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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2355 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Aquatic Ecology
  [SJR: 0.646]   [H-I: 44]   [32 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5125 - ISSN (Online) 1386-2588
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Enhanced ambient UVB light affects growth, body condition and the
           investment in innate and adaptive immunity in three-spined sticklebacks (
           Gasterosteus aculeatus )
    • Authors: Simon Vitt; Anna K. Rahn; Lisa Drolshagen; Theo C. M. Bakker; Jörn P. Scharsack; Ingolf P. Rick
      Pages: 499 - 509
      Abstract: Abstract With ongoing environmental change, ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) reaching the Earth’s surface has increased over recent decades with consequences for terrestrial and also aquatic ecosystems. Despite evidence for direct physiological and immunological responses of aquatic animals following enhanced UVB exposure, studies investigating indirect impacts of ambient UVB radiation are scarce and mainly used only single doses and/or artificially high amounts of UVB. In the present study, the influence of chronic exposure to elevated UVB levels on growth, body condition and immune function was investigated in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were kept outdoors for 68 ± 2 days under two different spectral conditions; one group was exposed to natural solar radiation (UVB-normal), while the other group received additional UVB light for four hours daily (UVB-enhanced). Enhanced UVB radiation was within the range of UVB levels measured at the study site. Fish length and weight were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment to compare growth and body condition between the two treatment groups. At the end of the experiment, the splenosomatic index and the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio were determined as immune parameters. Fish from the UVB-enhanced group showed a reduced growth and body condition as well as a lower splenosomatic index compared to the UVB-normal group. Furthermore, UVB-treated fish had a higher granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio representing a relatively higher activation of innate compared to adaptive immunity. Consequently, increased but ecologically relevant levels of ambient UVB negatively affect growth and body condition and have a considerable impact on immunity in three-spined sticklebacks.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9632-5
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Spatiotemporal variance of environmental conditions in Australian artesian
           springs affects the distribution and abundance of six endemic snail
           species
    • Authors: Renee A. Rossini; Rod J. Fensham; Gimme H. Walter
      Pages: 511 - 529
      Abstract: Abstract Artesian springs in arid Australia house endemic species with very small geographic distributions (most <50 km2). These species have limited dispersal capabilities, but little is known about environmental variance within and across these springs and how it, too, may limit their distribution and abundance. At the Pelican Creek springs complex, the full diversity of endemic gastropod fauna is found only in springs with deep pools, an area thought to provide greater environmental stability. This implies that the distributions of most snail species at this site may be restricted by their narrow environmental requirements and limits. This study monitored spatiotemporal environmental variance in a subset of the Pelican Creek springs (within Edgbaston Reserve) across one year to assess whether pool areas differ from tail areas, and how patterns of abundance of six snail species from three different families correspond to this variance. Springs fluctuated considerably in size, depth, water chemistry and temperature at daily and seasonal scales. Patterns of environmental variance differed across areas; pools were spatiotemporally stable, and tails were ephemeral and environmentally variable. The snail species occupied these areas in different ways. Species restricted to deep springs generally had significantly higher abundance in pool areas, and most had narrow environmental limits. In contrast, species found in a greater number of springs, including those with no pool, occupied pool and tail areas and generally had broader environmental limits. Environmental variance within and across springs affects the distribution of snails in a species-specific fashion. This has important implications for how we study springs and reveals that whilst the vast majority of species are restricted to areas of environmental stability, some can persist in the most environmentally variable areas.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9633-4
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Seasonal and spatial functional shifts in phytoplankton communities of
           five tropical reservoirs
    • Authors: Lucineide Maria Santana; Guntram Weithoff; Carla Ferragut
      Pages: 531 - 543
      Abstract: Abstract Trait-based approaches have become increasingly important and valuable in understanding phytoplankton community assembly and composition. These approaches allow for comparisons between water bodies with different species composition. We hypothesize that similar changes in environmental conditions lead to similar responses with regard to functional traits of phytoplankton communities, regardless of trophic state or species composition. We studied the phytoplankton (species composition, community trait mean and diversity) of five reservoirs in Brazil along a trophic gradient from ultra-oligotrophic to meso-eutrophic. Samples at two seasons (summer/rainy and winter/dry) with a horizontal and vertical resolution were taken. Using multivariate analysis, the five reservoirs separated, despite some overlap, according to their environmental variables (mainly total phosphorus, conductivity, pH, chlorophyll a). However, between the seasonal periods, the reservoirs shifted in a similar direction in the multi-dimensional space. The seasonal response of the overall phytoplankton community trait mean differed between the ultra-oligotrophic and the other reservoirs, with three reservoirs exhibiting a very similar community trait mean despite considerable differences in species composition. Within-season differences between different water layers were low. The functional diversity was also unrelated to the trophic state of the reservoirs. Thus, seasonal environmental changes had strong influence on the functional characteristics of the phytoplankton community in reservoirs with distinct trophic condition and species composition. These results demonstrate that an ataxonomic trait-based approach is a relevant tool for comparative studies in phytoplankton ecology.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9634-3
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Spatial variability in prey phenology determines predator movement
           patterns and prey survival
    • Authors: Kae Takahashi; Takuya Sato
      Pages: 377 - 388
      Abstract: Abstract Species have phenological variation among local habitats that are located at relatively small spatial scales. However, less studies have tested how this spatial variability in phenology can mediate intra-/inter-specific interactions. When predators track phenological variation of prey among local habitats, survival of prey within a local habitat strongly influenced by phenological synchrony with their conspecifics in adjacent habitats. Theory predicts that phenological synchrony among local habitats increases prey survival in local habitat within spatially structured environments because the predators have to make a habitat choice for foraging. Consequently, total survival of prey at regional scale should be higher. By using a spatially explicit field experiment, we tested above hypothesis using a prey–predator interaction between tadpole (Rhacophorus arboreus) and newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster). We established enclosures (≈regional scale) consisting of two tanks (≈local habitat scale) with different degree of prey phenological synchrony. We found that phenological synchrony of prey between tanks within each enclosure decreased the mean residence time of the predator in each tank, which resulted in higher survival of prey at a local habitat scale, supporting the theoretical prediction. Furthermore, individual-level variation in predator residence time explained the between-tank variation in prey survival in enclosures with phenological synchrony, implying that movement patterns of the predator can mediate variation in local population dynamics of their prey. However, total survival at each enclosure was not higher under phenological synchrony. These results suggest the importance of relative timing of prey phenology, not absolute timing, among local habitats in determining prey–predator interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9623-6
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Mayfly emergence along an oligotrophic Dinaric karst hydrosystem: spatial
           and temporal patterns, and species–environment relationship
    • Authors: Marina Vilenica; Marija Ivković; Michel Sartori; Zlatko Mihaljević
      Pages: 417 - 433
      Abstract: Abstract Mayfly emergence was studied in the Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia) monthly over a 2-year period in four habitats (springs, streams, mountainous rivers, tufa barriers) using monthly collections of emergence traps. A total of 12 mayfly taxa were recorded. Almost half of the collected specimens belonged to the genus Baetis Leach, 1815, which was recorded at every site, but we were unable to distinguish between two included species (B. rhodani and B. cf. nubecularis). Other abundant species were Centroptilum luteolum (Müller, 1776), Alainites muticus (Linnaeus, 1758), Habrophlebia lauta Eaton 1884, Paraleptophlebia submarginata (Stephens, 1835), Serratella ignita (Poda, 1761), Ephemera danica Müller, 1764 and Rhithrogena braaschi Jacob, 1974. The mayfly assemblages at all sites were dominated by species typical of the rhithral zone, but there was a shift in species composition along a longitudinal gradient (from 720 to 390 m a.s.l.) from dominance of eucrenal–epirhithral to metarhithral–hyporhithral elements and finally to appearance of metapotamal and littoral elements. Two environmental factors, maximum water temperature and mean pH, had the highest influence on the mayfly assemblages. Emergence mainly occurred between March and November and was related to the elevated water temperature. Emergence patterns of some species were in accordance with their typical Central European emergence patterns (e.g. S. ignita, H. lauta) while some others showed certain discrepancies (e.g. longer emergence period in Rh. braaschi and P. submarginata, one generation emergence in A. muticus and variable emergence patterns between the sites and between the two studied years in C. luteolum). The current study provides a significant contribution to the knowledge of mayfly ecology in karst freshwater habitats which forms a basis for further investigation and monitoring of mayflies in this area.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9626-3
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Ecological uniqueness of macroinvertebrate communities in high-latitude
           streams is a consequence of deterministic environmental filtering
           processes
    • Authors: Katri E. Tolonen; Kirsti Leinonen; Jaakko Erkinaro; Jani Heino
      Abstract: Abstract Variation in biological communities is a consequence of stochastic and deterministic factors. Examining the relative importance of these factors helps to understand variation in the whole biodiversity in a region. We examined the roles of stochastic and deterministic factors in structuring macroinvertebrate communities in high-latitude streams across two seasons. We predicted that if communities are the result of deterministic environmental filtering processes, the communities should show strong association with environmental variables, as taxa would be selected according to stream environmental conditions. However, if communities are driven by stochastic factors, they should show strong association with spatial variables, as the distribution of taxa in communities would be driven by spatially related dispersal factors. We studied these predictions by calculating the degree of uniqueness of the streams in terms of their taxonomic and functional community compositions and by modelling the resulting index values using spatial and environmental variables. Our results supported the first prediction where the communities are more influenced by the environmental filtering processes, although indications of the effect of spatial processes in structuring the communities were present especially in autumn. High-latitude stream communities also seem to be sensitive to environmental changes, as even small changes in environment were enough to affect the ecological uniqueness of the streams. These findings highlight the vulnerability of northern streams in the face of the climate change. To maintain biodiversity in high-latitude catchments, it would be important to protect varying habitat conditions, which are the main forces affecting the ecological uniqueness of the streams.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9642-3
       
