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Showing 1001 - 1200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Intensive Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.991, h-index: 133)
Interactive Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Interchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 10)
Interdisciplinary Sciences : Computational Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 8)
Intereconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 9)
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 21)
Intl. Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 12)
Intl. Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 30)
Intl. Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 61)
Intl. Cancer Conference J.     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 1)
Intl. Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.327, h-index: 10)
Intl. Entrepreneurship and Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.814, h-index: 20)
Intl. Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.414, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. for the Advancement of Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. for the Semiotics of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Applied and Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Artificial Intelligence in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.329, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Asian Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Automation and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.555, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.836, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.762, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.064, h-index: 40)
Intl. J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Clinical Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 37)
Intl. J. of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Colorectal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.133, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.588, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Computer Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.293, h-index: 132)
Intl. J. of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.351, h-index: 31)
Intl. J. of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Diabetes in Developing Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Disclosure and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.163, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 34)
Intl. J. of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.252, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Game Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.662, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Care Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.504, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.815, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Information Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.6, h-index: 56)
Intl. J. of Machine Learning and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.673, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.652, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.52, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.456, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Multimedia Information Retrieval     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.476, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Parallel Programming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.224, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Rehabilitation and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Science and Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Stomatology & Occlusion Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.234, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Technology and Design Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Wireless Information Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. on Digital Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 532, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 31)
Intl. J. on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.608, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.751, h-index: 35)
Intl. Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 28)
Intl. Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.527, h-index: 47)
Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.3, h-index: 14)
Intl. Politics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 6)
Intl. Review of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 16)
Intl. Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 5)
Intl. Sports Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Tax and Public Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 30)
Intl. Urogynecology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 62)
Intl. Urology and Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 33)
Inventiones mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 7.283, h-index: 64)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 25)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.108, h-index: 60)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.497, h-index: 27)
Iranian Polymer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, h-index: 23)
Irish J. of Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 21)
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 20)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.087, h-index: 39)
Israel J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.205, h-index: 34)
Italian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, h-index: 11)
J. Africain d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
J. africain du cancer / African J. of Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
J. d'Analyse Mathématique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.45, h-index: 32)
J. for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 7)
J. for Labour Market Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
J. fur Asthetische Chirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.141, h-index: 4)
J. für Betriebswirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
J. für Mathematik-Didaktik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.319, h-index: 6)
J. für Rechtspolitik     Hybrid Journal  
J. für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.391, h-index: 13)
J. of Abnormal Child Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.034, h-index: 91)
J. of Academic Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 7)
