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Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 221, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access  
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.4, h-index: 17)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover   European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
  [SJR: 0.849]   [H-I: 42]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1434-4726 - ISSN (Online) 0937-4477
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Establishment and characterization of an experimental mouse model of
           allergic rhinitis
    • Abstract: Abstract Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common worldwide disease. Animal studies on AR were adopted in various investigations. However, animal studies simply aimed at establishing an animal model for AR have been seldom seen. The purpose of this study was to introduce an easy-to-establish experimental mouse model of AR. To develop a mouse model of AR, 38 Balb/c mice were randomly assigned to two groups. Mice in the study group were sensitized by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on day 1 and 6, followed by continuous inhalation (IH) of OVA solution for 1 week (day 8–14) using a newly designed inhalation box. The control group mice received sensitization of IP normal saline and IH sterilized distilled water instead of OVA. Before and after sensitization, the frequencies of nasal symptoms (sneezing, nasal rubbing) were recorded and the serum levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) were evaluated using ELISA. Finally, the murine nasal mucosal tissues were stained by Giemsa solution to estimate the degree of mast cell infiltration. After sensitization by IP and IH OVA, the study group showed significant phenotypic changes including increased sneezing and rubbing. Pathological and cytological findings also confirmed significant elevated serum total IgE titer and local mast cell infiltration in the study group statistically. We successfully developed a workable experimental animal model for AR that was more easily sensitized using our new-designed inhalation box, with less stress and more precisely to be observed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Effects of polylactic acid film on middle ear mucosa and cochlear function
           in Guinea pigs
    • Abstract: Abstract Our aim was to assess the effects of polylactic acid (PLA) on middle ear mucosa and cochlea, to be used as a film barrier for postoperative adhesion prevention in the middle ear. Twenty-one albino Guinea pigs were included in the study. A window was opened on both tympanic bulla and on one side PLA material was placed in the middle ear and on the other side only fenestration was performed and used as a control. All Guinea pigs underwent evaluation of tympanic membranes microscopically; functional hearing was analyzed by auditory brainstem responses preoperatively, in the first and the sixth month. All Guinea pigs were killed on the sixth month for histopathologic evaluation of their temporal bones. There was no statistical difference between both groups regarding hearing thresholds, interpeak wave latencies preoperatively and on first and the sixth months postoperatively. Histopathological evaluation revealed no specific changes. There was a mild local inflammation both in the PLA implanted and control ears. PLA film barrier most likely has no toxic effects on Guinea pig middle ear and does not show any ototoxic side effects.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Diagnosis of glossopharyngeal obstruction using nasopharyngeal tube versus
           CT scan in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
    • Abstract: Abstract The polysomnography after nasopharyngeal tube insertion (NPT-PSG) was used to assess glossopharyngeal airway obstruction in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and was compared with that obtained using spiral computed tomography (CT). A total of 125 patients diagnosed with moderate-to-severe OSAHS using PSG were subjected to PSG after NPT insertion, and spiral CT was used for continuous scan of the upper respiratory tract. The NPT-PSG and CT scan results were subjected to correlation analysis. In addition, the two sets of data were used separately to determine whether there was glossopharyngeal airway stenosis or obstruction, and the results were compared. Neither apnea hypopnea index (AHI) nor lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2) obtained from the first PSG was significantly correlated with the cross-sectional area or the inner diameter of the glossopharyngeal airway. NPT-PSG AHI was significantly correlated with the cross-sectional area and anteroposterior diameter of the glossopharyngeal airway, with correlation coefficients of 0.264 and 0.185, and P values of 0.003 and 0.039, respectively. NPT-PSG AHI was not significantly correlated with the left–right diameter of the airway, and NPT-PSG LSaO2 was not significantly correlated with the cross-sectional area or the inner diameter of the glossopharyngeal airway. With NPT-PSG, 52 patients showed obvious glossopharyngeal airway stenosis while 73 patients did not, and with CT scan 41 patients showed obvious glossopharyngeal airway stenosis while 84 patients did not. The two methods reached the same diagnosis in 86 cases, with a consistency rate of 68.8 %. Spiral CT and NPT-PSG show certain degrees of consistency by assessing the presence of glossopharyngeal airway stenosis or obstruction, and there are also notable differences. Clinical assessment on glossopharyngeal airway obstruction should be based on a combination of multiple methods.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Development of a new endoscope holder for head and neck surgery—from
