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Showing 1001 - 1200 of 2350 Journals sorted alphabetically
Inorganic Materials: Applied Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 6)
Insectes Sociaux     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.788, h-index: 45)
Instructional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.418, h-index: 51)
Instruments and Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 20)
Integral Equations and Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.348, h-index: 33)
Integrated Pest Management Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 18)
Intelligent Service Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.102, h-index: 16)
Intensive Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 3.765, h-index: 151)
Interactive Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Interchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 13)
Interdisciplinary Sciences : Computational Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 10)
Intereconomics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.195, h-index: 12)
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 27)
Intl. Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 16)
Intl. Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 31)
Intl. Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 69)
Intl. Cancer Conference J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Intl. Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.181, h-index: 14)
Intl. Entrepreneurship and Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 27)
Intl. Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.832, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. for the Advancement of Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.266, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. for the Semiotics of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.143, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Applied and Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Artificial Intelligence in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Asian Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Automation and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.392, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.905, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 63)
Intl. J. of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.858, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Clinical Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 43)
Intl. J. of Colorectal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.102, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Computer Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 5.633, h-index: 150)
Intl. J. of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.641, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.644, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Diabetes in Developing Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Disclosure and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.407, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 70)
Intl. J. of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Euro-Mediterranean Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Fuzzy Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Game Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Health Care Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Information Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Information Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.422, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Machine Learning and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Multimedia Information Retrieval     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.306, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Parallel Programming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.255, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.198, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.316, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.078, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.21, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Rehabilitation and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Science and Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.557, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Stomatology & Occlusion Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.291, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Technology and Design Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.573, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Wireless Information Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. on Digital Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 662, SJR: 0.375, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.546, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.806, h-index: 41)
Intl. Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 33)
Intl. Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 59)
Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 22)
Intl. Politics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 8)
Intl. Review of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.369, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 6)
Intl. Sports Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 1)
Intl. Tax and Public Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 37)
Intl. Urogynecology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 72)
Intl. Urology and Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.506, h-index: 38)
