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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Archives of Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.973
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-8798 - ISSN (Online) 0304-8608
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Allexiviruses may have acquired inserted sequences between the CP and CRP
           genes to change the translation reinitiation strategy of CRP
    • Authors: Naoto Yoshida; Hanako Shimura; Chikara Masuta
      Pages: 1419 - 1427
      Abstract: Allexiviruses are economically important garlic viruses that are involved in garlic mosaic diseases. In this study, we characterized the allexivirus cysteine-rich protein (CRP) gene located just downstream of the coat protein (CP) gene in the viral genome. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the CP and CRP genes from numerous allexivirus isolates and performed a phylogenetic analysis. According to the resulting phylogenetic tree, we found that allexiviruses were clearly divided into two major groups (group I and group II) based on the sequences of the CP and CRP genes. In addition, the allexiviruses in group II had distinct sequences just before the CRP gene, while group I isolates did not. The inserted sequence between the CP and CRP genes was partially complementary to garlic 18S rRNA. Using a potato virus X vector, we showed that the CRPs affected viral accumulation and symptom induction in Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting that the allexivirus CRP is a pathogenicity determinant. We assume that the inserted sequences before the CRP gene may have been generated during viral evolution to alter the termination-reinitiation mechanism for coupled translation of CP and CRP.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3749-2
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Detection and genetic characterization of bovine kobuvirus from calves in
    • Authors: Fakry F. Mohamed; Shimaa M. G. Mansour; Ahmed Orabi; Iman E. El-Araby; Terry Fei Fan Ng; Sunil K. Mor; Sagar M. Goyal
      Pages: 1439 - 1447
      Abstract: Kobuviruses are small non-enveloped RNA viruses that probably cause diarrhea in cattle and swine. Since its discovery in 2003, few studies have addressed bovine kobuvirus (BKoV; a species of Aichivirus B) infections. BKoV has been reported in Europe, Asia, and South America, suggesting a worldwide distribution. To investigate the presence of BKoV in Egypt, 36 fecal specimens from diarrheic calves in two different Egyptian provinces (Cairo and Sharkia) were screened by RT-PCR and 24 (66.7%) were found positive for BKoV. RNA from one of the positive samples (BKoV/Egy-1/KY407744) was subjected to next-generation sequencing to determine the complete BKoV genome sequence. When compared to the only recorded BKoV genome sequence (BKoV/U-1/AB084788), the studied strain showed 94 amino acid (aa) substitutions through its entire polyprotein (2463 aa), one nucleotide (nt) insertion and one nt deletion in the 2B gene and 4-nt deletions in the UTRs (2 each). Additionally, five VP1 and seven 3D sequences were obtained from other samples by using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. A discrepancy in the phylogenetic topography of VP1 and 3D was observed, where the Egyptian VP1 sequences were classified as a distinct cluster within the proposed lineage 1 (genotype A), which also contained strains from the UK, Brazil, and Japan. While, the 3D sequences from Cairo were related to those of Chinese strains unlike Sharkia ones that were more closer to Korean  strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detection and genomic characterization of BKoV in Egypt or indeed Africa.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3758-1
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Development of a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification
           assay for the detection of coxsackievirus A10 and coxsackievirus A6 RNA
    • Authors: Teng-fei Yan; Xin-na Li; Le Wang; Chen Chen; Su-xia Duan; Ju-ju Qi; Li-Xin Li; Xue-jun Ma
      Pages: 1455 - 1461
      Abstract: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious public health problem, and coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) are two of the major causative pathogens, in addition to enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). A simple and rapid reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay (RT-RAA) was developed for the detection of CVA10 and CVA6 in this study. The analytical sensitivity for detection of CVA10 and CVA6 at 95% probability by probit regression analysis was 35 copies per reaction and 38 copies per reaction, respectively, with 100% specificity. Compared with commercial RT-qPCR assays, when testing 455 fecal specimens, the kappa value of the RT-RAA assay for CVA10 and CVA6 was 0.920 (p < 0.001) and 0.952 (p < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, four samples that were positive for CVA10 and five that were positive for CVA6 by RT-RAA but negative by RT-qPCR were further determined to be true positives. These results demonstrate that the proposed RT-RAA assays are very valuable tools for the detection of CVA10 and CVA6 and have potential for use in resource-limited settings.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3734-9
