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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Archives of Virology
  [SJR: 1.086]   [H-I: 90]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-8798 - ISSN (Online) 0304-8608
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • The complete genome sequence of HetPV20-an1, an alphapartitivirus
           infecting the conifer-pathogenic fungus Heterobasidion annosum
    • Authors: Eeva J. Vainio
      Abstract: Abstract Root rot fungi of the genus Heterobasidion are highly destructive conifer pathogens in the northern Boreal forest region. This report describes the complete genome sequence of Heterobasidion partitivirus 20 infecting a Finnish strain of Heterobasidion annosum. The bisegmented dsRNA genome of HetPV20-an1 encodes a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of 605 amino acids (aa) and a capsid protein of 536 aa. Based on sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, this virus is a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus. HetPV20-an1 shares ~65% RdRP aa sequence identity with the most similar virus strain, Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 2, whereas the CP of HetPV20-an1 is most similar to that of rose partitivirus with ~27% overall aa sequence identity. HetPV20-an1 is only distantly related to previously known partitiviruses of Heterobasidion species and shares ~29% RdRP aa sequence identity and ~16% CP aa sequence identity with Heterobasidion partitivirus 1 from H. abietinum.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3707-z
       
  • DCAF1 is involved in HCV replication through regulation of miR-122
    • Authors: Yanling Yan; Conghui Li; Binlian Sun; Rongge Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a worldwide threaten to human health with a high ratio of chronic infections. Recently, we found that Vpr-mediated regulation of HCV replication depends on the host protein DDB1-Cul4 associate factor 1 (DCAF1), implying that DCAF1 might be involved in the replication of HCV. In this study, we demonstrated that DCAF1 knockdown reduced HCV replication both in the infectious (JFH1) and replicon (Con1) systems. Further investigation showed a negative regulation of HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation by DCAF1. Considering the positive effects on the replication of the HCV replicon, we speculated that DCAF1 affected the balance between HCV RNA replication and protein translation. Since miR-122 is involved in the regulation of this balance, we investigated the influence of DCAF1 on miR-122 expression. By measuring the expression of miR-122, pre-miR-122 and its target CAT-1 mRNA, we found that miR-122 was downregulated following DCAF1 knockdown. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-122 rescued HCV replication impairment induced by DCAF1 knockdown. In conclusion, our study suggests that DCAF1 is involved in HCV replication through regulation of miR-122 and thus provides new insights into the interaction between HCV and the host cell.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3691-8
       
  • Complete genome sequence and construction of an infectious full-length
           cDNA clone of a German isolate of celery mosaic virus
    • Authors: Hanna Rose; Edgar Maiss
      Abstract: Abstract The complete genome sequence of a German isolate of celery mosaic virus (CeMV, a potyvirus) from Quedlinburg (DSMZ PV-1003) was determined (MF962880). This represents the second fully sequenced genome of this virus, along with a Californian isolate (HQ676607.1). The positive-sense single-stranded RNA is 10,000 nucleotides in length and shows the typical organization of potyviruses but has a shorter PIPO than CeMV California. In comparison to CeMV isolates from different origins, CeMV-Quedlinburg and isolates from the Netherlands (AF203531.1) and Aschersleben, Germany (AJ271087.1) show a NAG instead of DAG in the region of the coat protein responsible for aphid transmission. In this study the first infectious full-length clone of celery mosaic virus was obtained and the infectivity confirmed by Rhizobium radiobacter infiltration of Apium species.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3705-1
       
