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Journal Cover   Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.122]   [H-I: 8]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2276 journals]
  • Evaluation of Neonatal Brain Development Using Acoustic Radiation Force
           Impulse Imaging (ARFI)
    • Abstract: We applied acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) for examination of the brains of 41 neonatal infants of different gestational ages. We used a new technical index, Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ), to evaluate elastic properties of the brain tissues. Different brain tissues demonstrated different values of this index. The greater the gestational age, the higher the VTQ value. We conclude that ARFI provides a new quantitative index to evaluate the level of neonatal brain development and increases the objectivity and reliability of clinical analysis. The method is noninvasive, safe, simple, convenient, and can be extensively applied in clinics.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Inactivation of the Nucl. Accumbens Core Exerts No Effect on
           Nicotine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference
    • Abstract: Effects of transient inhibition of the core part of the nucl. accumbens (NAcC) by lidocaine on nicotineinduced conditioned place preference in male Wistar rats were examined. Lidocaine (2%) was injected into the NAcC of nicotine-conditioned animals before each nicotine i.p. injection. On the test day, behavior of the animals in a two-lcompartment apparatus was recorded during 10 min. Results revealed that i.p. injections of nicotine (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg) induced place preference. Transient lidocaine-induced inhibition of one or both sides of the NAcC did not change place preference but changed the numbers of compartment crossings, rearings, and sniffings. Inhibition of the left part and both parts of the structure reduced sniffing and increased place preference; inhibition of the right part of the nucleus increased the intensity of this phenomena.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the CA1 Pyramidal Neuron in a Modeled
           Hippocampal Circuit
    • Abstract: Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) plays an important role in sculpting information-storing circuits in the hippocampus, since motor learning and memory are thought to be closely linked with this classical plasticity. To further understand the information delivery in a hippocampus circuit, we build a computational model to study the potential role of linear changes in the synaptic weight and synaptic number. Several key results have been obtained: (i) Changes in the synaptic weight and numbers lead to different long-term modifications; (ii) the first paired spiking from two neurons significantly influences the adjusted subsequent paired spiking; the pre-post spiking pair strengthens the following paired spiking; however, the post-pre spiking pair depresses the subsequent spiking; (iii) when the synaptic weight and synaptic numbers are changed, the interval of the first spiking pair may undergo reduction, and (iv) when we stimulate a stellate neuron weakly or decrease the capacitance of the CA1 pyramidal neuron, LTP is more easily produced than LTD; on the contrary, LTD is more easily produced in an opposite situation; increase in the synaptic numbers can promote activation of the CA1 pyramidal neuron.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Cerebellar Nonmotor Functions – Approaches and Significance
    • Abstract: The cerebellum is involved in the control of motor and nonmotor functions. Refined and innovative experimental and clinical approaches, starting from anatomy and including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have allowed researchers to store extensive information on the cerebellar contributions to motor control and also helped them to understanding cerebellar nonmotor functions. Does the cerebellum process exclusively cerebral information related to certain specificactions, or does it also process some forms of information independent of such relation? At present, researchers are close to evaluating how the cerebellum is active during resolution of cognitive tasks. Various therapy lines in perspective, from cerebellar stimulation to cerbellar grafts and artificial cerebellum, are of particular significance, as they can restore lost brain functions in animal models and repair in sufficient brain processes in patients.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Expression of the Transcription Factor Pax6 in the Lobe of the Facial
           Nerve of the Carp Brain
    • Abstract: Using immunoperoxidase labeling, we examined the distribution of the transcription factor Pax6 in the unpaired lobe of the facial nerve (lobus impar nervi facialis, LINF) of the brain of adult individuals of the carp (Cyprinus carpio). A significant fraction of the cells with expression of the Pax6 protein was localized in the dorsal, lateral, and basal zones of the external LINF layer. Cells with intense Pax6-positivity were usually of a rounded or slightly elongated shape; in most cases they were not grouped. The average diameter of most labelled cells was 5.8 to 9.6 μm; in the basal zone, some cells were larger (mean diameter up to 11.4 μm). The density of localization of Pax6-positive cells within basal zones of the external LINF layer was noticeably greater than that in the dorsal and lateral portions of the above layer. Within the internal LINF layer, cells with a relatively high content of Pax6 were observed, but the optical density of the immunolabelled substance in cells of this layer was several times lower than that in the external layer. Labelled cells in the internal LINF layer formed significant spatial accumulations (niches) separated by regions with no immunonepositivity. Cross-sectional areas of such niches varied from about 460 to 2070 μm2. A considerable part of the cells localized in the internal layer should probably be considered units in the course of migration. Basal regions of the LINF probably represent the most significant region where post-embryonic (“adult”) neurogenesis is realized within this brain structure. Here, cells are formed de novo (mostly in the external layer of the matrix zone), migrate, and undergo differentiation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Central Action of Botulinum Toxin Type A – Is It Possible?