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • The prevalence and isolated subtypes of BK polyomavirus reactivation among
           patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 in southeastern
    • Authors: Caiqin Hu; Ying Huang; Juwei Su; Mengyan Wang; Qihui Zhou; Biao Zhu
      Pages: 1463 - 1468
      Abstract: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an opportunistic infectious pathogen that is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy, mainly in transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients. However, molecular characterization studies of BKPyV in China are rare. This study was designed to elucidate the prevalence and to determine the main subtypes of BKPyV among HIV-1-infected patients in southeastern China. In addition, the increased incidences for BKPyV reactivation were analyzed. The isolated BKPyV DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the specimen sequences were aligned with the reference sequences for phylogenetic analysis. In this study, BKPyV viruria was detected in 64.2% (88/137) of HIV-1-infected patients. Patients in the BKPyV-positive group were more diverse with respect to gender (P = 0.039) and age (P = 0.023) than their counterparts in the BKPyV-negative group, and they had a higher rate of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) (P = 0.026). Viruria was more commonly found in patients with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm (72.7%) than in those with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/mm (58.5%) (not significant). All sequenced BKPyV isolates belonged to subtype I (13/32) and IV (19/32). A high prevalence of BKPyV reactivation was discovered in patients with HIV-1 infection. Females and elderly individuals, as well as those with a TB co-infection, appeared more susceptible to BKPyV reactivation in this study. BKPyV viruria was found more often and was associated with lower CD4 counts.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3724-y
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the quantitation of equine
           arteritis virus in culture supernatant
    • Authors: Ting Qi; Yue Hu; Zhe Hu; Shihua Zhao; Ann Cullinane; Pamela Lyons; Sarah Gildea; Xiaojun Wang
      Pages: 1469 - 1478
      Abstract: Quantitation of virions is one of the important indexes in virological studies. To establish a sensitive and rapid quantitative detection method for equine arteritis virus (EAV), an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed by using two EAV nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 2B9 and 2B3, prepared in this study. After condition optimization, mAb 2B9 was used as the capture antibody, and HRP-labeled 2B3 was chosen as the detecting antibody. The AC-ELISA had a good standard curve when viral particles of the Bucyrus EAV strain were used as a reference standard. The detection limit for the Bucyrus EAV strain was 36 PFU, and the method had a good linear relationship between 72-2297 PFU. The AC-ELISA could specifically detect the Bucyrus EAV strain and had no cross-reaction with other equine viruses. The sensitivity of the AC-ELISA was much higher than that of a western blotting assay but lower than that of a real-time PCR method. However, as a quantitative antigen detection method, the sensitivity of the AC-ELISA was approximately 300 times than the western blotting assay. Furthermore, the AC-ELISA assay could be successfully used in quantification of viral content in an in vitro infection assay, such as a one-step growth curve of EAV, as well as in a transfection assay, such as virus rescue from an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. These results show that the AC-ELISA established in this study is a good alternative for antigen detection of EAV, being a simple, convenient and quantitative detection method for EAV antigens.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3746-5
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Development of a nanogold slot blot inhibition assay for the detection of
           antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1
    • Authors: Greice Japolla; Jair Pereira Cunha-Junior; Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez Pajuaba; Ernesto Akio Taketomi; Samira Bührer-Sékula; Luiz Artur Mendes Bataus; Guilherme Rocha Lino de Souza
      Pages: 1549 - 1557