           the technical design concept to implementation
    • Abstract: Abstract Endoscope holders are utilized by a variety of surgeons but are not commonplace in head and neck surgery. The SOLOASSIST active camera holder, which is currently used for abdominal surgery, will soon be adapted for head and neck surgery in collaboration with AKTORmed GmbH SOLO SURGERY (Barbing, Germany). In our pre-feasibility study, we analyzed the use of the existing endoscope holder on anatomical specimens during head and neck surgery. Based on these results, we are proceeding towards the development of a new endoscope holder for head and neck surgery. First, we drafted the technical concepts and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the system. Then, we used anatomic specimens to measure the forces that occur intraoperatively during sinus surgery. Next, we designed a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Finally, we developed the first production prototype and used it for a frontal skull base procedure on an anatomical specimen. We present the three most promising concepts for a new holder. The resulting total force (F res = √(X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2)) was calculated to be 3.2 N during sinus surgery. We could observe all necessary intraoperative landmarks with the endoscope and its holder in a sinus and frontal skull base surgery. We developed a production prototype of a new endoscope holder and demonstrate satisfactory results in the use of anatomic specimens for skull base surgery.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • The comparison of the viability of crushed, morselized and diced cartilage
           grafts: a confocal microscopic study
    • Abstract: Abstract To compare the cellular viability of diced, crushed, and morselized cartilage used in nasal surgeries. In this study, cartilage was extracted from the ears of seven New Zealand rabbits and was subsequently either diced, crushed or morselized to an amorphous state, or left unmodified. The four types of grafts were then implanted in the back regions of the rabbits. After 3 months, the cellular viability from four groups was compared to a control group using confocal microscopy. Analysis of the data obtained from the enumeration of live cells showed no statistically significant difference between the unmodified graft group and the control group. The diced, crushed, and morselized cartilage groups did show a statistically significant difference in terms of live cell count with the highest number of live cells in diced cartilage group. A statistically significant decrease in live cell count was detected in crushed cartilage group. Our study shows that the viability of cells in diced cartilage grafts is greater than those in crushed or morselized cartilage grafts.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Prognostic factors of quality of life after transoral laser microsurgery
           for laryngeal cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract We aimed to evaluate factors influencing quality of life (QOL) after transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) of laryngeal cancer. Four hundred and one consecutive disease-free patients were evaluated 1 year after treatment using the University of Washington-QOL v4, the SF-12 (short form of SF-36), and a questionnaire about self-rated health status. The importance of age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, tumor stage, neck dissection and adjuvant treatment were evaluated. One year after TLM patients had a good QOL, with only 6 % of patients reporting a worsening in their health status. Radiation therapy (p = 0.000) and neck dissection (p = 0.000) were negative factors for disease-specific QOL, whereas age ≥70 (p = 0.01) was a positive independent factor for mental score of SF-12. Speech was negatively influenced by tumor size (p = 0.001) as was swallowing by age (p = 0.001) and postoperative radiation (p = 0.000). Patients treated with TLM present a good QOL 1 year after surgery. Radiation and neck dissection negatively impact QOL. Elderly patients cope better with their disabilities.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Variable extent of nasoantral window for resection of antrochoanal polyp:
           selection of the optimum endoscopic approach
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term results of endoscopic sinus surgery in the treatment of antrochoanal polyps and the role of extending the middle meatal antrostomy on the expense of the inferior meatus in providing wide exposure and accessibility within the maxillary sinus to ensure complete removal of its antral portion. Thirty-six patients were reviewed. Two groups were identified: Group A including patients with antrochoanal polyps that were resected endoscopically through a classical wide middle meatal antrostomy and Group B which included those who underwent endoscopic removal via an extension of the antrostomy inferiorly through submucosal resection of the lateral bony skeleton of the inferior meatus. There were 13 female and 23 male patients with a mean age of 28 ± 9.4 years. The mean follow-up period was 20.4 ± 6.7 months. Six patients were recurrent after previous endoscopic surgery. Group A included 17 patients and the remaining 19 patients were assigned to Group B. Two patients from Group A developed symptomatic recurrence and were cured with revision extended antrostomy. Three patients showed endoscopic evidence of a developing cystic lesion within the maxillary sinus that was punctured through the wide antrostomy. Endoscopic resection is considered the main treatment modality of antrochoanal polyps. Modification of the technique through removal of the lateral bony skeleton of the inferior meatus with downward displacement of the inferior turbinate provided accessibility to the inferior and prelacrimal recesses of the maxillary sinus.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Rhinopharyngeal autologous fat injection for treatment of velopharyngeal
