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Journal Cover Neurophysiology
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.136]   [H-I: 7]
  • Sixth Congress of the Ukrainian Neuroscience Society
    • PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Comparative Analysis of Force Reactions of Rat Hindlimb Muscles after
           Unilateral Compression of the Sciatic Nerve and Systemic Injections of
    • Abstract: We compared force activity of the hindlimb muscles (ankle flexors and extensors and toe flexors) in rats subjected to course systemic injections of sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, GHOB (100 mg/kg, i.p., daily, during 4 weeks) after unilateral compression of the sciatic nerve (SN). Late effects of GHOB injections (10th and 12th weeks after surgery) were also analyzed. The contractile force of muscles was estimated using a tensometric technique. In the control group, animals were subjected to compression of the SN but were not injected with GHOB. In the experimental group, an appreciable functional loss (20-24%) was observed in muscles on the side of SN compression a week after surgery, while on the contralateral side we found a functional increment (60-17%). Within the 2nd to the 4th week of GHOB injections, stable force increments in both extensors and flexors (respectively, 2 and 2.5 times and by 20-50%) were manifested, while increments of the contractile force of muscles of the contralateral intact hindlimb (30-40%) did not depend on the function of the muscles. Within late time intervals (10th and 12th weeks) after surgery, the contractile force of muscles of the injured and contralateral hindlimbs increased maximally by 30-40%, as compared with to the control; this increment in the injured hindlimb was observed in extensors, while it was manifested in flexors of the contralateral hindlimb.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Vestibular Dysfunctions and Mental/Autonomic Disorders Related to Cerebral
           Ischemia against the Background of Cervical Osteochondrosis:
           Pathogenetically Oriented Correction
    • Abstract: Our clinical and experimental observations allowed us to identify a few pathogenetic mechanisms of vestibular dysfunctions formed in chronic brain ischemia. In an experimental part of the study carried out on rats, we estimated the pathogenetic significance of vascular disorders within the vestibularbasilar basin resulting in modifications of motor and postural behavior, coordination of muscular activity, and psycho-emotional disorders; these changes demonstrated no positive dynamics in the course of the experiment. In the clinical part, vestibular dysfunctions observed against the background of osteochondrosis of the vertebral column were combined with autonomic dysfunctions and disorders of autonomic supply of the organism’s functions. Original pathonegetically oriented therapy of vestibular dysfunctions under conditions of chronic cerebral ischemia against the background of vertebral osteochondrosis allows physicians to significantly improve the general state of the patient, state of cerebral hemodynamics, autonomic status, postural control, control of locomotion, and also to smooth the accompanying psychoemotional effects.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Firing Patterns of Human Biceps
    Motor Units During Isotorque Ramp-and-Hold Movements in
           the Elbow Joint
    • Abstract: The activity of 18 motor units (MUs) of m. biceps brachii was studied in four adults during highamplitude isotorque ramp-and-hold movements in the elbow joint. The recorded MUs had low isometric thresholds (below 6% of maximal voluntary contraction). During the examined movement, MUs of group I responded to application of subthreshold loads by increases in their firing rates, MUs of group II reacted to suprathreshold loads by decreases in the attained activity level, and background firing of MUs of group III at application of suprathreshold loads did not change. Dependences between the joint angle and firing rate, as well as between the velocities of these parameters, were positive in group I MUs and negative in those of group II. A decrease in the firing rate of MUs during flexion movements is likely to be related to nonlinear effects during the torque generation by the elbow flexors due to the specificity of geometrical arrangement of MU fibers with respect to the joint.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Properties of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors in the Nuclei of CNS
           Neurons in Rats
    • Abstract: We studied the properties of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) in the membranes of the nuclear envelope of CNS neurons in rats. In cells with a maximum level of expression of InsP3Rs, (hippocampal and cerebellar neurons), these receptors are localized predominantly in the inner nuclear membrane. This allows us to hypothesize that the nuclear Ca2+ store is involved in regulation of expression of Ca2+-dependent genes. Applications of agonists of InsP3Rs (InsP3 and Ca2+ in concentrations below 1 μM) evoked rapid activation of channels of InsP3Rs followed by their steady-state activity. Application of [Ca2+] ≥ 1 μM did not influence significantly the characteristics of peak responses, but then the InsP3Rs lose sensitivity almost completely during several seconds. Therefore, the Ca2+ dependence of steady-state activity of these neurons was bell-shaped. Within physiological limits of concentrations of intracellular Ca2+, the peak activity of the above-mentioned receptors was not inhibited by applications of agonists. These findings explain the main contradiction between the data obtained recently by different research groups. At the same time, the basic nature of kinetic properties of InsP3Rs under conditions of various experimental models needs further investigation.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Roles of the Frontal Cortex and Subcortical Structures in the Mechanisms
           Underlying the Development of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures in Rats