      Abstract: Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is recognized as an important pathogen causing respiratory, reproductive, and neurological disorders in cattle and is associated with economic losses to animal industry. Accurate diagnostic methods are needed for prevention of disease transmission. While the virus neutralization test is considered the gold standard method, it requires maintenance of the virus and cell cultures, which is time consuming and expensive. Serological techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are widely applied, as these are easy to perform and provide quick results. In the present study, a nanogold slot blot inhibition assay was developed for the serological diagnosis of BoHV-1 and compared with standard ELISA and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) slot blot assays. Of 42 serum samples tested by ELISA, 32 (76.2%) were positive and 10 (23.8%), were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the nanogold slot blot inhibition assay was similar to that observed for ELISA and HRP slot blot assays, and a strong correlation was observed between the tests. Thus, the nanogold slot blot inhibition assay may serve as an efficient and rapid alternative to ELISA in settings, where plate-reading equipment is lacking.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3763-4
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Detection of HBV genome in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear
           cells of Iranian HBsAg negative patients with HIV infection: occult HBV
    • Authors: Zahra Tajik; Farah Bokharaei-Salim; Saied Ghorbani; Hossein Keyvani; Maryam Esghaei; Seyed Hamidreza Monavari; Angila Ataei-Pirkooh; Saba Garshasbi; Tahereh Donyavi; Atousa Fakhim
      Pages: 1559 - 1566
      Abstract: The presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of traceable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the plasma specimen of patients is defined as occult HBV infection (OBI). This study aimed to detect HBV-DNA in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Iranian HBsAg negative patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 patients with HIV infection from September 2015 to August 2017. The patients were tested for serological parameters (HBsAg, HBcAb, HBeAg and HBeAb) against HBV infection. Moreover, they were tested for HBV viral load (using COBAS TaqMan 48 Kit, Roche, USA) in plasma and the presence of the HBV genome in PBMC specimens using real-time PCR. The mean age of the patients was 35.4 ± 13.4 years. Of the 172 studied patients, 109 (63.4%) were male. In this study, 151 (87.8%) patients were negative for HBsAg, 111 (64.5%) patients were negative for all HBV infection serological markers, 9 (5.2%) patients were only positive for HBsAg and 29 (16.9%) patients were only positive for HBcAb. Moreover, five (3.3%) patients with HBsAg negative had OBI (in the plasma sample of four patients and PBMC specimens of all five patients, HBV-DNA was detected). The present study revealed that 3.3% of the patients with HIV infection had occult HBV infection. Presumably, designing prospective studies to identify this infection in patients with HIV infection is informative and valuable.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3740-y
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Involvement of CD8 + T cells in the development of renal hemorrhage in a
           mouse model of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
    • Authors: Kenta Shimizu; Kumiko Yoshimatsu; Midori Taruishi; Yoshimi Tsuda; Jiro Arikawa
      Pages: 1577 - 1584
      Abstract: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by hantavirus infection. Although host immunity is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of HFRS, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. A mouse model of HFRS, which showed renal hemorrhage similar to that seen in patients, has been developed previously. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are involved in the development of renal hemorrhage in the mouse model. At 2 days before virus inoculation, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in 6-week-old BALB/c mice were depleted by administration of antibodies. The CD4+ T cell-depleted mice developed signs of disease such as transient weight loss, ruffled fur and renal hemorrhage as in non-depleted mice. In contrast, the CD8+ T cell-depleted mice showed no signs of disease. After determination of CTL epitopes on the viral glycoprotein in BALB/c mice, the quantity of virus-specific CTLs was analyzed using an MHC tetramer. The quantity of virus-specific CTLs markedly increased in spleens and kidneys of virus-infected mice. However, the quantity in high-pathogenic clone-infected mice was comparable to that in low-pathogenic clone-infected mice. We previously reported that the high-pathogenic clone propagated more efficiently than the low-pathogenic clone in kidneys of mice during the course of infection. Therefore, there is a possibility that the balance between quantities of the target and effector is important for disease outcome. In conclusion, this study showed that CD8+ T cells are involved in the development of renal hemorrhage in a mouse model of HFRS.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3786-x
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Genotypic variability analysis of DENV-1 in Mexico reveals the presence of
           a novel Mexican lineage
    • Authors: Elizabeth González-Durán; Mauricio Vázquez-Pichardo; Jesús Miguel Torres-Flores; Fabiola Garcés-Ayala; Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio; Everardo Curiel-Quesada; Joanna María Ortiz-Alcántara; Hugo Gildardo Castelán-Sánchez; Juan Santiago Salas-Benito; Belem Torres-Longoria; Irma López-Martínez; Lucía Hernández-Rivas; Jorge Membrillo-Hernández; José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez; José Ernesto Ramírez-González
