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Journal Cover   Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.122]   [H-I: 8]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Two Types of Epileptiform Activity Induced in Rats by Repeated Injections
           of Subconvulsive Picrotoxin Doses
    • Abstract: Seizure activity in rats was induced by picrotoxin i.p. injected every 30 min for 4 h in subconvulsive doses (0.9 mg/kg in the first and 0.7 mg/kg in subsequent injections). Such picrotoxin-evoked epileptiform activity (EA) could be divided into two types, with the development of exclusively peak-wave (P-W) complexes (68.4%) and with generation of regular cortical peaks and only separate short P-W discharges (31.6%). In animals with EA of the first type, we observed the gradual development of clonic seizures of increasing intensities. In some rats of this group after the final (ninth) injection of picrotoxin, dramatic clonico-tonic seizures were observed. In animals with EA of the second type, the duration of P-W discharges after final injections of picrotoxin was shorter than in rats without generation of cortical peaks; these discharges were accompanied by clonic seizures of smaller intensity.
      PubDate: 2015-07-09
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2015-07-04
  • Erratum to: Hysteresis Properties of EMG Activity of the Shoulder Belt and
    • PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Effect of a Hydroalcoholic Extract of Rosa Canina Flowers on Anxiety in
    • Abstract: We investigated effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa сanina (dog rose) petals on behavior of rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test; adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-240 g were used. Oral everyday administration of the Rosa extract in three doses (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) was done for one week. Animal behavior in the EPM was videotaped for 10 min, and conventional indices considered to be related to the anxiety level were scored. Introduction of the Rosa canina extract significantly increased the number of open arm entries in a dose-dependent manner and also increased the time of stay in the open arms at a high dose (450 mg/kg). At the same time, the number of closed arm entries interpreted as a correlate of the locomotion intensity did not differ from the control at all doses. Thus, the Rosa canina extract, when orally administered, demonstrates an anxiolytic profile in rats. Future investigations are essential for better understanding of the anxiolytic properties of the extract and neurobiological mechanisms of its action (probable interactions of the Rose extract active agents with neurotransmitter systems.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Aging-Related Peculiarities of the Distribution of Myelin Basic Protein in
           Cerebral Structures of Gerbils
    • Abstract: Using an indirect immuno-enzyme technique, we measured the contents of myelin basic protein (MBP) in different cerebral structures of young adult and old (6- and 24-month-old, respectively) mongolian gerbils. The mean MBP content in the cerebellum of old gerbils was about 47% of the corresponding value in younger individuals (1.04 ± 0.10 and 2.20 ± 0.50 μg per 100 mg tissue, respectively). At the same time, the mean MBP contents in the thalamus and hippocampus of old gerbils demonstrated no decrease and even somewhat exceeded the corresponding values in young animals (the differences were, however, insignificant). Thus, aging-related changes in the MBP content in different brain structures of gerbils demonstrate clearly expressed specificities; there are reasons to believe that age-related processes of demyelination develop, first of all, in the cerebellum.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Effects of Agonists of μ-Opioid Receptors on P-Type Calcium Channels
           in Rat Purkinje Neurons
    • Abstract: Calcium channels of the P-type play an important role in synaptic transmission in the CNS of mammals; the major part of calcium ions entering the presynaptic terminal comes precisely via these channels. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we studied the effects of μ-opioids on P-type calcium channels in freshly isolated Purkinje neurons of the rat cerebellum. A selective agonist of μ-opioid receptors, DAMGO (10 nM), caused stable moderate (10 ± 1%, on average) but significant (Р < 0.001; n = 27) potentiation of P-type current in most units. This effect of DAMGO was rather appreciable already at a concentration of 1 nM and reached saturation at 100 nM. The effect developed rapidly (in about 10 sec); it was voltage-dependent and completely reversible. An endogenous selective agonist of μ-opioid receptors, endorphin-1, evoked nearly the same effect (increment 8 ± 1%, n = 6, P < 0.01). DAMGO-caused increase in the amplitude of P-type currents was completely removed after application of an antagonist of opioid receptors, naloxone (100 nM). These data indicate that agonists of μ-opioid receptors, even in nanomolar concentrations, can evoke appreciable potentiation of P-type calcium current mediated by interaction with opioid receptors of the corresponding type.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Long-Term Video Electroencephalography and Electrocorticography in
           Temporal Lobe Epilepsy- Related Surgery
