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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2352 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Journal Cover
Aquatic Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.656
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 36  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-5125 - ISSN (Online) 1386-2588
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Water temperature gradients drive early life-history patterns of the
    • Abstract: The existence of a temperature gradient across latitudes is crucial to explain the patterns presented in the early life-history characteristics of marine fish species over large geographical areas. Hence, the aim of the present work was to analyse the temperature-related pattern in the early life-history events and characteristics of the common sole, Solea solea, along most of its geographical distribution area, focusing on key nursery areas for this species: Venice lagoon (Italy), Mondego estuary (Portugal), Vilaine estuary (France) and Balgzand (Netherlands). Otolith microstructure from metamorphosed age 0 juveniles was used to estimate age, the pelagic larval and metamorphosis stages duration, and the spawning period. A latitudinal cline was found for the main processes of the early life cycle: spawning started in December in the southernmost areas (Mondego estuary and Venice Lagoon) and in February in the Balgzand population. Hatching started earlier in the Venice lagoon, where warmer water temperatures in the winter led to an earlier development. The longest pelagic stage was observed in the French coast populations, which differed significantly from those of the Mediterranean, while metamorphosis lasted longer in the North Sea (Balgzand), when compared with the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Mondego). Populations further north were characterized by higher growth rates, suggesting an adaptation to local conditions. Despite that several abiotic factors play an important role in flatfish early life history, the observed temperature gradient seems to be one of the most important drivers.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of invertebrates within cryoconite holes
    • Abstract: Cryoconite holes (water-filled reservoirs) are considered ecologically simple ecosystems but represent biological hotspots of biodiversity on glaciers. In order to check for fine-scale spatial distribution of metazoans on the bottom of the holes, in this study, we analysed three groups of grazing invertebrates as a model: tardigrades, rotifers, and mites. We addressed differences within cryoconite holes comparing the distribution of invertebrates within and between separate holes and between glaciers at a worldwide scale. We divided each cryoconite hole into three sampling zones (established in relation to water flow on a glacier) and collected nine subsamples within cryoconite holes on glaciers in the Arctic (Longyearbreen), Norway (Blåisen), the Alps (Forni) and maritime Antarctic (Ecology Glacier). Generally, we found no consistent difference in sampling zones within cryoconite holes, which suggests homogeneity on the hole floors. However, we did find strong differences and high heterogeneity between subsamples, even within the same zone. Invertebrate densities ranged between 52 and 426 individuals per ml in subsamples collected from the same hole. We found from zero to four trdigrade species in the cryoconite hole on Longyearbreen. Our results show that benthic animals in cryoconite holes in various climatic zones have heterogeneous spatial distribution, even if no preference could be highlighted for upstream versus downstream areas with respect to water flow. The distribution of invertebrates may result from ecosystem disturbance by flushing water and animals’ active movement. Cryoconite holes, usually considered to be simple ecosystems, seem to be complex habitats where hidden spatial heterogeneity may affect abundance and diversity of organisms.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
  • Zooplankton functional-approach studies in continental aquatic
           environments: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Functional-approach studies are currently increasing in ecology. However, for zooplankton communities, studies are mostly concentrated in marine environments. This study provides a systematic review to reveal the trends and gaps in scientific literature regarding zooplankton functional-approach in continental aquatic environments, including its main groups (testate amoebas, cladocerans, copepods, and rotifers). We focused on determining which functional traits were evaluated for these groups and whether they were based on direct measurements or on literature. We found that despite the recent increase in publications, most studies were limited to Canada, USA, Brazil, and Italy. Publications have been increasing over the last 3 years, representing an advance toward the understanding of the dynamics of these organisms in relation to environmental variations. Most studies used size-related functional traits. Nonetheless, other studies that deal with dietary and feeding strategies have improved the understanding of the dynamics of these organisms. Therefore, we highlight that the use of functional approach is an important tool to understand ecosystem processes and thus to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem dynamics.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
