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Development Genes and Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 53)
Diabetes Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.192, h-index: 2)
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Journal Cover Neurophysiology
   Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.136]   [H-I: 7]
  • Effect of Prior Instructions on Preprogrammed Reactions of Trunk Muscles
           in Individuals with and without Chronic Low Back Pain
    • Abstract: The late component of the stretch reflex occurring in humans within a 40 to 120 msec interval following a loading perturbation is qualified as a preprogrammed muscle reaction (PPR). The PPR size can be significantly modulated with prior instructions. These modifications are significantly influenced by a number of factors, in particular by the presence of pain syndromes. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of prior instructions on the PPR amplitude in the trunk muscles in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP) compared to healthy controls. LBP is a widespread syndrome, especially in athletes. Surface EMGs were recorded from superficial trunk muscles, rectus abdominis (RA) and erector spinae (ES), in athletes suffering from chronic LBP (n = 24) and asymptomatic (healthy) athletes (n = 25). Loading perturbations (induced by dropping a weight, application of 3 kg force, ≈ 30 N, to the outstretched hand from a 8 cm height) were introduced in standing at a known time with prior instructions to “let go” for the induced perturbation or to “resist” it. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG amplitudes within the reaction duration were compared between the two groups. Statistically significant differences were obtained when the mean PPR EMG amplitudes were compared between the LBP and control groups for the above two task instructions; this was found for both examined muscles, RA and ES (P < 0.05). Therefore, individuals with chronic LBP exhibit poorly modulated PPR amplitudes according to prior task instructions. Changes in the networks controlling automatically regulated movements and excitability of the spinal pathways could be responsible for this specificity.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Erratum in “Antioxidant Activity-Mediated Neuroprotective Effects of
           an Antagonist of AT1 Receptors, Candesartan, Against Cerebral Ischemia and
           Edema in Rats,”
    • PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Erratum to: Functional Convergence of Thalamic and Intrinsic Projections
           to Cortical Layers 4 and 6
    • PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Yurii P. Limanskii (1930–2013)
    • PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Thiamine Metabolism in Neurons and Their Vital Capacity Upon the Action of
           Ethanol and Acetaldehyde
    • Abstract: We studied the sensitivity of a few reactions of thiamine metabolism in nerve cells upon the action of ethanol and acetaldehyde, as well as effects of the above-mentioned agents on vital capacity of cultured cells of different origins. Experiments were carried out on preparations of isolated nerve endings (synaptosomes), preparations of synaptosomal plasma membranes (SPMs), preparations of enzymes, and cell cultures. We estimated the ІС50 for the effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on reactions that are the components of metabolism of the mobile thiamine pool in the cells. Ethanol in physiological concentrations inhibited the thiamine-binding activity of SPMs (ІС50 = 3.9 mM). At the same time, this agent used in the above concentrations practically did not influence the thiamine phosphate hydrolase activity of SPMs (estimated by the thiamine triphosphatase activity) and thiamine pyrophosphate kinase (TPK) activity. A product of ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde, inhibited the thiamine triphosphatase activity with K і = 6.2 μM and the TPK activity with K і = 1.2 μM. The survival indices of cultured cells were estimated under conditions of the addition of ethanol and acetaldehyde to the medium. The cells of an astrocytic origin (line strain 1321 N1) and blood cells (line strain U937) practically did not respond to the presence of ethanol or acetaldehyde even in rather high concentrations in the culture medium. Under conditions of primary culture, neuron-like (differentiated) cultured РС-12 cells and also cerebellar granular neurons responded by significant decreases in the index of vital capacity to the addition of the above agents.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Neurophysiological Analysis of Speech Perception in 2.5 to 3.5-Year-Old
           Orphans and Children Raised in a Family