    • Abstract: Eighty-eight patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) underwent epilepsy-related surgery monitored by preoperative long-term video EEG (VEEG) and intraoperative ECoG. The patterns, location, and spatial distribution of epileptiform discharges recorded by VEEG and ECoG were analyzed and compared. In 56 patients, frequent focal epileptiform discharges were recorded by VEEG at one side of the temporal lobe and identified in the temporal lobe and interior frontal gyrus by ECoG. Epileptiform discharges were recorded by VEEG at both sides of the temporal lobe in 20 patients and by all recording electrodes at one side of the temporal lobe in 12 patients. In these patients, epileptiform discharges were identified by ECoG in the left sylvian gyrus of the temporal lobe and in the inferior and middle frontal gyri. Spatial distributions of epileptiform discharges were adequately identified by ECoG in 52 (59%) patients, with a consistency of > 80% in 24 (27%) patients, and with a consistency of 60-80% in 12 (14%) patients, compared with that estimated by VEEG. Patients remained seizure-free in 72 (81.8%) cases; their state was improved significantly in 12 (13.6%) cases and remained unimproved in 4 (4.5%) cases. Our data suggest that ECoG possesses certain advantages over VEEG in accurate localization of the epileptogenic foci and, thus, is important for surgical treatment of TLE.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Effects of Modifications of the Functional State of the Central
           Cholinergic System on Neurological Deficiency Related to Experimental
           Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Abstract: Using a 100-point Todd scale, we examined the level of neurological deficiency in male albino rats subjected to dosed experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). In one of the three experimental groups with TBI, animals were not subjected to additional influences; in another group, the central cholinergic system (CChS) was activated by introduction of a central-action cholinomimetic, choline alfoscerate (Gliatilin); in the third group, the activity of the above system was suppressed by a cholinoblocker, biperiden (Akineton). In rats with TBI, the level of neurological deficiency progressively increased; in this group, the estimates at 3 and 72 h after TBI induction corresponded to 474 and 950% of the respective values in intact animals. Blocking of the cholinergic system additionally aggravated manifestations of neurological deficiency, especially within earlier time intervals after TBI (3 and 24 h). Pharmacological activation of the CChS significantly smoothed manifestations of neurological disorders (several times, as compared with those in the TBI group with no additional influences).
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Involvement of Central β-Adrenergic Circuitry in Food and Water
           Intake in Chickens
    • Abstract: We examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinjections of a β1,2-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISOP), and of a β1,2-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol (PROP), on food and water intake in broiler cockerels deprived of food and water for 3 h. We found that ISOP, at a 200 nM concentration and not smaller, significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased food intake but not water intake. PROP microinjected in different doses (20–80 mM) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased food intake. These observation suggest a direct orexigenic role for the β1- and β2-adrenergic systems in the regulation of food intake in chickens. The significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of i.c.v. injections of PROP (transient increase in water intake) implies a role of the adrenergic system, possibly via α-adrenoceptors, in the regulation of water intake in broilers, which is food intake-independent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Auditory Event-Related P300 Potentials in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess P300 event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to the duration of illness, degree of disease activity, anatomical and functional stage of the disease, pain intensity, and pain unpleasantness. The cross-sectional study included 53 women with RA (RA group; mean age 50.58 ± 0.93 years) and 27 healthy women (control group, C; 49.41 ± 1.08 years). The intensity and unpleasantness of pain were determined using a visual analog scale (VAS); the functional status was assessed using HAQ (Health Assessment Questionnaire), and the disease activity was estimated using the disease activity scale (DAS28). The P300 waves initiated by auditory stimulations according to the oddball paradigm were recorded from leads Fz and Cz. There were no significant differences between the P300 latencies in both leads. At the same time, the average P300 amplitudes in both leads were found to be considerably lower (P < 0.05) in the RA group compared to the C group. Thus, there is a statistically significant amplitude difference between the P300 cognitive ERPs in RA patients and control subjects.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Caffeine Suppresses GABA Receptor-Mediated Current in Rat Primary Sensory
           Neurons via Inhibition of Intracellular Phosphodiesterase
    • Abstract: In acutely isolated rat primary sensory neurons, the effects of caffeine on GABA receptormediated current (I GABA) were investigated using a whole-cell patch clamp technique. We found that applications of GABA (10-1000 μM) induced inward currents in a concentration-dependent manner; the currents manifested obvious desensitization. Pretreatment with caffeine (0.01-100 μM) suppressed I GABA in a noncompetitive manner; caffeine shifted the concentration–response curve for GABA downwards compared to the control. Theophylline showed a similar and stronger inhibitory effect on I GABA. Isolated application of 1 μM diazepam enhanced I GABA, while pretreatment with 10 μM caffeine and 1 μM diazepam suppressed this current. Intracellular application of the protein kinase A inhibitor H-8 dramatically weakened the inhibitory effect of caffeine on I GABA. Because primary afferent depolarization is related to GABAA receptors, our results suggest that caffeine might antagonize presynaptic inhibitory effects of primary afferents, probably via inhibition of intracellular phosphodiesterase.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Excitability Characteristics of a Urinary Bladder Detrusor Smooth Muscle
           Cell as a Basis for Choosing Parameters of Rehabilitation
           Electrostimulation: A Simulation Study