  • Application of stable isotopic analyses for fish host–parasite systems:
           an evaluation tool for parasite-mediated material flow in aquatic
    • Abstract: Parasites potentially have important roles in aquatic ecosystems, although relatively little is known about their contributions to the complexity of food web structure. In this study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were applied for fish host–parasite systems in a shallow swamp–lake ecosystem to assess the validity of stable isotope technics to reveal the parasite-mediated trophic linkages in the food web. Forty host–parasite pairs, including seven parasite taxa (cestodes, trematodes, crustaceans, and hirudinids), found on six host fish species (cyprinids and percids) were examined. The parasites showed unusual δ15N fractionation, with an overall average of − 1.9‰, suggesting the intake of 14N-rich ammonia for amino acid synthesis and/or selective absorption of 15N-depleted amino acids in the host fluid. The isotopic signatures of fish hosts and their parasites were positively correlated, suggesting the absorption and transfer of host-derived nutrients during infection. A δ13C-based isotope mixing model showed that each host fish species exhibited unique dependencies on POM, land-derived organic matter, and macrophytes, suggesting the host-specific trophic niche of the associated parasites in the lake–swamp food web. These emphasized that parasites are potential pathways of material and energy flows in aquatic ecosystems, contributing substantially to the food web complexity. Stable isotope analyses are the useful tools to elucidate the host–parasite trophic linkages, and case-specific isotopic fractionation factors are the mandatory information for a better understanding of the parasite-mediated material flow in ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Upstream migration and altitudinal distribution patterns of Nereina
           punctulata (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Dominica, West Indies
    • Abstract: The snail Nereina punctulata has been observed performing amphidromous migrations (salt to freshwater migration, post-larval settlement) in the Caribbean, with small- and medium-sized snails achieving maximum fitness at the mid- and high altitudes, but they may be restricted by energy stores. Large snails show no difference in fitness across altitude, but their previous migration history dictates their high-altitude placement in watersheds. The factors determining the rate of migration have not yet been studied. In this study, we sought to understand how migration rate changes with shell size and altitude. We used mark–recapture to track individual snails across seven sites of varying altitude in a single watershed on Dominica and measured the shell length of randomly collected snails at sites. Volunteers were assisted with data collection in both cases. Shell length was positively correlated with distance from river mouth, although smaller snails were more frequently found at high altitude, high flow sites. Snails closer to the river mouth had faster upstream migration rates than those at mid-altitude. While we found large snails at higher altitude sites, there was no significant relationship between migration rate and shell size. Our findings suggest that large snails do not migrate at maximal rates allowed by energy stores. We also observed erosion of the outer shell periostracum and calcium carbonate underneath, which was seen significantly more often on larger shells. We hypothesise that this erosion is a product of exposure of the structural calcium carbonate to low alkalinity in Dominican streams, following an initial chipping of the periostracum.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • The longer the conditioning, the better the quality' The effects of
           leaf conditioning time on aquatic hyphomycetes and performance of
           shredders in a tropical stream
    • Authors: Cinthia G. Casotti; Walace P. Kiffer; Larissa C. Costa; Pâmela Barbosa; Marcelo S. Moretti