    • Abstract: Botulinum toxin (BoTx) is a product of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria of the Clostridium genus. At present, seven serotypes (A to G) of BoTx have been identified. Each of them functions as a zincdependent endopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide bonds within soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attaching protein receptors. BoTx affects proteins required for neurotransmitter release through presynaptic membranes. As a result, muscle weakness develops, or complete paralysis of the muscles occurs. These effects are not only limited to striated muscles but also may have impact on smooth muscles and secretory glands. The observation that BoTx can diffuse from the site of administration may indicate the possibility of direct or indirect influence of the toxin on the CNS. Consequently, the question arises: What is the mechanism of the central action of BoTx? Several mechanisms of such action have been proposed. However, recent findings showed that the most probable mechanism responsible for the central effects of BoTx action is its anterograde transport. In this review, we describe and discuss the most important aspects related to BoTx action on the CNS.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Neurophysiological and Neurochemical Mechanisms Underlying Depression
           Disorders and Search for New Directions of Treatment
    • Abstract: Depression is a severe mental pathological condition that poses a threat to life; each year, it afflicts a growing number of humans. Depression increases the risk of suicide and promotes the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and other diseases. At present, therapy of the depressive syndrome is still insufficiently effective. Difficulties in therapeutic treatment of this syndrome are, to a considerable extent, due to the fact that it should be considered a continuum of subsyndromes based on different neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms. In this review, we analyze and discuss functional changes in the three main limbic structures (medial prefrontal cortex, nucl. accumbens, and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala) related to behavioral depression in animals induced by repeated introduction of glucocorticoids (GCs), action of chronic inflammation/pain, or the abstinence syndrome after withdrawal of pharmacological agents that caused drug addiction. Based on the revealed functional disorders in neuronal ensembles of the above-mentioned limbic structures, some possible pathways necessary for optimization of therapy of different variants of the depressive syndrome are proposed.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Coordination of Activity of the Shoulder Belt and Shoulder Muscles in
           Humans During Bimanual Synchronous Two-Joint Movements
    • Abstract: We examined coordination of EMG activity of flexors and extensors of the shoulder and elbow joints during realization of synchronous bimanual ramp-and-hold movements within a horizontal plane similar to those in the course of rowing. A tested subject moved handles of two levers rotating on the vertical axes and traced a trajectory of the command signal presented on a monitor. Test movements included displacements of the lever handles “to the chest” (TCh) and “from the chest” (FCh) (durations 0.4, 1.0, or 2.0 sec), separated by a phase of fixation of the extremum position after the first phase (duration 6.0 sec); the amplitude of turns of the levers was equal to 30 deg. The movements were realized under conditions of application of external loadings (33–28 and 19–15 N) having FCh or TCh directions. During realization of the movements, EMG activity of the shoulder belt and shoulder muscles was recorded bilaterally; patterns of rectified and integrated EMGs were considered correlates of the central motor commands (CMCs) coming to the corresponding muscles. Analysis of EMGs recorded from 12 muscles (six for each limb) demonstrated that the activity of the latter is coordinated in a rather complex mode. The peculiarities of functional interactions (synergies) of muscles during coordinated displacements of the shoulder links and forearms under conditions of realization of the above-mentioned test movements are described. Significant effects of the velocity factor on the dynamic components of CMCs addressed to the examined muscles were observed. In each muscle, statistically significant differences between the EMG amplitudes during realization of the TCh and FCh movements were found. Differences between the dynamic and static EMG components under the action of external loadings of opposite directions were also significant. It was found that, in the course of realization of the movements, CMCs coming to the elbow flexors were more variable (flexible) compared with CMCs directed toward shoulder extensors. With increase in the duration of active phases of the test movement, the amplitude of these phases (D1 and D2) in EMGs of all examined muscles decreased at both directions of the external loading. The dependence of stationary EMG levels on the direction of action of this loading has been also demonstrated. Static components of EMG activity of all muscles were considerably greater at extending loadings compared to those at flexing ones.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Wavelet Transform-Based Classification of Electromyogram Signals Using an
