients before radiotherapy, and the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT was high (45.2 %). The incidence of sinusitis increased rapidly within the first 3 months after IMRT, and the number of sinusitis cases peaked at 6–9 months after IMRT and showed a trend toward stabilization after 1 year. Advanced T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, and nasal irrigation were positively associated with the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Effect of intratympanic dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in an in vivo model of
           cisplatin-related ototoxicity
    • Abstract: Abstract Although dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most common solvents employed in otoprotection studies, its effect on the inner ear remains unknown. Only a few in vitro studies have addressed the effect of DMSO in cochlear cells. Up to the date, no in vivo functional studies have been reported. To determine the effect of intratympanic DMSO application in the inner ear, and to evaluate its effect in combination with cisplatin in Wistar rats, twelve Wistar rats were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A received intratympanic 1 % DMSO in both ears. Group B received intraperitoneal cisplatin (10 mg/kg) and intratympanic 0.5 % DMSO in the right ear and saline solution in the left ear. Functional changes were evaluated with Auditory Steady-State Responses before and 5 days after the procedure. Morphological changes were studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy following the removal of the temporal bones and cochlear dissection. Hearing threshold levels in group A did not show any statistically significant changes after the treatment. In group B, significant differences between pre- and post-treatment were found, with no statistically significant variations between right (DMSO) and left ear (saline solution). We suggest that DMSO could be safely used to dissolve hydrophobic compounds in otoprotection studies without interfering with the cochlear damage produced by cisplatin.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Detection of human utricular otoconia degeneration in vital specimen and
           implications for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
    • Abstract: Abstract Otoconia are assumed to be involved in inner ear disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Up to now, the distinct structure and morphology of intact and degenerate human utricular otoconia has been only poorly investigated on vital specimen. In this study, human otoconia were obtained from the utricle in five patients undergoing translabyrinthine vestibular schwannoma surgery. Specimens were examined by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Intact and degenerate otoconia as well as fracture particles of otoconia and bone were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Intact otoconia reveal a uniform size showing characteristic symmetry properties. Degenerative changes can be observed at several stages with gradual minor and major changes in their morphology including fragment formation. EDX analyses reveal the characteristic chemical composition also for otoconia remnants. XRD shows that intact and degenerate otoconia as well as remnants consist of the calcite modification. In conclusion, electron microscopy serves as a standard method for morphological investigations of otoconia. Human utricular otoconia show a uniform outer morphology corresponding to a calcite-based nanocomposite. Morphological changes provide further evidence for degeneration of utricular otoconia in humans, which might be a preconditioning factor causing BPPV. In case of uncertain origin, particles can be clearly assigned to otoconial origin using EDX and XRD analyses.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Critical analysis of recurrences of esthesioneuroblastomas: can we prevent
    • Abstract: Abstract Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) involving the anterior skull base is a rare malignant tumour derived from the olfactory epithelium. The gold standard of surgical treatment is currently craniofacial resection (CFR), which allows efficient removal of the tumour but entails significant morbidity. To reduce morbidity combined with good visualization of tumour limits removal, endonasal endoscopy resection (EER) has developed. The objective of this work was (1) to describe the EER surgical procedure, the morbidity, and the limitations of this endoscopic approach as compared with CFR, (2) analyse recurrences to define risk factors of recurrences and (3) to discuss a therapeutic decision algorithm. Retrospective series of 18 patients with ENB endoscopically treated in a university tertiary referral centre over 13 years. Fifteen of those underwent radiotherapy. Epidemiological data, clinical and imaging findings, histology, treatment modalities and outcome of patients were studied. Mean follow-up was 31 months. Morbidity was mainly related to radiotherapy. Three recurrences were detected: one bone and one sylvian metastasis, and a local recurrence in a patient not irradiated. One recurrence spread through leptomeningeal propagation. Dural extension and frontal invasion were significantly associated with recurrences (p = 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively). Patients with dural extension or frontal invasion should receive aggressive treatment. With a low rate of perioperative morbidity and efficient local control, EER seems to be a promising approach for selected cases of ENB.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Human papilloma virus vaccination in patients with an aggressive course of
           recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
    • Abstract: Abstract In the case of an aggressive course of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), adjuvant therapy can be used besides surgery. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of vaccination with a quadrivalent vaccine against human papilloma viruses (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 on the course of RRP. Eleven subjects aged 13–46 years with a rapid growth of laryngeal papillomas were included in the study. They were vaccinated with three doses of the quadrivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine (Silgard®, MSD) and followed up for 12–52 months. The intervals between the successive surgical procedures, the extension of the disease (Derkay score) at each surgery, and the number of surgical procedures per year before vaccination and after its completion were compared. The mean interval between the surgical procedures was 271.2 days before the vaccination and 537.4 days after it (p = 0.034). The mean number of surgeries per year was 2.16 before the vaccination and 0.93 after it (p = 0.022). The Derkay score did not change significantly after vaccination. Complete remission of the disease was observed in one patient, partial response to the vaccination was observed in seven patients and no response was observed in three patients. In conclusion, vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine can favorably influence the course of RRP in patients with the rapid growth of the papillomas. It significantly prolongs the intervals between the surgical procedures and reduces the number of procedures needed in the majority of patients. The present investigation can serve as a pilot study for further research. For a final conclusion a longer follow-up and studies on more patients are necessary.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Clinical characteristics of spontaneous cholesteatoma of the external
           auditory canal in children comparing with cholesteatoma in adults
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC) in children through evaluation of the clinical and radiologic features as well as treatment outcomes. The clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for children under 15 years of age diagnosed with spontaneous EACC between March 2004 and December 2011. The clinical data of adults diagnosed with spontaneous EACC during the same period were evaluated to compare with EACC in children. Eight patients (3 males and 5 females) with pediatric EACC and 18 patients (7 males and 11 females, 20 ears) with adult EACC were included within the boundary of the study. The mean ages were 12.4 years (age range 9–15) for pediatric EACC and 49.8 years (age range 29–79) for adult EACC patients. Follow-up periods ranged from 8 to 86 months (mean 32.5 ± 8.62) in pediatric EACC and from 6 to 72 months (mean 22.2 ± 5.36) in adult EACC. Pediatric EACC, showed involvement most commonly in the posterior wall, while the inferior wall was most commonly involved in adult EACC. Pediatric EACC tended to show a more focal involvement and was not as extensive as adult EACC. Extension into the adjacent structures was similar in both groups, but bony destruction was more common in the adult group. Two children and eight adult patients were treated with surgery, but four adult cases needed more extensive surgical treatment because their disease was widely spread to included areas such as the mastoid segment of facial nerve and the temporomandibular joint. Six pediatric cases treated with conservative management showed no progression of disease on physical examination at the last visit, but two cases of adults progressed and required canaloplasty. Pediatric EACC shows less aggressive behavior compared to adult EACC. Adequate management may work better in pediatric than in adult EACC, even though the treatment modality is conservative management.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • When is re-irradiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma not
    • PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • KTP laser stapedotomy with a self-crimping, thermal shape memory Nitinol
           piston: follow-up study reporting intermediate-term hearing
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was an evaluation of the mid-term hearing results after the implantation of a self-crimping heat memory Nitinol piston in stapes surgery. The 12-month postoperative results were compared with those at a minimum of 3 years (maximum 6.7, average 4.4 years). The medical records of all 44 patients who underwent surgery with a Nitinol piston for stapes fixation between November 2005 and January 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. The prostheses used in all cases measured either 4.5 or 4.75 × 0.6 mm. We hypothesized that the 12-month postoperative hearing results would be permanent after an average follow-up of 4.4 years. Thirty-two of the 44 consecutive patients were females and 12 were males. Their mean age was 40.4 years (range 27–69). All underwent a 12-month postoperative audiometric evaluation. 