  • Comparative evaluation of the Omniplex-HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper for
           detecting human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical specimens
    • Authors: Young Ahn Yoon; Bo-Hyun Kim; Su-Hak Heo; Hwi Jun Kim; Young-Jin Choi
      Abstract: Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical neoplasia development. HPV screening is very important because early treatment can prevent cervical cancer. Omniplex-HPV is a polymerase chain reaction followed by Luminex xMAP bead microarray technology that is designed for detecting 40 HPV genotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Omniplex-HPV in comparison with that of the commercially available RFMP (restriction fragment mass polymorphism) HPV PapilloTyper. A total of 2,808 cervical swab specimens were obtained. Of these, only 1799 specimens had a cytology result. A type-specific direct sequencing test was performed using the reference method in case of discrepancies between the two test results. The overall percent agreement (OPA) between Omniplex-HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper was 97.9% (κ=0.84; 95% CI: 0.81-0.88). The positive percent agreement (PPA) and the negative percent agreement (NPA) were 98.0% and 96.2%, respectively. The Omniplex-HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper showed comparable sensitivities (90.2% and 91.9%, respectively) and specificities (91.3% each), while the Omniplex-HPV produced more accurate results and required less turnaround time and labor. The agreement between these two methods was excellent for HPV genotyping (P>0.05; McNemar’s test), and clinical sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio of the two assays were comparable to the result of cytology tests in identifying high risk HPV. In conclusion, Omniplex-HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper were highly comparable with regard to detection and genotyping analysis of HPV.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3687-4
       
  • Complete genome sequence of a phage hyperparasite of Candidatus
           Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales) – a pathogen of Haliotis spp
           (Gasteropoda)
    • Authors: Roberto Flores; Jorge Cáceres-Martínez; Miguel Ángel Del Río-Portilla; Alexei F. Licea-Navarro; Ricardo Gonzales-Sánchez; Abraham Guerrero
      Abstract: Abstract Bacteriophages are recognized as major mortality agents of microbes, among them intracellular marine rickettsiales-like bacteria. Recently, a phage hyperparasite of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) has been described. This bacterium is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS) which is a chronic and potentially lethal disease of abalone species from California, USA and the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. This hyperparasite which infects CXc could be used as a biocontrol agent for WS. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain genomic information to characterize this phage. In this study, the first complete genome sequence of a novel phage, Xenohaliotis phage (pCXc) was determined. The complete genome of pCXc from red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) is 35,728 bp, while the complete genome of pCXc from yellow abalone (Haliotis corrugata) is 35,736 bp. Both phage genomes consist of double-stranded DNA with a G + C content of 38.9%. In both genomes 33 open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted. Only 10 ORFs encode proteins that have identifiable functional homologues. These 10 ORFs were classified by function, including structural, DNA replication, DNA packaging, nucleotide transport and metabolism, life cycle regulation, recombination and repair, and additional functions. A PCR method for the specific detection of pCXc was developed. This information will help to understand a new group of phages that infect intracellular marine rickettsiales-like bacteria in mollusks.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3703-3
       
  • Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on replication of avian leukosis
           virus subgroup J in cell culture
    • Authors: Kun Qian; Xiaowei Cheng; Danyang Zhang; Hongxia Shao; Yongxiu Yao; Venugopal Nair; Aijian Qin
      Abstract: Abstract Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported to possess antiviral activity against several viruses. In the current study, we assessed the antiviral activity effect of LiCl on ALV-J infection in CEF cells by using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, IFA and p27 ELISA analysis. Our results showed that both viral RNA copy number and protein level decreased significantly in a dose and time dependent manner. Time-course analysis revealed that the antiviral effect was more pronounced when CEFs were treated at the post infection stage rather than at early absorption or pre-absorption stages. Further experiments demonstrated that LiCl did not affect virus attachment or entry, but rather affected early virus replication. We also found that inhibition of viral replication after LiCl treatment was associated with reduced mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results demonstrate that LiCl effectively blocked ALV-J replication in CEF cells and may be used as an antiviral agent against ALV-J.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3692-7
       
  • Regional, age and respiratory-secretion-specific prevalence of respiratory
           viruses associated with asthma exacerbation: a literature review
    • Authors: Xue-yan Zheng; Yan-jun Xu; Wei-jie Guan; Li-feng Lin
      Abstract: Abstract Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations. We also examined the prevalence of viral infection stratified by age, geographic region, type of respiratory secretion, and detection method. Sixty articles were included in the final analysis. During asthma exacerbations, the mean prevalence of AdV, BoV, CoV, CMV, EnV, HSV, IfV, MpV, PiV, RV and RSV was 3.8%, 6.9%, 8.4%, 7.2%, 10.1%, 12.3%, 10.0%, 5.3%, 5.6%, 42.1% and 13.6%, respectively. EnV, MPV, RV and RSV were more prevalent in children, whereas AdV, BoV, CoV, IfV and PiV were more frequently present in adults. RV was the major virus detected globally, except in Africa. RV could be detected in both the upper and lower airway. Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive method for detecting viral infection. Our findings indicate the need to develop prophylactic polyvalent or polyvirus (including RV, EnV, IfV and RSV) vaccines that produce herd immunity and reduce the healthcare burden associated with virus-induced asthma exacerbations.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3700-y
       
