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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2336 journals)

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Showing 1001 - 1200 of 2336 Journals sorted alphabetically
Interactive Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Interchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 13)
Interdisciplinary Sciences : Computational Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 10)
Intereconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 12)
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 27)
Intl. Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 16)
Intl. Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 31)
Intl. Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 69)
Intl. Cancer Conference J.     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.181, h-index: 14)
Intl. Entrepreneurship and Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 27)
Intl. Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.832, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. for the Advancement of Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.266, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. for the Semiotics of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.143, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Applied and Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Artificial Intelligence in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Asian Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Automation and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.392, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.905, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 63)
Intl. J. of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.858, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Clinical Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 43)
Intl. J. of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Colorectal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.102, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Computer Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 5.633, h-index: 150)
Intl. J. of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.641, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.644, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Diabetes in Developing Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Disclosure and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.407, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 70)
Intl. J. of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Game Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Care Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Information Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.422, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Machine Learning and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Multimedia Information Retrieval     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.306, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Parallel Programming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.255, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.198, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.316, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.078, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.21, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Rehabilitation and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Science and Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.557, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Stomatology & Occlusion Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.291, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Technology and Design Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.573, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.431, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Wireless Information Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. on Digital Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 542, SJR: 0.375, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.546, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, h-index: 41)
Intl. Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 33)
Intl. Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 59)
Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 22)
Intl. Politics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 8)
Intl. Review of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.369, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 6)
Intl. Sports Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 1)
Intl. Tax and Public Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 37)
Intl. Urogynecology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 72)
Intl. Urology and Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.506, h-index: 38)
Inventiones mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 5.874, h-index: 75)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 28)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.376, h-index: 68)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.486, h-index: 36)
Iranian Polymer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.517, h-index: 28)
Irish J. of Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 23)
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 46)
Israel J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.649, h-index: 40)
Italian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 17)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 13)
J. Africain d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.142, h-index: 3)
J. africain du cancer / African J. of Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 4)
J. d'Analyse Mathématique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.973, h-index: 36)
J. for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 10)
J. for Labour Market Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
J. fur Asthetische Chirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 4)
J. für Betriebswirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.195, h-index: 9)
J. für Mathematik-Didaktik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
J. für Rechtspolitik     Hybrid Journal  
J. für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.221, h-index: 17)
J. of Abnormal Child Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.03, h-index: 107)