Inventiones mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 5.874, h-index: 75)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 28)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.376, h-index: 68)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 36)
Iranian Polymer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, h-index: 28)
Irish J. of Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 23)
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 46)
Israel J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.649, h-index: 40)
Italian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
IZA J. of Development and Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 17)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 13)
J. Africain d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.142, h-index: 3)
J. africain du cancer / African J. of Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 4)
J. d'Analyse Mathématique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.973, h-index: 36)
J. for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 10)
J. for Labour Market Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. fur Asthetische Chirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 4)
J. für Betriebswirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 9)
J. für Mathematik-Didaktik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
J. für Rechtspolitik     Hybrid Journal  
J. für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.221, h-index: 17)
J. of Abnormal Child Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.03, h-index: 107)
J. of Academic Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.395, h-index: 10)
J. of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 6)
J. of Adult Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.463, h-index: 30)
J. of Advancement in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
J. of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 8)
J. of Aging and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.508, h-index: 32)
J. of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.571, h-index: 39)
J. of Algebraic Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 27)
J. of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.456, h-index: 11)
J. of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Anesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 30)
J. of Applied and Industrial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.176, h-index: 8)
J. of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.676, h-index: 86)
J. of Applied Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 38)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.483, h-index: 24)
J. of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.852, h-index: 73)
J. of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 15)
J. of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.464, h-index: 34)
J. of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 36)
J. of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.56, h-index: 9)
J. of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.66, h-index: 29)
J. of Asset Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.181, h-index: 6)
J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.858, h-index: 57)
J. of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 19)
J. of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.599, h-index: 59)
J. of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.877, h-index: 123)
J. of Automated Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.63, h-index: 43)
J. of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 7)
J. of Behavioral Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 28)
J. of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 41)
J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.069, h-index: 73)
J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Bioeconomics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.391, h-index: 18)
J. of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 83)
J. of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 13)
J. of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.481, h-index: 33)
J. of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.28, h-index: 59)
J. of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.043, h-index: 89)
J. of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
J. of Biosciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.841, h-index: 54)
J. of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.775, h-index: 56)
J. of Brand Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 22)
J. of Business and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 46)
J. of Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 98)
J. of Cancer Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 33)
J. of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 76)
J. of Cancer Survivorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2, h-index: 34)
J. of Cardiovascular Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.567, h-index: 32)
J. of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.195, h-index: 27)
J. of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.335, h-index: 20)
J. of Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 14)
J. of Chemical Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 28)
J. of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.559, h-index: 88)
J. of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 37)
J. of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Child and Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 50)
J. of Chinese Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.515, h-index: 9)
J. of Chinese Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 7)
J. of Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.968, h-index: 29)