      Pages: 1643 - 1647
      Abstract: Here, we report for the first time the circulation of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) belonging to the lineage IV of genotype V (African American genotype) based on phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from 10 DENV-1-positive samples obtained in Mexico between 2012 and 2014. Our data revealed that the lineages III and IV of DENV-1 genotype V were found circulating during the same period, probably explaining the rise in the number of cases of severe dengue during that period.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3759-0
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • The complete genome sequence of CrRV-Ch01, a new member of the family
           Rhabdoviridae in the parasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi present on
           farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in Chile
    • Authors: Arnfinn Lodden Økland; Renate Hvidsten Skoge; Are Nylund
      Pages: 1657 - 1661
      Abstract: We have determined the complete genome sequence of a new rhabdovirus, tentatively named Caligus rogercresseyi rhabdovirus Ch01 (CrRV-Ch01), which was found in the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi, present on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile. The genome encodes the five canonical rhabdovirus proteins in addition to an unknown protein, in the order N-P-M-U (unknown)-G-L. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clusters with two rhabdoviruses (Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus No9 and Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus No127) obtained from another parasitic caligid, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, present on farmed Atlantic salmon on the west coast of Norway.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3768-z
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Detection and phylogenetic analysis of a new adenoviral polymerase gene in
           reptiles in Korea
    • Authors: Eun-Jung Bak; Yeonsook Jho; Gye-Hyeong Woo
      Pages: 1663 - 1669
      Abstract: Over a period of 7 years (2004-2011), samples from 34 diseased reptiles provided by local governments, zoos, and pet shops were tested for viral infection. Animals were diagnosed based on clinical signs, including loss of appetite, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, and unexpected sudden death. Most of the exotic animals had gastrointestinal problems, such as mucosal redness and ulcers, while the native animals had no clinical symptoms. Viral sequences were found in seven animals. Retroviral genes were amplified from samples from five Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus), an adenovirus was detected in a panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis), and an adenovirus and a paramyxovirus were detected in a tropical girdled lizard (Cordylus tropidosternum). Phylogenetic analysis of retroviruses and paramyxoviruses showed the highest sequence identity to both a Python molurus endogenous retrovirus and a Python curtus endogenous retrovirus and to a lizard isolate, respectively. Partial sequencing of an adenoviral DNA polymerase gene from the lizard isolate suggested that the corresponding virus was a novel isolate different from the reference strain (accession no. AY576677.1). The virus was not isolated but was detected, using molecular genetic techniques, in a lizard raised in a pet shop. This animal was also coinfected with a paramyxovirus.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3772-3
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Tetraspanin blockage reduces exosome-mediated HIV-1 entry
    • Authors: Brian Sims; Anitra L. Farrow; Sparkle D. Williams; Anju Bansal; Alexandre Krendelchtchikov; Qiana L. Matthews
      Pages: 1683 - 1689
      Abstract: HIV-1 is one of the most studied retroviruses. The role of exosomes in HIV-1 entry and pathogenesis are beginning to be appreciated. Exosomes can incorporate host proteins that are also contained in viruses (e.g., tetraspanins).
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3737-6
      Issue No: Vol. 163, No. 6 (2018)
  • Unveiling the complete genome sequence of clerodendrum chlorotic spot
           virus, a putative dichorhavirus infecting ornamental plants
    • Authors: Pedro Luis Ramos-González; Camila Chabi-Jesus; Alexander Banguela-Castillo; Aline Daniele Tassi; Mariane da Costa Rodrigues; Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Ricardo Harakava; Juliana Freitas-Astúa
      Abstract: The genus Dichorhavirus includes plant-infecting rhabdoviruses with bisegmented genomes that are horizontally transmitted by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. The complete genome sequences of three isolates of the putative dichorhavirus clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus were determined using next-generation sequencing (Illumina) and traditional RT-PCR. Their genome organization, sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationship to other viruses, and transmissibility by Brevipalpus yothersi mites support the assignment of these viruses to a new species of dichorhavirus, as suggested previously. New data are discussed stressing the reliability of the current rules for species demarcation and taxonomic status criteria within the genus Dichorhavirus.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3857-z