           Anova Technique
    • Abstract: Wavelet analysis of surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals has been investigated. Methods to remove noise before processing and further analysis are rather significant for these signals. The sEMG signals were estimated with the following steps, first, the obtained signal was decomposed using wavelet transform; then, decomposed coefficients were analyzed by threshold methods, and, finally, reconstruction was performed. Comparison of the Daubechies wavelet family for effective removing noise from the recorded sEMGs was executed preciously. As was found, wavelet transform db4 performs denoising best among the aforesaid wavelet family. Results inferred that Daubechies wavelet families (db4) were more suitable for the analysis of sEMG signals related to different upper limb motions, and a classification accuracy of 88.90% was achieved. Then, a statistical technique (one-way repeated factorial analysis) for the experimental coefficient was done to investigate the class separ ability among different motions.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Time Profile of nNOS Expression in the Spinal Dorsal Horn after L 5 Spinal
           Root Transection in Rats
    • Abstract: Using immunohistochemical analysis, we investigated the time profile of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in the lumbar spinal cord up to day 28 after transection of the L5 spinal root. On day 14 after injury, we also evaluated the effect of intrathecal application of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a selective nNOS inhibitor (8.15 μg in 5 μl), on thermal hyperalgesia. Our results indicated that nerve transection increased the intensity of nNOS-immunoreactivity in superficial and deep laminae of the dorsal horn within a late stage (days 7 to 28) of the neuropathy model used. Furthermore, 7-NI attenuated nerve injury-evoked thermal hypersensitivity on day 14 but did not reduce it between days 2 and 5 after transection. These data suggest that nNOS overexpression is more involved in the development than in the initiation of thermal hyperalgesia in L5-transected rats.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Possible Role of Protein CPG15 in Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting Under
           Conditions of Pentylenetetrazole Kindling
    • Abstract: We examined changes in expression of the candidate plasticity-related gene 15 (CPG15) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and hippocampal CA3 region in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model and investigated the role of this gene in the phenomenon of mossy fiber sprouting (MFS). Experimental rats were divided into the control and PTZ groups. The epileptic model was created by intraperitoneal PTZ injection, while control rats were injected with saline. At days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 after the first PTZ injection, Timm staining was scored in the CA3 hippocampal area, and a product of CPG15 (protein CPG15) was labeled in the DG stratum granulosum and in the CA3 area using immunohistochemistry. The Timm scores in the CA3 region increased gradually from day 3 and were significantly higher than those in the control within the subsequent period. The level of CPG15 protein in the DG and CA3 area decreased gradually until day 14 and returned to the normal level at day 28. The results obtained indicate, for the first time, that CPG15 may be involved in the process of MFS. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon may lead to successful therapeutic interventions that limit epileptogenesis.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Responses of Cortical Extrastriate Area 21a Neurons Specialized in Motion