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Journal Cover Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.168]   [H-I: 9]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • Pages: 395 - 395
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9701-y
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Cerebral Structures Responsible for the Formation of Autonomic Reflexes
           Related to Realization of Motivated Operant Movements by Rats
    • Authors: O. P. Mankivska; O. V. Vlasenko; O. E. Mayevskii; I. V. Vereshchaka; T. V. Buzyka; V. O. Maisky; A. V. Maznychenko
      Pages: 396 - 404
      Abstract: We studied changes in the levels of Fos immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase reactivity in the autonomic nuclei and catecholaminergic (CA) groups of brainstem cells in rats that realized food-procuring movements by the forelimb. Fos-immunoreactivity in the medullary nuclei of the autonomic nervous system, ANS (Sol, IRt, CVL/RVL), of these animals was appreciably higher than that in control rats. Under such conditions, a considerable part of motoneurons in the brainstem autonomic motor nuclei (10, Amb, and RAmb) were activated. In the motor nuclei of the vagus nerve, large Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) neurons were observed. In rats, therefore, intense autonomic reactions closely related to realization of a motor program develop during sessions of operant food-procuring movements. The expression of protein c-Fos in brainstem CA neurons during the performance of operant movements was intensified, mostly on the contralateral side. In the brainstem CA groups А5 and А6 (LC/SC), we observed a maximum number of Fos-ir neurons, as compared with the control values. These cell groups are formed mostly of noradrenergic neurons that are the main sources of descending inhibitory inputs to the spinal thorasic and lumbar intermediolateral sympathetic nuclei. Therefore, the ANS can directly influence the functioning of muscle spindles and proprioceptors and can, as a result, influence the realization of motor program.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9702-x
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Nootropic and Antihypoxic Properties of Novel Derivatives of
    • Authors: S. A. Andronati; T. L. Karaseva; Ya. R. Krivenko; V. I. Pavlovsky; O. V Onufrienko; A. A. Shandra
      Pages: 405 - 411
      Abstract: Among eight recently synthesized 3-phthalimidoacyloxy- and phthalimidoacyloxyethoxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones, three compounds that enhanced the indices of cognitive functions in albino rats by 24-43%, as compared with those in control animals, were found. In the Morris water maze test, these agents used in doses of 10 mg/kg positively influenced the index of long-term memory in contrast to the hormone leptin (10 nM) that enhanced the index of short-term memory but did not influence long-term memory. Pyracetam enhanced the indices of both short-term memory and long-term memory, but only in a much greater dose (400 mg/kg). Injections of the above-mentioned three tested compounds into rats resulted in a decrease in the power of the delta EEG rhythm and also in rises in the powers of theta and (especially) beta oscillations. All eight tested compounds (in doses 10 mg/kg) demonstrated clearly pronounced antihypoxic effects under conditions of acute hypoxia in a closed space test in experiments on mice. Two compounds showed the maximum efficiency; those increased the survival time of mice by 76% and 50%, respectively, as compared with the control. Therefore, the eight tested compounds demonstrate, along with high antihypoxic efficiency, a specific aspect of pharmacological activity somewhat unusual for benzodiazepins; these compounds improve the long-term memory and learning capability and exert specific effects on the EEG characteristics. These compounds are characterized by low toxicity; their LD50 exceeds 550 mg/kg.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9703-9
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Neuroprotective Effects of Macrovipera lebetina Snake Venom in the Model
           of Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Authors: N. A. Ghazaryan; K. V. Simonyan; M. H. Danielyan; N. A. Zakaryan; L. A. Ghulikyan; G. R. Kirakosyan; V. A. Chavushyan; N. M. Ayvazyan
      Pages: 412 - 423
      Abstract: Pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain, activation of astrocytes and microglia, and disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission. In our experiments on rats, a model of AD was created by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of Aβ25–35 amyloid. In another animal group, this was combined with intramuscular (i.m.) injections of small doses of Macrovipera lebetina (ML) snake venom (50 μl of 5% solution of an LD50 dose per animal seven times with one-day-long intervals). In the AD model, the most vulnerable neurons were found in the hippocampal fields CA1 and CA3. The phosphatase activity in the hippocampus of Aβ-injected rats sharply dropped. Systemic administration of small doses of ML venom induced positive changes in the structural characteristics of hippocampal neurons, increased the density of neurons in the above fields, normalized metabolism, and intensified Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation. Under the action of ML venom, the proportion of responses of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after high-frequency tetanic stimulation of the ipsilateral entorhinal cortex in the form of tetanic depression–posttetanic potentiation increased, and an overall increase in the firing rate of hippocampal neurons was observed. The intensity of free radical processes in some tissues of Aβ-affected animals became much lower under the action of ML venom. Thus, small doses of this venom manifest clear neuroprotective effects in the rat AD model.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9704-8
