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Diabetologia Notes de lecture     Hybrid Journal  
Diabetology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 5)
Dialectical Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 9)
Die Weltwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Differential Equations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 15)
Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 7)
Digestive Diseases and Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 89)
Directieve therapie     Hybrid Journal  
Discrete & Computational Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.269, h-index: 40)
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.42, h-index: 32)
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 30)
Distributed Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.41, h-index: 31)
DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater     Full-text available via subscription  
Documenta Ophthalmologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 40)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 10)
Doklady Biological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 12)
Doklady Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.48, h-index: 17)
Doklady Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.345, h-index: 13)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 17)
Douleur et Analg├ęsie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.113, h-index: 6)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 8)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dynamic Games and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 5)
Dysphagia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 52)
e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 9)
e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Early Childhood Education J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 7)
Earth, Moon, and Planets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 29)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.482, h-index: 21)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 9)
East Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 9)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 27)
EcoHealth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 26)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 43)
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.375, h-index: 6)
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 44)
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.264, h-index: 9)
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.557, h-index: 34)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics of Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 14)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.909, h-index: 93)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 56)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.374, h-index: 15)
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.776, h-index: 61)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.273, h-index: 9)
Educational Studies in Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 32)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.785, h-index: 52)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 18)
Electrocatalysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.883, h-index: 10)
Electronic Commerce Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.582, h-index: 16)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 8)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.407, h-index: 15)
Elemente der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.678, h-index: 25)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 16)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 31)
Empirical Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.285, h-index: 39)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 15)
Endocrine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 57)
Endocrine Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 31)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 14)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.176, h-index: 7)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 30)
Entomological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 29)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.458, h-index: 32)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.632, h-index: 54)
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 58)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 28)
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 63)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 4)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 24)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 36)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.942, h-index: 66)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 31)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 52)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.885, h-index: 46)
Epileptic Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.608, h-index: 38)
EPJ A - Hadrons and Nuclei     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.287, h-index: 63)
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.731, h-index: 89)
EPJ direct     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 62)
EPMA J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 6)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.128, h-index: 3)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 16)
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 9)
Esophagus     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.311, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
  [SJR: 0.849]   [H-I: 42]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1434-4726 - ISSN (Online) 0937-4477
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2279 journals]
  • The role of brachytherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of
           the head and neck
    • Abstract: Abstract Brachytherapy is a form of intensive local irradiation, allowing effective protection of surrounding structures with preservation of organ function and results in a favorable therapeutic ratio. It can be used alone, adjuvantly after surgery, and as a local boost in combination with external-beam radiation therapy. This paper is a literature review on the role of brachytherapy in the management of head and neck cancers with a special emphasis on papers published in the last 5 years. Technical details, effectiveness and potential toxicities of brachytherapy when used in different combinations with other therapeutic modalities and tumor sites are presented. Brachytherapy is an attractive treatment option in the management of primary malignancies and recurrent tumors in previously irradiated areas of the head and neck. It is effective and safe, and results in good functional and oncological outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Neutral position of persistent direction-changing positional nystagmus
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to measure the neutral position of direction-changing apogeotropic positional nystagmus (heavy cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal) and persistent direction-changing geotropic positional nystagmus (light cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal). We conducted a prospective case series study on 31 patients with heavy cupula (12 males, 19 females; mean age, 64.3 years) and 33 patients with light cupula (10 males, 23 females; mean age, 60.9 years). We measured the angle of the neutral position in patients with heavy cupula (θ 1) and that in patients with light cupula (θ 2) using a large protractor. The mean value and standard deviation of θ 1 was 31.6 ± 22.4°, minimum value was 5°, and maximum value was 89°. The mean value and standard deviation of θ 2 was 44.4 ± 20.5°, minimum value was 5°, and maximum value was 85°. θ 2 was significantly greater than θ 1 (p < 0.05). The neutral position varies widely. Some patients exhibit a great angle (more than 40°); therefore, examiners should make patients adopt a completely lateral position in the supine head roll test and should confirm the direction of nystagmus in order to avoid mistaking positional nystagmus for spontaneous nystagmus.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Letter to the editor concerning: ‘Correlation between clinical
