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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2351 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2351 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.833, CiteScore: 4)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.185, CiteScore: 2)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.385, CiteScore: 5)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aquatic Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.656
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 37  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-5125 - ISSN (Online) 1386-2588
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Potential of marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis to supplant invasive
           Faxonius immunis
    • Abstract: Abstract Biological invasions are a growing threat to global biodiversity due to negative impacts on native biota and ecosystem functioning. Research has expanded from investigating native and alien species interactions to examining relationships among alien species. Invasive crayfish may have similar life histories, niche preferences, and adaptation strategies, but their mutual interactions are little understood. This study aimed to quantify interaction patterns of size-matched calico crayfish Faxonius immunis, established in the Rhine River catchment, and the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis, currently spreading throughout Europe. During agonistic interactions in the absence of shelter, marbled crayfish won a significant majority of fights against calico crayfish, but in the presence of shelter there was no significant difference. When sex of calico crayfish was considered in the analysis without shelter, marbled crayfish won a significantly higher number of fights with female calico crayfish. In the absence of shelter, marbled crayfish dominated calico crayfish females in 83.3% and males in 60% of pairs. With available shelter, the dominance of marbled crayfish was 100% and 54.5% over female and male calico crayfish, respectively. The results suggested that sex and resource availability influence agonistic behaviour in the studied crayfish. Marbled crayfish are confirmed to be competitive against the calico crayfish, which has been shown to be dominant over another serious invader in the Rhine River catchment, the spiny-cheek crayfish Faxonius limosus. In natural sympatric populations, the situation may be affected by factors such as size, reproductive variables, water temperature, and predation pressure.
      PubDate: 2019-09-14
       
  • Joint effects of predation risk and food nutrient on sexual and asexual
           reproductions, and morphological defenses of freshwater rotifer Brachionus
           calyciflorus
    • Abstract: Abstract Ecological stoichiometry predicts that the extent to which herbivores are limited by nutrients depends on their metabolic demands. Nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) caused by predators have been demonstrated to trigger not only inducible defenses but also physiological stresses in prey. Stressed prey always exhibit increased metabolism and decreased nutrient deposition (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) as physiological stress responses to their predators. Consequently, prey exposed to predation risk should reduce demands for nutrients intake and become adaptive to nutrient limitations. In this study, results obtained from classic Brachionus–Asplanchna model revealed that Brachionus calyciflorus fed with full nutrient algal food showed energetic costs, e.g., reduced investment in asexual (lifetime fecundity) and sexual (mixis ratio) reproductions, in response to predation risk. However, reduction in sexual and asexual reproductions diminished when herbivorous Brachionus were supplied with nitrogen- or phosphorus-limited algal food. Moreover, long posterolateral spines and high posterolateral spine-body length ratio developed in either nitrogen- or phosphorus-deficient conditions containing Asplanchna kairomones, indicating an additive effect of nutrient limitation and predation risk on posterolateral spine development in Brachionus. The findings of this study highlighted predator-facilitated adaptation of prey to nutrient limitations of primary producers, which may have implications in understanding roles of NCEs in regulating trophic interactions.