  • A novel passerivirus (family Picornaviridae ) in an outbreak of enteritis
           with high mortality in estrildid finches ( Uraeginthus sp. )
    • Authors: Péter Pankovics; Ákos Boros; Tung Gia Phan; Eric Delwart; Gábor Reuter
      Abstract: Abstract An enteric outbreak with high mortality (34/52, 65.4%) was recorded in 2014 in home-reared estrildid finches (Estrildidae) in Hungary. A novel passerivirus was identified in a diseased violet-eared waxbill using viral metagenomics and confirmed by RT-(q)PCR. The complete genome of finch picornavirus strain waxbill/DB01/HUN/2014 (MF977321) showed the highest amino acid sequence identity of 38.9%, 61.6%, 69.6% in P1cap, 2Chel and 3CproDpol, respectively, to passerivirus A1 (GU182406). A high viral load (6.58 × 1010 genomic copies/ml) was measured in a cloacal specimen and in the tissues (spinal cord, lung, and the intestines) of two additional affected finches. In addition to intestinal symptoms (diarrhoea), the presence of extra-intestinal virus suggests a generalized infection in this fatal disease, for which the passerivirus might be a causative agent.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3699-0
       
  • The emerging influenza virus threat: status and new prospects for its
           therapy and control
    • Authors: Binod Kumar; Kumari Asha; Madhu Khanna; Larance Ronsard; Clement Adebajo Meseko; Melvin Sanicas
      Abstract: Abstract Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause yearly outbreaks with high rates of morbidity and fatality. The virus continuously acquires point mutations while circulating in several hosts, ranging from aquatic birds to mammals, including humans. The wide range of hosts provides influenza A viruses greater chances of genetic re-assortment, leading to the emergence of zoonotic strains and occasional pandemics that have a severe impact on human life. Four major influenza pandemics have been reported to date, and health authorities worldwide have shown tremendous progress in efforts to control epidemics and pandemics. Here, we primarily discuss the pathogenesis of influenza virus type A, its epidemiology, pandemic potential, current status of antiviral drugs and vaccines, and ways to effectively manage the disease during a crisis.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3708-y
       
  • Role of ribavirin in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated mixed
           cryoglobulinemia with interferon-free regimens
    • Authors: Lucio Boglione; Jessica Cusato; Simone Mornese Pinna; Amedeo De Nicolò; Giuseppe Cariti; Giovanni Di Perri; Antonio D’Avolio
      Abstract: Abstract Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is the most common extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), with the presence of symptoms in 10–15% of cases. There have been encouraging data regarding immunological and clinical responses in patients treated with the novel combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), but the role of ribavirin (RBV) in the treatment of MC has not yet been demonstrated. We prospectively enrolled 132 patients affected by MC and CHC, and virological, immunological and clinical responses were evaluated at 12 weeks after completion of treatment. All subjects were treated with interferon (IFN)-free regimens according to clinical guidelines, with or without RBV. All patients achieved a virological response. A complete immunological response (CR) was observed in 71 subjects (53.8%), a partial response in 44 (33.3%), and no response in 17 (12.8%). Ten patients showed a complete resolution of symptoms (7.6%), and 31 showed a significant improvement (23.5%). CR was significantly higher in patients taking RBV (71.1 vs. 44.8%, p < 0.001) and in treatment-naïve patients (62.5 vs. 43.3%, p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, duration of HCV infection of less than 20 years (OR 2.448; 95% IC 1.335–6.202; p = 0.019), treatment-naïve status (OR 2.885; 95% IC 1.404–9.660; p = 0.025) and the use of RBV (OR 6.961; 95% IC 3.912–26.885; p < 0.001) were predictors of CR. In MC patients, IFN-free regimens are effective and well tolerated, and RBV seems to significantly increase the immunological response and promote a decline in cryocrit.
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3684-7
       