           findings and eosinophil/neutrophil ratio in patients with nasal
    • PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Reply to letter to the editor concerning: ‘Correlation between
           clinical findings and eosinophil/neutrophil ratio in patients with nasal
    • PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Synchronous video laryngoscopy and sonography of the larynx in children
    • Abstract: Abstract Unlike laryngoscopy, laryngeal sonography is easily applicable, well tolerated by young children and less exhausting for the examiner. The aim of this study was to determine if sonography can adequately visualize the laryngeal structures and vocal fold movements of children. Synchronic video laryngoscopy and sonography of the larynx were performed in 35 children (aged 2–8 years) without a laryngeal disease. 10 investigators at differing stages of otolaryngological training were tasked with identifying vocal fold movement and specific anatomical structures after seeing (1) the sonography-only video and (2) the sonography video with a laryngoscopy video overlay. The percentage of correct identification of the structures and the vocal cord movement with and without additional video-overlay was compared. A sonographical view of the larynx could be found and the following anatomical structures were identified: subcutaneous fat tissue, left and right sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles, thyroid cartilage, left and right vocal folds, left and right paraglottic spaces, left and right side arytenoid cartilages, and rima glottides. Concerning the evaluation of the videos amongst the investigators: they identified >80 % of vocal fold movement and the targeted anatomical structures except the arytenoid cartilages (only up to 63 %), having the sonography only. In combination with the laryngoscopy video-overlay, investigator detection rates significantly improved (>90 % of vocal fold movement, p < 0.001; >90 % in most anatomical structures, (p < 0,001). Laryngeal sonography is a helpful diagnostic tool to identify laryngeal structures and the movement of the vocal folds in children.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • The relation between childhood obesity and adenotonsillar hypertrophy
    • Abstract: Abstract Childhood obesity is a common and significant public health problem all over the world. As a well-known fact obese children have an increased risk of obesity-associated comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders at an earlier age compared to their normal weight peers. They also have an increased risk of poor self-esteem, greater body dissatisfaction, and increased peer teasing that lead to a lower health-related quality of life. While the presence of adenoid hypertrophy and increased rate of obstructive sleep apnea frequently co-exists in majority of cases. We have limited knowledge about the effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on development of childhood obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity, presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the quality of life parameters in obese children as measured by the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire. Fifty obese children aged between 3 and 18 years and 50 age- and gender-matched otherwise children were enrolled to the study. All subjects were routinely examined by the otolaryngologist before enrollment. The size of adenoid hypertrophy was measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The tonsils were also graded using the schema recommended by Brodsky et al. We used OSA-18 questionnaires to evaluate the subjects’ quality of life issues. We found, 34 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy while the rate was 6 % in control group. Similarly 16 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy compared to only 4 % in non-obese group. It was also noted that total OSA-18 scores of obese group were significantly higher than those of non-obese group. In subgroup analysis of obese group, total OSA-18 score of obese subjects with either adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy was significantly higher than that of obese subjects without adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy. As the related literature suggests that the impact of adenotonsillar size on OSA symptoms is prominent especially in children under 7 years of age, but its impact on the development of childhood obesity is still controversial. Our results revealed a possible relation between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obesity rates. Further studies on larger populations should be planned to better define the real impact of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in obese children.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Treatments and costs for recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell
           carcinoma of the head and neck in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Abstract For patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN), chemotherapy can prolong life and alleviate symptoms. However, expected gains may be small, not necessarily outweighing considerable toxicity and high costs. Treatment choice is to a large extent dependent on preferences of doctors and patients and data on these choices are scarce. The purpose of this study is to obtain real-world information on palliative systemic treatment and costs of R/M SCCHN in the Netherlands. In six Dutch head and neck treatment centers, data were collected on patient and tumor characteristics, treatment patterns, disease progression, survival, adverse events, and resource use for R/M SCCHN, between 2006 and 2013. 125 (14 %) out of 893 R/M SCCHN patients received palliative, non-trial first-line systemic treatment, mainly platinum + 5FU + cetuximab (32 %), other platinum-based combination therapy (13 %), methotrexate monotherapy (27 %) and capecitabine monotherapy (14 %). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.4 and 6.0 months, respectively. 34 (27 %) patients experienced severe adverse events. Mean total hospital costs ranged from €10,075 (±€9,891) (methotrexate monotherapy) to €39,459 (±€21,149) (platinum + 5FU + cetuximab). Primary cost drivers were hospital stays and anticancer drug treatments. Major health care utilization and costs are involved in systemically treating R/M SCCHN patients with a limited survival.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures: a comparison
           with conventional radiography and computed tomography
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography (US) with radiography and multi-detector computed tomography (CT) for the detection of nasal bone fractures. Forty-one patients with a nasal bone fracture who underwent prospective US examinations were included. Plain radiographs and CT images were obtained on the day of trauma. For US examinations, radiologist used a linear array transducer (L17-5 MHz) in 24 patients and hockey-stick probe (L15-7 MHz) in 17. The bony component of the nose was divided into three parts (right and left lateral nasal walls, and midline of nasal bone). Fracture detection by three modalities was subjected to analysis. Furthermore, findings made by each modality were compared with intraoperative findings. Nasal bone fractures were located in the right lateral wall (n = 28), midline of nasal bone (n = 31), or left lateral wall (n = 31). For right and left lateral nasal walls, CT had greater sensitivity and specificity than US or radiography, and better agreed with intraoperative findings. However, for midline fractures of nasal bone, US had higher specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value than CT. Although two US evaluations showed good agreements at all three sites, US findings obtained by the hockey-stick probe showed closer agreement with intraoperative findings for both lateral nasal wall and midline of nasal bone. Although CT showed higher sensitivity and specificity than US or radiography, US found to be helpful for evaluating the midline of nasal bone. Furthermore, for US examinations of the nasal bone, a smaller probe and higher frequency may be required.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Barbed Roman blinds technique for the treatment of obstructive sleep
           apnea: how we do it?