      Abstract: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of leaf conditioning time on aquatic hyphomycete assemblages and the performance of invertebrate shredders. We hypothesized that post-conditioning effects, i.e., that phase in which leaf nutritional quality no longer increase or even decline, occur late in tropical streams. Consequently, leaf quality would increase monotonously with fungal colonization and leaves conditioned for longer periods would promote higher growth and survival of shredders than leaves conditioned for shorter periods. Leaves of the tree species Miconia chartacea were conditioned for different time periods (7, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days) in an Atlantic Forest stream (Southeast Brazil) and offered to larvae of the caddisfly shredder Triplectides gracilis in food preference and monodietary experiments. Leaf toughness, total phenolics and tannins decreased with conditioning time. The leaves were poorly colonized by aquatic fungi, and sporulation rates were low. The larvae consumed leaves from all conditioning periods, but those conditioned for 30 days were preferred over those conditioned during the initial periods (7 and 15 days). In the monodietary trials, larval survival was high in all treatments, and the larvae fed leaves conditioned for 7 and 15 days had high growth rates. Our results show that leaves conditioned for longer periods did not constitute a better food resource for shredders, which did not corroborate the proposed hypothesis. The influence of leaf conditioning time on detritivore-mediated decomposition may be more relevant in streams with a high diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes that may colonize the leaves more effectively.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09680-w
  • Differential resource consumption in leaf litter mixtures by native and
           non-native amphipods
    • Authors: Chelsea J. Little; Florian Altermatt
      Abstract: Leaf litter processing is an essential ecosystem function in freshwater systems, since much of the carbon and nutrients moving through freshwater food webs come from the surrounding terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, it is important to understand how the species performing this function differ, especially because many native species are being replaced by non-native species in aquatic ecosystems. We used a field experiment to examine leaf consumption rates of two common shredding macroinvertebrates (the native Gammarus fossarum and the non-native Gammarus roeselii). Leaves from three species, varying in resource quality, were added both in leaf monocultures and as a three-species mixture. Biomass-adjusted daily consumption rates were similar between the two amphipod species, and each consumed nitrogen-rich alder leaves faster than oak or beech leaves. However, because adult G. roeselii are approximately twice the size of G. fossarum, this led to systematic, though nonsignificant, differences in consumption rates at the per-capita or population level. Furthermore, we found nuanced effects of decomposer identity on leaf decomposition in mixtures. Only G. roeselii showed increased consumption of the preferred resource (alder) in the mixture, while G. fossarum consumed all leaves at the same proportional rates as in monocultures. This is an important distinction, as most measures of macroinvertebrate leaf shredding are made in the laboratory with only a single leaf resource available. Our results, based on a field experiment which could control the presence of dominant macroinvertebrates while still providing natural, biologically realistic context, suggest that even functionally similar species may subtly shift ecosystem processes.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09679-3
  • The influence of elevated CO 2 on Vallisneria spiralis , Radix auricularia
           , and their plant–herbivore interaction
    • Authors: Chaochao Lv; Hui Wang; Jiaan Wang; Xufa Ma; Chengxing Xia
      Abstract: Aquatic plants and associated herbivores are expected to perform better under the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration brought about by climate change. However, it is not clear how increasing CO2 affects herbivory on aquatic macrophytes. In this research, we set four treatments (A group: ambient air without snails; AS group: ambient air with snails; E group: elevated CO2 without snails; and ES group: elevated CO2 with snails) and studied the effects of low (0–0.5 mg/L) and high (4–8 mg/L) CO2 concentration on the growth, morphology, and chemical traits of the macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis (Angiosperms: Hydrocharitaceae) and the snail Radix auricularia (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), and the relationships between them in the laboratory. We found that herbivory decreased the total biomass of V. spiralis by 28.6% and 25.3% under low and high CO2 conditions, respectively. Compared with A group, ES group reduced the total plant biomass by 43.3%. Elevated CO2 and herbivory both affected the growth of V. spiralis and change its resource allocation patterns. Total nitrogen content in V. spiralis leaves decreased under herbivory condition, and total phenols increased under the interactions condition between elevated CO2 and herbivory. However, total C content of R. auricularia increased under elevated CO2 condition. These results could provide valuable insights into how climate change affects plant–herbivore interactions and food web structure in shallow inland waters.