      PubDate: 2019-09-14
       
  • Strategies of phosphorus utilization in an astaxanthin-producing green
           alga Haematococcus pluvialis , a comparison with a bloom-forming
           cyanobacterium Microcystis wesenbergii
    • Abstract: Abstract Haematococcus pluvialis is a unicellular green alga with great commercial value, due to its synthesis of powerful antioxidant astaxanthin. H. pluvialis was mainly distributed in small water bodies but was also observed in eutrophicated lakes, and even coexisted with Microcystis. However, Haematococcus cells never prevail in eutrophicated water bodies. Phosphorus is the main limiting factor in most aquatic ecosystems and may have a role in the distribution of H. pluvialis. Here, we focused on the physiological responses of H. pluvialis to various phosphorus conditions (0.002, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 mM), and compared with a bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis wesenbergii. Growth determination suggested that high phosphorus conditions (0.2 mM and 2 mM) favor the growth of H. pluvialis cells, but H. pluvialis cells have a shorter duration of log phase than M. wesenbergii cells. Growth determination also indicated H. pluvialis cells had lower tolerability to low phosphorus (0.002 mM). Qualitative comparisons from long-term and short-term phosphorus uptake experiments, polyphosphate accumulation and extracellular alkaline phosphatase expression analysis suggested two different phosphorus utilization strategies in the two species. H. pluvialis cells were characterized with the induction of extracellular alkaline phosphatase to survive phosphorus-deficient condition, while M. wesenbergii cells were characterized with quick uptake of phosphorus and accumulation more of polyphosphate in phosphorus-replete conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate features of phosphorus uptake and utilization in H. pluvialis, which will increase our understanding in the distribution of H. pluvialis.
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
       
  • Growth and age of the midget octopus, Octopus huttoni
    • Abstract: Abstract The midget octopus Octopus huttoni is an important link between trophic levels as a food source and a predator, but little is known about its life history or growth. This is the first study to age and quantify growth in O. huttoni from three populations in Southern New Zealand, namely Foveaux Strait, Otago Harbour, and the Otago continental shelf. Morphometries were measured for 121 individuals, ages were estimated for 109 individuals using beak and stylet increment analysis, and lipofuscin quantity was analysed for 106 individuals. Assuming that one increment equals 1 day, beaks provided the highest age estimate (up to 250 days), but are suspected to be an underestimate (40–70 days) because increments were not found on laboratory-reared paralarval beaks, suggesting that the first increment may form after settlement. Daily growth rings in stylets were validated by tetracycline marking, but low estimates of age were attributed to poor visualisation of the stylet nucleus. The relationships between lipofuscin volume ratio and age or size of the individual were not significant, lipofuscin density was low, and individual variation was high. Results indicated that this species displays indeterminate growth until death, with a maximum mantle length of 50–60 mm at an age of 200–250 days. Further, individuals from Foveaux Strait were smaller and younger than those found in the Otago Harbour, supporting an hypothesis of an ontogenetic migration onshore.
      PubDate: 2019-09-05
       
  • Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Indian polychaete fauna:
           scope for implementation in ecological monitoring
    • Abstract: Abstract DNA barcodes are increasingly applied to ascertain the taxonomic identification to improve the speed and accuracy of ecological monitoring programmes. The success of integrating molecular approach in routine surveys ultimately depends on the coverage of reference libraries that require constant upgradation. The present molecular study was aimed at strengthening the genetic database of Polychaeta, which at present is poorly constructed. The current effort is first of its kind that covered a large geographical area along the northwest India. The study has contributed in building a comprehensive COI database of polychaete taxocene that included new records of one family, four genera and six species. The phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of 19 distinct clades, each comprising of individual family with studied polychaete species and conspecific/congeneric reference sequences. This is the first analysis that revealed a close relationship between Longosomatidae and Cirratulidae, rather than Spioniform polychaetes. Thus, the phylogenetic information was useful in distinguishing the polychaete species in the study region. Molecular analysis also facilitated the identification of potentially new Streblospio sp. that displayed close morphological as well as genetic affinity with S. gynobranchiata, with an inter-specific distance of 0.11. The present study proves the effectiveness of molecular characterization and phylogenetics in delineating the Indian polychaete species complex for ecological monitoring. The reference database can aid the high-throughput biomonitoring programmes in future.