J. of Academic Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.395, h-index: 10)
J. of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 6)
J. of Adult Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.463, h-index: 30)
J. of Advancement in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
J. of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 8)
J. of Aging and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.508, h-index: 32)
J. of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.571, h-index: 39)
J. of Algebraic Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 27)
J. of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.456, h-index: 11)
J. of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 23)
J. of Anesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 30)
J. of Applied and Industrial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.176, h-index: 8)
J. of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.676, h-index: 86)
J. of Applied Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 38)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.483, h-index: 24)
J. of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.852, h-index: 73)
J. of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 15)
J. of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.464, h-index: 34)
J. of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 36)
J. of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.56, h-index: 9)
J. of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.66, h-index: 29)
J. of Asset Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.181, h-index: 6)
J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.858, h-index: 57)
J. of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 19)
J. of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.599, h-index: 59)
J. of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.877, h-index: 123)
J. of Automated Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.63, h-index: 43)
J. of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 7)
J. of Behavioral Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 28)
J. of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 41)
J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.069, h-index: 73)
J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Bioeconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.391, h-index: 18)
J. of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 83)
J. of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 13)
J. of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.481, h-index: 33)
J. of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, h-index: 59)
J. of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.043, h-index: 89)
J. of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
J. of Biosciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.841, h-index: 54)
J. of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.775, h-index: 56)
J. of Brand Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 22)
J. of Business and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 46)
J. of Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 98)
J. of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 26)
J. of Cancer Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 33)
J. of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 76)
J. of Cancer Survivorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2, h-index: 34)
J. of Cardiovascular Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.567, h-index: 32)
J. of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.195, h-index: 27)
J. of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.335, h-index: 20)
J. of Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 14)
J. of Chemical Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 28)
J. of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.559, h-index: 88)
J. of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 37)
J. of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Child and Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 50)
J. of Children's Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.584, h-index: 18)
J. of Chinese Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.515, h-index: 9)
J. of Chinese Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 7)
J. of Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.968, h-index: 29)
J. of Clinical Geropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 75)
J. of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 37)
J. of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 34)
J. of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.416, h-index: 31)
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 8)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.474, h-index: 25)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.425, h-index: 25)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 34)
J. of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 16)

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Journal Cover Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.168]   [H-I: 9]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Inhibition of Reactive Gliosis in the Retina of Rats with
           Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes under the Action of Hydrated C 60
    • Authors: V. S. Nedzvetskii; I. V. Pryshchepa; A. A. Tykhomyrov; G. Baydas
      Pages: 130 - 140
      Abstract: Reactive gliosis induced by metabolic disturbances and development of oxidative stress in the retina at diabetes mellitus is the key pathogenetic factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy. Fullerene C60 and some of its water-soluble derivates are known as rather potent antioxidants displaying neuroprotective capacities during the development of a number of pathologies and harmful influences on the organism. In our study, effects of nanostructures of hydrated C60 fullerene (C60HyFn) on the content and polypeptide composition of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the rat retina under conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated for the first time. Using immunoblotting, strong (more than twofold) up-regulation of GFAP expression in the diabetic rat retina, as compared with the control, was shown (P < 0.01). This was a result of activation of retinal glial cells induced by hyperglycemia. Increased GFAP immunolabeling that was indicative of reactive gliosis in the retina of diabetic rats was also confirmed immunohystochemically. Consumption of C60HyFn solution (60 nM) in drinking water by diabetic rats for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in the GFAP level in comparison with that in untreated diabetic animals (P < 0.05). In addition, C60HyFn caused statistically significant lowering of the glycated hemoglobin concentration in blood serum of STZ-diabetic rats (P < 0.05). However, it exerted no effects on the insulin and glucose levels in blood of diabetic rats. Our results demonstrated that hydrated C60 fullerene as a potential high-efficacy retinoprotective agent within the initial period of diabetic retinopathy; it significantly suppresses activation of retinal macroglia.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9579-5