    • Abstract: In 2.5-3.5-year-old orphans (n = 41) and children raised in a family (n = 50), we examined specificities of speech perception-related changes in the spectral power density (SPD) of the EEG rhythms. Changes in the SPDs of the θ-, α-, β-, and γ-rhythms in 16 EEG leads where estimated at presentation of a meaningful speech fragment record (short poem) and of a reversed record of the same signal (direct and reversed speech, respectively). The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III demonstrated the existence of noticeable delays in the development of speech in orphans. Comparison of background EEGs and EEGs in the course of listening for direct speech showed that the α-rhythm is desynchronized, while the θ-, β-, and, especially, γ-oscillations are synchronized upon perception of the above stimulus. In this case, children raised in a family demonstrated significant increases in the γ-rhythm SPD in 13 leads of both hemispheres; in orphans, this was observed only in 8 loci localized mostly in the left hemisphere. In children of both groups, listening for reversed speech induced mostly desynchronization of all EEG rhythms with the greatest drops in the γ SPD mostly in the frontal and left temporal leads. Comparison of SPDs of the EEG components (rhythms) at listening for direct and reversed speech demonstrated that powers of θ-, β-, and γ-oscillations increased at presentation of a direct (comprehended) speech in children of both groups. In children raised in families, greater SPDs of the γ-rhythm were observed in 13 leads (differences were most significant in the frontal parts of the left hemisphere). In institutionalized children, the number of leads with significant increments of the γ-rhythm power was significantly smaller (only 9). It is supposed that smaller increases in the SPD of of γ-range oscillations in orphans are related to deviations in the processing of a semantic component of speech perception. This can result from insufficient development of cerebral neuronal networks responsible for processing of verbal information.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Functional Changes in Motor Endplates of the Target Muscle after
           Amputation of the C7 Nerve Root
    • Abstract: There are limited data on structural and functional changes in motor endplates and muscle fibers in the target muscle following amputation of the 7th cervical nerve root, a transplantation-related procedure in surgical treatment in the case of avulsions of the brachial plexus roots. We examined functional changes in these structures using stimulated single-fiber electromyography (sSF-EMG) in an animal model. Unilateral amputation of the 7th cervical nerve root was performed in 36 male rats, and the m. triceps brachii muscle was tested by sSF-EMG at different time points. We observed significant differences in the jitter (mean consecutive difference, MCD, of the latencies between adjacent muscle fibers) at post-amputation weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6. The post-operation fiber density (FD) values within the zone of effective stimulation also gradually increased. At post-amputation weeks 8 and 12, the jitter values returned to normal levels, whereas FD values continued to rise. Our results indicate that the post-amputation compensatory processes in the target muscles of the 7th cervical nerve root are mostly completed at 9-12 weeks after amputation.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Effects of Stimulation of the        class="a-plus-plus">Substantia Innominata and
           Caudate Nucleus on Postsynaptic Reactions of Neurons of the Cat
           Somatosensory Cortex Activated by Excitation of Nociceptors
    • Abstract: We studied effects of electrical stimulation of the substantia innominata (SIn) and nucleus caudatus (NC) on postsynaptic processes evoked in neurons of the cat somatosensory cortex by excitation of nociceptive and non-nociceptive afferent inputs (intense stimulation of the dental pulp and moderate stimulation of the thalamic ventroposteromedial nucleus, VPMN, respectively). We analyzed intracellularly recorded activity of seven cortical cells activated exclusively by stimulation of nociceptors and nine cells activated by both nociceptive and non-nociceptive influences (“nociceptive” and convergent neurons). In neurons of both groups, stimulation of both nociceptive afferents and thalamic VPMN resulted in the development of successions of EPSP – action potential (AP) or their series – IPSP (IPSP duration 200–300 msec). After isolated stimulations of the SIn and NC by short high-frequency series of stimuli, cortical neurons generated APs accompanied by long-lasting high-amplitude IPSPs. Conditioning stimulations of the NC and SIn preceding testing stimulations of the tooth pulp or thalamic VPMN with intervals from 100 to 900 msec induced intense suppression of impulse responses to test stimulations of the above-mentioned afferent inputs during an initial period of IPSP (100–150 msec) after conditioning stimulation. Partial recovery of the test responses was observed during the development of the second (GABAB-mediated) IPSP component. Complete recovery of the above responses developed within the borders of the latest segment of hyperpolarization evoked by conditioning stimulation and after termination of this potential. Stimulations of the NC and SIn result in the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the cortex; ACh influences target neurons via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and provides modulation of activity of the respective populations of nociceptive and non-nociceptice cortical neurons. Such modulation is probably based on changes realized in both pre- and post-synaptic cortical mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Activity-Dependent Potentiation of an Asynchronous Component of GABA-ergic
           Synaptic Currents in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons
    • Abstract: After stimulation of GABA-ergic synaptic connections in a culture of hippocampal neurons by a series of depolarizing current pulses (5-45 sec-1, 5-20 stimuli), an inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) consisting of a phasic component and an asynchronous component develops in the postsynaptic neuron. In experiments with simultaneous recording from two synapticaly connected neurons, we found that 2-min-long depolarization of the presynaptic cell to +40 mV also led to the development of the asynchronous IPSC component (аIPSC) induced by a single action potential (AP) in the presynaptic neuron. In this case, the decay time of IPSC was, on average, three times greater than in the first case. Analogous potentiation of аIPSC was observed in a part of the synaptic connections after their longlasting (15 min) stimulation by series of depolarizing current pulses (45 sec-1, 20 stimuli, betweenseries intervals 23 sec). Such potentiation of аIPSC was preserved for a long time (from 3 to 17 min). Simultaneously with potentiation of аIPSC, we observed potentiation of plateau-like inward current through the membrane of the presynaptic neuron in some synaptic connections. The charge transferred by this current through the membrane of the presynaptic cell correlated significantly with the decay time of evoked IPSC in the postsynaptic neuron (mean correlation coefficient 0.83±0.10). This fact can be considered an indication that the above-mentioned inward current mediates potentiation of the above IPSC. The obtained data allow us to hypothesize that the above-described form of plasticity can regulate the efficacy of GABA-ergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus in the physiological modes of synaptic activity.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Analysis of Long-Term Depression in the Purkinje Cell Circuit (a Model
           Study)
    • Abstract: In the cerebellum, long-term depression (LTD) plays a key function in sculpting neuronal circuits to store information, since motor learning and memory are thought to be associated with such long-term changes in synaptic efficacy. To better understand the principles of transmission of information in the cerebellum, we, in our model, distinguished different types of neurons (type 1- and type 2-like) to examine the neuronal excitability and analyze the interspike interval (ISI) bifurcation phenomenon in these units, and then built a Purkinje cell circuit to study the impact of external stimulation on LTD in this circuit. According to the results of computational analysis, both climbing fiber-Purkinje cell and granule cell-Purkinje cell circuits were found to manifest LTD; the external stimuli would influence LTD by changing both depression time and depression intensity. All of the simulated results showed that LTD is a very significant factor in the Purkinje circuit networks. Finally, to deliver the learning regularities, we simulated spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) by increasing the CaP conductance.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Modeling of Diabetes
           Mellitus
    -Related Depression
    • Abstract: Research on the mechanisms of diabetes-related depression is limited by the lack of sufficiently adequate animal models. Among 80 rats, we formed four groups: (i) normal (N, control), (ii) with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (group Dm), (iii) with a depression model induced by various mild but long-lasting repetitive stressogenic stimulations applied each day during 4 weeks (group D), and (iv) diabetic rats subjected to the combined action of stressogenic influences (group DmD). The latter group (35 animals) was divided into two subgroups, DmD1 subjected to the above chronic stressogenic stimulations, and DmD2 in which diabetic rats were during the above period (4 weeks) kept in isolation. Rats of groups Dm, D, and DmD manifested clear behavioral symptoms of depression. These symptoms were relatively mild in group Dm and much more intense in group DmD. The body mass of rats noticeably decreased in the Dm and D groups and dramatically dropped in the DmD group. In this group, diabetes-related changes in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1C were the greatest. The same relates to the behavioral indices demonstrated by rats in the open field test. The contents of norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and dopamine in the thalamus of rats of groups Dm, D, and DmD were lower than in the norm, and these shifts where most dramatic in the DmD group. The levels of ACTH and cortisol increased in the experimental groups; again, shifts were the greatest in the DmD group. RT PCR and Western blotting showed that the level of NPY protein in the hypothalamus was lower in groups Dm, D, and DmD than that in the norm. Thus, chronic unpredictable stressogenic stimulation or behavioral isolation of diabetic rats significantly aggravates manifestations of depression and stably provides the formation of an adequate animal model of diabetes-related depression. Keeping animals in isolation (subgroup DmD2) is more suitable for empirical studies because of a lower mortality.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Movement Detection Properties and Structure of Stationary Receptive Fields
           of Single Neurons in the Cat Extrastriate Area 21a
    • Abstract: Response patterns of single neurons in the extrastriate area 21a of the cat cortex to moving visual stimuli were studied, along with juxtaposition to the structure of their stationary receptive fields. First, the precise mapping of stationary RFs was performed by flashing bright spots; then, moving visual stimuli of different shapes and sizes with two opposite contrasts were presented. We found that the majority of investigated neurons with a homogenous stationary RF organization demonstrate significant differences in their activity profiles depending on the size, shape, and contrast of the applied moving visual stimulus. The data obtained support a model in which the RF stationary structure undergoes specific dynamic changes due to simultaneous activation of the RF surround by the moving visual image; this provides more accurate incorporation of moving image information in movement detection.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Dependence of Variability of Neuronal Responses in the Frog        class="a-plus-plus">Torus Semicircularis on the