J. of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 5)
J. of Adult Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 23)
J. of Advancement in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
J. of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 6)
J. of Aging and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 24)
J. of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 35)
J. of Algebraic Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.104, h-index: 23)
J. of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 7)
J. of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.33, h-index: 19)
J. of Anesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.507, h-index: 24)
J. of Applied and Industrial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.136, h-index: 4)
J. of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 77)
J. of Applied Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.719, h-index: 31)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.459, h-index: 18)
J. of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 10)
J. of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 56)
J. of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 12)
J. of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.06, h-index: 27)
J. of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 29)
J. of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 5)
J. of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.529, h-index: 24)
J. of Asset Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 4)
J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.072, h-index: 49)
J. of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 18)
J. of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 55)
J. of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.837, h-index: 97)
J. of Automated Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.928, h-index: 36)
J. of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 4)
J. of Behavioral Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 23)
J. of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.518, h-index: 34)
J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.061, h-index: 62)
J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Bioeconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.828, h-index: 15)
J. of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 76)
J. of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 9)
J. of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.438, h-index: 29)
J. of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.112, h-index: 51)
J. of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.841, h-index: 80)
J. of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.274, h-index: 5)
J. of Biosciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.781, h-index: 47)
J. of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.844, h-index: 48)
J. of Brand Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.562, h-index: 12)
J. of Business and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.809, h-index: 35)
J. of Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.962, h-index: 75)
J. of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.442, h-index: 17)
J. of Cancer Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 30)
J. of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.327, h-index: 65)
J. of Cancer Survivorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.479, h-index: 25)
J. of Cardiovascular Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 21)
J. of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.985, h-index: 20)
J. of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 9)
J. of Chemical Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 25)
J. of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.161, h-index: 75)
J. of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 33)
J. of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Child and Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.626, h-index: 42)
J. of Children's Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.602, h-index: 11)
J. of Chinese Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.692, h-index: 5)
J. of Chinese Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.6, h-index: 4)
J. of Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.516, h-index: 25)
J. of Clinical Geropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.481, h-index: 66)
J. of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.561, h-index: 34)
J. of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 27)
J. of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.39, h-index: 29)
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.175, h-index: 7)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.379, h-index: 19)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 19)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 30)

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Journal Cover Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.122]   [H-I: 8]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • Pages: 1 - 1
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9561-2
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Impact of the Ratio of Metabotropic and Ionotropic Components of
           Parasympathetic Action on the Excitability of a Urinary Bladder Smooth
           Muscle Cell: a Simulation Study
    • Authors: A. V. Kochenov; S. M. Korogod
      Pages: 2 - 10
      Abstract: On a computer model of a smooth muscle cell (SMC) of the urinary bladder detrusor (UBD) having a corresponding set of ion channels and intracellular signaling mechanisms, we investigated the influence of ionotropic (purine, P) and metabotropic (muscarinic, M) components of the parasympathetic stimulus on the membrane potential of the cell and Ca2+ concentration inside it ([Ca2+]i). The P and M components of the stimulus were simulated, respectively, by the increasing conductivity of P2X receptor channels of the SMC membrane (G P2X) and the permeability of calcium channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum activated by inositol triphosphate (P IP3), considering that IP3 is the end product of the metabotropic chain starting from the M3 cholinergic receptors. The G P2X and P IP3 values, latent periods (LPs) of their activation, and relations of the above parameters were chosen in such a mode that application of a single stimulus evoked the SMC response with the P and M components close to those of the prototype. The normal magnitude and LP of the M component of the concentration response (calcium transient) were significantly greater than the respective