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2016)
  • Biophysical Processes in a Urinary Bladder Detrusor Smooth Muscle Cell
           during Rehabilitation Stimulation of Parasympathetic Efferents: a
           Simulation Study
    • Authors: A. V. Kochenov; E. P. Poddubnaya; I. A. Makedonsky; S. M. Korogod
      Abstract: In a computer model of an urinary bladder detrusor (UBD) smooth muscle cell (SMC), we investigated coupled changes in the membrane potential (MP), partial transmembrane currents, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2 +]i), caused by parasympathetic stimulation. The respective data should help to determine the biophysical basis for the choice of parameters of medical rehabilitation electrical stimulation of the UBD. Ionotropic and metabotropic effects of such stimulation having different latency periods (LPs) were simulated by, respectively, an increase in the conductivity of purinoreceptor channels of the sarcolemma and a delayed (by 70 msec) increase in the permeability of calcium channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (store) sensitive to inositol triphosphate (IP3), the end-product of a chain of reactions triggered by activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The modeled SMC responded to single stimulation by generation of action potential (AP) close in its parameters to those in the prototype. Application of long series of identical stimuli caused, after a transient interval, forced stationary oscillations of the MP and [Ca2 +]i. The magnitudes of the latter decreased, and the mean level increased with shortening of the interstimulus intervals (ISIs). It was found that the stimulation outcome needing prior experimental refining was determined by such parameters of the parasympathetic action as the durations of the purine and muscarinic components and the delay between these components. It has been shown that, during stimulation with ISIs shorter than the above-mentioned delay, the subsiquent stimulus activates P2X channels before expiration of the delay of the IP3-channel activation evoked by the preceding stimulus. This is actually equivalent to shortening of the interval between successive activations of P2X- and IP3-channels. Simple quantitative expressions were obtained for the parameters of stimulation; a given difference in the LPs of purine and muscarinic effects of parasympathetic stimulation allowed us to calculate the ISIs providing more efficient rehabilitation stimulation of the UBD parasympathetic nerves.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9583-9
  • Structural/Functional Modifications in the Mitochondria of Brainstem Cells
           in Rat Offspring Subjected to Prenatal Hypoxia
    • Authors: E. V. Rozova; V. I. Pokhylko; N. G. Sydoryak; M. G. Dubovaya
      Abstract: We examined changes in the morphofunctional state of the mitochondria (MCh) and immunohistochemical peculiarities of brainstem neurons in rat offspring exposed to experimental prenatal (intrauterine) hypoxia of different severity, moderate and strong. This was provided by exposure of pregnant females to O2/N2 respiratory mixtures containing 12 and 7% O2, respectively. Experimental groups included 20 one-month-old rats (offspring of 9 females, control and subjected to hypoxia). We estimated the ultrastructural characteristics of the MCh and also expression of the CD95 APO-1/Fas and Bcl-2 genes modulating the intensity of apoptosis and mitoptosis in these cells. Severe intrauterine hypoxia resulted in the development of structural distress in the MCh of brainstem cells; all stages of MCh degradation, from swelling to complete dissipation, were observed. Juvenile forms of these organelles were absent. Mosaic-like destruction of myelin with manifestations of edema was observed. After the moderate prenatal hypoxia, about half of the changes in the MCh ultrastructure could be qualified as directed toward an increase in the compensatory capabilities of the MCh apparatus. In rats after moderate hypoxic influence, levels of expression of the CD95 APO-1/Fas and Bcl-2 genes were indicative of a greater readiness of the neurons to apoptosis and decrease in the probability to inhibition of the respective MCh pathway in brainstem neurocites. At the same time, the MCh and neurocites of animals subjected to severe intrauterine hypoxia demonstrated decreased trends toward mitoptosis and apoptosis, respectively. The obtained results characterizing the effects of intrauterine hypoxia of different levels on the formation of structural/functional changes in the MCh of brainstem cells can be taken into account in the process of development of novel approaches to the treatment of MCh diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9574-x
  • Mechanisms of Expression and Release of Endogenous Opioids in Peripheral
    • Authors: V. B. Kulyk; T. N. Volkova; O. A. Kryshtal’
      Abstract: The topic of this review is the current understanding of the mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions responsible for suppression of pain by endogenous opioids. Special attention is paid to the events occurring in peripheral tissues after injury, excitation of high-threshold afferent inputs, and generation of nociceptive impulsation. The release of opioid peptides from immune cells migrating to the focus of inflammation and “inhabiting” the latter provides (at least partially) significant reduction of the excitability of nociceptive sensory neurons. Exogenous opioid ligands that do not cross the bloodbrain barrier also selectively modulate the excitability of primary afferents. Thus, sensory neurons in the peripheral tissues are an essential target for the action of endogenous opioids. There are reasons to believe that the clinical use of peripherally acting opioids can help one to substantially avoid the negative side effects caused by the action of conventional analgesics (opioids and anticonvulsants). Modern concepts on the mechanisms of secretion and release of peripherally acting opioids and their effects on inflammation and pain, the role of the immune response in antinociception, and prospects for the use of the above opioids in the treatment of pain-related phenomena are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9590-x