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Functional State of the Mitochondria from Tissues of the Rat Brain after
           Chronic Occlusion of the Common Carotid Artery: Role of Lysyl Oxidase
    • Authors: O. Yu. Harmatina; V. I. Nosar’; E. É. Kolesnikova; T. Yu. Lapikova-Bryginskaya; L. V. Bratus’; A. G. Portnychenko
      Pages: 424 - 431
      Abstract: Stenosis and occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) are one of the main reasons of cerebrovascular pathologies; these factors determine the development of hypoperfusion of the brain. Disorders in the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) underlie the development of a number of pathological processes, including vascular and cerebral pathologies. Changes in the activity of this enzyme are assumed to significantly affect the functional state of the mitochondria (MCh). We examined the role of LOX in the regulation of energy metabolism in the rat brain under conditions of experimental unilateral chronic occlusion of the CCA (CCA ChO). Experiments were carried out on Wistar rats with ligated left CCA. Animals of one of the experimental groups received drinking water with 0.2% of a LOX blocker, β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) during 8 weeks. After such course of BAPN introduction, we estimated the characteristics of energy metabolism in the MCh from tissues of the brain hemispheres using a polarographic technique. Occlusion of the CCA was accompanied by disorders in tissue respiration (oxidative phosphorylation in the MCh); these changes were more expressed in the left hemisphere (P < 0.05), but those in the right one were also quite noticeable. There were indications for the existence of interhemisphere differences in the functioning of the MCh complex 1 in healthy control animals; the respective values were greater in the left hemisphere. Introduction of BAPN promoted partial recovery of the MCh functions; this was manifested in some weakening of the effects of CCA occlusion. Thus, under conditions of unilateral CCA ChO, energy metabolism in both brain hemispheres undergoes negative changes. Changes in the LOX activity are one of the factors responsible for negative shifts in the indices of MCh functioning related to hypoperfusion of brain tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9705-7
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • EEG Differences Between Eyes-Closed and Eyes-Open Conditions at the
           Resting Stage for Euthymic Participants
    • Authors: D. P. X. Kan; P. E. Croarkin; C. K. Phang; P. F. Lee
      Pages: 432 - 440
      Abstract: Most prior research examined differences in the EEG frequency bands between eyes-closed and eyesopen conditions at the resting state as a baseline; without counter checking on the mental health state of the subjects; the depressive symptoms were often not assessed or controlled during the experiment. We examined EEGs of euthymic participants (who were free from the psychiaric symptoms) for the above two conditions at the resting state. A population of participants with healthy levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (n = 50) has been examined with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The powers of the alpha rhythm, interpreted as relaxation waves, were higher during eyes-closed compared to eyes-open condition (P = 0.0…) in all brain regions (32 EEG channels). The prefrontal cortex was characterized by higher delta, theta, and beta powers during eyes-open periods at the resting state, as compared with eyes-closed ones.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9706-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Effects of Aging and Background Babble Noise on Speech Perception
           Processing: An fMRI Study
    • Authors: H. A. Manan; A. N. Yusoff; E. A. Franz; S. Z.-M. S. Mukari
      Pages: 441 - 452
      Abstract: Speech perception processing in a noisy environment is subjected to age-related decline. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine cortical activation associated with such processing across four groups of participants with age ranges of 23–29, 30–37, 41–47 and 50–65 years old. All participants performed a forward repeat task in quiet environment (SQ) and in the presence of multi-talker babble noise (SN; 5-dB signal-to-noise ratio, SNR). Behavioral test results demonstrated a decrease in the performance accuracy associated with increasing age for both SQ and SN. However, a significant difference in the performance accuracy between these conditions could only be seen among the elderly (60–65 years old) subjects. The fMRI results across the four age groups showed a nearly similar pattern of brain activation in the auditory, speech, and attention areas during SQ and SN. Comparisons between SQ and SN demonstrated significantly lower brain activation in the left precentral gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, left Heschly’s gyrus, and right middle temporal gyrus under the latter condition. Other activated brain areas showed no significant differences in brain activation between SQ and SN. The decreases in cortical activation in the activated regions positively correlated with the decrease in the behavioral performance across age groups. These findings are discussed based on a dedifferentiation hypothesis that states that increased brain activation among older participants, as compared to young participants, is due to the age-related deficits in neural communication.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9707-5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Effects of Memantine on Behavioral Indices of Rats in the Open Field