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
       
  • Innate resistance of PSII efficiency to sunlight stress is not an
           advantage for cyanobacteria compared to eukaryotic phytoplankton
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of acute solar radiation stress on photosynthetic efficiency in freshwater unialgal cultures representing three phytoplankton pigment groups were measured by pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry (Walz Phyto-PAM) and compared to previous observations on field populations. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) (UV-B and UV-A) induced a loss of photochemical quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) in all 13 taxa examined in culture, while effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were smaller and often insignificant. Cyanobacteria were the most sensitive to PAR and UVR stress, chlorophytes the least and chromophytes intermediate but variable. The kinetics of maximal (Fm) and minimal (F0) fluorescence responses suggested uncoupling of antenna pigments from reaction centers (decreased Fm) persistent after dark adaptation was a common response, in particular for chromophytes, while the extent of impairment from damaged reaction centers (increased F0) was more variable. Changes in Fv/Fm with irradiance exposure were well described by the Kok model of photoinhibition and indicated that damage, rather than recovery, processes were predictive of acute cumulative inhibition. Field populations of cyanobacteria and chromophytes tended to greater tolerance and lower damage rates than laboratory strains. The results for cultures under standardized conditions supported field results in showing cyanobacteria more sensitive to acute UVR exposure than eukaryotic algae, and thus lacking any innate resistance of photosystem II to sunlight stress that might help explain their success in surface bloom formation.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Partial characterization of cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric
           substances for aquatic ecosystems
    • Abstract: Abstract Eutrophication, which causes cyanobacterial blooms, is a worldwide concern leading to further deterioration in water quality and adverse changes in the ecosystems due to oxygen consumption of decomposing cell masses. The investigation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) contributes to a better understanding of the growth and proliferation of cyanobacteria. It could be a key to prevent bloom formation of toxic cyanobacteria which can be hazardous for human and animals, especially those in aquatic environments. Hence, the characterization of cyanobacterial EPS has become an important issue to obtain a better understanding of the formation of EPS. In this study, an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) and high-resolution Raman spectroscopic methods were used to identify functional groups of EPS obtained from Arthrospira maxima. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was also applied to characterize thermal-stability and structural properties of the EPS. Thermal stability was attributed to the complex and heterogeneous molecular structure of EPS including uronic acid and calcite crystal since 34% of the EPS residue remained after TGA. The presence of uronic acid and calcite crystal causes an overall negative charge and acidic property to the EPS which is of biotechnological importance. Protein amount of EPS was calculated as 7.12% by Bradford assay.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Testing salt stress on aquatic plants: effect of salt source and substrate
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the use of industrial sand and commercial salts for mimicking brackish systems in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Many wetland and freshwater aquatic plants are adversely affected by salt stress and increased salinity concentrations. Sea level rise can increase salinity in aquatic ecosystems and shift vegetation compositions toward more salt-tolerant species. Many studies focus on salt tolerance mechanisms to understand the impacts of wetland salinization and saltwater intrusion. Ideally, natural substrates and seawater should be employed in these experiments to represent the natural environment, but acquiring seawater and field soil is not always feasible, so researchers use proxies to simulate these materials in greenhouse experiments. In this study, we evaluated the growth of Vallisneria americana and Hydrilla verticillata under four salinity levels (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 ppt) induced by four salt sources commonly used by researchers (seawater, Instant Ocean Aquarium Mix, laboratory-grade NaCl and Morton Sea Salt). Plants were grown in separate fertilized pots filled with field-collected soil or silica sand and were submersed in 60-L mesocosms filled with pond water. Salinity levels were increased gradually, and water level, salinity and pH were monitored every week. Our results showed that Instant Ocean Aquarium Mix is an appropriate proxy for inducing salinity in mesocosm experiments as its effects on plant biomass were similar to those produced in seawater. Substrate type did not affect the biomass of either plant species, which suggests that sand could be utilized in these types of experiments, provided plants are grown with sufficient fertilization.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Stable isotopes and stomach content analyses indicate omnivorous habits