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09678-4
  • Gill parasites of fish and their relation to host and environmental
           factors in two estuaries in northeastern Brazil
    • Authors: Julia M. Falkenberg; Jéssica Emília S. A. Golzio; André Pessanha; Joana Patrício; Ana L. Vendel; Ana C. F. Lacerda
      Abstract: Fish parasites can be good indicators of the quality of water bodies, and their presence or absence can be interpreted as a sign of habitat changes, helping us to diagnose environmental problems. This study was conducted in two estuaries located in the Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil: Mamanguape, an environmental protection area, and Paraíba do Norte, a river with riverside communities along its length. The objective of the study was to determine whether host and abiotic characteristics predict the richness of fish gill parasites and/or the abundance of the most abundant and prevalent parasite species, the copepod Acusicola brasiliensis, testing the species as a possible bioindicator. The fish host species were Anchoa januaria, Atherinella brasiliensis, Mugil curema, and Rhinosardinia bahiensis. Generalized linear models were constructed to test the influence of predictor variables on parasite richness and A. brasiliensis abundance. The predictor variables used in the models were the host relative condition factor (Kn), host length, collection season (rainy or dry), estuary, host species, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a. Both parasite species richness and A. brasiliensis mean abundance showed a significant relation to water quality parameters, suggesting their possible use as environmental quality indicators.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09676-6
  • Modelling the effect of environmental disturbance on community structure
           and diversity of wetland vegetation in Northern Region of Ghana
    • Authors: Collins Ayine Nsor; Osei Owusu Antobre; Asaah Sumaila Mohammed; Foster Mensah
      Abstract: The substantial variations in the anatomy, physiology and life-history trait of wetland plants tend to limit their ability to tolerate environmental stressors and can consequently affect their community composition and distribution. Comparative studies of wetland plants among water bodies of varying limnological characteristics are useful in understanding the different wetland plant communities’ responses to different environmental drivers. This study examined how community structural assemblages in six different tropical wetlands responded to environmental disturbances over a 1-year period (January–December 2017). They included three standing marshes (Kukobila, Tugu and Wuntori marshlands); two riparian systems (Adayili and Nabogo); and one artificial wetland (Bunglung). The prevalence index method was used to categorize plants as wetland or non-wetland species. Geometric series, individual-based rarefaction and Renyi diversity ordering models were applied to quantify community structural assemblages, while a direct ordination technique (CCA) was used to determine the how they respond to the influence of environmental factors. A total of 3034 individuals, belonging to 46 species from 18 families, were registered across the six wetlands. Grasses, herbs and woody species constituted 42.2%, 42.2% and 15.5%, respectively. Obligate species constituted 30.4%, while facultative wetland and obligate upland species were 47.8% and 26.1%, respectively. Wuntori marshland (n = 768) recorded the highest species per plot (18.73 ± 2.49), while Adayili riparian wetland (n = 260) was the least recorded (6.34 ± 1.80). Chrysopogon zizanioides, Echinochloa stagnina and Pennisetum polystachion were the most abundant species. Species assemblages were influenced by grazing, farming, fire, phosphorus, potassium and soil pH. These variables explained 61.29% of total variances in species abundance distribution, richness and diversity. The results highlight the threats on the wetlands and the need to protect them from further degradation.
      PubDate: 2019-01-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09677-5
  • The influence of El Niño-induced drought on cyanobacterial community
           structure in a shallow tropical reservoir (Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia)
    • Authors: Samson Tilahun; Demeke Kifle
      Abstract: Koka Reservoir in Ethiopia has been severely impacted by water quality deterioration associated with harmful algal blooms. As a large proportion of the annual nutrient budget of the reservoir is believed to be of riverine origin, nutrient availability is presumably largely influenced by rainfall pattern and hydrological cycles, which are related to changes in climatic conditions such as El Niño-induced drought. The effect of El Niño-induced drought, which occurred in 2015, on the cyanobacterial community structure of Koka Reservoir was, therefore, investigated from May 28, 2015 to April 28 2016. The drought caused the failure of the main rainy season, which expectedly caused reduction in the external input of nutrients and changes in other limnological conditions of the reservoir. These changes, particularly nitrogen limitation, triggered the unusual dominance of the diazotrophic cyanobacterial genus Cylindrospermopsis over the previously persistently dominant nondiazotrophic genus, Microcystis, in the reservoir.