  • Peculiarities of Tetraethylammonium-Induced Blocking of Potassium Currents
           in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells
    • Authors: N. Ya. Martynyuk; V. Yu. Maslov; H. Purnyn; S. A. Fedulova; N. S. Veselovsky
      Abstract: We studied the sensitivity of integral potassium currents in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of 21-day-old rats to the blocking action of tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied in concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0 mM. The currents were recorded using a patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration using a voltage-clamp mode; retinal preparations were not subjected to enzymatic treatment. Potassium currents were induced by long-lasting (400 msec) depolarizing current pulses of increased intensities. Under the action of 0.25 mM TEA, the integral potassium current was blocked by 18 ± 5%, on average; the amplitude of the TEA-sensitive (blocked) component at the membrane potential of +40 mV was 0.75 ± ± 0.02 nA (n = 6). At 1.0 mM TEA, 32 ± 5% of the current was blocked, and the mean amplitude of the TEA-sensitive component was 1.12 ± 0.02 nA (n = 9). The effect of TEA was reversible; the relative intensity of the TEA-sensitive component in different cells varied within a wide range (from 3 to 38% at 0.25 mM TEA and from 12 to 54% at 1.0 mM). A comparison of the findings with the data reported earlier showed that the dependence of the intensity of TEA blocking within a 0.25 to 1.0 mM range is nonlinear; it appears that the 0.5 mM concentration is relatively close to the saturating one. Analysis of the obtained data shows that TEA applied in the tested concentrations blocks mostly the potassium current through Kv3.1/Kv3.2 channels; the effects of the blocker on other types of channels (Kv3.3/Kv3.4, Kv1.1, and BK) are, in any case, much less significant.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9584-8
  • Metabolic Alterations in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in
           Mice: Effects of Prior Physical Exercise
    • Authors: D. Bernardes; O. C. Oliveira-Lima; T. Vitarelli da Silva; M. A. Juliano; D. Moreira dos Santos; J. Carvalho-Tavares
      Abstract: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induces significant reduction of the body mass concomitant to sickness behavior and anorexia. We investigated whether regular physical exercise prevents metabolic alterations associated with body mass loss occurring during EAE inflammatory peak. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to the unexercised and exercised (trained) groups. In four weeks, EAE was induced in half of the animals in each group, and the exercise protocol was maintained until 10 days post-induction (dpi 10) completing 6 weeks of regular exercise (forced swimming). At dpi 14, the relative mass of metabolic tissues, serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and glucose, glycogen contents in the muscle and liver, and muscle levels of cytokines were measured. A significantly decreased clinical score associated with attenuation of the body mass loss in exercised EAE animals, as compared to the non-exercised ones, was observed. The associated metabolic parameters were not modified by this approach, although negative correlations between some parameters and clinical score at dpi 14 were observed. Although the prior program of aerobic exercise is capable of decreasing clinical score and body mass loss, it is not sufficient to modify metabolic outcomes associated with inflammation at the EAE peak.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9577-7
  • Cognitive Loading-Related Changes in the Coherence of EEG Rhythms in
           Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents
    • Authors: A. Shkuropat
      Abstract: We recorded EEG activity in 82 12- to 15-year-old adolescents suffering from sensorineural hearing loss (II or III degree) and 80 secondary-school similar-age pupils with normal hearing. Four pairs of recording electrodes (frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital) were used. The recording was performed under resting conditions and during the performance of the Raven test, which provided the action of cognitive loading. In hard-of-hearing boys and girls in the resting state, the number of lead pairs with significant or high coherence of oscillations of the EEG rhythms (coherence coefficients, CC, 0.51 to 0.70 and 0.71 to 1.00, respectively) usually exceeded the respective figures in normally hearing adolescents. In boys of both groups performing the cognitive test, the number of lead pairs with the CCs exceeding 0.50 increased in most cases. This was especially significantly manifested with respect to theta activity in hard-of-hearing boys; a focus of intense coherence of theta oscillations was formed in subjects of this group in the right temporal area. In girls of both groups, cognitive loading usually did not induce considerable increases in the coherence of EEG rhythms; the number of lead pairs with CC values > > 0.50 either remained unchanged or even decreased. Thus, hard-of-hearing adolescents (especially boys subjected to cognitive loading) demonstrated an intense trend toward increase in coherence relations between remote cortical loci (generalization of coherence), i.e., toward the formation of more extensive associative networks. Changes in the spatial organization of coherent relationships under the action of cognitive loading demonstrate certain gender specificity.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9589-3
  • Roles of Cell Compartments in the Variation of Firing Patterns Generated
           by Reduced Pacemaker Models of the Crustacean Stomatogastric Ganglion
    • Authors: W. J. Ye; Sh. Q. Liu