           and opportunistic feeding behavior of an invasive fish
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a widespread non-native fish species in Brazil displays opportunistic feeding behavior and changes its diet according to environmental conditions. We compared the diet, feeding selectivity, carbon assimilation, trophic niche, and trophic level of Knodus moenkhausii (a small non-native characid fish species of Upper Paraná River) in streams surrounded by natural riparian vegetation (natural cover streams) and in streams impacted by pasture. We analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen), simultaneously. Overall, insects were the most common food items (> 65%). In natural cover streams, K. moenkhausii showed higher selectivity among aquatic macroinvertebrates consumed, while in pasture streams, they fed on the most abundant groups. The proportion of feeding groups assimilated by K. moenkhausii and the proportion of primary sources consumed by each feeding group of macroinvertebrates also varied between natural cover and pasture streams, as indicated by stable isotopes. In natural cover streams, fine and coarse particulate organic matter accounted for approximately 80% of K. moenkhausii’s diet, while in pasture streams, algae and periphyton also contributed greatly. As a result, K. moenkhausii occupied a higher trophic level and exhibited a broader niche width in pasture streams. We conclude that K. moenkhausii presents feeding selectivity with capacity to alter the trophic niche depending on environmental conditions. Such opportunism could be one of the reasons underpinning the abundance and wide distribution of this invasive species.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Food web structure of a subtropical coastal lagoon
    • Abstract: Abstract The food webs of a coastal lagoon ecosystem in the southeastern Gulf of California were investigated through the use of stomach contents analyses and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes of fish and macroinvertebrates. Food sources and species representative of primary producers and primary-to-tertiary consumers were examined. Macroinvertebrates (47.5%) and fish (45%) assemblages represented over 90% of the total biomass. The most representative groups were fish (45%), crustaceans (24%), mollusks (16%), and echinoderms (8.5%). Based on the results from stomach content analysis, stable isotope analysis, and mixing models using Bayesian statistics, the estuarine food web was reconstructed from food chain bases to tertiary consumers, including the most representative species in the ecosystem. Four food webs were identified according to the primary producers, and five trophic levels were identified. However, in the higher trophic levels, these food webs are indistinguishable due to the high degree of omnivory and the complexity of the system which allows the predation in different environments.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Are the patterns of zooplankton community structure different between
           lakes and reservoirs' A local and regional assessment across tropical
           ecosystems
    • Abstract: Abstract Lakes and reservoirs present contrasting differences regarding origin, age and trophic state that may influence their biological communities. In the face of the inevitably rising number of reservoirs worldwide, our objective was to investigate the differences in zooplankton community structure and diversity patterns from 98 tropical shallow lakes and reservoirs (northeast Brazil). We tested the hypothesis that reservoirs have less diverse communities, which could be associated with ecosystem age or high productivity (a typical local pattern). The results show that most reservoirs are eutrophic ecosystems that hold distinct zooplankton communities in comparison with lakes. Despite their higher productivity, reservoirs played an essential role in subsidizing zooplankton diversity as they had higher gamma diversity because of the number of exclusive species, especially for the Rotifera group. The zooplankton density and biomass were also higher in the reservoirs, but this pattern was not associated with higher species dominance. Lakes also played a central role in zooplankton diversity, having a distinct species composition. Jointly, lakes and reservoirs help to maintain the zooplankton species pool at a regional level, suggesting the importance of complementarity in community composition between artificial and natural aquatic ecosystems on large-scale patterns of zooplankton biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Survival, behaviour, and morphology of larval wood frogs, Lithobates
           sylvaticus , under threat from an exotic crayfish predator, Orconectes
           virilis