    • Authors: Yu. M. Tyshchenko; E. A. Lukyanetz
      Pages: 453 - 457
      Abstract: Effects of course (5 days) peroral introductions of memantine on behavioral indices of rafts in the open field test were examined. Ten animals were divided into two groups, control and experimental; rats of the latter group obtained five everyday introductions of 20 mg/kg memantine hydrochloride. Animals of the experimental group demonstrated more intense orientational/research activity (number of rearings) and significantly greater number of goings to the arena center. The dynamics of nearly all indices shown by rats of the two groups were dissimilar; memantine noticeably modified the structure of grooming behavior. Behavioral patterns in the open field allow one to conclude that memantine induces significant decreases in the levels of anxiety and fear. In general, effects of this agent can be characterized as adaptational/stimulatory ones. [1, 2]
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9708-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Gender and Age-Related Peculiarities of the H-Reflex Indices in Sportsmen
    • Authors: M. Dornowski; Ye. V. Kolosova; A. V. Gorkovenko
      Pages: 458 - 461
      Abstract: In a group of 44 healthy trained subjects (biathlon athletes), age- and sex-related peculiarities of the results of an H-reflex study were examined (EMG responses were recorded from the m. soleus). Tested subjects were divided into four groups, women and men, juniors (younger than 20 years), and adults (20–30 years). The measured indices in the groups of men and women demonstrated certain significant differences; these differences were greater in adults. Thresholds for generation of the H- and M-responses were higher in females as compared to those in males. Amplitudes of the maximum H- and M-responses in men (in both juniors and adults) significantly exceeded the analogous values in women. In adult sportsmen, amplitudes of the M-responses were higher, while ratios of the maximum H- and M-responses were smaller than those in juniors. Probable reasons of gender- and age-related peculiarities of the H-reflex indices are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9709-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 6 (2017)
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • Pages: 315 - 315
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9690-x
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effects of Aging and Noise Exposure on Auditory Brainstem Responses and
           Number of Presynaptic Ribbons in Inner Hair Cells of C57BL/6J Mice
    • Authors: Sh. Takeda; P. Mannström; S. Dash-Wagh; T. Yoshida; M. Ulfendahl
      Pages: 316 - 326
      Abstract: C57BL/6J mice develop age-related hearing loss (HL) early in life. The influence of aging and noise exposure on the number of presynaptic structures in inner hair cells of C57BL/6J mice has not been studied. We monitored auditory brainstem responses, ABRs, in C57BL/6J mice over time and assessed changes in the number of inner hair cell presynaptic ribbons. Multifaceted verification of the effects of aging and noise exposure on hearing in the C57BL/6J strain was performed. The HL was additively increased by noise exposure in 5-week-old mice. The earliest change observed was a decrease in the amplitude of the ABR first wave. Hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons were also lost. Immunohistochemistry and high-resolution confocal microscopy revealed decreased numbers of CtBP2-positive structures in the inner hair cells localized in other than those in the low-frequency region of the cochlea. On the other hand, the influence of acute noise exposure on the inner hair cell ribbons was observed only within the highest-frequency area.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9691-9
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • State of Synaptic Inhibition in Smooth Muscles of the Colon of Individuals
           of Different Ages
    • Authors: M. M. Grusha; O. V. Romanenko
      Pages: 327 - 337
      Abstract: We examined the state of synaptic inhibition in smooth muscles (SMs) of the intestinal tract with special attention to the gender and age aspects. One hundred thirty-seven samples of the SMs taken from the circular layer of the colon wall of 22 women of different age (group IF, younger than 35 years, group IIF, 36–55 years, group IIIF, 56–74 years, and group IVF, 75 years and more) and 24 men (group IM, younger than 35 years, group IIM, 36–60 years, group IIIM, 61–74 years, and group IVM, 75 years and more). The state of synaptic inhibition was estimated according to values of the amplitude/kinetic parameters of inhibitory synaptic potentials (ISPs) in SM strips taken from different visually normal parts of the colon in the course of surgical interventions; the respective sites were at a distance of at least 10 cm form a pathologically modified zone of the colon. Parametric and nonparametric approaches were used in detailed statistical analysis of these parameters. No statistically significant differences were found between most amplitude/kinetic parameters of ISPs in the colonic SMs of women and men within all age groups and between these parameters in different age groups of women and men. Such results confirm the statement that, in humans, the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission to SMs of the colon is mostly preserved during the entire lifespan, even against the background of age-related involution changes in the organism.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9692-8