  • Seed bank of seasonally flooded grassland: experimental simulation of
           flood and post-flood
    • Authors: Francielli Bao; Tracy Elsey-Quirk; Marco Antonio de Assis; Arnildo Pott
      Abstract: Abstract Wetland seed banks comprise the propagules of plant species that have species-specific germination requirements for germination in either flooded or dry conditions. At the community level, wetland structure and succession during and after a seasonal flooding event depends upon the early life-history requirements of species, including germination under flooded and dry conditions. We examined the effects of simulated flood and post-flood scenarios on seedling emergence from a seed bank of seasonally flooded grassland in the Pantanal, Brazil. Field samplings were conducted in both wet and dry seasons, both of which were subject to flood and post-flood conditions. A total of 70 species emerged from the seed bank, dominated by Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Sixteen species were exclusive to the wet and one exclusive to the dry season. The richness of perennial species was higher under flood conditions, while the richness of annuals was greater post-flood. In general, the aquatic and amphibious species exhibited a significant germination response to flooding. Terrestrial species only germinated in post-flood conditions, with higher richness in the dry season. Four species had high seedling abundance in both treatments. The capacity of regeneration by seeds is high in these grasslands and can be increased by seasonal flooding and drawdown. In these seasonally flooded grasslands, we observed three main germination strategies: under flooded conditions, aquatic and amphibious species; post-flood conditions, an explosion of annual amphibious and terrestrial species; and in moist soil, perennial terrestrial species. The differential responses to flooding versus post-flood conditions help to maintain the structure and species richness in the community over time.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9647-y
       