    • Abstract: Electrical stimulation targeted at smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the urinary bladder detrusor (UBD) is used in a complex of rehabilitation procedures performed during treatment of neurourological diseases, in particular of those associated with the deficiency of М2/М3 acetylcholine receptors modifying the efficacy of parasympathetic innervation of these cells. The choice of parameters of such stimulation meets difficulties because of limited knowledge about biophysical and physiological processes induced in the stimulated cells. Certain information about such processes can be obtained with the use of a UBD SMC computer model built according to the data of biological experiments characterizing ion channels, ion exchangers, and other mechanisms regulating the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+] i ) typical of the prototype. We explored the standard characteristics of the electrical excitability of the model SMC (“strength – duration” relationship for the threshold current and dynamics of the refractoriness following generation of action potentials, APs), as well as coupled changes in the membrane potential, partial transmembrane currents, and [Ca2+] i values evoked by depolarizing current pulses. In some computational experiments, such stimulation was performed under conditions of a higher conductivity of purinergic ionotropic receptor channels, thereby mimicking the action of purinomimetics. The model UBD SMC generated APs with parameters close to those of the prototype; AP generation was accompanied by long periods of absolute and relative refractoriness (up to 30 and 600 msec, respectively). The relative refractoriness period included an early phase (AP half-recovery lasting about 220 msec) and a late phase; each of these phases included “fast” and “slow” components with the time constants differing from each other by an order of magnitude. These time characteristics of the refractoriness were determined by the kinetic characteristics of the processes of activation/inactivation of voltage- and calcium-dependent ion channels and by those of the [Ca2+] i return to the basal level under the action of a set of Са2+ extrusion mechanisms. An important UBD SMC biophysical parameter was also the reversal potential (E Cl) for calcium-dependent chloride current (which is activated, in particular, due to the parasympathetic action on М2/М3 receptors). This current changed its main “depolarizing” direction to the hyperpolarizing one when the membrane potential exceeded the E Cl level.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Dissociation Between Attention and Consciousness During a Novel Task: An
           ERP Study
    • Abstract: While consciousness and attention seem to be tightly connected, recent evidence has suggested that one of these processes can be present in the absence of the other. Recent researches showed that observers can pay attention to an invisible (unconscious) stimulus, and that a stimulus can be clearly perceived (seen) in the absence of attention. We have proposed a novel psychophysical task to explore neural correlates of top-down attention and consciousness. The task is meant to confirm that these two processes can occur independently of each other. EEG was recorded during realizations of the task, and target-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) for masked and unmasked conditions were constructed. Time features corresponding to the P100, N150, and P300 components were extracted for each channel separately. Utilizing these features, we employed some common classifiers for classification of the fourfold state. Our task could separate attention and consciousness successfully through their neural correlates. The results indicate that some of the mentioned components changed when attention or consciousness occurs. By comparing difference waves in each condition separately, our results introduce new ERP correlates of attention and consciousness. We also revealed that parieto-occipital areas are the most relevant areas for dissociation between attention and consciousness. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these correlates are introduced in a separable mode, and the classification accuracies are reported for this purpose.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Changes in Motor Asymmetry of the Goldfish Related to Adaptation to
    • Abstract: We examined effects resulting from application of aggregated beta-amyloid on Mauthner neurons (MNs) of ambidextral goldfishes and long-lasting rotatory stimulation on lateral motor behavior of such fishes; these individuals were preliminarily adapted to repetitive rotatory stimulation. Using 3D histological reconstruction of the above cells, we measured the volumes of the right and left MNs and examined the ultrastructure of specialized synaptic compartments in excitatory synapses localized on the surface of the soma, lateral dendrite, and ventral dendrite of these cells. In the course of the experiments, control fishes remain ambidextrals, and the mean volumes of the right and left MNs in these individuals were close to each other. In a fish of this group, dimensions of the active zones (AZs) of chemical synapses localized on the lateral dendrite were considerably greater in the right neuron, while those in synapses on the lateral dendrite were smaller in the left neuron. Experimental fishes subjected to the above-mentioned procedures demonstrated clearly expressed motor lateralization; the mean volumes of their right and left MNs were, however, practically equal to each other. Ultrastructural analysis of peculiarities of MNs of such a fish showed that dimensions of the AZs in chemical synapses on the soma and lateral dendrite of the left MN, which became much less active functionally, significantly exceeded the analogous indices in synapses of the same localization on the right, more active, MN. In mixed synapses, the mean dimensions of gap junctions in control and experimental individuals were similar to each other independently of localization of such synapses. Interrelations between functional asymmetry of MNs manifested in lateralization of motor behavior of the fishes and dimensions of synaptic structures on these cells are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2015-04-28
  • Effects of Neural Crest-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells on Regeneration of