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09673-9
  • Still waters run deep: marbled crayfish dominates over red swamp crayfish
           in agonistic interactions
    • Authors: Md Shakhawate Hossain; Jan Kubec; Antonín Kouba; Pavel Kozák; Miloš Buřič
      Abstract: Intra- and interspecific interactions contribute to the successful establishment and consequent spreading of species in the environment, which became particularly apparent in the context of ongoing biological invasions. The parthenogenetic marbled crayfish, Procambarus virginalis, Lyko 2017 is recently recognized as an emerging invader due to its high adaptability, fast growth, early maturation, and high fecundity. The present study explored the interaction patterns of size-matched (including 15 body parts morphometry evaluation) pairs of marbled crayfish and red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, a well-known highly aggressive and widely distributed invader of freshwater ecosystems. Despite this, marbled crayfish won significantly more fights and establish dominancy in more cases in both premature and mature experimental trials. Premature red swamp crayfish pairs were more active in contact and fight initiation than mature. In mature, the dominance over female red swamp crayfish was 100%, in males it reached 60%. Premature marbled crayfish dominated in more than 75% pairs. Agonistic behaviour and intensity of fights significantly dropped after establishment of dominance in particular (size and sex) pairs. Therefore, we confirmed that sex and age (size) have effects on agonistic behaviour in crayfish as well as the dominance of marbled crayfish within similarly sized specimens. Despite described behavioural patterns, we can expect that the situation in the potential sympatric occurrence of both species will not be as clear as found in experimental conditions due to greater maximal size of red swamp crayfish.
      PubDate: 2019-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09675-7
  • Decline of freshwater gastropods exposed to recurrent interacting
           stressors implying cyanobacterial proliferations and droughts
    • Authors: Claudia Gérard; Emilie Lance
      Abstract: Freshwater biota increasingly undergo multiple stressors, but we poorly understand to what extent they influence the dynamics of community structure. Here, we study the impact of combined stressor exposure on gastropods at 9-year interval, through a monthly 1-year (2013) monitoring, also providing data on the occurrence of other macroinvertebrate taxa. Previous study in 2004 showed the occurrence of cyanobacterial proliferations, drought, trematode parasites and invasive non-native pulmonate Physa acuta. During the year 2013, we always detected cyanobacterial microcystins (MCs) in gastropods, from 59 to 4149 ng g−1 fresh mass (vs. 0–246 ng g−1 in 2004), suggesting a continuous and increased MC intoxication. Environmental intracellular MC concentrations were high (8–41 µg L−1) from August to October 2013, whereas they were detected only in August 2004 (17 µg L−1). In 2013, we recorded no trematodes among the 2490 sampled gastropods, and P. acuta represented 94% of gastropods (vs. 58% in 2004). After August 2013, nearly all gastropods disappeared as most other macroinvertebrates (except Chironomidae, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera). The whole decline of gastropods and other macroinvertebrates, and the absence of trematodes strongly suggest adverse conditions in the study site. Despite acute stressful conditions suggested above, gastropod abundance was 13-fold higher in June 2013 (vs. 2004), reflecting successful recolonization and efficient breeding. Most gastropods exposed to drought and toxic bloom were young vulnerable stages. Thus, we supposed alternation of local gastropod extinctions versus recolonization that could induce, on a long term, a loss of diversity to the detriment of the most sensitive species.
      PubDate: 2019-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09674-8
  • Age and growth in a European flagship amphibian: equal performance at
           agricultural ponds and favourably managed aquatic sites
    • Authors: D. Orchard; G. Tessa; R. Jehle
      Abstract: In human-modified landscapes, little is known about the influence of aquatic habitat types on the demographic structure of residing amphibian populations. In the present paper, we focus on a European flagship urodele species (the great crested newt Triturus cristatus) at the north-western range of its distribution, applying the method of skeletochronology to compare the ages of individuals retrieved from agricultural ponds with individuals retrieved from aquatic sites favourably managed for T. cristatus presence. Median ages ranged between 4.5 and 10.0 years depending on sex and population, and did not differ between the two site categories. Females were on average older than males at both agricultural ponds as well as favourably managed sites. Median ages at sexual maturity (3 years for females and 2 years for males) were 4 years below the most commonly observed age cohort in both sexes, suggesting that young adults regularly forgo reproduction. Mean body size did not differ between agricultural ponds and favourably managed sites. However, the former were characterised by a higher variance in body size, which is possibly linked to more unstable ecological conditions in agricultural settings. Taken together, our findings confirm that under suitable conditions agricultural ponds can harbour sustainable populations, an important finding for the broad-scale conservation management of T. cristatus which does not usually take population demographies into account.