    • Abstract: We studied the pathogenetic role of central structures belonging to epileptogenic and antiepileptogenic systems, namely the ventral hippocampus (VH), superior colliculus (SC), and frontal cortex, in the pathogenesis of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (with the presence of spontaneous seizures, SSs). Using a stereotaxic technique, the above-mentioned structures were subjected to preliminary local destruction (by microinjections of ibotenic acid) or electrostimulation in the course of the experiment. Pilocarpine-induced SSs were readily recorded in rats subjected to stimulation of the VH and frontal cortex, as well as to destruction of the SC. At the same time, in rats with destruction of the VH and frontal cortex but with activation of the SC, we observed no SS episodes. Therefore, the above-mentioned central structures play significant pathogenetic roles in the mechanisms underlying the development of the pilocarpine-induced epileptic state; the VH and frontal cortex are in reciprocal relations with the SC.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Effects of a Saffron Alcoholic Extract on Visual Short-Term Memory in
           Humans: a Psychophysical Study
    • Abstract: The effects of an extract from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on visual short-term memory (STM) were examined in 20 volunteers. The extract was obtained from saffron petals using 100% ethylic alcohol, concentrated by vacuum evaporation, dried, and encapsulated (30 mg per capsula). Ten participants received the extract each day for three weeks, while other 10 subjects received encapsulated placebo. Then, the contrast sensitivity of a subject was estimated; sinusoidal grating patches with different contrast levels (0 – 100%) were used (experiment 1). In experiment 2, the retention of STM was assessed in two-force choice tests, using a delayed match to sample paradigm. In experiment 3, the n-back memory test with different interstimulus intervals (up to 14 sec) was used. It was found that subjects after medication with the saffron extract demonstrated better correct memorizing of the preceding visual stimuli (from two to five). At the same time, extract medication somewhat improved retention of visual STM, but only for several intermediate interstimulus intervals, and the effect was not very remarkable. Our findings emphasize the expedience to research the effects of physiologically active dietary constituents in humans.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Pharmacodynamical and Neuroreceptor Analysis of the Permeability of the
           Blood-Brain Barrier for Derivatives of 1,4-Benzodiazepine
    • Abstract: We quantitatively estimated the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for some derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine based on their pharmacodynamical characteristics and neuroreceptor properties. As was noted, interactions between benzodiazepine ligands and GABA receptor channels (GABA RCs) are rapidly reversible since these interactions depend on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the compounds used. Examination of rapidly-reversible effects in experiments on animals was carried out under conditions of intravenous infusion of a convulsive agent (corazole) against the background of injection of agonists of GABA RCs (phenazepam, gidazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, Br-nordiazepam, and levana). A hyperbolic pattern of the concentration-effect dependence for phenazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, and Br-nordiazepam allows one to perform adequate calculations of the corresponding concentrations in the brain under condition where their anticonvulsive action does not exceed 80% of the maximum. Calculated ratios of the brain/blood concentrations differed insignificantly from real values obtained in experiments with the use of radioactive isotope-labeled substances. Estimates of the concentrations of prodrugs (levana and gidazepam) in the brain, when based on their pharmacodynamical indices, are inadequate because metabolites of these agents are more active than these compounds per se.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Protective Effect of Mildronate against Toxic Influence of Mercury(II)
           Chloride on Cultured Neuroblastoma Cells
    • Abstract: We examined toxic action of 10.9 μM mercury(II) chloride on cultured IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and possible protective effects of a cardioprotector, mildronate (tested concentrations 0.01 to 10.0 mg/ml of culture medium) under such experimental conditions. Isolated addition of mildronate to the medium did not induce considerable negative effects (number of dead cells did not exceed 8-10% of their total number at all concentrations used). In the case of isolated action of HgCl2, about half of cultured IMR- 32 cells died (on average, 55.8 ± 1.6% of the cells remained viable). Mildronate in a 0.01 mg/ml concentration did not manifest a significant protective action, but at doses 1.0 and 10.0 mg/ml the mean number of living cells in the presence of HgCl2 reached nearly 80%. Thus, mildronate demonstrated relative safety in vitro and a significant protective effect under conditions of intoxication by low doses of mercury.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Roles of Central Monoaminergic Systems in the Formation of Different Types
           of Aggressiveness in Rats
    • Abstract: The contents of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats demonstrating dominant, balanced, and submissive types of behavior were examined. The serotonin content in submissive males was considerably lower than that in balanced and dominant animals. The content of noradrenaline was lower in dominant individuals and greater in submissive ones as compared with the analogous index in balanced rats. The content of dopamine in the frontal cortex was lower in both submissive and dominant animals, while that in the hippocampus was lower only in submissive males (in comparison with balanced individuals).