    • Abstract: Abstract There are numerous examples of species introductions that have caused declines in native populations. In many cases, exotic species are predators of native prey which do not respond correctly to these new and often much different threats. Amphibians, as a group, have been strongly affected by introductions of fish and other aquatic predators such as crayfish. Our goal in this study was to explore the potential impacts of exotic crayfish on the behaviour, morphology, and survival of naïve wood frog tadpoles, Lithobates sylvaticus. In mesocosms, groups of tadpoles were exposed to either a native predator (larval beetle or dragonfly nymph) or an exotic crayfish, Orconectes virilis. Tadpoles were the largest following exposure to dragonflies, indicating that dragonflies were selecting smaller tadpoles. Vertical space use of tadpoles was highest in the presence of crayfish, suggesting that tadpoles were learning to avoid crayfish in the benthos. Mortality was highest in the presence of beetles and lowest with crayfish, and hence in isolation, exotic crayfish were poorer predators of wood frog tadpoles. However, half way through the experiment, we replaced each predator with a new predator of either the same species or a different species to assess how the impact of the new predator was affected by experience with the first predator. When crayfish were added following beetles, the mortality due to crayfish increased significantly, possibly due to differences in predator space use and foraging mode.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • The amphibian macrophyte Polygonum punctatum as a temporary habitat and
           feeding ground for fish
    • Abstract: Abstract Plants that colonize wet habitats may become temporarily submerged forming a new habitat for fish in the flood period. In this study, the amphibian macrophyte Polygonum punctatum was evaluated as a temporary habitat and feeding ground for fish (≤ 108 mm) during the flood period in a river–floodplain ecosystem. The fish were sampled in January and February of 2015 in a lake of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, inside patches dominated by P. punctatum (flood-formed, temporary habitat) and Eichhornia azurea (permanent aquatic habitat, used as control). The abiotic data did not differ between the two plants, unlike their biomass, which was higher for E. azurea. Fish abundance did not differ between macrophytes but the composition and richness did, with more species registered in E. azurea. The foraging efficiency of fish was significantly lower in individuals using the amphibian macrophyte for most species. Differences in the diet composition were verified for half of the species, but the main items consumed were the same in both macrophytes, changing only the proportion. The niche breadth was similar in the patches of both macrophytes. The results suggest that during flood periods, the new habitat provided by the macrophyte P. punctatum was colonized by small fish that probably used this new habitat as a refuge and feeding ground. However, the lower foraging efficiency in this macrophyte suggests that it does not provide an amount of food resources comparable to the permanent habitat represented by E. azurea.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Feeding by two closely related species of Chironomus (Diptera:
           Chironomidae) in south Baltic lagoons, with implications for competitive
           interactions and resource partitioning
    • Abstract: Abstract Four major categories of food items were determined in the gut content of chironomid larvae collected in the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons in the spring–summer period of 2009–2011. These were detritus (range from 88 to 92% of the gut content, by volume), matter of plant (2–7%) and animal origin (0.2–0.5%), and mineral particles (3–7%). Plant matter comprised pine pollen, conidia of fungi, cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. Matter of animal origin consisted of remnants of oligochaetes and rotifers. Food content was more diverse in the larvae inhabiting the Curonian Lagoon. The size of mineral particles in gut contents was significantly higher in C. balatonicus, although the distance between the bases of the maxillas, as a predictor of the size of the particles being eaten, was larger in C. plumosus. The gut content analysis suggested lack of clear food selectivity which potentially may lead to interspecific competition for food. However, the strength of interaction can be substantially weakened by several factors: (1) exceptionally favourable food conditions for benthic chironomids in both highly eutrophic lagoons, (2) the ability to occupy areas differing in salinity, (3) different feeding behaviour and (4) the ability to swallow particles of different size spectra.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Population structure of the Atlantic spotted dolphin ( Stenella frontalis
           ) inferred through ecological markers
    • Abstract: Abstract Population structure studies play an increasingly integral role in conservation and management of marine mammal species. Genetic markers are commonly used; however, ecological markers (i.e. chemical compounds) are a fairly recent and useful tool to investigate ecological management units. The objective of this study is to investigate the population structure of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) within its distribution in the Atlantic Ocean using data from stable isotopes of δ13C and δ15N and persistent organic pollutants as ecological markers. Based on previous studies that addressed distribution, morphometric analyses and molecular and ecological markers, we hypothesize that there are several ecological management units within the Atlantic Ocean. Our results confirmed population differentiation previously detected using genetic markers. Additionally, dolphins from the south-eastern coast of Brazil do not show complete ecological segregation from the Caribbean ones, while molecular analyses suggested genetic differentiation between the two regions. In the light of these results, we propose that at least two ecological management units should be considered, east and west of the Atlantic Ocean; however, the presence of one or two management units along the Atlantic coast of Central and South America needs further investigation.