  • Chromogenic detection of yam mosaic virus by closed-tube reverse
           transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CT-RT-LAMP)
    • Authors: Chukwuemeka K. Nkere; Joshua O. Oyekanmi; Gonçalo Silva; Moritz Bömer; Gabriel I. Atiri; Joseph Onyeka; Norbert G. Maroya; Susan E. Seal; P. Lava Kumar
      Abstract: Abstract A closed-tube reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CT-RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus) infecting yam (Dioscorea spp.). The assay uses a set of six oligonucleotide primers targeting the YMV coat protein region, and the amplification products in YMV-positive samples are visualized by chromogenic detection with SYBR Green I dye. The CT-RT-LAMP assay detected YMV in leaf and tuber tissues of infected plants. The assay is 100 times more sensitive in detecting YMV than standard RT-PCR, while maintaining the same specificity.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3706-0
       
  • Physiological traits of endornavirus-infected and endornavirus-free common
           bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) cv Black Turtle Soup
    • Authors: S. Khankhum; R. A. Valverde
      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the physiological traits of eight lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Black Turtle Soup, four of which were double-infected with Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, and four of which were endornavirus-free. Plants from all eight lines were morphologically similar and did not show statistically significant differences in plant height, wet weight, number of days to flowering and pod formation, pods per plant, pod thickness, seed size, number of seeds per pod, and anthocyanin content. However, the endornavirus-infected lines had faster seed germination, longer radicle, lower chlorophyll content, higher carotene content, longer pods, and higher weight of 100 seeds, all of which were statistically significant. The endornaviruses were not associated with visible pathogenic effects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3702-4
       
  • Genetic and biological characterization of three poultry-origin H5N6 avian
           influenza viruses with all internal genes from genotype S H9N2 viruses
    • Authors: Kaituo Liu; Min Gu; Shunlin Hu; Ruyi Gao; Juan Li; Liwei Shi; Wenqi Sun; Dong Liu; Zhao Gao; Xiulong Xu; Jiao Hu; Xiaoquan Wang; Xiaowen Liu; Sujuan Chen; Daxin Peng; Xinan Jiao; Xiufan Liu
      Abstract: Abstract During surveillance for avian influenza viruses, three H5N6 viruses were isolated in chickens obtained from live bird markets in eastern China, between January 2015 and April 2016. Sequence analysis revealed a high genomic homology between these poultry isolates and recent human H5N6 variants whose internal genes were derived from genotype S H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Glycan binding assays revealed that all avian H5N6 viruses were capable of binding to both human-type SAα-2,6Gal receptors and avian-type SAα-2,3Gal receptors. Their biological characteristics were further studied in BALB/c mice, specific-pathogen-free chickens, and mallard ducks. All three isolates had low pathogenicity in mice but were highly pathogenic to chickens, as evidenced by 100% mortality 36-120 hours post infection at a low dose of 103.0EID50 and through effective contact transmission. Moreover, all three poultry H5N6 isolates caused asymptomatic infections in ducks, which may serve as a reservoir host for their maintenance and dissemination; these migrating waterfowl could cause a potential global pandemic. Our study suggests that continuous epidemiological surveillance in poultry should be implemented for the early prevention of future influenza outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3695-4
       