38 (30 females, 8 males, average age 45, range 28–77 years) of the 44 were available for mid-term 4.4-year (minimum 3 years, maximum 6.7 years) postoperative audiometric evaluation. The mean air–bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 12-month postoperative follow-up was 11 dB (SD 4.1) and that after an average 4.4-year postoperative evaluation was 6.4 dB (SD 3.6). The mean decrease in ABG after 12 months was 19.5 dB, and that after the average 4.4 years was 21.3 dB. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.2 % after 12 months and in 89.5 % after the average 4.4 years. No patient with an ABG > 20 dB was recorded after the average 4.4 years. The mean air conduction threshold at 4 kHz was examined pre and postoperatively so as to indicate any possible inner ear damage. At the 12-month follow-up, the difference between the pre and postoperative values was −2.5 dB, whereas after the average 4.4 years the difference was surprisingly +13 dB. The individual AC improvements were also demonstrated with the use of Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots (AHEPs). The Nitinol prosthesis allowed excellent intraoperative handling and no postoperative complication was reported. As compared with conventional stapes prostheses, the Nitinol-based SMart prosthesis is a safe and reliable stapes prosthesis. Our mid-term audiometric evaluations revealed that the audiometric parameters demonstrated a hearing improvement between the postoperative 12-month and average 4.4-year examinations. We consider the elimination of manual crimping and the use of a “non-touch” hand-held laser technique has a positive impact on the mid-term audiometric results. Most of the previous studies presented only relatively short-term (from 6 weeks up to 6–12 months) audiometric evaluations. Complications are rare, but a longer follow-up is needed to establish the long-term stability.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Investigation of SCGB3A1 ( UGRP2 ) gene arrays in patients with nasal
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the current study is to investigate the potential relationship between polymorphisms and nasal polyposis (NP) pathogenesis in the SCGB3A1 (UGRP2) gene, which is a member of the secretoglobin gene super family. Genotypic variations were studied by performing DNA sequencing in blood samples of 80 patients with NP and 70 healthy individuals to evaluate nucleotide changes and their positions that might be in the SCGB3A1 gene (promotor, splicing points, and exon distributions). In the SCGB3A1 gene, three single-nucleotide changes labeled IVS1−89 T>G, c. −183 G>T, IVS1−189 G>A were identified. IVS1−89 T>G and IVS1−189 G>A belong to the first intronic region of the gene, whereas c. −183 G>T was observed in the promoter region of the gene. The IVS1−89 T>G nucleotide change was observed in the patient and control groups, whereas c. −183 G>T and IVS1−189 G>A nucleotide changes were observed in the control group only. SCGB3A1 (IVS1−89) genotype frequencies between patients with NP and control group were not significantly different (p = 0.311). There was a statistically significant difference in the control group in comparison to patients with NP in terms of SCGB3A1 (c. −183 GT) and SCGB3A1 (IVS1−189 GA) frequency (p = 0.0045 and p = 0.009, respectively). The findings of the current study suggest that SCGB3A1−183 T and SCGB3A1 IVS1−189 A alleles might have a protective effect against NP, and that SCGB3A1 (−183 GT and IVS1−189 GA) genotypes should be studied in future population-based studies.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Long-term trends in gender, T-stage, subsite and treatment for laryngeal
           cancer at a single center
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate the changes in the epidemiology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) regarding gender, T-stage and subsite distribution, and to identify the potential effect of introducing new therapeutic alternatives for early and advanced stage LSCC. A prospective cohort study of LSCC patients diagnosed and treated at a single tertiary referral center in Norway. Retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data from 1,616 patients treated for LSCC in all subsites of the larynx during 1983–2010. Females represented an increasing proportion of cases throughout the study (p < 0.01) and presented more often than men with supraglottic cancer (p < 0.01). Marked changes in the distribution of T-stages over time were observed in both early and advanced stage LSCC. T1a glottic tumors constituted 56 % of all early-stage LSCC and were predominantly treated by transoral endoscopic laser surgery. The introduction of chemoradiotherapy for advanced stage LSCC offers a distinct advantage for laryngeal preservation. The increasing proportion of females with LSCC may be explained by changes in smoking habits. The proportion of T1a glottic LSCC gradually increased over time, while T4 supraglottic LSCC became less frequent. Videostroboscopy should be considered mandatory in the diagnosis and follow-up of LSCC. Transoral laser microsurgery is the standard first-line treatment for T1a glottic tumors. Chemoradiotherapy has reduced the number of total laryngectomies and is now regarded as the primary treatment for advanced stage tumors.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Radiofrequency ablation in snoring surgery: local tissue effects and
           safety measures