      Abstract: Endogenous bursters in central pattern generators (CPGs) generate rhythmic firing patterns controlling regular movements in the organism. Based on a pacemaker kernel model of the stomatogastric ganglion (SGG) of crustaceans, we constructed three reduced models, (i) dendrite-reduced model (DRM), (ii) axon-reduced model (ARM), and (iii) primary neurite-reduced model (PNRM). Similar firing patterns were observed in two models except the axon-reduced one. Perturbing of various parameters in the models induced bifurcation phenomena in the occurrence of interspike intervals (ISIs), which depicted variation of the firing patterns. By comparing and analyzing two-dimensional parameter planes derived from the above different models, the effects of compartments on varying firing patterns were detected. In particular, a different kind of period-doubling transition mode of firing patterns, which varied via a ring-shape mode, was found.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9571-0
  • Neuroprotective and Antiapoptotic Potential of Trigonelline in a Striatal
           6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
    • Authors: M. Mirzaie; M. Khalili; Z. Kiasalari; M. Roghani
      Abstract: Considering neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of trigonelline, our study was undertaken to evaluate its protective effect in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in rats. Unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with trigonelline at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Significant rotational behavior, a significant reduction in the number of Nissl-stained neurons on the left side of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC), increased apoptosis, enhanced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite, and a lower level of glutathione (GSH) were observed in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Trigonelline at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly reduced rotations, prevented reduction of SNC neurons, prevented apoptosis, and restored the MDA level. These results suggest that pre-lesion trigonelline treatment exerts dose-dependent neuroprotective and antiapoptotic effects under conditions of 6-OHDA toxicity and may be, henceforth, advantageous for the management of early PD.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9586-6
  • Conductance of Channels of IP 3 Receptors of the Nuclear Envelope in
           Purkinje Neurons
    • Authors: Ye. A. Fedorenko
      Abstract: Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play a key role in intracellular calcium signaling. Up to the present time, the question on the existence of only one level of the unitary conductance of such receptors or a few levels of such conductance remained open. In experiments on the isolated nuclei of Purkinje cerebellar neurons of rats, we examined changes in the conductance of channels of these receptors localized on the internal membrane of the nuclear envelope, which were related to voltage variations. In all cases, these channels demonstrated only one level of the unitary conductance; no sublevels were found within a –100 mV to 100 mV range. Suppression of activity of IP3Rs at negative potentials is determined by a decrease in the probability of the open state of the channel. Thus, a hypothesis on the existence of a few levels of the IP3R channel conductance in the examined object has not been confirmed; the release of Ca2+ through channels of these receptors demonstrates a quantum nature.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9573-y
  • Changes in the Expression of Neurofilament Protein in the Rat Sensorimotor
           Cortex Induced by Microembolization of Blood Vessels: Effect of
    • Authors: L. M. Yaremenko; A. N. Grabovoy
      Abstract: We studied changes in the expression of neurofilament protein (NFP) in the rat sensorimotor cortex after microembolization in the vessels of one hemisphere using unilateral injection of a suspension of adipocytes into the common carotid artery. The expression of NFP was estimated by the results of immunohistochemical detection of NFP using monoclonal murine antibodies against human NFP (clone 2F11, Dako, Denmark). In control rats, NFP was identified predominantly within thin terminals of nerve fibers but not in neuronal perikaryons. After microembolization of the vessels of the left cerebral hemisphere, we observed a total decrease in the intensity of expression of NFP; a mosaic pattern of the loci with practical absence and intensification of such expression could be noted. Within late time intervals after microembolization, we sporadically found labled NFP structures in the perikaryons, axon hillocks, and axons of some neurons. Changes in the expression of NFP demonstrated a widespread pattern (they were also observed in neocortical parts of the contralateral hemisphere). Course injections of the immunomodulator Imunofan resulted, in the whole, in a decrease in the intensity of pathological changes in the expression of NFP. This is indicative of a possibility for the involvement of immune processes in the pathogenesis of the observable changes. Within the recovery period after microembolization, we observed a considerable number of NFP positive bodies in the neocortex, which can be qualified as growth bulbs (cones).
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9576-8
  • Sympathetic Skin Response and Boston Questionnaire in Carpal Tunnel
    • Authors: B. Cevik; S. Kurt; D. Aksoy; V. Solmaz
      Abstract: We aimed to determine relations between the sudomotor efferent nerve fiber function and Boston questionnaire in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Median-nerve sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) evoked by wrist stimulation were recorded in 108 CTS patients and compared with those in 88 healthy volunteers. The Boston questionnaire form (BQF) was applied to patients. All patients and healthy individuals were questioned about the autonomic symptoms in the hand (red or purple coloration, excessive sweating, and feeling cold). The average SSR latencies of the patients with CTS were significantly longer than those in the control group (P < 0.001). Positive significant, while weak, correlation was found between the SSR latency, autonomic symptoms, and total sympathetic system scores. No statistically significant relationship was found between the Boston symptom severity, functional capacity scores, and SSR latency. The latter obtained through wrist stimulation was sensitive to support the sudomotor sympathetic dysfunction in patients with CTS. As we found no relationship between the BQF and SSR, these indices may evaluate different aspects of CTS.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9588-4