           insufficiency in patients with cleft palate
    • Abstract: Abstract Patients with cleft palate are prone to velopharyngeal insufficiency. In minor cases or when hypernasal speech does not resolve after velopharyngoplasty, an augmentation pharyngoplasty with autologous fat can be proposed. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the short-term (within 2 months) and long-term efficiency (during the 24 months following the procedure) of our procedure in the setting of velopharyngeal insufficiency related to a cleft palate. Twenty-two patients with cleft palate related velopharyngeal insufficiency were included in this retrospective study. All patients were operated following the same technique, in the same institution. The pre- and postoperative evaluations included a nasometry, a subjective evaluation using the Borel-Maisonny score, and a nasofibroscopy to assess the degree of velopharyngeal closure. Scores of Borel-Maisonny and nasometry were compared before, shortly after the procedure (within 2 months) and long term after the procedure (within 24 months). Forty-one procedures in 22 patients with a cleft palate performed in our institution between October 2004 and January 2012 were included in the study. Nine patients had a previous velopharyngoplasty with persistent rhinolalia despite intensive speech therapy. In 14 patients the procedure was repeated because of recurrent hypernasal speech after the first injection. The average number of procedures per patient was 1.8. Postoperative nasometry and Borel-Maisonny scores were statistically significantly improved and remained stable until the end of the follow-up (median 42 months postoperative) in most patients. Complications were rare and minor. Autologous fat injection is a simple procedure for treatment of minor velopharyngeal insufficiencies in patients with cleft palate, with good long-term results and few complications.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Characteristics of thyroid nodules causing globus symptoms
    • Abstract: Abstract A globus sensation is one of the most common complaints in otolaryngologic clinics, and laryngopharyngeal reflux is the most common cause. However, thyroid nodules also can cause globus symptoms. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of thyroid nodules that cause globus. We selected patients prospectively with a single thyroid nodule on ultrasonograms. Patients with other causes of globus symptoms were excluded using questionnaires, fiber optic laryngoscopic examinations, and a psychiatric screening tool. In total, 175 patients were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to globus symptoms. Ultrasonographic characteristics and clinicopathological parameters were compared between the groups. Among various clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic parameters, size and horizontal location of the thyroid nodule showed significant differences between the groups. Nodules larger than 3 cm and those located anterior to the trachea had a tendency to cause globus symptoms. Regarding horizontal location, nodules that all parts were located anterior to the trachea showed a higher tendency to cause globus symptoms than nodules that only some parts were located anterior to the trachea. In conclusion, thyroid nodules with specific size and location can cause globus symptoms, and this finding can be indicated in patient counseling. Also, conservative treatments or thyroidectomy may be helpful in relieving patients’ globus symptoms.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • The round window region and contiguous areas: endoscopic anatomy and
           surgical implications
    • Abstract: Abstract The round window region is a critical area of the middle ear; the aim of this paper is to describe its anatomy from an endoscopic perspective, emphasizing some structures, the knowledge of which could have important implications during surgery, as well as to evaluate what involvement cholesteatoma may have with these structures. Retrospective review of video recordings of endoscopic ear surgeries and retrospective database review were conducted in Tertiary university referral center. Videos from endoscopic middle ear procedures carried out between June 2010 and September 2012 and stored in a shared database were reviewed retrospectively. Surgeries in which an endoscopic magnification of the round window region and the inferior retrotympanum area was performed intraoperatively were included in the study. Involvement by cholesteatoma of those regions was also documented based on information obtained from the surgical database. Conformation of the tegmen of the round window niche may influence the surgical view of round window membrane. A structure connecting the round window area to the petrous apex, named the subcochlear canaliculus, is described. Cholesteatoma can invade the round window areas in some patients. Endoscopic approaches can guarantee a very detailed view and allow the exploration of the round window region. Exact anatomical knowledge of this region can have important advantages during surgery, since some pathology can invade inside cavities or tunnels otherwise not seen by instrumentation that produces a straight-line view (e.g. microscope).