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effects of Gonadectomy and Avoidance Learning on the GABA Aα1 Receptor
           Density in the Prefrontal Cortex of Male and Female Rats
    • Authors: A. Shojaee; M. Taherianfard
      Pages: 338 - 348
      Abstract: We evaluated the effects of gonadectomy and passive avoidance learning on the density of GABAAα1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex of male and female rats. Twenty adult males weighing 200 ± 30 g and 20 adult females weighing 150 ± 20 g were divided into four groups: (i) Sham, intact rats with no learning session, (ii) Sham-L, intact rats subjected to the avoidance learning session, (iii) GE, gonadectomized rats without learning, and (iv) GE-L, gonadectomized rats with learning. A shuttle box was used for the induction of passive avoidance learning. The density of GABAAα1 receptors was investigated with an immunohistochemical technique; Image Analyzer software was used. Ovariectomy without learning led to significant reduction of the density of GABAAα1 receptors in different regions of the prefrontal cortex relative to the control intact group; at the same time, ovariectomized females with learning demonstrated a significantly higher density of GABAAα1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex as compared to the Sham group. No significant differences in the density of GABAAα1 receptors were observed in both castrated male rat groups. The comparison of male and female rats showed that the density of GABAAα1 receptors in castrated rats with learning was significantly lower than that in ovariectomized females with learning. Thus, ovariectomy exerts a more potent effect than castration on the GABAAα1 receptor density in different regions of the prefrontal cortex. Learning provides increases in the GABAAα1 receptor density in different regions of the prefrontal cortex in female rats, while castration of male rats exerts no significant effect from this aspect.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9693-7
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • EEG Indices in Children with Primary Headache Disorders
    • Authors: A. M. Abou Mousa; N. Z. Elshazly; L. A. Mansour; M. A. Besher; A. S. Abd Elghaffar; E. H. Esmail
      Pages: 349 - 356
      Abstract: Both episodic migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are characterized by attacks of strong headache. There is growing evidence that the brain functions are abnormal even within between-attack periods. We tried to evaluate interictal brain functions in children with primary headache using quantitative EEG. Sixty patients were recruited, 25 children with migraine and 35 with TTH. Patients were classified according to the ICHD. Migraine patients had significantly higher relative spectral powers of slow-wave bands (theta and delta) and decreased alpha relative powers in most of the regions examined than those in TTH patients. Apart from the above-mentioned specificities and negative correlation of age with the powers of delta and theta bands in both groups, we could not find other clinical variables that appeared to significantly affect EEG indices. Our results support that interictal brain dysfunction is, in general, more typical of migraine patients. These results shall help to contribute to better management and brain protection in children with headache.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9694-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Cognitive Event-Related Potentials (P300) and Cognitive Impairment in
           Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
    • Authors: N. Esquitin-Garduño; R. E. Escobar-Cedillo; B. G. Flores-Avalos; G. Escobar-Cedillo; A. Miranda-Duarte; L. B. López-Hernández; V. I. Orellana-Villazón; R. M. Coral-Vázquez; S. García; B. Gómez-Díaz
      Pages: 357 - 362
      Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressing disorder characterized by muscle wasting and weakness due to the absence or alteration of the function of dystrophin that protects muscle cells from mechanical stress induced by a movement during contraction. The function of dystrophin isoforms expressed in the brain is not fully understood, but the presence of non-progressing cognitive impairment (including disorders of learning and memory) is a common feature in patients with DMD. To establish correlation between the cognitive event-related potential P300 and psychological evaluation with an intelligence test based on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in patients with DMD and a control group, the respective tests were performed in 31 patients with DMD and 30 controls. The mean age of the group with DMD was 9.35 ± 2.88 years, while that in control children was 9.43 ± 2.69 years (P = 0.89). The IQ was 90.77 ± 12.62 in the DMD group and 106.77 ± 9.62 in the controls (P < 0.0001). The amplitude of the cognitive potential P300 in leads Fz, Cz, and Pz showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Thus, parameters of the P300 potential and cognitive assessment showed nearly no relationship in patients with DMD vs. controls.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9695-5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effects of Implantation of Cryopreserved Placental Explants on the
           Behavioral Indices and Morphological Characteristics of the Cerebral
           Structures in Senescent Mice
    • Authors: I. B. Musatova; V. V. Volina; O. V. Chub; V. Yu. Prokopyuk; O. S. Prokopyuk
      Pages: 363 - 371