    • Abstract: Abstract Radiofrequency ablation is now widely used in the treatment of patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea. It is well suited to the multilevel approach typically required in snoring surgery and can be used interstitially or in cutting mode. However, no research has been performed to analyse the collateral local tissue damage or size of lesions induced by radiofrequency application. This is the first study of the histological effects of interstitial radiofrequency. We studied the size of tissue lesions generated at differing power settings with and without local anaesthetic application in human tonsils and chicken breast tissue. The size of the lesion was independent of power setting and local anaesthetic infiltration. The typical effect was an oval-shaped lesion centred on the active electrode, 6–7 mm in width and 7–8 mm in length. This was confirmed histopathologically, with smaller lesions generated in the submucosa (2 × 3 mm) but with no collateral tissue damage beyond this distinct zone of injury. To avoid complications, we recommend placing contiguous radiofrequency applications at least 8 mm apart. Post-nasal space packing raises and tautens the soft palate. The use of local anaesthetic increases interstitial volume, thereby reducing the risk of incorrect probe placement and resultant ulceration or fistulation.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry: a useful and noninvasive method for
           monitoring malignant transformation of potentially malignant oral
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral and pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, the 5-year survival rate has not yet increased. A key factor in rates not having improved is the lack of early detection. This study was undertaken to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry (a noninvasive method) for potentially malignant oral disorders compared with tissue biopsy pathology in China. Exfoliative cells were obtained using a cytobrush cell collector from oral mucosa of 52 subjects, followed by scalpel biopsy from the same region. Nuclear DNA contents (ploidy) were measured after Feulgen restaining, using an automated DNA image cytometer. Exfoliative cytology with DNA-image cytometry and histopathological diagnosis were performed separately at different institutions. Histological investigation was considered the gold standard. We reported that the sensitivity of DNA aneuploidy for the detection of cancer cells in potentially malignant oral disorders was 86.36 %, its specificity was 90.00 %, its positive predictive value was 86.36 %, and its negative predictive value was 90.00 %. Brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry is a useful method for monitoring potentially malignant oral disorders.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • The quality of snoring treatment information on the internet
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web regarding the treatment of snoring. The main data source was from internet searches using the three most popular search engines using the keywords “snoring treatment”. First page websites were evaluated using the DISCERN instrument (assessing reliability and information given about treatment choices). Of the 135 websites identified, 16 unique websites were evaluated in the study (the remaining being adverts or repetitions). The websites had an average overall score of 2.37 out of 5 (range 1.19–4) and 37.5 % of the websites evaluated scored less than 2 out of 5 overall, suggesting very poor quality information. Highly ranked websites on popular search engines may not contain the most reliable information. Overall the information on the internet regarding the treatment of snoring is poor and patients should be encouraged to discuss their findings with a medical professional.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Brain voice processing with bilateral cochlear implants: a positron
           emission tomography study
    • Abstract: Abstract Most cochlear implantations are unilateral. To explore the benefits of a binaural cochlear implant, we used water-labelled oxygen-15 positron emission tomography. Relative cerebral blood flow was measured in a binaural implant group (n = 11), while the subjects were passively listening to human voice sounds, environmental sounds non-voice or silence. Binaural auditory stimulation in the cochlear implant group bilaterally activated the temporal voice areas, whereas monaural cochlear implant stimulation only activated the left temporal voice area. Direct comparison of the binaural and the monaural cochlear implant stimulation condition revealed an additional right temporal activation during voice processing in the binaural condition and the activation of a right fronto-parietal cortical network during sound processing that has been implicated in attention. These findings provide evidence that a bilateral cochlear implant stimulation enhanced the spectral cues associated with sound perception and improved brain processing of voice stimuli in the right temporal region when compared to a monaural cochlear implant stimulation. Moreover, the recruitment of sensory attention resources in a right fronto-parietal network allowed patients with bilateral cochlear implant stimulation to enhance their sound discrimination, whereas the same patients with only one cochlear implant stimulation had more auditory perception difficulties.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
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