           Parameters of Acoustic Stimuli
    • Abstract: Responses of neurons of various sensory nuclei to presentation of specific stimuli can be characterized not only by the mean number of action potentials (APs) in such reactions and the pattern of AP time distribution, but also by the level of repeatability of the reaction. We studied impulse responses of neurons localized in the auditory center of the midbrain of the grass frog under the action of tone segments of a characteristic frequency, with an unmodulated or modulated amplitude. The repeatability of reactions was evaluated according to the ratio between the variation of the number of APs to presentations of the signal and the mean number of APs in the response (Fano factor). Neurons differed noticeably from each other in this characteristic. In the studied sampling, we observed no close correlation between the Fano factor and the mean number of APs in the response, although in some cells such correlation may appear rather significant. In the case of the action of low-intensity signals, an increase in the intensity resulted, on average, in the improvement of repeatability of the reaction; with higher levels of the signal, this trend, however, was not maintained. Complication of the signal using amplitude modulation usually caused a decrease in the variability, although in some cells the pattern of such dependence was opposite. We found a trend toward a rise in the Fano factor with increase in the duration of the time interval of observation. We focus our attention on the correlation between stochastic reactions of separate cells of sensory systems and variability of responses of the entire organism at fixed sensory stimulations.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Association Between Sleep Characteristics and Mild Cognitive Impairment in
           Elderly People
    • Abstract: We compared the sleep quality indices between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly subjects and analyzed the effects of sleep characteristics on cognitive functions. Cases of MCI patients (320 persons, MCI group) and 630 normal elderly with matched age, gender, and level of education (control group) were enrolled in this study. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the sleep characteristics. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess cognitive function. There were 110 (34.3 %) and 170 (27 %) cases with sleep disorders in the MCI and control groups, respectively (P < 0.01). There was a significant difference of total PQSI scores between the two groups, and the scores of sleep duration (factor III) and habitual sleep efficiency (factor IV) in the MCI group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Total PQSI scores negatively correlated with MoCA scores and MMSE scores. MoCA scores negatively correlated with scores of the sleep latency (factor II), sleep duration (factor III), and habitual sleep efficiency (factor IV), while MMSE scores negatively correlated with scores of factor III and factor IV. The scores of attention and calculation, reading and language understanding, and visuospatial function (MMSE), and also of visuospatial/executive function, attention, and clockdrawing test (MoCA) in MCI patients without sleep disorders were significantly higher than those in MCI patients with such disorders. The incidence of sleep disorders is higher in patients with MCI, compared with normal elderly. Effects of sleep disorders on cognitive functions are mainly reflected in the state of attention and visuospatial/executive function.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Morphofunctional and Ultrastructural Consequences of Application of
           Beta-Amyloid on Goldfish Mauthner Neurons
    • Abstract: We studied the correlation between functional activity and 3D structure of Mauthner neurons (MNs) of the goldfish in the norm, after isolated application of an aggregated fragment of beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35), and a combination of such application with optokinetic stimulation of the fish. It was shown that the clear correlation between the structure and function of MNs observed in the control is strongly disturbed after the action of beta-amyloid aggregates. According to the data of ultrastructural analysis, destruction of the cytoskeleton, vacuolization of the MN cytoplasm, and depletion of the vesicular apparatus of afferent synapses are the main events responsible for such effect of Aβ25-35. Fatiguing sensory optokinetic stimulation of fishes applied against the background of action of Aβ25-35 induces dystrophy of the ventral MN dendrites and the formation, near the latter, of earlier absent hypertrophied medial dendrites; these dendrites were comparable in their dimension with the main MN dendrites in control fishes. The data obtained allow us to suppose that a traumatic mechanical influence of the beta-amyloid aggregates on neurons and their processes is an important factor in the development of amyloidosis-related neurodegenerative diseases, and destruction of the cytoskeleton is one of the key phenomena from this aspect.