  • Molecular characterization of lumpy skin disease virus in Namibia, 2017
    • Authors: Umberto Molini; Gottlieb Aikukutu; Siegfried Khaiseb; Naindji N. Haindongo; Angela C. Lilungwe; Giovanni Cattoli; William G. Dundon; Charles E. Lamien
      Abstract: Between January and July 2017, lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks were reported in cattle in Namibia. DNA was extracted from skin biopsies taken from 32 cattle, and the RNA polymerase 30 kDa subunit (RPO30) gene of the LSD virus (LSDV) was successfully amplified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the newly sequenced LSDV isolates from Namibia were identical to LSDV isolates identified previously in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Greece, Niger, Serbia and South Africa. Given that only unvaccinated herds were affected by LSD, it is recommended that the current vaccination programmes in Namibia be re-evaluated to allow nationwide coverage.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3891-x
  • Influence of adaptive mutations, from thermal adaptation experiments, on
           the infection cycle of RNA bacteriophage Qβ
    • Authors: Akiko Kashiwagi; Tamami Kadoya; Naoya Kumasaka; Tomofumi Kumagai; Fumie Sano Tsushima; Tetsuya Yomo
      Abstract: A population’s growth rate is determined by multiple ‘life history traits’. To quantitatively determine which life history traits should be improved to allow a living organism to adapt to an inhibitory environment is an important issue. Previously, we conducted thermal adaptation experiments on the RNA bacteriophage Qβ using three independent replicates and reported that all three end-point populations could grow at a temperature (43.6°C) that inhibited the growth of the ancestral strain. Even though the fitness values of the endpoint populations were almost the same, their genome sequence was not, indicating that the three thermally adapted populations may have different life history traits. In this study, we introduced each mutation observed in these three end-point populations into the cDNA of the Qβ genome and prepared three different mutants. Quantitative analysis showed that they tended to increase their fitness by increasing the adsorption rate to their host, shortening their latent period (i.e., the duration between phage infection and progeny release), and increasing the burst size (i.e., the number of progeny phages per infected cell), but all three mutants decreased their thermal stability. However, the degree to which these traits changed differed. The mutant with the least mutations showed a smaller decrease in thermal stability, the largest adsorption rate to the host, and the shortest latent period. These results indicated that several different adaptive routes exist by which Qβ can adapt to higher temperatures, even though Qβ is a simple RNA bacteriophage with a small genome size, encoding only four genes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3895-6
  • Whole genome analysis of a novel neurotropic bovine astrovirus detected in
           a Japanese black steer with non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in Japan
    • Authors: Yoshimasa Hirashima; Daisuke Okada; Shoichi Shibata; Shu Yoshida; Shoichiro Fujisono; Tsutomu Omatsu; Tetsuya Mizutani; Makoto Nagai
      Abstract: While neurotropic bovine astroviruses (BoAstVs) have been identified in North America and Europe, their presence has never been reported in Asia. In this study, we detected BoAstV in the brain of a steer showing neurological signs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified virus belongs to the Virginia/Human-Mink-Ovine clade, which contains most of the neurotropic astroviruses including the neurotropic BoAstVs. Similarity plot analysis showed that the virus was closely related to the American BoAstV NeuroS1 strain with respect to the ORF regions and to the European BoAstV CH13 strain in the 3′ untranslated region, suggesting the occurrence of intra-genotypic recombination events.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3898-3
  • Characterisation of the antigenic epitopes in the subunit 2 haemagglutinin
           of avian influenza virus H5N1
    • Authors: Khrisdiana Putri; Nadeeka Wawegama; Jagoda Ignjatovic; Amir H. Noormohammadi