  • Land-use effects on structural and functional composition of benthic and
           leaf-associated macroinvertebrates in four Andean streams
    • Authors: Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos; Henrietta Hampel; Lutz Breuer
      Abstract: Abstract The replacement of native forests by pastures takes place widely in the Andes. The effects of such land-use change on aquatic assemblages are poorly understood. We conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of forest conversion to pastures on the taxonomic, structural, and functional composition of macroinvertebrates (benthic and leaf-associated) in montane and upper montane streams (ecosystem type) of the south Ecuadorian Andes. Taxonomic composition of benthic and leaf-associated macroinvertebrates was different between ecosystem type and land use. Also, major differences in the structural and functional composition of benthic and leaf-associated macroinvertebrates were mainly promoted by land use in both ecosystem types. Forested streams showed higher diversity than pasture streams, sustaining more shredder, scraper, and predatory invertebrates. We also observed differences in the macroinvertebrate communities between benthic and leaf-bag samples. Leaf bags had lower diversity and more collector invertebrates than benthic samples. This study highlights the large effect of riparian forest conversion to pasture land on macroinvertebrate communities, and the importance of using appropriate sampling techniques to characterize aquatic assemblages. We also recommend the maintenance and restoration of riparian vegetation to mitigate the effects of deforestation on stream communities and ecosystem processes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9646-z
       