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-09671-3
  • Application of deterministic and stochastic geo-statistical tools for
           analysing spatial patterns of fish density in a tropical monsoonal estuary
    • Authors: G. B. Sreekanth; S. K. Chakraborty; A. K. Jaiswar; Bappa Das; E. B. Chakurkar
      Abstract: In this paper, we compared the efficiency of advanced deterministic and stochastic geo-statistical techniques to predict spatial patterns of fish density in the tropical monsoonal estuary, Zuari, using the following environmental descriptors: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, transparency and geographic coordinates. The methods applied in this study were multiple linear regression, Cubist, support vector regression, random forest regression, universal kriging and regression kriging. Fish abundance and environmental data were collected from September, 2013 to August, 2016 in 48 sampling stations distributed along the estuarine gradient. Ranking procedure of various regression methods showed that the Cubist model was the best performing model based on prediction accuracy in the development phase and prediction consistency in the validation phase. Latitude, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen had positive influence on fish abundance, while longitude and transparency showed negative impacts. This study offers scope for refining the employed currently models to predict spatial densities of fish populations using a wide range of available biotic and abiotic variables, which will enable to develop an efficient management framework for tropical monsoonal estuaries.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-019-09672-w
  • Body condition in fish as a tool to detect the effects of anthropogenic
           pressures in transitional waters
    • Authors: Francesco Cavraro; Nicola Bettoso; Matteo Zucchetta; Alessandro D’Aietti; Lisa Faresi; Piero Franzoi
      Abstract: In the last years, increasing interest has been dedicated to the quality assessment of brackish-water systems. Traditionally, fish community is an important biological element used to assess the quality status of transitional water bodies. In this study, we analysed the effect of anthropogenic pressures on the population of a small teleost, the sand smelt Atherina boyeri, in a Mediterranean lagoon by means of body condition. Fish were sampled once a year during the period 2010–2012, in 32 sampling sites, and for each specimen individual body condition factor was estimated. A negative significant correlation was found between condition factor and pressures related to alteration of the hydrographic regime, while a significant positive correlation was found with trophic status indicators and fishery activities. Therefore, morphological and hydrological alteration of coastal lagoons, modifying the quality and the availability of resources, seems to influence the health of resident populations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-09670-4
  • Effects of urea on behavior and functional traits of Asiatic toad ( Bufo
           gargarizans ) tadpoles
    • Authors: Tian Zhao; Xiaoyi Wang; Xungang Wang; Sishuo Wang; Youhua Chen; Jianping Jiang
      Abstract: As one of the important contributors of biodiversity, amphibian populations are declining worldwide. Numerous factors are involved in these declines, one of them being the use of fertilizers in agriculture. This is especially true for tadpoles which can live in the fertilizer-polluted farmland water bodies until metamorphosis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of urea (CH4N2O), as one of the most economical and effective fertilizers, on the anti-predator behavior and intraspecific functional trait variability of Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles. Based on published literatures and the field observation of urea concentrations in China, glass beakers with a gradient of urea concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600, and 1200 mg/L) were prepared, with 10 tadpoles placed in each glass beaker. Each treatment was replicated three times. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) cues were used as the predator disturbance, and three main functional traits (body mass, trunk bending shape, and eye position) were selected. Our results revealed that tadpoles activity levels decreased when exposed to urea as well as to mosquito fish cues. However, urea exposure did not alter the anti-predator behaviors of tadpoles. Additionally, we found that increasing urea concentrations might modify some functional traits of tadpoles. Importantly, urea disturbance decreased tadpoles intraspecific functional trait variability. (Functional similarity increased between developmental stages.) Given that functional similarity between developmental stages could potentially increase intraspecific competition, urea could indirectly reduce tadpoles survival by decreasing intraspecific traits variability.