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Neurophysiological Markers of Stress within a Recovery Period after Acute
           Complications of Cardiovascular Diseases
    • Abstract: In the course of rehabilitation in a sanatorium, we provided polygraphic examination of a group of 14 men who endured myocardial infarction or stroke one to three months ago. Fourteen men of a comparable age (55 years, on average), healthy from the aspect of diseases of the cardiovascular system, served as the control group. Examination was performed using a flexible data acquisition and feedback platform «Nexus-10 Mark II» (the Netherlands) allowing us to simultaneously record ECG, EMG, EEG, respiratory movements, pulse blood filling, skin temperature, electrodermal resistance, and a few other indices. It was found that patients suffering from complications of pathologies of the cardiovascular system were characterized by a significant increase in the electrodermal conductivity, clearly expressed tachypnea, and some trends toward tachycardia and decrease in the skin temperature. According to indices of the heart rate variability (HRV), the mean value of the Bayevskii stress index in patients was about three times higher than the analogous value in the control group, while the total power of the HRV spectrum was dramatically lower. The amplitude of tonic EMG activity recorded from mm. trapezii in the resting state considerably exceeded the respective value in control subjects. The amplitude of 8-13 Hz EEG oscillations in the Cz lead in patients was somewhat lower than in the control group, and increase in this index in the test with closing of the eyes in these subjects was manifested much slightly than in the control. Parallel recording of physiological (first of all, neurophysiological) indices allows researchers to effectively identify objective markers of the stress state developed after complications of diseases of the cardiovascular system; the respective data can be used in the curative procedures with the control of functions of the organism using a feedback technology by the parameters of activity of the functional systems (biofeedback control).
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Peculiarities of Utilization of Glucose by Brain Tissues of
           Alcohol-Dependent Rats
    • Abstract: We evaluated the ability of brain tissues of normal and alcohol-dependent rats to utilize glucose under conditions of experimental hyperglycemia; we estimated the arterio-venous difference (AVD) of the glucose levels in the brain (arteria carotis comm. – sinus sagittalis inf.) and compared this index with that in the organism’s tissues in general (samples were taken from the femoral veins, i.e., AVD a. carotis comm. – v. femoralis). Blood samples were taken on an empty stomach and 30 min after glucose loading (0.33 g glucose per 1 kg of the body mass injected i.v. as a 20% solution). In control rats (n = 10), the above-mentioned differences for the brain (AVDb) and for the entire organism (AVDo) were 0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.5 ± 0.1 mM, respectively. In alcohol-dependent animals (n = 10), the respective values were 0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1 mM. After glucose loading, the AVDb in control rats was 0.8 ± 0.1 mM (increment 0.1 mM), while the AVDo reached 0.9 ± 0.1 mM (increment 0.4 mM). In alcohol-dependent rats, the analogous values corresponded to 0.2 ± 0.1 mM, (i.e., there was no increase), and 0.7 ± 0.1 mM (increment 0.3 mM). Therefore, the ability of the alcoholized brain to utilize glucose drops significantly. We suppose that decreases in the activity of enzymes providing glycolysis are the main reason for this phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Related Changes in the Functional State of
           the Rat Retina: Possibilities for Correction Using Delta Sleep-Inducing
    • Abstract: Three months after single injection of streptozotocin (50.0 mg/kg, i.p.), average activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GTR) in tissues of the retina of Wistar rats were lower by 47.5 and 42.2%, respectively, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was about 330% of the norm. Recording of electroretinogram (ERG) showed that the amplitude of wave a in these animals was significantly lower (by 57.3%), while the latencies of waves a and b exceeded normal values by 27.5 and 11.8 %, respectively (P < 0.05). After injections of δ sleep-inducing peptide (δSIP, 0.05 mg/kg, i.p., once every three days for two months), SOD and GTR activities did not differ significantly from normal values, while the MDA level was higher by 53.7% (P < 0.05). The mean amplitude of ERG wave a demonstrated no considerable difference from the norm; at the same time, the latencies of waves a and b still exceeded normal values by 13.2 and 10.4 %, respectively. Therefore, negative changes in the functional state of the retina observed because of the development of diabetic retinopathy undergo noticeable moderation under the influence of δSIP.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Vladimir Ganitkevich
    • PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Effects of Picamilon and Isopicamilon on the Formation of
           Picrotoxin-Induced Convulsive Activity in Rats