  • Enemies with benefits: mutualistic interactions of viruses with lower
           eukaryotes
    • Authors: Shounak S. Jagdale; Rakesh S. Joshi
      Abstract: Abstract Viruses represent some of the deadliest pathogens known to science. Recently they have been reported to have mutualistic interactions with their hosts, providing them direct or indirect benefits. The mutualism and symbiogenesis of such viruses with lower eukaryotic partners such as fungi, yeast, and insects have been reported but the full mechanism of interaction often remains an enigma. In many instances, these viral interactions provide resistance against several biotic and abiotic stresses, which could be the prime reason for the ecological success and positive selection of the hosts. These viruses modulate host metabolism and behavior, so both can obtain maximum benefits from the environment. They bring about micro- and macro-level changes in the hosts, benefiting their adaptation, reproduction, development, and survival. These virus-host interactions can be bilateral or tripartite with a variety of interacting partners. Exploration of these interactions can shed light on one of the well-coordinated biological phenomena of co-evolution and can be highly utilized for various applications in agriculture, fermentation and the pharmaceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3686-5
       
  • Genetic and immunogenicity analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 strains
           isolated in central China
    • Authors: Chang Liu; Yunchao Liu; Hongying Chen; Hua Feng; Yumei Chen; Yinbiao Wang; Juan Wang; Dongmin Liu; Ruiguang Deng; Gaiping Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important pathogen in domestic pigs and wild boars all around the world. To understand the molecular epidemiology of PCV2 strains circulating in central China and to provide a potential vaccine candidate strain, we analyzed the genetic variations of 46 PCV2 isolates circulating from 2009 to 2016 in Henan Province (24 detected in the field from 2009-2013 and 22 from 2013-2016) and evaluated the efficacy of an isolate as a vaccine candidate strain in a mouse model. We found that PCV2b was the predominant genotype and PCV2b-1C was the main subtype. The PCV2 isolate DF-1, which had a virus titer of 106.5 TCID50/mL and a stable genome, was selected and used to immunize Kunming mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), and virus neutralization test (VNT) results indicated that the DF-1 vaccine candidate strain could elicit a level of specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies similar to those induced by a commercial vaccine. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of virus in vaccinated mice after challenge revealed that DF-1 vaccination was effective in clearing the virus in different tissues. Hence, the PCV2 isolate DF-1, a circulating subtype of PCV2b-1C, might be used as a potential vaccine candidate strain.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3685-6
       
  • Molecular characterization of a putative gammapartitivirus in the
           phytopathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae
    • Authors: Jin Xiu Yu; Jun Zi Zhu; Ying Wang; Chao Jun Zhang; Jie Zhong; Hong Jian Zhu; Bi Da Gao; Qian Zhou
      Abstract: Abstract We report the molecular attributes of a novel bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, designated “Nigrospora oryzae partitivirus 1” (NoPV1), from a phytopathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae. The genome of NoPV1 contains two dsRNA segments (dsRNA1 and 2), 1875 bp and 1601 bp in length, respectively. dsRNA1 and -2 both have a single open reading frame encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and coat protein, respectively. NoPV1 has a high degree of sequence identity to members of genus Gammapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae. This is the first report of a mycovirus in the family Partitiviridae that infects N. oryzae.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3671-z
       
  • Mitochondrial bioenergy alterations in avian HD11 macrophages infected
           with infectious bronchitis virus
    • Authors: Sergio E. L. da Silva; Helena L. Ferreira; Andrea F. Garcia; Felipe E. S. Silva; Roberto Gameiro; Carolina U. F. Fabri; Dielson S. Vieira; Tereza C. Cardoso
      Abstract: Abstract To establish an association between mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis following infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection, HD11 avian macrophage cells were infected with the Massachusetts 41 (M41) strain. Our results show that the M41 strain of IBV induced cytopathic effects followed by the release of new viral particles. Elevated numbers of apoptotic cells were observed at 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (p.i.). Viral infection was associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at all of the examined timepoints p.i. In summary, IBV M41 replication in infected HD11 macrophages seems to induce mitochondrial bioenergy failure, acting as a respiratory chain uncoupler, without compromising viral replication.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-3704-2
       