    • Abstract: According to a generally accepted concept, the stationary structure of the receptive field of a visually sensitive central neuron predetermines transformation and central processing of the incoming information, including that related to moving visual stimuli. We found, however, that a small group of visually sensitive neurons of the cat extrastriate cortical area 21a does not fit this statement and exhibits no responses to stationary visual stimuli while responding vigorously to moving images. The results of our experiments showed that response patterns of these neurons to moving stimuli display high degrees of diversification and processing of incoming visual information. We suppose that these neurons may be strictly specialized in the detection and central processing of visual information necessary for perception of moving images.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Ambivalent Effects on P2X3 Receptors in Rat Sensory Neurons in the
           Presence of Opioid Receptor Antagonists
    • Abstract: In cultured neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of rats, it was found that incubation of these neurons in the presence of 50 nM naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist, OR antagonist) significantly increased the efficacy of blocking of P2X3-mediated transmembrane currents induced by application of an endogenous opioid, Leu-enkephalin (LEK); the above currents were evoked by application of α,β-Me-ATP. Under conditions of preliminary 2- to 4-min-long incubation of neurons with naloxone, 10 nM LEK completely blocked P2H3 currents (blocking developed within 2 min). Under control conditions (without incubation), the respective effect was observed only at much higher LEK concentrations (1 μM). Thus, the IC50 of inhibitory LEK action was reduced in this case from 10 nM to 1 nM. Naloxone in high concentrations (1 μM), when applied after the development of the LEK inhibitory effect, exerted a dissimilar influence on the amplitude of P2X3 currents. For a time (within 2-4 min), this amplitude exceeded the control values; later on, it returned to the initial value. Such ambivalent effect of the opioid peptide (LEK) is related to the fact that G-proteins, when binding to the ORs, can form complexes in two conformations, inhibitory (Gi/o) and stimulating (Gq/s). It is known that naloxone can increase the analgesic effect of morphine due to direct competitive antagonism with the Gq/s-bound conformation. Thus, ambivalent effects of opioids on P2X3 receptors are explained by an antagonist-induced shift of the equilibrium between conformations of G-protein complexes.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Improvement of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow After Stimulation of the Nucl.
           Fastigius in Cerebral Infarction Patients
    • Abstract: Experimental studies reported that focal stimulation of the nucl. fastigius (fastigial nucleus stimulation, FNS) increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and ameliorates disorders of cerebral blood circulation. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of FNS on rCBF in cerebral infarction patients and to estimate correlation of the respective effect with prognosis and treatment. The rCBF of 20 cerebral infarction patients was measured before and after FNS using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the data were subjected to semiquantitative analysis. Results of the neural ability defect test were used to evaluate prognosis. In the above patients, different levels of decreased rCBF were observed. Focal FNS noticeably ameliorated disorders of scirculation in both the infarction area and the corresponding contralateral cerebral area (P < 0.05). The SPECT images showed that the improvement of rCBF was more evident in the central region of the lesion than in the surrounding area. Thus, it was demonstrated that FNS treatment enhances rCBF, which is followed by the improvement of clinical symptoms in cerebral infarction patients.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Effects of Injection of Carbon Nanotubes on EEG and Results of a
           Behavioral Test in Rats
    • Abstract: We examined the biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) injected i.p. into rats (1 mg/kg body mass) by recording EEG from the frontal and occipital cortex and performing the water maze router test before and after such injection. For EEG, the energy and average power spectral density of wavelet coefficients in the β, α, and θ bands were considered the features. In the water maze router experiment, the distance, time, and speed of rats were investigated as behavioral factors. Comparison of EEG signals before and after injection showed that introduction of CNTs exerted no significant effect on electrophysiological brain indices. A comparison of behavioral factors before and after injection, however, showed that injections of CNTs increased the pacing distance and time to find the desired platform and decreased somewhat the speed in the water maze router experiment. A possible reason of this phenomenon is the possible influence of CNTs on ion fluxes in brain neurons.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Role of the Serotonergic System in Suppression of Visceral Pain Induced in