    • Abstract: Abstract Retro-palatal obstruction is often involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is currently treated by means of various surgical procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe our preliminary results using a new, minimally invasive and non-resective procedure called the “barbed Roman blinds technique” (BRBT), which was used to treat severe OSAS due to retro-palatal obstruction. The apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), time with <90 % O2 saturation, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) of 32 consecutive adult outpatients (mean age 47.3 ± 8.6 years) were compared before and after surgery. The tolerability of the procedure was assessed using a 0–10 visual analog scale (VAS). All of the treated patients experienced a clinical and subjective improvement as documented by the significant differences (P < 0.001) in their pre- and post-BRBT AHI, time with <90 % O2 saturation, and ESS scores. There were no minor or major adverse events, and the good tolerability of the procedure was documented by the short mean hospital stay (1.2 ± 0.5 days) and the mean VAS value of 4.3 ± 0.7. The mean follow-up period was 12.2 ± 2.0 months. The preliminary results indicate that the BRBT is safe and effective, but long-term follow-up and comparative studies of larger case series are needed to confirm these encouraging findings.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • On the impact of examiners on latencies and amplitudes in cervical and
           ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials evaluated over a large sample
           ( N  = 1,038)
    • Abstract: Abstract Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are frequently used in the clinical diagnosis and research of vertigo syndromes. Altered latencies or amplitudes are typically interpreted as an indication of disturbance in the processing of vestibular stimuli along the otolithic pathways. Correct interpretation, however, can be difficult as VEMP amplitudes can vary greatly across subjects and across laboratories, likely because they are very sensitive to measurement conditions. Here, we attempted to quantify the impact of examiner differences on VEMP data. We collected data from 1,038 people using eight different experimental examiners, and investigated the effect of examiner on VEMP latencies and amplitudes. We found that the examiner collecting the data had a strong effect on outcome measures with significant differences (p < 0.001) in cVEMP and oVEMP latencies and in oVEMP amplitudes. No significant differences between examiners were found for the cVEMP amplitudes. When we compared the healthy and pathological sides of patients with a clinically diagnosed unilateral disease, no significant differences between sides were found. Given our results and the results reported in the literature, we conclude that the signal features of VEMPs are very sensitive to variables that may be influenced by the examiner. The field should therefore work on a better standard for VEMP recordings.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Is there a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Chinese
           laryngeal cancer patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely related to the risk of certain types of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma types, including laryngeal cancer (LC). Some reports indicated a higher HPV prevalence in Chinese LC patients, which remains to be established due to small study sample sizes. The aim of this study was to estimate the HPV infection rate in Chinese LC patients and assess the LC risk conferred by high-risk subtype HPV infection by meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, the Embase Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and VIP Database for studies published in either English or Chinese up to October 2013, and systematically reviewed 28 original research articles that met the inclusion criteria. Both the HPV infection rate in the LC group (all 28 studies) and the LC risk from high-risk HPV infection (a subgroup of 12 case–control studies) were analyzed by R 3.0 software. Overall HPV, HPV-16/18, and HPV-6/11 infection rates were 32 % (95 % CI 22–44 %), 30 % (95 % CI 24–37 %), and 12 % (95 % CI 9–17 %), respectively. There was a strong association between high-risk HPV-16/18 infection and LC (P < 0.01; OR = 8.07, 95 % CI 5.67–11.48). Our research indicates that there is a higher HPV prevalence in Chinese LC patients compared to LC patients outside of China and that HPV infection significantly increases LC risk.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to
           treat a maxillary sinus cyst
    • Abstract: Abstract A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to investigate the effect of balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope in the treatment of a maxillary sinus cyst. The clinical data of 14 cases (19 maxillary sinuses) with balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope to remove sinus cysts (balloon group) and 16 cases (23 maxillary sinuses) with conventional nasal endoscopic sinus surgery to remove sinus cysts (conventional group) were analyzed. All cases have completed the preoperative and postoperative SNOT-20, nasal endoscopy and coronal sinus CT scan. Lund–Kennedy endoscopic and Lund–Mackay CT scan staging scores were recorded. All patients were followed up for 24 weeks after the operation. The SNOT-20 scores, Lund–Kennedy endoscopic and Lund–Mackay CT scan staging scores were lower in the balloon group than that in the control group. Balloon catheter dilation technology combined with a fibrolaryngoscope can effectively preserve the function and structures of the nasal cavity and sinus, making it a good choice in the treatment of a retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Accuracy of auditory steady state and auditory brainstem responses to