  • Complete genomic sequence of Raphanus sativus cryptic virus 4 (RsCV4), a
           novel alphapartitivirus from radish
    • Authors: Laurence Svanella-Dumas; Sébastien Theil; Matthieu Barret; Thierry Candresse
      Abstract: Abstract The present work reports the discovery and complete genome sequencing of a virus from symptomless radish seedlings, classifiable as a novel member of the genus Alphapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae. Total RNA extracted from germinating seedlings was sequenced using Illumina technology. Bioinformatic analysis of the RNA-seq data revealed two contigs representing the near full-length genomic sequences of two genomic RNAs representing a new virus. Analysis of the genome sequence (excluding the polyA tail, RNA1: 1976 nt and RNA2: 1751 nt, respectively) showed a genomic organization typical of viruses classed within the Partitiviridae, with each genomic RNA encoding a single open reading frame (ORF). Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RNA1 ORF) and of the capsid protein (RNA2 ORF) clearly showed the new virus can be classified within the genus Alphapartitivirus, but sequence divergence establishes it as a new species, for which the name “Raphanus sativus cryptic virus 4” is proposed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3693-6
       
  • Genetic characterization of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses
           isolated on the Izumi plain in Japan: possible association of dynamic
           movements of wild birds with AIV evolution
    • Authors: Hiroko Nakagawa; Kosuke Okuya; Toshiko Kawabata; Aya Matsuu; Kozo Takase; Masakazu Kuwahara; Shigehisa Toda; Makoto Ozawa
      Abstract: Abstract The Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is an overwintering site of endangered cranes (hooded cranes and white-naped cranes) and of many other migratory birds (including wild ducks) that are considered carriers of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To assess the risks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the crane populations, we tested various environmental samples for AIVs in this area. In the 2014–2015 winter season, we isolated one AIV of the H6N2 subtype from the cranes’ roost water and two AIVs of the H11N9 subtype from a crane fecal sample and a cloacal swab of a dead spot-billed duck. Genetic analysis of these AIV isolates indicated that our H6N2 isolate is genetically close to AIVs isolated from wild birds in Southeast Asian countries, except that the PB1 and NS genes belong to the North American virus lineage. All genes of the two H11N9 isolates are related to AIVs belonging to the Eurasian virus lineage. Notably, in our phylogenetic trees, H11 HA and N9 NA genes showing high sequence similarity to the corresponding genes of isolates from wild birds in South Africa and Spain, respectively, did not cluster in the major groups with recent wild-bird isolates from East Asia. These results suggest that AIVs with viral gene segments derived from various locations and bird species have been brought to the Izumi plain. These findings imply a possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3698-1
       
  • HPV genotypes detected by linear array and next-generation sequencing in
           anal samples from HIV positive men who have sex with men in Mexico
    • Authors: Luz A. González-Hernández; María G. Flores-Miramontes; Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy; Krissya S. Quintanilla-Peña; Fabiola L. Martin-Amaya-Barajas; Moisés Ramos-Solano; Luis F. Enciso Gómez; Jaime F. Andrade-Villanueva; Luis F. Jave-Suárez
      Abstract: Abstract The incidence of anal cancer has been rising, especially in HIV+ patients and has been associated with HPV infection. HIV+ patients are more at risk of HPV coinfection and are seven times more likely to have persistent HPV infection; moreover, HIV+ men have an increased risk of developing anal cancer compared to HIV+ women. The development of screening strategies for the detection of HPV in HIV+ men is of major importance; however, there is not enough information about the HPV genotypes and variants that are colonizing the anal epithelia of HIV+ men in diverse geographical regions. Therefore, this work was aimed at identifying HPV genotypes present in the anal epithelium of HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM), with or without anal lesions (n = 75). For HPV genotyping, two approaches were performed: Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In general, the six most frequent HPV genotypes found by Linear Array were HPV6, 62, 61, 81, 16 and 51. On the other hand, employing NGS, a total of 36 HPV genotypes belonging to both alpha and beta genera were found. The genotypes with the greatest number of reads, according to the diagnostic group, were: HPV81, 45, 6, 51 and 61 in MSM without anal lesions (WAIN); HPV6, 61, 70, 62 and 66 in MSM with atypical lesions (AAL); HPV6, 11, 66, 81 and 61 in MSM with anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (AIN I); and HPV16, 81, 58, 61 and 52 with AIN III. Additionally, a great diversity of L1 variants was observed, especially in genotypes HPV16, 58, 61, 52, 45 and 59.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3697-2
       
 
 
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