  • Root morphological and structural comparisons of introduced and native
           aquatic plant species in multiple substrates
    • Authors: Xiaolong Huang; Nan Shen; Xin Guan; Xuan Xu; Fanjiao Kong; Chunhua Liu; Dan Yu
      Abstract: Abstract Invasions of introduced plants are considered among the greatest threats to biodiversity worldwide. Aquatic habitats suffer invasion more frequently and extensively than do terrestrial habitats. Although the role of roots in plant anchoring and support is important, previous studies have focused much attention on the morphological traits of above-ground parts, with relatively less attention given to the root structures of aquatic plants. In this study, we aimed to compare differences in root morphological and structural traits between introduced and native plants in response to different substrates. We hypothesized that introduced aquatic plants have an advantage over native plants with regard to root trait values and plasticity. A total of six aquatic plants were used: Two invasive and one exotic noninvasive species were paired with their native counterparts according to life form (amphibious emergent, submerged and floating-leaved) and cultivated in substrates of clay, a clay/sand mixture (v:v = 1:1) or sand. Root morphological traits, topological indices and root relative distance plasticity indices were quantified. The results indicated that different substrates have various effects on the root traits of these six aquatic plants; the introduced plants generally exhibited higher plasticity than did their native counterparts of the same life form.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9645-0
       
  • Effects of a combined use of macronutrients nitrate, ammonium, and
           phosphate on cadmium absorption by Egeria densa Planch. and its
           phytoremediation applicability
    • Authors: Inácio A. Pestana; Annaliza C. Meneguelli-Souza; Maria Angélica C. Gomes; Marcelo G. Almeida; Marina S. Suzuki; Angela P. Vitória; Cristina M. M. Souza
      Abstract: Abstract Phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers represent a source of cadmium (Cd) which may be leached into aquatic systems. Macrophytes accumulate contaminants, and Egeria densa has been shown to grow in aquatic environments polluted with trace elements. In this study, Cd accumulation by E. densa exposed to two Cd treatments (3 and 5 mg L−1) was evaluated under increasing nutrient levels (NP as N–NO3 −, N–NH4 +, and P–PO4 3−, in concentrations 5-, 10- and 100-fold higher (NP5, NP10 and NP100) than in the sampling site) to simulate different levels of eutrophication. Bioaccumulation factors and Cd recovery were calculated and effects on plants were evaluated based on chloroplastidic pigment concentrations (chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids). We conclude that Cd accumulation by Egeria densa is positively influenced by increasing availability of N and P at the level of around NP10 and probably at a broader concentration range not defined in this study. A further increase in N and P, however, does not generate a significant increase in Cd accumulation. Chloroplastidic pigment concentrations were not linearly correlated with Cd accumulation and the NP10 experiment produced less damage to macrophyte when compared to NP5 and NP100 experiments. Under controlled conditions, it was possible to satisfactorily model Cd bioaccumulation over time, in order to provide essential data for E. densa use in phytoremediation processes. The Cd residence in the macrophyte tissue is increased in eutrophic environments, which puts at risk the whole food chain of the aquatic ecosystem, mainly the primary consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9644-1
       