parameters of the P component; the M component was accompanied by generation of an action potential (AP) with after-processes analogous to those of the prototype. A decrease in the P IP3 simulating a deficiency of M3 receptors observed under a few pathological conditions led to a decrease in the electric and concentration SMC responses, down to full elimination of AP generation and changes in [Са2+]i. Under such conditions, a significant increase in the G P2X could provide a [Са2+]i increase to a nearly normal level. Using paired parasympathetic stimulation with different interstimulus intervals, ΔТ, allowed us to obtain a situation where the M response to the first stimulus (M1) was preceded by the P response to the second stimulus (P2) with a short adjustable interval. The use of such stimulation with certain values of the ΔТ and conductivity of purinergic channels G P2X can compensate for the attenuation of the M component, due to interaction of the latter with the P component caused by the second stimulus. Thus, pathological attenuation of the M component of the parasympathetic stimulation effect can be compensated in clinical practice (at least partly) by applying purinomimetics and/or paired stimulation.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9562-1
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Stress-Induced Increases in Levels of Caspases in the Prefrontal Cortex in
           a Rat Model of PTSD
    • Authors: J. H. Zhang; M. Li; F. Han; Yu X. Shi
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: We investigated the levels of expression of caspase-3 and 9 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats subjected to single prolonged stress (SPS) to provide a novel insight into the mechanism of how this cortical region is related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and four SPS groups examined at days 1, 4, 7, and 14 after treatment. Expression of caspase-3 in SPS groups was significantly greater when compared with the control group (P < 0.05) and peaked at day 7 after exposure to SPS. In the control group, the intensity of fluorescence of caspase-9-positive cells was low, while that in the SPS groups was significantly higher (P < 0.01) and peaked at day 4 after exposure to SPS. After SPS episodes, levels of mRNA of caspase-3 and caspase-9, compared with those in the control group, gradually increased and peaked at days 7 and 4, respectively (P < 0.01). Therefore, changes of expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PTSD.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9563-0
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Regular Exercise Combined With Curcumin Supplementation: Protective
           Effects against Lead-Induced Cerebellar Oxidative Damage in an Animal
    • Authors: M. Habibian; S. J. Moosavi; P. Farzanegi
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Lifestyle modifications, such as physical exercise and dietary supplements, are recommended as protective measures against some neurological disorders. We examined the effects of regular exercise combined with curcumin supplementation against lead-induced oxidative damage of the cerebellum in male rats. Experimental animals (n = 50) were randomly divided into five groups. Lead acetate (20 mg/kg) was i.p. administered to three groups (except sham and control ones), while the sham group received ethyl oleate (30 mg/kg) three times per week. The curcumin and curcumin+exercise groups received curcumin (30 mg/kg) i.p. five times per week for eight weeks. The exercise program consisted of progressive running on a treadmill (speed from 15 to 22 m/min, 25 to 64 min per day, five times per week for eight weeks). Two days after the last application, the rats were euthanized; their cerebellum was removed and homogenized to measure the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs). Chronic administration of lead significantly increased the cerebellar TBARS levels but did not alter considerably the BDNF levels. Curcumin and curcumin+exercise treatments significantly lowered the cerebellar TBARS levels; a significant increase in the BDNF level was observed in the cerebellum of rats treated with combined intervention. Thus, regular exercise combined with curcumin supplementation may exert a significant neuroprotective effect against lead-induced cerebellar injury by attenuating oxidative stress and improving the brain state through an increase in the BDNF amount.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9564-z
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Characteristics of fMRI Patterns during the Performance of Hand and Finger
           Movements of Different Complexity
    • Authors: A. N. Omel’chenko; Z. Z Rozhkova
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: We analyzed the topography and quantitative characteristics of changes in a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal accompanying movements of the fingers and hand performed by healthy humans. Three test movements characterized by different levels of complexity were united in an integrated paradigm of activation. We assumed that such a paradigm should promote the understanding of mechanisms of functioning of separate neuronal networks controlling motor functions and their grouping in scaling networks responsible for general control of motor activity by the CNS. Concurrently with the processes of activation of the sensorimotor network, we observed partial deactivation of certain nodi of the default-mode network (DMN) and formation of functional connectivities independent of the performance of the tasks. This confirms the statement on the heterogeneity of the DMN, whose different parts can be simultaneously desynchronized and can function in an offline mode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of fluctuations of the BOLD signal allowed us to conclude that the sensorimotor network and DMN function simultaneously; however, each of them demonstrates direct (for the sensorimotor network) and inverse (for the DMN) correlation between changes in the BOLD signal and the successfulness of performance of the motor task.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9565-y
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Peculiarities of Activation of Human Muscles in Realization of Cyclic
           Bimanual Movements with Different Organization of the Cycles
    • Authors: T. I. Abramovich; A. V. Gorkovenro; I. V. Vereshchaka; A. N. Tal’nov; V. S. Mishchenko; A. I. Kostyukov
      Pages: 31 - 42