      Abstract: Monitoring avian influenza (AI) infection and detecting silent infection in vaccinated chickens has been challenging due to the lack of effective serological diagnostic assays to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. Very few studies have identified suitable proteins in AI virus that can be used in successfully differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). An HA2 peptide: HA2 position 197-201 (HA position 488-516) described by Khurana et al. (J Virol 85(23):12455–12463, 2011), was shown to have DIVA ability by differentiating H5N1-infected human sera in ELISA. In order to explore the capacity of the HA2 protein, as a DIVA reagent in chickens, four overlapping recombinant HA2 proteins, were expressed in E. coli and tested for reaction with H5N1 sera obtained from infected and vaccinated chickens. Recombinant protein HA2_B2 (380-461) was able to generate a detectable reaction with both H5N1 infected and vaccinated chicken sera but recombinant protein HA2_B4 (483-565) reacted strongly only with sera obtained from chickens infected with live virus, confirming its suitability as a DIVA antigen. Further analysis of the HA2 using several overlapping peptides suggested that positions 380-461 and 483-565 were antigenic in mouse and chicken. This study, for the first time, identified novel antigenic epitopes on the H5N1 HA2 subunit. Two epitopes, found in the HA2 ectodomain, have never been described for AIV infection in any animal species. Also one HA2 epitope was found to have high potential as a DIVA antigen.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3896-5
  • Isolation and sequence analysis of a novel rhesus macaque foamy virus
           isolate with a serotype-1-like env
    • Authors: Armin Ensser; Anna K. Großkopf; Kerstin Mätz-Rensing; Christian Roos; Alexander S. Hahn
      Abstract: SFVmmu-DPZ9524 represents the third completely sequenced rhesus macaque simian foamy virus (SFV) isolate, alongside SFVmmu_K3T with a similar SFV-1-type env, and R289HybAGM with a SFV-2-like env. Sequence analysis demonstrates that, in gag and pol, SFVmmu-DPZ9524 is more closely related to R289HybAGM than to SFVmmu_K3T, which, outside of env, is more similar to a Japanese macaque isolate than to the other two rhesus macaque isolates SFVmmu-DPZ9524 and R289HybAGM. Further, we identify bel as another recombinant locus in R289HybAGM, confirming that recombination contributes to sequence diversity in SFV.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3892-9
  • Pathotyping and genetic characterization of avian avulavirus-1 from
           domestic and wild waterfowl, geese and black swans in Pakistan, 2014 to
    • Authors: Abdul Wajid; William G. Dundon; Tanveer Hussain; Masroor Ellahi Babar
      Abstract: Twenty-nine avian avulavirus-1 viruses (AAvV-1s) from healthy domestic and wild ducks, geese and black swans collected in Pakistan between 2014-2017 have been pathotyped and genetically characterized. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that 21 of the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi, whereas eight isolates were highly similar to vaccine-like viruses of genotype II. In addition to confirming the continued presence of sub-genotype VIIi AAvV-1s in Pakistan, this study identifies the probable spill-over of vaccine-like viruses from vaccinated poultry to wild and domestic waterfowl and, as such, has important implications for the control and management of Newcastle disease in Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3902-y
  • Association of Toll-like receptor 3 and Toll-like receptor 9
           single-nucleotide polymorphisms with hepatitis C virus persistence among
    • Authors: Shaimaa Hamdy; Ahmed M. Osman; Zainab A. Zakaria; Iman Galal; Maha Sobhy; Mohamed Hashem; Walaa R. Allam; Mohamed Abdel-Samiee; Eman Rewisha; Imam Waked; Sayed F. Abdelwahab
      Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) give the innate immune system a considerable specificity for a large range of pathogens. TLR3 detects dsRNA of viruses while TLR9 recognizes bacterial and viral unmethylated CpG motifs. This study examined whether there is a potential association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR3.rs3775290 (c.1377C/T), TLR9.rs5743836 (-1237T→C) and TLR9.rs352140 (G2848A) genes and HCV infection among Egyptian patients and healthcare workers (HCWs). We enrolled 546 subjects (409 HCWs and 137 patients) divided into four groups: group 1 included 265 seronegative, aviremic subjects; group 2 included 25 seronegative, viremic subjects; group 3 included 87 subjects with spontaneously resolved HCV infection; and group 4 included 169 chronic HCV patients. All subjects were genotyped for TLR3.rs3775290, TLR9.rs5743836 and TLR9.rs352140 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. TLR3.rs3775290 “CC” genotype was associated with chronic HCV infection, where there was a significantly greater frequency of this genotype among chronic patients when compared to subjects with spontaneously resolved infection (63.9% vs. 51.9%; p = 0.033; OR = 1.639 and 95% CI = 0.94-2.84). However, this SNP did not correlate with the HCV RNA load among the chronic subjects (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in TLR9.rs5743836 and TLR9.rs352140 genotype distribution between groups (p > 0.05). Lack of association between the three SNPs was found, as the three SNPs are located on two different chromosomes. In conclusion, the TLR3.rs3775290 “CC” genotype was associated with HCV chronicity, while the TLR9 gene may not play a major role in HCV infection.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3893-8
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