           detect the preventive effect of polyphenols on age-related hearing loss in
           Sprague–Dawley rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Aging causes histological, electrophysiological and molecular changes in the cochlea. The free radical theory of aging, has obtained consensus, and the mitochondrion is reported to play a key role in aging as a major source of reactive oxygen species. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the interest in polyphenols because of the antioxidant properties and their role in the prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of different polyphenols on ARHL with auditory-evoked potentials. 100 Healthy female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were used for this study. Five groups were created based on the age of the rats, in months: 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old. Two additional groups were created based on the treatment received. In the control group, 50 animals were assigned to no treatment. In the treated group, 50 animals were given a vehicle mixture of polyphenols for the half of the life before euthanization. Nine frequencies were tested (0.5–16 kHz) with ASSR and tone-burst ABR, performed on all of the rats prior to sacrifice. 100-μs auditory clicks ABRs were also recorded. A significant decrease in the audition was detected with ABR and ASSR in both treated and non-treated groups, as the different groups became older. This deterioration was more accurately measured at acute frequencies. Significantly lower thresholds were observed in the treated rats in the 6, 12 and 18-month-old group in the treated rats compared with the control group. All of the thresholds elicited using the ASSR technique were lower than the thresholds obtained using the ABR, regardless of the stimulus type. The present study demonstrated the benefits of the polyphenols, which generated a significant protection against ARHL, with significantly improved ASSR and tone-burst ABR auditory thresholds in rats receiving treatment with polyphenols.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokine expression in hypopharyngeal
           carcinoma and clinical significance
    • Abstract: Abstract Th0 cells differentiate into Th1 or Th2 depending on multiple transcription factors acting on specific time points to regulate gene expression. Th17 cells, a subset of IL-17-producing T cells distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells, have been described as key players in inflammation and autoimmune diseases as well as cancer development. In the present study, 53 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer were included. The expression levels of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal cancer tissues and pericarcinoma tissues were detected. The relationship between Th1, Th2, or Th17 infiltration and metastasis was studied. Our results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of Th1 cytokines were lower, while the expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines were higher in tumor tissues, and the intensity of expression was strengthened with clinical stage increasing. Cancer tissues had higher level expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines than that of pericarcinoma tissues. From the above data, we speculated that high expressions of Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal carcinoma may contribute to cancer development and metastasis.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • The incidence of thyroid cartilage invasion through the anterior
           commissure in clinically early-staged laryngeal cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the incidence of thyroid cartilage invasion in early-stage laryngeal tumors involving anterior commissure was assessed. Medical charts and pathology reports of 62 patients who underwent supracricoid partial laryngectomy as the primary treatment of early-staged laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the macroscopic examination of the surgical specimen: tumors limited to the glottis with the involvement of anterior commissure (TLG); tumors invading both supraglottis and glottis with the involvement of anterior commissure (TISG). Thirty-seven of the cases were classified as TLG group (59.7 %) and the remaining 25 of them were classified as TISG group (40.3 %). Thyroid cartilage invasion was observed totally in ten patients (16.1 %), as macroscopic invasion in two cases and microinvasion in eight patients. Only two were in the TLG group (cartilage invasion rate of 5.4 %), the remaining eight were in the TISG group (cartilage invasion rate of 32 %). Thyroid cartilage invasion rate of TISG group was significantly higher than that of TLG group (p = 0.011, p < 0.05). Tumors limited to the glottis with AC involvement may be more suitable for endoscopic resection; on the contrary, tumors with vertical extension invading both AC and supraglottis should be evaluated more suspiciously due to high rate of thyroid cartilage invasion, which may still necessitate external laryngectomy techniques.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Post-irradiation otitis media, rhinosinusitis, and their interrelationship