           Mice by Preliminary Microwave Irradiation of an Acupuncture Point
    • Abstract: In experiments on male albino mice, we examined the role of the serotonergic cerebral system in analgesia induced by microwave irradiation of the acupuncture point (AP) E-36. Two modes of irradiation were used: broadband (30–300 GHz) radiation with low-frequency (0.1–100 Hz) amplitude modulation and fixed-frequency (61 ± 4 GHz) radiation. Irradiation of the AP preceded induction of visceral pain by i.p. injections of acetic acid. A blocker of serotonin (ST) synthesis, DL para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg), introduced 72 h before injection of acetic acid, provided significant prolongation of manifestations of the pain behavioral reaction (PBR) by 41.6 and 66.7%, respectively, as compared with the duration of this reaction in mice subjected to irradiation of the AP in the above modes but with no PCPA injection (P < 0.05 in both cases). Intensification of the PBR against the background of blockade of ST synthesis shows that the respective cerebral system is significantly involved in analgesia induced by preliminary (preceding the induction of the pain syndrome) microwave irradiation of the AP E-36.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Neurobehavioral Consequences of Chronic Lead Intoxication: Effects of
           Vitamin E Supplementation
    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of vitamin E supplementation on neurobehavioral alterations induced by chronic ingestion of lead acetate in mice. The animals were divided into three main groups, group 1 (control) given with normal saline (10 ml/kg) and groups 2 and 3 given with 3000 mg/kg lead acetate alone and in combination with 13 IU of vitamin E, respectively, for a period of 90 days. Lead intoxication resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reduction of the number of head dips in the hole-board test and the time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze test, compared with the control. Intoxication also induced increased pain sensitivity, as shown by significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the tail flick latency and increase in the frequency of abdominal constrictions in the writhing test. The periods of immobility in both tail suspension and forced swimming tests in intoxicated animals were greater, as compared with the control. Co-administration of vitamin E with lead in group 3 significantly (P < 0.05) reversed all the mentioned shifts (increased the number of head dips and time spent in the maze open arm, increased the tail flick latency, decreased the frequency of writhings, and decreased the periods of immobility in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests). Thus, vitamin E treatment is capable of effectively attenuating the negative neurobehavioral consequences of lead intoxication.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Ethical responsibilities of the authors
    • PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Dopamine Responsiveness in the Nucl. Accumbens Shell and Parameters of the
           Heroin-Influenced Conditioned Place Preference in Rats
    • Abstract: Previous evidence demonstrated that drug-induced extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations in the nucl. accumbens shell (AcbSh) might underlie different vulnerabilities to heroin addiction in inbred mice strains. We investigated a potential role of the responsiveness of the DA system in the AcbSh with respect to the vulnerability to heroin-influenced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. Animals were randomly assigned to the heroin and saline (control) groups. Heroin-group rats were then reclassified into two groups according to the degree of heroin-induced CPP, high preference (HP) and low-preference (LP) ones. The levels of extracellular DA and dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) were estimated dynamically by in vivo microdialysis. Compared with the saline group, extracellular DA and DOPAC concentrations in the heroin-treated groups were significantly higher 30 min after the last injection, but the DA level decreased sharply in these groups on days 1 and 3 and became lower than that of the saline group. Compared with LP-group rats, HP-rats displayed a higher heroin-induced increase in the DA concentration 30 min after the last heroin injection and higher DOPAC and DOPAC/DA ratios 14 days after such injection. These results suggest that differences in the DA system responsiveness in the AcbSh may determine individual differences in vulnerability to heroin addiction.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
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