      Abstract: According to the characteristics of EMGs subjected to full-wave rectification and low-pass filtering, we examined coordination of central motor commands coming to muscles of the shoulder belt and shoulders in the course of realization of cyclic bimanual movements within a horizontal plane (close to those in sculling). The performance of different motor tasks was tested: (i) movements at a comfortable stroke rate (CSR); (ii) movements at a maximum rate (MR), and (iii) movements with the feedback (FB) information, where the subject could trace the movement rate and angles of rotation of one lever of the experimental set. Two levels of external loading could be applied to the levers of the set (“oars”) in the direction counteracting efforts developed by the subject within the pulling phase. It was found that, in realization of the CSR test, the movement rate was greater at a higher loading than that in the case of a smaller mechanical resistance. The mean level of EMGs of the examined muscles under conditions of a higher loading in realization of the CSR test was greater than that in the FB test. The level of activation of the muscles in the course of the MR test demonstrated no dependence of the level of external loading. The level of correlations between EMG activities of similar muscles of the left and right upper limbs demonstrated a trend toward lowering under conditions of the presence of visual FB. It is supposed that the cognitive influence upon realization of the motor tasks is intensified under the above conditions, and the type of the performed movements becomes closer to the discrete mode.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9566-x
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • EEG Activity in Dextrals and Sinistrals during Visual Monocular/Binocular
           Perception of Verbal Emotionally Colored Information
    • Authors: M. P. Bondarenko; O. V. Bondarenko; V. I. Kravchenko; N. Ye. Makarchuk
      Pages: 43 - 53
      Abstract: We compared the characteristics of EEG during mono- and binocular performance of the Stroop test. Either emotionally colored words or “pseudowords” were presented as stimuli; among 60 examined subjects, there were 30 sinistrals with dominant left eye and 30 dextrals with dominant right eye. In right-handed subjects, the coherence of theta oscillations in central and parietal pairs of the leads increased during binocular perception of verbal emotionally colored information, while a rise in the level of coherence of high-frequency beta oscillations in intrahemispheric lead pairs was observed in left-handers under the same conditions. In the course of binocular performance of both types of tests, interhemispheric coherence was altered, while changes of coherence were found only within one hemisphere during monocular perception. In dextrals, the level of synchronization of the activity in local networks demonstrated a significantly higher rise in the left hemisphere in the case where pseudoword signals were used. In sinistrals, such an increase was observed in both hemispheres together with a decrease in the interhemispheric interaction. In tests of both types during monocular perception of both emotionally colored words and pseudowords via a dominant eye, EEG activity was rather similar in both dextrals and sinistrals. This fact may indicate that nonrelevant semantic context of the stimuli during processing of information incoming via the dominant visual canal is mostly ignored.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9567-9
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP): on the 45th Anniversary of Its
    • Authors: А. A. Tykhomyrov; A. S. Pavlova; V. S. Nedzvetsky
      Pages: 54 - 71
      Abstract: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main component of intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton of astrocytes. Over more than four decades of fundamental and applied studies, GFAP achieved the status of the classical marker for astroglia. Our review deals with the analysis and systematization of the literature data describing the peculiarities of the structural organization of the molecules of this protein, its isoform composition, and changes in expression of the GFAP gene in the course of CNS ontogenesis; the hierarchical principle of the formation of glial intermediate filaments is also described. A great deal of information about key reactions of post-translational modifications of GFAP and their role in the functioning of the above-mentioned protein is conveyed. Based on the modern literature data, the limited proteolysis of GFAP is considered not only a stage of catabolic transformation of this protein but also a mechanism underlying regulation of the dynamic properties of the cytoskeleton in astroglial cells. It is believed that the main functions of GFAP are the maintenance of specific morphology of astrocytes, control of migration of these cells, and maintenance of the stability of their processes; however, more and more findings are indicative of the involvement of this protein in the processes of cellular signalling and modulation of neuron-to-glia interactions. GFAP as a component of intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton plays a key role in the development of reactive astrocytosis, i.e., of a typical response of the CNS to injury. Overexpression of GFAP or suppression of its biosynthesis reflect modifications of the functional activity of astrocytes related to damage to the nerve tissue, metabolic abnormalities, and development of neurodegenerative states. Quantitative estimation of GFAP and of its breakdown products, as well as that of anti-GFAP autoantibodies in biological fluids, are at present used as significant criteria in the diagnostics of neurodegenerative pathologies. Non-canonical functions of GFAP, which it fulfills in non-astrocyte units, are indicative of functional polymorphism of this protein and need further investigations.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9568-8
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Irina A. Vladimirova (1933–2015)
    • Authors: Ya. M. Shuba
      Pages: 72 - 73
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9560-3
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Vladimir A. Berezin (1946-2016)
    • Authors: G. A. Ushakova
      Pages: 74 - 75
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9569-7
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • Pages: 433 - 433
      PubDate: 2016-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9551-4
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Firing Patterns of Leech Heartbeat Interneurons under External Current
           Stimulation: a Model Study
    • Authors: N. Ju; Sh. Q. Liu; B. Lu; X. Jiang
      Pages: 434 - 441