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Correlations between the clinical, histological and neurophysiological
           examinations in patients before and after parotid gland tumor surgery:
           verification of facial nerve transmission
    • Abstract: Abstract Parotid gland tumor surgery sometimes leads to facial nerve paralysis. Malignant more than benign tumors determine nerve function preoperatively, while postoperative observations based on clinical, histological and neurophysiological studies have not been reported in detail. The aims of this pilot study were evaluation and correlations of histological properties of tumor (its size and location) and clinical and neurophysiological assessment of facial nerve function pre- and post-operatively (1 and 6 months). Comparative studies included 17 patients with benign (n = 13) and malignant (n = 4) tumors. Clinical assessment was based on House–Brackmann scale (H–B), neurophysiological diagnostics included facial electroneurography [ENG, compound muscle action potential (CMAP)], mimetic muscle electromyography (EMG) and blink-reflex examinations (BR). Mainly grade I of H–B was recorded both pre- (n = 13) and post-operatively (n = 12) in patients with small (1.5–2.4 cm) benign tumors located in superficial lobes. Patients with medium size (2.5–3.4 cm) malignant tumors in both lobes were scored at grade I (n = 2) and III (n = 2) pre- and mainly VI (n = 4) post-operatively. CMAP amplitudes after stimulation of mandibular marginal branch were reduced at about 25 % in patients with benign tumors after surgery. In the cases of malignant tumors CMAPs were not recorded following stimulation of any branch. A similar trend was found for BR results. H–B and ENG results revealed positive correlations between the type of tumor and surgery with facial nerve function. Neurophysiological studies detected clinically silent facial nerve neuropathy of mandibular marginal branch in postoperative period. Needle EMG, ENG and BR examinations allow for the evaluation of face muscles reinnervation and facial nerve regeneration.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Azelastine enhances the clinical efficacy of glucocorticoid by modulating
           MKP-1 expression in allergic rhinitis
    • Abstract: Abstract Azelastine was suggested as a supplementary choice of glucocorticoid for the control of moderate to severe allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the underlying mechanism has not been completely understood. In this study, primary cultured nasal epithelial cells and bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-17A) and anti-inflammatory agents (azelastine and budesonide) in vitro. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) was examined using qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, the additive effects of azelastine and budesonide nasal spray on nasal ICAM-1 level and total nasal symptom scores were evaluated in six uncontrolled severe AR patients by budesonide nasal spray alone. We found azelastine significantly inhibited cytokine-induced ICAM-1 upregulation, which is reversed by MKP-1 silencing. Azelastine and budesonide additively increased MKP-1 expression and inhibited ICAM-1 expression in vitro. After treatment for two consecutive weeks, combined azelastine and budesonide nasal spray significantly decreased nasal ICAM-1 level and TNSS in six uncontrolled AR patients. Our findings suggested that azelastine is able to additively enhance the anti-inflammatory effect of budesonide by modulating MKP-1 expression, which may implicate in the treatment of uncontrolled severe AR.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Characterisation of seven newly established head and neck squamous cell
           carcinoma cell lines
    • Abstract: Abstract Seven squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were disintegrated from biopsies of patients with head and neck cancer. Genotyping tests verified the authenticity and the human origin of all seven lines. The cell lines designated as University of Kiel, Head and Neck (UKHN) -1 to -3 and UKHN-6 to -9 were subjected to flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence to assess aberrant DNA content. To confirm the squamous epithelial origin of the cells, the cytokeratin profile was immunocytologically analysed. The cell lines showed individual differences in mitotic frequency. UKHN-1, -6, -7 and -9 grew as monolayers, whereas UKHN-2, -3, and -8 tend to multilayer stratification. Overexpression of LOXL4 and Pim-1 proteins as distinctive features of head and neck carcinomas were shown in all seven cell lines. Inoculating SCID mice with these cell lines resulted in tumour formation, hence corroborating the tumourigenicity of all seven cell lines. The cell lines were also tested for high-risk HPV types using different DNA-based assays and found to be negative.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage—some facts will never change