    • Abstract: Seizures were induced in rats using repetitive injections of picrotoxin, PTX (i.p., every 30 min in a dose of 0.9 mg/kg in the first injection and 0.7 mg/kg in subsequent injections). Picamilon (PM) and isopicamilon (IPM) in doses of 20 or 50 mg/kg were i.p. injected into animals 30 min prior to injection of PTX. Epileptiform activity (EFA), recorded from the cerebral structures under conditions of preliminary systemic injections of PM and IPM, could be divided into two types characterized by exclusive development of only spike-wave discharges, SWDs (61.3 %) and regular cortical spike activity with generation of separate short-lasting SWDs (38.7%). In rats with EFA of the first type, the frequency and duration of seizure SWDs decreased significantly after injections of PM and IPM in doses of 50 mg/kg. In rats with EFA of the second type, the intensity of SWDs decreased even after injections of these agents in smaller doses (20 mg/kg). The use of IPM as an agent with a protective anticonvulsive action was more effective.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Time Parameters of the Blink Reflex in Normal Subjects
    • Abstract: Our study was aimed at estimating normal time values for the EMG waves recorded in the blink reflex test. The group examined included 400 healthy subjects (226 women and 174 men, with mean age about 50 years). There was no significant difference between the ages of the male and female subjects. The mean latency of the R1 wave in the response was 10.3 msec, while R2 was obtained after 32.5 msec, on average. The contralateral response component R2c was observed after 34.4 msec, on average. Gender did not influence the results, while age had a significant effect on R1 (P = 0.029) and R2c (P = 0.0003). The older the subject, the longer the latencies of the above waves. The data obtained on a rather large sampling of the tested subjects can be useful as normography for medical and neurophysiological purposes.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract and Flavonoids from
           Artemisia Herba-Alba
           and Their Mechanisms of Action
    • Abstract: Artemisia herba-alba (A. h.-a.) has wide use in traditional medicine for the relief of coughing, healing external wounds, treatment of pain associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, etc. We investigated in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract (aq. ex.) and two isolated compounds obtained from aerial parts of A. h.-a. The analgesic effects of aq. ex. (10, 31.6, 100, 316, and 1000 mg/kg), astragalin, and eupatilin (both, 0.316, 1, 3.16, 10, 31.6, and 100 mg/kg) were studied using the hot-plate test in mice and the formalin test in rats. The effects were compared with those of 5 mg/kg morphine. Dose-dependent analgesic effects of aq. ex., astragalin, and eupatilin were clearly manifested in both hot-plate assay and early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking. These effects were significantly but partly reduced by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (5 mg/kg). The same range of doses of aq. ex., astragalin, and eupatilin caused dose-dependent suppression of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Thus, we demonstrated that A. h.-a. possesses noticeable antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities; our data support the reasons for using this plant as a remedy for treatment of pain and inflammation. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of A. h.-a. are considerably related to the presence of astragalin and eupatilin.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Correlations of Parameters of Cerebral Evoked Potentials with Age,
           Clinical, and Social Characteristics of Patients with the First Episode of
    • Abstract: In 46 patients with the first episode of psychosis (FEP; code number F2 according to DSM-IV), we studied correlations of the parameters of visual and auditory evoked potentials, EPs (amplitudes and latencies of early, P100, N100, and P200, and late, N200, Р300, and N400, EP components), and time of the sensorimotor reaction, SMR, on the one hand, and clinical, pathopsychological, social, demographic, and organizational factors characterizing the course of the disease and personalities of these patients, on the other hand. We found significant correlations of the parameters of waves Р100, Р300, and N400 with the age of the FEP start, duration of its prodromal period, age of the first hospitalization, duration of treatment in a hospital, and level of premorbid functioning. Early beginning of the prodromal FEP period and early age of the first psychotic attack, as well as short-duration treatment, correlated with worsening of the characteristics of memory and associative processes. We conclude that the characteristics of waves N200, N400, and Р300 of visual EPs and the SMR time can be used as markers of the clinical state for positive FEP symptoms, while the parameters of the Р2-N2 complex can be used from this aspect for negative symptoms.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Dmitrii A. Moshkov
    • PubDate: 2014-04-01
  • Effects of Levetiracetam on Aggregation and Fusion of Membranes of
           Synaptic Vesicles in a Cell-Free Exocytosis Model
    • Abstract: We studied the effects of an antiepileptic drug, levetiracetam, on the processes of aggregation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and their calcium-induced fusion with the target membranes in a cell-free model of neurosecretion. The size of SVs and their aggregates in the suspension was measured using laser-correlation spectroscopy. Fusion of the membrane structures was estimated quantitatively according to changes in the intensity of fluorescence self-quenching of the R18 probe (octadecylrhodamine B chloride). The action of levetiracetam resulted in intensification of clustering of SVs and decrease in the level of calcium-stimulated fusion of such vesicles both with the plasma membranes and with each other. Therefore, we obtained novel data on the effect of levetiracetam on regulation of the exocytosis process at stages of SV clustering and calcium-stimulated fusion of SVs with the target membranes.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
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