      Abstract: Leech heartbeat interneurons (HN cells) interconnected by inhibitory synapses have been simulated using several modified models based on the Hodgkin-Huxley equations; yet, adequate characteristics of HN cells are hardly possible to be summarized due to the complexity of these models. The Winnerless Competition (WLC) model created as an inhibitory-connected nervous network is more appropriate for networks consisting of HN cells. We investigated different firing patterns produced by such model under application of various stimuli simulating changes in the leech’s environment. By means of recording the firing frequency, synchronization, interspike intervals (ISIs), and maxima of action potentials (APs) and also by application of the theory of mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs), different properties of firing patterns in HN cells were examined. According to the results of computational analyses, DC and AC stimulations were found to play different roles in modulating the leech’s heartbeat rhythm; external stimuli could influence the intensity and duration of the network reaction by changing both AP frequency and amplitude. Besides, changes in the recovery abilities of neurons can lead to various release modes of HN cells. Combined with physiological experiments on medical leeches, numerical analysis allows us to gain a deeper understanding of how HN cells coordinate with each other to bring the rhythm to the leech heartbeat system.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9552-3
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Effects of Neurotrophin-3 Plasmids on Myocyte Apoptosis and Ca 2+ -ATPase
           Content in the Muscle After Nerve Injury in Rats
    • Authors: Yu. Dong; H. Zhao; L. Yang; Yi. Zhao; Ch. Ma; Ch. Zhang
      Pages: 442 - 447
      Abstract: We estimated the influence of plasmids with DNA carrying the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene on apoptosis in the gastrocnemius muscle and content of Ca2+-ATPase in the latter after sciatic nerve injury. Sixty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into the saline (control) and NT-3 groups. The related indices, such as expression of caspase-3 protein, the rate of apoptosis in the muscle evaluated using a TUNEL technique, and the level of Ca2+-ATPase estimated using Western blot, were observed. Expression of caspase-3 protein was elevated at different post-operative times after peripheral nerve injury; NT-3 expression and the rate of muscle cell apoptosis decreased, whereas the level of Ca2+-ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum increased; significant differences were observed compared with the saline group (P < 0.05). The mitigation mechanism of NT-3 on muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury is expressed as inhibition of caspase-3 gene expression, increase in the Ca2+-ATPase level, and reduction in the rate of muscle apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9553-2
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Effects of Bacterial Melanin on Neuronal Activity in the Rat Sensorimotor
    • Authors: T. R. Petrosyan; O. V. Gevorgyan; A. S. Hovsepyan; A. S. Ter-Markosyan
      Pages: 448 - 453
      Abstract: We examined post-stimulation changes in the electrical activity of neurons of the rat sensorimotor cortex after intapraperitoneal injections or direct applications of bacterial melanin (a strict analog of neuromelanin). Activation of cortical neurons was evoked by high-frequency stimulation of the hindlimb peripheral nerves. The patterns of within-stimulation responses and long-lasting post-stimulation effects were rather similar in both subgroups (with systemic introductions or direct applications of melanin). Comparison of the results of previous electrophysiological experiments, where the effects of melanin on electrical activity generated by neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta were studied, showed close similarities of the effects of this agent (mostly activating influence of bacterial melanin with the predominance of excitatory/facilitatory post-stimulation modifications of spike activity). The effects of bacterial melanin can contribute to the recovery processes in neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9554-1
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Abnormalities in the GABAergic Inhibitory System Leading to the
           Development of Spike-Wave Discharges in the Somatosensory Cortex of
           Wag/Rij Rats
    • Authors: G. G. Nejad; R. S. Vastyanov; P. Shahabi; M. R. Alipoor; F. G. Pakdel
      Pages: 454 - 458
      Abstract: We investigated the effects of muscimol on generation of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and shortterm plasticity alterations in the somatosensory cortex of WAG/Rij rats. The rats were implanted with a twisted tripolar electrode into the somatosensory cortex and with an intraventricular cannula into the right cerebral ventricle. EEG recordings were made before and after muscimol and saline injections. Paired-pulse stimulations (200 μsec, 100-1000 μA, 0.1 sec–1) were applied to the somatosensory cortex at 50-, 100-, 400-, and 500-msec-long intervals for 50 min. Pharmacological amplification of GABAergic transmission in the somatosensory cortex exerted an inhibitory effect on the thalamo-cortical circuit underlying the generation of spike-wave discharges (SWDs). Ten minutes post-injection of muscimol, paired-pulse facilitation was significantly reduced at 50- and 100-msec-long interpulse intervals (P < 0.05). The data obtained suggest that muscimol suppresses generation of SWDs and changes short-term plasticity via imitation of the effects of GABA in inhibitory synapses.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9555-0
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Spatial Patterns of Correlations between Amplitudes of the Main EEG
           Rhythms in Children in the Norm and with Central Disorders of Motor
    • Authors: I. V. Golovchenko; N. I. Gayday
      Pages: 459 - 471