      Abstract: The effects of implantation of cryopreserved placental explants (CPEs) on the behavioral phenomena were studied in adult young (6 months old) and in senescent (presenile ontogenetic period, 12 months old) mice; morphological characteristics of the cerebral structures were also examined in these animals. Implantation of CPEs significantly influenced the behavioral indices and adaptational capacities of senescent mice; the direction of such effects was sex-dependent. In male mice, manifestations of deadaptation (decreases in the mobility and exploration habits and an increase in anxiety) were observed, while in females the behavioral manifestations were opposite (positive). Implantation of CPEs led to partial smoothing of negative shifts in the morphological characteristics in the motor cortex and hippocampus of senescent mice. Therefore, CPEs can serve as a source of natural compounds and cell elements providing the activation of neurogenesis, formation of new neurons, and their proliferation in key structures of the brain. In prospect, CPE-based therapeutic agents can be used for the correction of age-related dysfunctions of the CNS.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9696-4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • fMRI Visualization of Functional Patterns of Neural Networks during the
           Performance of Cyclic Finger Movements: Age-Related Peculiarities
    • Authors: A. N. Omel’chenko; N. E. Makarchuk
      Pages: 372 - 383
      Abstract: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we visualized patterns of activity of neural macronetworks in healthy humans during the performance of cyclic finger movements and studied agerelated peculiarities of these patterns. Three age groups of subjects (7 to 86 years old) were examined. The paradigm of activation corresponded to simple repeated test movements of touching of the fingerpads of the forefinger and thumb of the right hand. We analyzed patterns of activation, deactivation, and functional connectivity of the brain sensorimotor, default, and frontoparietal networks. Schemes of activation of zones of the primary and associative sensorimotor cortex related to the test task performance by subjects of different ages were rather similar to each other. Concurrently with the processes of activation of the sensorimotor network, we observed partial deactivation of certain nodi of the default mode network and formation of functional connectivity between some such nodi. The obtained data confirm the statement that the default mode network is heterogeneous; different parts of this network can simultaneously demonstrate desynchronization and autonomic functioning. There are reasons to believe that, in the junior age, the functional connectivity of zones corresponding to the default mode network had been formed incompletely. We found the functional connectivity of the frontoparietal neural network consisting of parts of the parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of both cerebral hemispheres. In elderly subjects, the functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the left hemisphere and other parts of the frontoparietal neural network is weakened.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9697-3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Intracellular Calcium Fluxes in Excitable Cells
    • Authors: V. M. Shkryl
      Pages: 384 - 392
      Abstract: The estimation of not only concentrations of different intracellular ions (calcium in particular), but also of the dynamics of changes in these parameters, is one of the most important tasks in today cell biology. The measurements of calcium concentrations in the cell and even in its separate organelles are possible with the use of several experimental approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiological techniques, fluorescent/optic methods, and others). Calcium is present in the cell in free (ionized) and bound states. Local rapid changes in the Ca2+ level in definite cell sites are individual quanta of an integral oscillatory calcium signal determining numerous cell functions. Separation of calcium fluxes in different cell compartments and evaluation of the role of calcium receptors and channels in the plasma membrane and membranes of the intracellular organelles allows experimenters to begin estimation of contributions of the respective events to the regulation of physiological functions of the cell, e.g., of synaptic plasticity of the neuron. This review describes some methodic approaches for the measurements of concentrations of calcium and characteristics of its fluxes; this makes it possible to characterize separate components of calcium signaling and to determine the roles of these components in the regulation of different functions of excitable cells.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9698-2
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Correction to: Postvaccination Accumulation of the Influenza Virus Antigen
           in the Rat Choroid Plexus
    • Authors: I. Maslovarić; A. Stojković; D. Kosanović; D. Marković; V. Ilić; K. Jovanova-Nešić
      Pages: 393 - 393
      Abstract: The names of the authors were indicated incorrectly (wrong using of diacritical marks). The names of the authors should be written and read as follows: I. Maslovarić, A. Stojković, D. Kosanović, D. Marković, V. Ilić, and K. Jovanova-Nešić
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9699-1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Correction to: Effects of Beta-Adrenergic Blockade on Diabetes-Induced
           Neurobehavioral Alterations in Mice
    • Authors: G. F. Ibironke; O. S. Asifat
      Pages: 394 - 394
      Abstract: The author’s name G. F. Ibironnke shoul be read as G. F. Ibironke
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-018-9700-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
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