    • Abstract: Abstract Bleeding remains the most significant complication following tonsillectomy (TE), sometimes requiring revision surgery under general anesthesia. This study was undertaken to verify whether or not bleeding rates changed after bipolar coagulation was replaced by suture ligation to achieve hemostasis at a single institution. The charts of all patients who had undergone tonsillectomy between April 1, 2007, and April 30, 2013, at our institution were reviewed. The tonsils were bluntly dissected with scissors and a rasp. While hemostasis was achieved with bipolar coagulation during the first 36 months (group A), this method was replaced after a transition period of 1 month by intraoperative suture ligation (group B) during the last 36 months. Group A encompassed 2,137 patients including 963 children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy (ATE), and group B consisted of 1,521 patients and included 435 ATE cases. Bleeding from the tonsillar wounds occurred in 111/2,137 group A (5.2 %) and 68/1,521 group B patients (4.5 %). The difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.317). The incidence of primary bleeding (PB) and secondary bleeding (SB) was significantly (p = 0,000) associated with the method to achieve hemostasis: PB prevailed in group B and SB prevailed in group A. The overall incidence of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) varied at different ages, but the difference was not significant in group A (p = 0.401) and group B (p = 0.661). Repeated episodes of PTH occurred in 11/111 group A (9.9 %) and 8/68 group B (11.7 %) patients. The statistical difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.725). However, there were significantly more male patients with bleeding complications in both groups. Despite the strongest efforts to avoid it, the potential risk of PTH remains a fact to be accepted by surgeons and patients. An increased surgical precision achieved by introduction of a surgical microscope as well as replacing bipolar cautery by suture ligation to achieve hemostasis could only reduce the overall rate of PTH. Another fact remains unchanged: PB occurs predominantly when electrosurgical means are avoided and SB prevails, whenever surgeons use them. We will continue our research on refined methods of cold steel microsurgical TE including suture techniques.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Reliability of SleepStrip as a screening test in obstructive sleep apnea
           patients: methodological issues to avoid misinterpretation
    • PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Treatment expectations and quality of life outcomes of patients with
           laryngeal cancer based on different treatment methods
    • Abstract: Abstract The treatment expectations of patients with laryngeal carcinoma and their quality of life after treatment were evaluated. We enrolled patients who were receiving treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx between January 2011 and January 2012. Their expectations from the treatment were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) prior to and at the end of the treatment. Quality of life was assessed using the EORTC QLQ C 30 and EORTC H&N 35 questionnaires 3 months after completion of the treatment. In addition, the Beck Depression Inventory was used for mood assessment of the patients after treatment. As per the VAS scores pre-treatment, no differences were found between treatment expectations of early and advanced-stage tumors groups in pre-treatment expectations, but post-treatment evaluation statistically found difference between two groups in terms of average VAS score. Emotional, cognitive, and social functions of the EORTC QLQ C 30 questionnaire were the most affected items in the advanced-stage tumor group. Sense and speech problems in the symptom scales of the EORTC H&N 35 questionnaire were found to be significantly higher in patients with advanced-stage tumors than in those with early stage tumors. The present study is the first to assess the treatment expectations of patients with laryngeal carcinoma by using the VAS. Although the treatment expectations of the patients with early and advanced-stage tumors did not differ according to VAS scores in pre-treatment evaluation, early stage groups had better score than advanced-stage group. VAS was an easy and a simple applicable method for evaluating treatment expectations.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Orbital complications in children: differential diagnosis of a challenging
    • Abstract: Abstract Orbital swelling in children presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Most are associated with acute sinusitis with complicating factors possibly including: amaurosis, meningitis, intracranial abscess or even cavernous sinus thrombosis. However not all acute orbital swelling is associated with acute sinusitis. A careful evaluation is critical prior to initiating therapy. Clinical records of 49 children (27 girls, 22 boys, with an average age of 11.8 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Historical data evaluated included all available information from parents and previous treating physicians. All patients underwent intensive pediatric, ophthalmologic, and otorhinolaryngologic examinations. Computed tomography (CT scans) were additionally performed in 40 % of children. The results of any examinations were also evaluated. Eighteen of the 49 patients had an orbital complication due to acute sinusitis. All 18 had elevated body temperature, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) values and white blood cell counts. Endoscopy of the nose revealed pus in the middle meatus in each case. According to Chandlers’ classification, ten children presented with a preseptal, and eight children had a postseptal orbital cellulitis. All patients were admitted to the hospital and treated with intravenous antibiotics. CT scans further demonstrated signs of subperiostal abscess in four children. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) was required in six children, including all patients with subperiostal abscess. Twenty children experienced orbital swelling unrelated to acute sinusitis, i.e. atheroma, inflammed insect stings, dental related abscess, conjunctivitis, and Herpes simplex associated superinfection. In three children, acute orbital swelling was caused by an orbital tumor. Orbital complications of an acute sinusitis occur often in the pediatric patient group, and most of these patients can be treated conservative with intravenous antibiotics. Indications for FESS include failure to improve or worsening of clinical symptoms during 24 h of therapy, signs for subperiostal abscess in CT scan, and/or vision loss. Patients with infectous orbital complications had fever, elevated CRP and white blood cell counts. This symptom complex is key in making the correct diagnosis. Interestingly, 61 % of patients in this study demonstrated non-sinusitis related diseases leading to acute orbital swelling, which also required prompt recognition and appropriate therapy.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Mucociliary transport and histopathological changes in rotation flaps of