  • Impacts of varying durations of passive oxygen exposure on freshwater
           denitrifier community structure and function
    • Authors: Jonathon B. Van Gray; Laura G. Leff
      Abstract: Abstract Fertilizer use has dramatically increased the availability of nitrate (NO3 −) in aquatic systems. Microbe-mediated denitrification is one of the predominant means of NO3 − removal from freshwaters, yet oxygenation (O2)-induced disruptions—e.g., extreme precipitation events—can occur, resulting in a disproportional increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) production and efflux as facultative anaerobic bacterial populations use of O2 as a terminal electron acceptor increases. We examined the effects of 12- and 24-h passive O2 exposure on previously anaerobic bacterial communities focusing on denitrification enzyme activity (DEA), N2O production, and bacterial community 16S rRNA and nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ) profiles after 12, 24, and 48 h of anaerobic recovery. Treatments experiencing 24-h O2 exposure had significantly higher DEA 12 h into anaerobic recovery than treatments undergoing 12-h O2 exposure. Initial N2O emissions were significantly lower in the 24-h O2 exposure treatments although by 24 h a dramatic spike (tenfold relative to the 12-h O2 exposure treatments) in N2O concentrations was observed. However, within 6 h (30-h anaerobic recovery) these differences were gone. Community nosZ profiles experiencing 24-h O2 exposure exhibited reduced diversity after 24-h recovery, which corresponded with an increase in N2O emissions. However, after 48 h of anaerobic recovery, nosZ diversity had recovered. These observations highlight the effects of short-term aerobic disruption on denitrification, as well as the effects on the denitrifier community profile. Together, these data suggest that recovery to ambient N cycling is exacerbated by disturbance length due to increased lag time and subsequent loss of denitrifier community diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9643-2
       
  • Fishing-induced changes in predation pressure by perch ( Perca fluviatilis
           ) regulate littoral benthic macroinvertebrate biomass, density, and
           community structure
    • Authors: Leena Nurminen; Noora Hellén; Mikko Olin; Joni Tiainen; Mika Vinni; Mira Grönroos; Satu Estlander; Jukka Horppila; Martti Rask; Hannu Lehtonen
      Abstract: Abstract We aimed to study whether the varying changes in predation pressure by perch (Perca fluviatilis) reflect the biomass, density, and community structure of the benthic macroinvertebrates. Prey preference is size-dependent, and overall predation pressure is density dependent, and thus the size structure of the P. fluviatilis population should affect the structure of the macroinvertebrate community, and the population density of P. fluviatilis should reflect the overall density of benthic macroinvertebrates. We sampled the littoral benthic community in a boreal lake that had been divided into two parts that were subjected to two different fishing procedures during 2007–2012 period and analyzed the macroinvertebrate diet of fish. The benthic macroinvertebrate community reflected the predation pressure. Total macroinvertebrate biomass increased during the study period in the lake division with a non-size-selective fishing procedure (NSF), i.e., all invertivorous perch size-classes targeted, but decreased in the section with negatively size-selective fishing procedure (SSF), i.e., large invertivorous individuals ≥ 16 cm were not targeted. This difference was a result of the increase in large-sized species, such as Odonata, for the NSF procedure and decrease in the SSF procedure. In contrast to total biomass, total macroinvertebrate density did not show a response to predator size structure but rather total macroinvertebrate density decreased with increasing fish density. The study demonstrates the effect of predation pressure of P. fluviatilis on benthic communities, thus highlighting the keystone predator role of the species in boreal lakes and gives more insight on the multiple effects of fish predation on littoral benthic communities.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9641-4
       