      PubDate: 2018-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9669-0
  • Sex or food' Effects of starvation, size and diet on sexual
           cannibalism in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus zaddachi
    • Authors: Joseph Edward Ironside; Samuel Thomas Dalgleish; Sean Joseph Kelly; William Payne
      Abstract: Cannibalism of females by males before, during or immediately following sex has been attributed to misidentification of females, rejection of females as mates and prioritisation of feeding over reproduction. In the gammarid amphipod Gammarus zaddachi, males demonstrate that they have identified a female and accepted her as a suitable mate by engaging in precopula pairing behaviour. However, a male may later decide to eat the female after pairing with her. Laboratory experiments were performed in which survival of females in precopula pairs of G. zaddachi was monitored after their male partners had been subjected to starvation, herbivorous diets or diets containing animal matter. These indicate that the female is less likely to survive when she is abnormally small relative to the male, when the male is at risk of death by starvation or when the male’s diet has lacked animal content. Decisions by males to forgo reproductive opportunities in favour of cannibalism, even after engaging in costly mate-guarding behaviour, emphasise the importance of carnivory in the trophic ecology of Gammarus species.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9668-1
  • Differences in physiological traits and resistances of Alternanthera
           philoxeroides after herbivory by generalists and specialists
    • Authors: Haihao Yu; Shufeng Fan
      Abstract: Many researchers have surveyed damages caused by natural enemies of invasive plants in both native and introduced ranges to test the enemy release hypothesis. In this study, we report our findings on the physiological and morphological impacts of a co-evolved specialist insect (Agasicles hygrophila) and two generalist insects (Atractomorpha sinensis and Hymenia recurvalis) in introduced ranges on an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, in both field trials and controlled environments. The resistance of A. philoxeroides against the generalists and the specialist was also studied. We obtained consistent results in both the field trials and the controlled treatments: both the generalists and the specialist decreased leaf biomass, photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen content, and total leaf non-structural carbohydrate content in A. philoxeroides. However, the specialist decreased leaf mass, photosynthesis, and leaf nitrogen content more acutely than the generalists. Moreover, A. philoxeroides increased both leaf lignin and cellulose concentrations upon the generalists’ attack but only increased cellulose concentration in response to the specialist. Our results showed that even under the same population density, the co-evolved specialists from original ranges caused more severe morphological and physiological damage to A. philoxeroides than the generalists in introduced ranges. This revealed that invasive plants released some herbivory stress before their co-evolved specialists were introduced, which may contribute to the superior performance of invasive plants in introduced regions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9666-3
  • Cyanobacteria consumption by cladocerans: a case study on facilitation
    • Authors: Rocío Fernández; Javier Alcocer
      Abstract: Eutrophic systems are stressful for zooplankton species, especially for small organisms (< 1000 μm) that are inefficient in consuming large colonies or filaments of cyanobacteria. Certain mechanisms, however, enable organisms to coexist in spite of the stress related to poor food quality or manageability of the diet. The present work suggests that coprophagy is recurrent behavior in cladocerans that may facilitate the survival and growth of some species in eutrophic systems. We chose three clones of Moina macrocopa that inhabit eutrophic systems. The species selected as possible facilitators were the cladocerans Simocephalus vetulus and Daphnia similis, and the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens, because they are cosmopolitan, have high rates of cyanobacterial filtration and in some cases coexist with Moina. The design used for the demographic experiments of the three clones of M. macrocopa was based on the source of nutrition and consisted of a control diet of Scenedesmus acutus (1 × 106 cells ml), a diet of undigested cyanobacteria (10 × 106 cells ml), and this same diet after digestion by D. similis, S. vetulus or H. incongruens. The excreta of the cladocerans was a deficient diet for Moina, whose populations decreased by more than 1 individual per day. On the contrary, fecal pellets of the ostracod were a diet that allowed Moina to have positive population growth (0.3 day−1). Our results help to explain the high densities achieved by cladocerans in eutrophic tropical water bodies where cyanobacterial blooms are normal.
      PubDate: 2018-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9660-9
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