           an Injured Peripheral Nerve in Mice
    • Abstract: We studied the effect of transplantation of neural crest-derived multipotent stem cells (NC-MSCs) obtained from vibrissa germs on regeneration of the injured (transected) sciatic nerve in adult mice (strain FVB). After transplantation of the cells into the injured region, regeneration of the severed nerve was intensified, as compared with that in mice with no implantation. The intensity of vascularization and renewal of the endoneurium also increased. The density of nerve fibers in the distal part of the injured nerve in mice after transplantation of NC-MSCs (10522.8 ± 1044.0 mm–2) was significantly higher than that in mice with nerve injury but without transplantation (8409.5 ± 739.5 mm–2). Possible mechanisms of acceleration of regeneration of the injured peripheral nerve under conditions of transplantation of stem cells are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
  • Effect of Activation of the GLT-1 Transporter by a Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
           on Serotonin-Induced Scratching Behavior in Mice
    • Abstract: Glutamate is believed to be the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the networks responsible for itch-related behavior. Beta-lactam antibiotics were shown to exert neuroprotective effects by increasing expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1. We observed whether repeated administration of the beta-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone suppresses serotonin-induced itch-related behavior (similarly to the effect of this agent on pain transmission) in mice. Chronic, but not acute, ceftriaxone introductions reduced the number of serotonin-induced scratches; dihydrokainic acid, a selective GLT-1 transporter inhibitor, partly but significantly abolished this effect of ceftriaxone. Our findings suggest that GLT-1 activation by beta-lactam antibiotics looks promising for the treatment of chronic itch.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
  • Effects of Aging and Experimentally Induced Modifications of Signal
           Pathways on Insulin-Induced Shifts of Glucose Metabolism in the Rat
    • Abstract: We studied insulin-induced intensification of glucose absorption and glycogen formation in the neocortex of young and old rats. In young animals, the corresponding shifts were clearly expressed; in old rats, insulin exerted nearly no stimulatory action on the processes of glucose metabolism in neocortical tissues. It was hypothesized that this is due to the age-related enhancement of the level of ceramides resulting in changes of the lipid spectrum of the cell membranes and also due to suppression of key components of signal pathways of insulin in the brain (such as Akt/protein kinase В, ARF, protein kinase С, and phospholipase D). These events disturb the signal cascade of the hormone and process of formation of the physiological response. An increase in the amount of ceramides in neocortical tissues of young animals after the action of exogenous С2 ceramide or palmitic acid (precursor of sphingolipids) was accompanied by suppression of the intensification of glucose absorption and insulin-stimulated formation of glycogen. Taking into account a significant increase in the amount of ceramides in the neocortex of old animals (this was shown in our earlier study), we believe that age-related accumulation of ceramide is an important reason for the development of insulin resistance of glucose metabolism in the CNS of old organisms.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
  • Linear and Nonlinear EEG Synchronization in Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Abstract: As is known, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with cognitive deficits due to significant neuronal loss. Reduced connectivity might be manifested as changes in the synchronization of electrical activity of collaborating parts of the brain. We used wavelet coherence to estimate linear/nonlinear synchronization between EEG samples recorded from different leads. Mutual information was applied to the complex wavelet coefficients in wavelet scales to estimate nonlinear synchronization. Synchronization rates for a group of 110 patients with moderate AD (MMSE score 10 to 19) and a group of 110 healthy control subjects were compared. The most significant decrease in mutual information in AD patients was observed on the third scale in the fronto-temporal area and for wavelet coherence within the same areas as for mutual information; these areas are preferentially affected by atrophy in AD. The new method used utilizes mutual information in wavelet scales and demonstrates larger discriminatory values in AD compared to wavelet coherence.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
  • Dynamic Properties of Purkinje Cells Having Different Electrophysiological
           Parameters: a Model Study
    • Abstract: Simple spikes and complex spikes are two distinguishing features in neurons of the cerebellar cortex; the motor learning and memory processes are dependent on these firing patterns. In our research, the detailed firing behaviors of Purkinje cells were investigated using a computer compartmental neuronal model. By means of application of numerical stimuli, the abundant dynamical properties involved in the multifarious firing patterns (such as the Max-Min potentials of each spike and period-adding/perioddoubling bifurcations) appeared. Neuronal interspike interval (ISI) diagrams, frequency diagrams, and current-voltage diagrams for different ions were plotted. Finally, Poincaré mapping was used as a theoretical method to markedly distinguish timing of the above firing patterns. Our simulation results indicated that firing of Purkinje cells varies dynamically depending on different electrophysiological parameters of these neurons, and the respective properties may play significant roles in the formation of the mentioned characteristics of dynamical firings in the coding strategy for information processing and learning.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
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