  • Can environmental tolerances explain convergent patterns of distribution
           in endemic spring snails from opposite sides of the Australian arid
           zone'
    • Authors: Renee A. Rossini; Hannah L. Tibbetts; Roderick J. Fensham; Gimme H. Walter
      Abstract: Abstract Patterns of distribution are influenced by species environmental requirements and limits, but experimental tests are needed to discern whether correlates of abundance directly affect survival and success. Springs in Australia’s arid interior support a wide diversity of gastropods only found in springs, and these species show dichotomous patterns of distribution. “Amphibious” species are broadly distributed across many springs and microhabitats, and “aquatic” species confined to the deepest pool areas within large springs. This pattern appears to be driven by the interaction between different environmental conditions in different microhabitats and the environmental tolerances of each endemic snail species. Factorial experiments were used to test whether conditions in the environmentally extreme and variable tail area of springs (considering pH, conductivity, temperature and desiccation potential, alone and in synergistic scenarios) elicited lethal or sub-lethal responses in spring snails endemic to springs on opposite sides of the Australian arid zone. All species restricted to spring pools were able to endure 24 h exposed to the average tail conditions, alone and in combination, but most suffered mortalities when subjected to extremes, and mortalities occurred sooner in the most restricted species when elevated pH and conductivity were experienced in combination. Responses of species from different locations are similar, but pattern of distribution in the field were not correlated with tolerance of environmental extremes—with the “amphibious” species from the sub-tropics being far more sensitive than its arid counterpart. These findings suggest that environmental variance within springs can influence patterns of distribution and abundance, particularly when extremes are experienced simultaneously over sustained time periods. But despite similarities in responses across species from these two spring complexes, no simple generalisations linking distribution and tolerance were discernible.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9639-y
       
  • Effect of interspecific competition on the growth and nutrient uptake of
           three macrophytes in nutrient-rich water
    • Authors: Champika Ellawala Kankanamge; Hasini Kodithuwakku
      Abstract: Abstract Nutrient uptake by plants in nutrient-rich water in competitive conditions was investigated with two mixed culture combinations of Limnocharis flava/Pistia stratiotes and Limnocharis flava/Ipomoea aquatica by using various initial planting densities. Further, the biomass production and other growth-related parameters were measured to understand the dominant competitive behavior. The effects of interspecific competition on influencing nutrient uptake were substantial. In both experiments, the superior competitor produced a higher biomass regardless of the initial density, which was the dominant factor in determining the total nutrient uptake from water. Both aboveground competition and belowground competition appeared to be important in influencing competitive outcomes. Optimal removal of nutrients was produced by a treatment ratio of 5.31: 5.31 Limnocharis flava/Ipomoea aquatica plants/m2, which gave the highest observed nutrient removal, of which approximately 52% of TN removal and 90% of TP removal were due to plant uptake.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9640-5
       
  • The effect of constant darkness and short light periods on the survival
           and physiological fitness of two phytoplankton species and their growth
           potential after re-illumination
    • Authors: Bettina Walter; Janna Peters; Justus E. E. van Beusekom
      Abstract: Abstract We tested the survival potential and fitness of two different algae strains (the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the cryptophyceae Rhodomonas sp.) under different growth conditions (complete darkness and short light intervals, simulating conditions in a deep mixed water column) at different temperatures, plus the effect of these conditions on the physiological fitness and growth after re-illumination was examined. Both species survived the experimental conditions without significant cell loss or physiological damage. Two different survival strategies were observed: (1) the diatom T. weissflogii immediately reduced its metabolic rate and stopped cell division. The effect on chlorophyll a (chl-a) content and photosynthetic capacity was negligible. At 10 °C, T. weissflogii used the short light windows to metabolize carbohydrates and growth. (2) The cryptophyte Rhodomonas sp. initially continued to grow after transfer into all trials. However, the cell number decreased after day 6. Carbohydrate and chl-a content went on to decrease dramatically (70 and 50%, respectively). After 3 days of re-illumination, T. weissflogii grew faster than of Rhodomonas sp.. The diatom seemed to benefit from better start conditions and would out-compete the cryptophyte during a spring bloom. Our results highlight that these algae groups have different strategies in dealing with darkness, which potentially endow diatoms with a competitive advantage in deep mixed waters and in the season of early spring.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9638-z
       