           in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated by IMRT
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the occurrences of post-irradiation chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and their interrelationship in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A retrospective review of medical records and magnetic resonance imaging for NPC patients across a 5-year follow-up was conducted. Rhinosinusitis was diagnosed and staged by Lund–Mackay system. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. On the 5th year following IMRT, 8 patients (7.8 %), 30 patients (29.4 %), and 17 patients (16.7 %) suffered from IMRT-induced CSOM, post-irradiation OME, and CRS, respectively. Analysis by logistic regression showed a lack of association between the occurrence of post-irradiation OME and CRS (P = 0.06). These observations indicated that the modern radiotherapy technique exhibits capability in decreasing the incidences of CSOM and CRS comparing to the data of traditional radiotherapy. But post-irradiation OME was still encountered in more than one-quarter of long-term survivors of NPC. Of note, rhinosinusitis in NPC survivors does not predispose to the development of post-irradiation OME, suggesting nasal irrigation might be unnecessary for the management of OME following radiotherapy.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Stapes surgery: a National Survey of British Otologists
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate individual stapes surgery practice in the UK, a retrospective study was conducted by postal questionnaire to all ‘assumed’ stapes-performing otologists. 225 questionnaires were sent out to practicing otologists in the UK. 184 replies (81.8 %) indicated that 134 (72.9 %) otologists perform stapes surgery [stapedectomy (8.2 %), stapedotomy (91.0 %) or other (0.8 %)]. The ‘6–10 stapes operation per year’ category is the most common, with most using general anaesthetic (GA) (78.3 %). Unilateral surgery is advised in 89.6 %, and 96.3 % perform second-side surgery, with all advising the option of a hearing aid prior to surgery. The majority (88.1 %) would fit the prosthesis after removing the stapes, with the top three prostheses being Causse, Smart and Teflon (as described by respondents). 42.5 % always use a vein graft or fat to cover the fenestration, 9.3 % use a laser and 48.5 % carry out the surgery as a day case. For an overhanging facial nerve (less than 50 % of the footplate obscured), the majority stated that it would depend whether they would abandon surgery. 25.4 % have encountered a ‘gusher’ and 83.6 % would recommend revision surgery. 82.8 % have a registrar present when carrying out stapes operations, but 69.4 % only offer training to trainees with an otological interest. In the UK, stapedotomy is the preferred technique. Most prefer the Causse prosthesis, general anaesthesia and an inpatient stay. Hearing aids are advised prior to surgery. Day-case and inpatient practice is about equal. ‘Gushers’ are encountered rarely. Revision surgery is advised if a conductive loss returns. Flying is recommended from 6 weeks. Most otologists are willing to teach trainees with an otological interest.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Increased expression of transcription factor Bcl-6 in chronic
           rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps
    • Abstract: Abstract B cell activation and excessive immunoglobulin (Ig) production were suggested as the key molecular events of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP). However, whether T follicular cells (Tfh cells) were involved in this process has not been documented. In this study, 22 CRSwNP patients and 12 normal controls were enrolled, Bcl-6 (the key transcription factor for Tfh cell differentiation) immunoreactivity was examined by immunohistochemical staining, and the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21 was examined using qPCR, ELISA and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of Bcl-6+CD4+ cells (Tfh cells) in polyp tissues and normal controls were measured by flow cytometry. We found that Bcl-6 mRNA and protein levels, as well as the frequencies of Bcl-6+CD4+ cells were significantly increased in polyp tissues compared with normal controls. The frequencies of Bcl-6+CD4+ cells were found to be significantly associated with B cell cluster formation, tissue eosinophilia, asthma comorbidity and polyp recurrence. These findings thus added a new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying CRSwNP and raise the possibility that Tfh cells could be a novel therapeutic target for difficult-to-treat CRSwNP.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation
    • Abstract: Abstract The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • New editors in chief for the European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
    • PubDate: 2016-01-23
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