           the nasal mucosa
    • Abstract: Abstract Normal mucociliary transport in the mucoperichondrium of the nasal septum is from a distal (anterior) to proximal (posterior) direction. This study was to determine the direction of mucociliary transport and histopathological changes in nasal mucosal rotation flaps when their transport directions were anatomically reversed. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into four groups. Surgical septal rotational flaps were prepared in the experimental groups. Group I was the control group. The distal aspect of the flap was sutured through a large septal window to the other side of the nasal septum, thus changing the direction of the flap. Evaluation was performed 1 week, 1 month and 9 months later with each of these groups named as groups II, III, and IV, respectively. The rate and direction of the mucociliary transport was determined and histopathological investigations were performed from the flaps. The direction of mucociliary transport was observed to continue as distal to proximal direction in the rotated segments. The mucociliary transport rate was found to be decreased in group II, nearly normal in group III, and in normal limits in group IV after surgery. Intense inflammation and decreased number of cilia were present in group II. The inflammation was milder in group III and the epithelium was found to be nearly normal in group IV. The originally programmed direction of mucociliary transport in the nasal rotation flaps is maintained and is not altered or reprogrammed. Histopathological changes revert back to normal from an inflammatory state to reach pre-surgical status over time.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Central skull base osteomyelitis: new insights and implications for
           diagnosis and treatment
    • Abstract: Abstract Central skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is a life-threatening disease originating from ear and from sinonasal infections. The intention of this study was to evaluate contemporary trends in etiology, diagnosis, management, and outcome of SBO and to draw the clinician’s attention on this probably underestimated disease. Over a 6-year period we performed this systematic study in an academic quaternary medical care and skull base center including 20 patients (mean age 63.7 years) with central SBO, which is one of the largest series from a single center. In contrast to previous studies we explicitly excluded infections limited to malignant external otitis only but did not restrict central SBO to conditions unrelated to aural pathology. Fifteen patients had otogenic and five sinugenic SBO; four patients had fungal or mixed fungal infections. Pre-existing illnesses altering bone vascularization were detected in 70 % of the patients and had a negative effect on the improvement of cranial nerve palsies that were found in 14 patients. In relation, patients with otogenic SBO more often had local and systemic predisposing factors. Contrary to previous studies 16 patients (80 %) underwent surgical therapy and none of our patients died. A meta-analysis of five recent studies was done and compared with our own data and two previous meta-analyses. The present study highlights several important aspects with major implications for diagnosis and treatment of SBO that have not been adequately addressed as yet. In contrast to the restrictive attitude towards surgery in literature we recommend early and radical operative treatment to reduce its mortality.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • The effect of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further
           recurrence of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective is to study the role of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further episodes and promoting facial nerve recovery of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. 24 cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy were involved in the study, among which 16 undergoing total facial nerve decompression were classified into the surgery group, and 8 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were included in the control group. The recurrence rate and facial nerve function recovery of the two groups were compared. The mean follow-up of surgery and control group was 4.9 years (range 3–7 years) and 5.0 years (range 3–8 years), respectively. Further attacks of facial palsy affected 1 of 16 cases (6.2 %) among surgery group in comparison to 4 of 8 cases (50 %) among control group, with statistical difference (p < 0.05). 15 of 16 cases (93.8 %) recovered to Grade I or Grade II in surgery group in contrast to 6 of 8 cases (75.0 %) in control group, without statistical difference (p > 0.05). In conclusion, total facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further episodes of facial palsy in idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, but ineffective to promote facial nerve recovery.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
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