  • Phosphorus scarcity and desiccation stress increase the occurrence of
           dominant taxa in wetland benthic primary producer communities
    • Authors: L. Marazzi; E. E. Gaiser; F. A. C. Tobias
      Abstract: Abstract A few dominant species of plants often disproportionately contribute to primary production; however, dominance has an underappreciated influence on ecosystem processes and functioning. Cascading impacts of dominant species have been documented in ecosystems undergoing eutrophication, but competitive exclusion may also influence dominance structures when limiting nutrients become scarce (i.e., in lakes experiencing oligotrophication) or with exposure to stressors to which few species are adapted (i.e., desiccation stress in wetlands). To predict impacts of widespread changes in nutrients and hydrology on dominance structures in aquatic ecosystems, we need quantitative assessments of dominance of important primary producers, including algae and cyanobacteria, which can regulate other structural and functional properties of ecosystems. We used a highly spatiotemporally resolved (7 years, 165 sites) dataset from the abundant microbial mats of the Florida Everglades to assess how and why the degree of dominance and the identity of dominant taxa vary across nutrient and desiccation gradients. Using algal counts and the dimensions of algal units (cells, coenobia, colonies, and filaments), we measured dominance as relative biovolume. As hypothesized, the relative biovolume of dominant taxa increased and the number of taxa comprising 95% of the biovolume decreased with lower concentrations of limiting nutrient in the mats (phosphorus; P) and higher desiccation stress. Algal taxa that regulate the structural integrity of mats, such as the filamentous, calcium carbonate precipitating cyanobacterium Scytonema sp., strongly influenced these patterns through their tolerance of P scarcity and desiccation. Our indicators and approach can be used to test whether dominance of microscopic primary producers, and other organisms, increases with nutrient scarcity and desiccation stress in other aquatic ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9637-0
       
  • Effects of a natural flood disturbance on species richness and beta
           diversity of stream benthic diatom communities
    • Authors: Fabiana Schneck; Katharina Lange; Adriano S. Melo; Colin R. Townsend; Christoph D. Matthaei
      Abstract: Abstract Natural hydrological disturbances in streams may reduce biomass and species richness and change community composition within streams. Disturbances can also affect beta diversity among streams if their effects are species specific or vary across sites. We investigated the effect of a natural flood on species richness, community composition and among-streams beta diversity of benthic diatoms (total community and three functional groups: low profile, high profile and motile) of seven streams in New Zealand. Sampling occurred shortly before, 10 days after and 40 days after the flood. Species richness of the total diatom community did not change after the flood. The high-profile group was the only one whose species richness declined after the flood, whereas species richness of the low-profile group increased. Community composition changed after the flood, mostly as a result of species replacement rather than richness differences over time. Finally, among-streams beta diversity did not change after the flood, suggesting that variation in species composition of benthic diatoms among streams may be maintained in the face of flood disturbances.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9636-1
       