      PubDate: 2014-04-20
       
  • Anatomy and Evolution of the Nervous System
    • PubDate: 2013-12-20
       
  • Effects of Oxytocin on the Formation of a Food-Procuring Reflex in Rats
    • Abstract: In experiments on albino rats, we studied the process of formation of a food-procuring conditioned reflex (receipt of the food reward from one of two feedboxes designated by the visual conditioning signal) and characteristics of behavior in the open field test. It was found that course injections of oxytocin (4 μg daily, 15 min prior to the test for 12 days) relatively slightly influenced the process of development of the food-procuring conditioned reaction (animals reached the 80% critical level of correct differentiations practically simultaneously), but rats injected with oxytocin demonstrated smaller manifestations of anxiety, more rapid food-procuring activity, and higher intensity of motor/research activities in the open field. In general, food-procuring behavior under the action of oxytocin develops more effectively at the expense of formation of a more favorable emotional/autonomic background.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
  • Hypoalgesia Induced by Preliminary Microwave Irradiation of an Acupuncture
           Point: Effects on Somatic Pain in Mice
    • Abstract: We studied the effects of preliminary irradiation of the acupuncture point (AP) E36 by low-intensity microwaves on experimentally evoked somatic pain in mice. Irradiation preceded induction of somatic pain in the formalin test, FT (subcutaneous injection of 25 μl 5% formalin solution into the dorsal surface of the foot).The FT was carried out in different groups of animals immediately, 10 min, and 20 min after termination of a period of microwave irradiation of the AP. Analgesic effects were observed in all examined animal groups within both acute and tonic pain phases. Normalized decreases in the duration of behavioral manifestations of the acute pain phase were equal to 57.7, 50.4, and 28.8% in the cases where the FT was realized immediately, 10 min, and 20 min after irradiation of the AP. For the tonic phase of the pain reaction, the respective figures were 49.6, 60.5, and 56.2%, respectively. Thus, irradiation of the AP E36 by low-intensity microwaves performed before the development of somatic pain exerts noticeably stronger hypoalgesic effects with respect to tonic somatic pain.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
  • Peculiarities of the Tail-Withdrawal Reflex Circuit in        class="a-plus-plus">Aplysia: a Model Study
    • Abstract: The circuit of the tail-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia opens up possibilities to construct model systems allowing researchers to effectively investigate simple forms of learning and memory. Using the Python interface of the NEURON software, we simulated this reflex circuit and studied various characteristics of the latter. The phenomenon of spike frequency adaptation (SFA) and the period-adding bifurcation of the minimum were found in sensory neurons, when the latter were stimulated by square-wave stimuli. In all neurons of the circuit, variation of the stimulus strength first increased and then decreased the number of spikes in a burst. In addition, with decreases in the number of stimulated sensory neurons, a subliminal firing other than that in an intact burst appeared at the outputs of interneurons and motor neuron. Moreover, the potentials produced in the motor neuron induced corresponding oscillations of the muscle fiber force, which was indicative of a procedure of excitement-contraction coupling in the tail part of Aplysia. Finally, upon alteration of the conductance of synapses between interneurons and motoneuron, the duration of long-lasting responses increased regularly, implying synaptic plasticity.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
  • Antinociceptive Effects of        class="a-plus-plus">Valeriana Extract in Mice:
           Involvement of the Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Systems
    • Abstract: Valeriana officinalis has been extensively used as a herbal remedy in traditional medicine. However, there is no clear evidence on the antinociceptive effects of this plant. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Valeriana officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on pain modulation and its possible mechanism in mice. Adult male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into nine experimental groups. They received i.p. injections of saline, hydroalcoholic root extract of Valeriana officinalis (800, 200, or 50 mg/kg), and morphine; four groups received Valeriana (800 mg/kg) + antagonists of the systems involved in antinociception effects, naloxone, ondansetron, metoclopramide, or scopolamine. Tail-flick and writhing tests were used for estimation of possible modulation of pain. The tail-flick latencies in the Valeriana 800 and 200 mg/kg, but not 50 mg/kg, morphine, and combined Valeriana 800 + + naloxone, ondansetron, metoclopramide, or scopolamine-treated groups were significantly longer than that in the control group. However, the tail-flick latencies in the Valeriana 800 mg/kg + ondansetronand metoclopramide-treated groups were significantly shorter than that upon single action of the extract (800 mg/kg). The numbers of writhings in the extract-treated groups were smaller than in the control one. The numbers of writhings in the Valeriana (800 mg/kg) + ondansetron- and metoclopramidetreated groups were significantly greater than in the extract (800 mg/kg) group. It is concluded that Valeriana officinalis extract possesses a clear analgesic effect and works through the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
 
 
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