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
       
  • Responses of a native and a recent invader snail to warming and dry
           conditions: the case of the lower Ebro River
    • Abstract: Abstract Aquatic habitats have been highly modified by human actions that reduce their native diversity and create conditions suitable for tolerant alien species. Pomacea maculata was detected in 2009 in both the alluvial plain and the final stretch of the Ebro River. Since then, a permanent population has stabilized in the littoral area of the river where the water level fluctuates according to the river discharge. Melanopsis tricarinata is an endemic snail species highly affected by the reduction in its natural habitat. Currently, the two species do not share the same reaches in the river, but the possibility exists, as the distribution of the P. maculata is constantly increasing. This study aims to analyse the diets and to assess the responses of both snails to global change. The diet of both species was analysed in the field and their responses to water warming and dryness compared under laboratory conditions. This study includes the calculation of future river water temperatures based on air temperature projections. In addition, based on water discharge management scenarios, the study estimated the increase in dry river bed area. The diet of both snail species was similar and based on Cladophora. P. maculata better resisted high temperatures and dry conditions than M. tricarinata. The projections of water temperatures showed an increase in daily temperatures, especially in summer. The hydraulic model suggested that a relevant increase in dry river bed areas will occur. Overall, these results provide insight into the global change factors that could favour P. maculata spread in the river and the reduction in suitable habitat for M. tricarinata and will be useful for future decisions of water discharge management.
      PubDate: 2019-06-25
       
  • Effect of shifts in habitats and flow regime associated to water diversion
           for agriculture on the macroinvertebrate community of a small watershed
    • Abstract: Water abstraction for irrigation has an important effect on stream organisms in general and aquatic macroinvertebrates in particular. The alteration of flow modifies the habitat conditions and creates important ecological constraints for many of these animals, so shaping the communities and affecting their diversity. With the aim to assess the impact of flow and habitat changes due to water abstraction for agriculture on the macroinvertebrate community of a Mediterranean stream, we characterized physicochemically three sampling sites representing three habitat types and collected the macroinvertebrate assemblage of each one. The three sites were a spring, an irrigation ditch 90 m downstream from the spring that diverge all the water from the natural channel and return it downstream, and a site after an area of agriculture 500 m downstream of the spring. Our hypothesis was that the highest diversity would be found in the irrigation ditch, where conditions were more constant along the year and that could act as a refuge for some organisms, followed by the spring and, afterwards, the downstream site, which would have a very poor community. Nonetheless, although our results showed that the irrigation ditch had the highest values of diversity, the spring and the downstream site did not differ significantly. When analysing the effect of the measured physicochemical parameters on macroinvertebrate communities, the most important was discharge. Thus, our study underlines the effect that water diversion may have on the macroinvertebrate communities even at a small watershed scale.
      PubDate: 2019-06-13
       
  • Comparison of community composition between Microcystis colony-attached
           and free-living bacteria, and among bacteria attached with Microcystis
           colonies of various sizes in culture
    • Abstract: Abstract A better understanding of the distribution pattern of bacterial community in the Microcystis phycosphere will aid in elucidating the role of bacteria in the formation of cyanobacterial bloom. In the present study, we aimed to compare community composition between Microcystis colony-attached and free-living bacteria, as well as among bacteria attached with Microcystis colonies of various sizes in culture. In the exponentially growing cyanobacterial cultures, Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in each colony-attached bacterial community, whereas Bacteroidetes was the most dominant phylum in each free-living bacterial community. The analysis using an indirect PCA model and Bray–Curtis dissimilarity index indicated that the dissimilarity between colony-attached and free-living bacterial communities was greater in the exponentially growing cyanobacterial cultures, and it became smaller in the stationary cultures of Microcystis. In the exponential growth phase of Microcystis, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in colony-attached bacterial communities tended to decrease with decreasing colony size, whereas the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in colony-attached bacterial communities tended to increase. In the exponential growth phase of Microcystis, the community composition dissimilarity among bacteria attached with Microcystis colonies of various sizes could be ranked in a descending order as follows: > 100 µm versus < 50 µm; 50–100 µm versus < 50 µm; and > 100 µm versus 50–100 µm. Our data indicated that the community composition of Microcystis colony-attached bacteria was different from that of free-living bacteria, and the colony size of Microcystis played an important role in structuring the community composition of Microcystis-attached bacteria.