  • Exclusion size and material have minimal effects on stream benthic algae
           and macroinvertebrate colonization within submerged cages
    • Authors: Natalie E. Knorp; Justin N. Murdock
      Abstract: Abstract Despite their widespread use in grazer–biofilm studies, stream exclusion cages have inherent physical properties that may alter benthic organism colonization and growth. We used laboratory studies and a field experiment to determine how exclusion cage design (size and material) alters light availability, water velocity, and benthic organism colonization. We measured light reduction by various plastic cage materials and flow boundary layer thickness across a range of exclusion cage sizes in the laboratory. We also deployed multiple exclusion cage designs based on commonly available materials into a second-order stream to assess algae and macroinvertebrate colonization differences among exclusion cages. All plastics reduced some light (190–700 nm wavelengths) and blocked more ultraviolet light than photosynthetically active radiation. Exclusion cage size did not influence flow boundary layer thickness, but larger exclusions tended to have higher velocity at the substrata surface. Despite light and water velocity differences, algal biomass, macroinvertebrate density, and community composition were similar between exclusion cage types. However, algal assemblages outside exclusion cages differed in composition and had higher biomass compared to inside exclusion cages. In terms of algal and macroinvertebrate colonization, plastic exclusion cage size and material appear to be flexible within the sizes tested, but differences can still exist between exclusion cage communities and those within the stream. Overall, artifacts of screened exclusion cages do not appear to introduce large bias in results of grazer–biofilm studies, but efforts to design exclusion cages that better mimic the natural system should continue.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9635-2
       
  • Do flocks of great cormorants and goosanders avoid spatial overlap in
           foraging habitat during the non-breeding season'
    • Authors: Łukasz Kajtoch; Peter Lešo; Marcin Matysek; Mirosław Kata; Stanisław Gacek; Czesław Zontek; Andrzej Bisztyga; Robert Gwiazda
      Abstract: Abstract Species distribution, ecology, and behaviour are shaped, amongst other things, by interspecific, antagonistic interactions, and this phenomenon is particularly noticeable among predators. We studied the spatial co-distribution of two top piscivorous bird species foraging on inland waters outside breeding season. We considered the hypothesis that goosanders, Mergus merganser, and great cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo, avoid foraging in close proximity to each other. Data collected on five river-reservoir systems in the Western Carpathians (Poland and Slovakia) during two periods (2014–2015 and 2015–2016) showed that goosander numbers reduced significantly and their foraging areas changed when large flocks of cormorants arrived and began foraging. We also found that inter-flock distances were greatest between flocks of goosanders and cormorants, suggesting that the former species avoided the waters occupied by the latter. Distribution of flocks of both species was additionally determined by the location of foraging place in river-reservoir system, weather, and presence of other piscivorous birds (e.g. grebes) and raptors (e.g. eagles). Together with the results of research in adjacent Bohemia, this study suggests that competition between cormorants and goosanders may arise when bodies of water suitable for piscivorous foraging are scattered and limited in number, as in the mountainous areas of Central Europe.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9630-7
       
  • Temporal and spatial variations of aquatic environmental characteristics
           and sediment bacterial community in five regions of Lake Taihu
    • Authors: Yu Wan; Yang Bai; Jia He; Yaping Zhang; Rongfu Li; Xiaohong Ruan
      Abstract: Abstract Sediment bacterial community and their relation with environmental factors were investigated in the five different trophic status lake regions sediment, Meiliang Bay, Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay, Western Lake Taihu and Xukou Bay in a large, shallow, eutrophic freshwater lake (Lake Taihu, China). Water and surface sediment samples were collected at 35 sampling sites in January 2014 (winter) and July 2015 (summer). The physicochemical characterization showed that there were obvious changes in the trophic status and eutrophic index of five lake regions, which was mainly due to the difference of organic matter source. Based on the analysis of aquatic environmental characteristics, the organic nitrogen or nitrate nitrogen was the main storing form in the overlying water of five lake regions. In addition, nitrate nitrogen in pore water was lower than in overlying water, while ammonia nitrogen in pore water was higher than in overlying water. According to the DGGE profiles, temporal and spatial variations of bacterial community were apparent. Bacterial diversity was higher in summer than in winter and increased with the decrease in the lake region trophic status. The dendrogram of the bacterial community similarities revealed that samples were almost all grouped into two defined clusters (summer and winter), which indicated that season rather than region was the dominant factor. Canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated that ammonia nitrogen and nitrate–nitrite nitrogen in the sediment and pore water, organic matter and temperature significantly influenced the sediment bacterial community in the five lake regions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9621-8
       
 
 
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