      Abstract: We recorded resting-state ongoing EEG in two groups of 8- to 12-year-old children, boys and girls, with no disorders in the motor sphere and with a clinically diagnosed form of cerebral palsy (control and CP groups, n = 100 and n = 78, respectively). The sign and intensity of correlations between values of the mean amplitudes of oscillations of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta rhythms in the pairs of eight recording sites were estimated. Recording electrodes were positioned in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital loci of the left and right hemispheres (28 pairs of leads). Cases with the modulus of the correlation coefficient, ǀrǀ, 0.30–0.49, 0.50–0.69, and 0.70–0.99, respectively, were classified as those of weak, moderate, and strong correlation between the amplitudes. At ǀrǀ < 0.30, correlations were considered insignificant. Cases of significant direct (positive) and inverse (negative) correlations, including those with rather high r values, were observed in children of both examined groups, but the numbers of such correlations demonstrated certain intergroup differences. In children suffering from CP, such cases were met noticeably more frequently than in the control group. In boys and girls of the control group, the total number of significant (both direct and inverse) correlations between oscillations of the four above-mentioned rhythms, normalized with respect to the number of all lead pairs (n = 28), varied from 14 to 50%, and only in two cases among 16 (4 analyzed rhythms × 2 examined groups × × 2 gender subgroups) did it exceed 40%. In children with CP, this index varied between 32 and 68%, and only in two cases was it smaller than 40%. Patterns of correlations between amplitudes of the EEG rhythms in girls of both examined groups significantly differed from those in boys; girls were characterized by more frequent cases of inverse correlations.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9556-z
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Electrophysiological Indices in Sportsmen: Correlations with the Contents
           of Iron and Copper in the Organism
    • Authors: E. V. Evstaf’yeva; I. A. Evstaf’yeva; O. A. Zalata; E. V. Perekotii; S. L. Tymchenko; S. V. Chernyi
      Pages: 472 - 477
      Abstract: Using the roentgen-fluorescent analysis, we found mostly below-norm contents of iron and copper in stable tissue samples (hairs) of 18- to 20-year-old sportsmen (university students). Correlations of the results of such analysis with sets of indices characterizing the state of the CNS (parameters of background EEG and of evoked/event-related EEG potentials), that of the cardiovascular system (CVS, data of electrocardiography and rheography), and of the mechanisms providing autonomic regulation of the latter system (indices of cardiointervalography) were calculated. According to the number of significant correlations (0.44 < r < 0.56) and their intensity, we found that the content of copper is more significant for the indices characterizing functioning of the CNS, especially for those of EEG phenomena related to mental processes. At the same time, the content of iron exerts more significant influences on the functional state of the CVS. It should be taken into account that the pattern of correlations found in our study is typical of a relatively specific sampling of the subjects (with a clearly pronounced deficiency of the above-mentioned elements in the organism) and can be dissimilar in the case of normal (and, especially, increased) contents of these metals.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9557-y
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Daytime Sleepiness and Epilepsy: a Pilot Study
    • Authors: L. M. Maisuradze; L. V. Zhizhiashvili; G. V. Lomidze; S. V. Kasradze
      Pages: 478 - 481
      Abstract: As was reported, sleep disorders, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in particular, are frequently manifested in epilepsy; insufficient attention has been devoted to this issue in clinical practice in Georgia. We investigated the frequency of EDS cases among healthy individuals and epilepsy patients. A questionnaire study has been conducted using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A group of 251 volunteers (mean age 33.4 years), including 135 subjects without epilepsy and 116 outpatients with this diagnosis (cryptogenic focal/idiopathic generalized epilepsy without cognitive or brain abnormalities), completed the above questionnaire. The EDS phenomenon was found in 8.9% of healthy individuals and in 17.2% of the patients with epilepsy. This problem was more frequent among the epilepsy patients treated by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The prevalence of EDS was higher among men suffering from epilepsy as compared to women with this disease. In the untreated group of the newly diagnosed epilepsy patients, there were more men with EDS than women having this problem. The difference in the EDS occurrence between the two groups of outpatients, treated and untreated with AEDs was statistically insignificant. Unlike the individuals without epilepsy, a gender difference in terms of the EDS frequency was revealed among the newly diagnosed patients.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9558-x
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Mechanisms and Possible Treatments
    • Authors: S. Asalgoo; G. P. Jahromi; G. H. Meftahi; H. Sahraei
      Pages: 482 - 489
      Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental condition occurring after a tragedy or a traumatic experience, such as rape, assault, natural disasters, war, car or plane accidents, etc. PSTD can cause a number of symptoms, such as fear, high anxiety, hyperarousal, bad dreams, nightmares, etc., existing for a long time after the traumatic event. In recent years, the spread of PTSD has increased in the world, especially in Asia (Middle East), particularly among soldiers who have taken part in military conflicts. This situation confirms the importance of understanding how PTSD develops and of improving its treatment. This paper is a review of the literature related to the respective topics. Like other anxiety disorders, PTSD is related to disruption of the endocrine system, particularly disintegration of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). People suffering from PTSD are characterized by elevated levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone, low basal cortisol levels, and enhanced negative feedback suppression of the HPAA. At the present time, certain plant-derived compounds are considered to be a new important source to treat PTSD. For example, remedies obtained from saffron are such possible means. According to our findings, saffron components may considerably affect some parts of the HPAA for reduction of stress-induced corticosterone release.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9559-9
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 6 (2016)
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • Pages: 363 - 363
      PubDate: 2016-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9543-4
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 5 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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