      PubDate: 2019-06-11
       
  • The power of numbers: dynamics of hatching and dormant egg production in
           two populations of the water flea Daphnia magna
    • Abstract: Abstract Many organisms that live in inland standing waters produce dormant life stages that can accumulate in propagule banks to survive temporarily unfavourable periods. These egg banks have important effects on the ecology of populations and communities in terms of phenology, population densities, the probability of extinction, species diversity and habitat connectivity in time and space. They also have important consequences for the evolutionary versatility of populations. Although diapause and dormant egg banks in freshwater zooplankton have been studied for several decades, little is known about the quantitative contribution of egg production and hatching to yearly egg bank budgets and their seasonality in natural ponds and lakes. Here we quantified inter- and intra-annual variation in hatching and dormant egg production in the water flea Daphnia magna in two natural shallow ponds in Flanders (Belgium) using high-intensity sampling and in situ measurements. Hatching started in spring and occurred in several bouts (April–July), accumulating to a yearly average total of 3.5 × 103 hatchlings m−2. Dormant egg production occurred in one-to-three bouts mainly during late spring and summer (May–August), resulting in a total yearly production ranging from 1.2 × 104 up to 17.3 × 104 ephippia m−2. In both years, there was an average surplus of 3.14 × 104 and 15.24 × 104 ephippia produced m−2 for ponds OM2 and OM3, respectively, contributing to the accumulation of the persistent egg bank. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary consequences of both the high number of ephippia that are produced and the high number of hatchlings at the start of each growing season.
      PubDate: 2019-06-05
       
  • Seasonal variations of morpho-functional phytoplankton groups influence
           the top-down control of a cladoceran in a tropical hypereutrophic lake
    • Abstract: Abstract Shallow lakes are often affected by the increase in nutrients and global climate change, with frequent occurrences of cyanobacterial blooms. In this context, the biomanipulation of the higher trophic levels, such as zooplankton, can efficiently control these blooms. Based on this, this study aimed to verify the potential of a medium-sized cladoceran, Macrothrix spinosa, to control the phytoplankton biomass from the Apipucos reservoir, a shallow tropical hypereutrophic lake. For this, grazing experiments were carried out during different seasonal periods, which were characterized by the dominance of cyanobacteria in the dry season and of chlorophytes in the rainy season. The experiments were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing filtered water from the environment and different densities of the cladocerans: 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 ind L−1. The results varied between the seasonal periods; however, M. spinosa reduced phytoplankton biomass mainly during the rainy season. In the dry season, M. spinosa significantly reduced the biomass of the morpho-functional groups IV and VII, while in the rainy season all groups were significantly reduced, except for group V. The cladoceran was also able to reduce the mean length of filamentous cyanobacteria with aerotopes (group III); one possible explanation for this result is that M. spinosa could cut the filaments before consuming them. In this way, the seasonal variations in the phytoplankton structure influenced the top-down control of M. spinosa in a shallow hypereutrophic lake, showing its potential to control algal blooms, especially of chlorophytes, and could be used in biomanipulation strategies in eutrophic freshwater environments.
      PubDate: 2019-06-03
       
 
 
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