  • Stress State Evaluation by an Improved Support Vector Machine
    • Authors: L. Xin; Ch. Zetao; Zh. Yunpeng; X. Jiali; W. Shuicai; Z. Yanjun
      Abstract: Effective methods of evaluation of psychological pressure can detect and assess real-time stress states, warning people to pay necessary attention to their health. This study is focused on the stress assessment issue using an improved support vector machine (SVM) algorithm based on surface electromyographic signals. After the samples were clustered, the cluster results were fed to the loss function of the SVM to screen training samples. With the imbalance among the training samples after screening, a weight was given to the loss function to reduce the prediction tendentiousness of the classifier and, therefore, to decrease the error of the training sample and make up for the influence of the unbalanced samples. This improved the algorithm, increased the classification accuracy from 73.79% to 81.38%, and reduced the running time from 1973.1 to 540.2 sec. The experimental results show that this algorithm can help to effectively avoid the influence of individual differences on the stress appraisal effect and to reduce the computational complexity during the training phase of the classifier.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9572-z
  • Comparative Efficacy of Pharmacological Treatment of Absence Epilepsy with
           Typical and Deviating (Complex) EEG Patterns
    • Authors: V. I. Maloletnev; M. L. Gugushvili; I. O. Khachidze
      Abstract: In a group of 96 children and teenagers suffering from absence epilepsy, we compared the efficacy of treatment with a valproic acid derivative, Depakin (D). In 72 patients of group 1, the EEGs contained typical bursts similar to absence seizure phenomena (generalized 3–4 Hz spike/wave complexes, SWCs). In 24 patients, these EEG phenomena were combined with other types of epileptiform elements (generalized and focal irregular peak/wave complexes, single and grouped sharp waves, spikes, polyspikes, etc.). It was found that pharmacotherapy with D effectively eliminated SWCs generated in the resting state of the patients; epileptiform phenomena provoked by hyperventilation and rhythmic photostimulation were noticeably more resistant from this aspect. The efficacy of treatment with D was considerably higher in group 1 (patients with the EEG patterns including only SWCs) than in group 2 (patients with deviating EEG patterns containing, together with SWCs, epileptiform elements of other types). Six months after the D therapy initiation, complete elimination of typical 3–4 Hz SWCs was observed in 63.9% of group-1 patients and in 41.7% of group-2 patients.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9578-6
  • Protective Effects of Thiotriazolinum and Mildronate Against Mercury
           Chloride Toxicity in Neuroblastoma Cell Culture
    • Authors: L. M. Sokurenko; Yu. B. Chaikovskii
      Abstract: We studied the toxic action of mercury (II) chloride (10.9 μM) on cultured IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and possible protective effects of the antioxidant thiotriazolinum and cardioprotector mildronate (concentrations of the former agent in the medium 0.01-10.0 mg/ml). Isolated addition of thiotriazolinum and a combination of thiotriazolinum + mildronate to the medium did not cause dramatic negative effects (number of dead cells at all concentrations used did not exceed 7–10% of the population under control conditions). Thiotriazolinum in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml demonstrated a significant neuroprotective activity against the toxic action of mercury (II) chloride: the mean number of living cells under such conditions of culturing was, on average, about 83.0% vs 54.7% in the case where isolated action of HgCl2 was used. The mean number of living (morphologically unaffected) cells cultured in the medium containing 10.9 μM HgCl2 with the addition of mildronate + thiotriazolinum reached 87.0% of the control value taken as 100%. Therefore, under the toxic action of HgCl2 on cultured IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells, the combination of mildronate and thiotriazolinum demonstrated a significant protective effect, which was more intense than that of thiotriazolinum at its isolated application. Thiotriazolinum in concentrations of 0.001 to 0.1 mg/ml exerts rather moderate negative effects on the studied culture of neuroblastoma cells.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9585-7
  • Effect of Additional Cognitive Loading on Spatiotemporal Parameters of
           Walking in Women of Different Age Groups
    • Authors: V. M. Moroz; M. V. Yoltukhovskii; I. V. Tyshchenko; O. V. Bogomaz; G. S. Moskovko; S. O. Kryvov’yaz
      Abstract: Using the computerized GAITRite system, we investigated spatial and temporal parameters of walking in 15-year-old girls, elder (16- to 20-year-old) girls, and 21- to 43-year-old women. These parameters, measured under normal conditions and upon performance of an additional cognitive task (loud pronouncing of names of animals known to the participant), were compared. In all age groups, spatial parameters of walking measured in the presence of cognitive loading underwent no significant alterations, while practically all time parameters demonstrated statistically significant modifications. Durations of the phases of walking increased, while the rate of stepping and velocity of walking decreased. It is concluded that, under conditions of moderate cognitive loading, the parameters of activity of the neuronal locomotor generator (in our tests, generator of walking) undergo a relatively simple modifications, namely “expansion” (elongation) of the time scale with minimum changes in the amplitude parameters. Within the examined general age interval, these modifications showed nearly no dependence on the age of the tested women (or such dependence was minimum).
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9581-y
  • Analgesic Effects of the Aqueous Lemon Verbena Extract in Rats
    • Authors: M. Veisi; S. Shahidi; A. Komaki; A. Sarihi
      Abstract: Lemon verbena (vervain, LV) is used in traditional folk medicine as a remedy against asthma, spasms, cold, fever, pain of different genesis, insomnia, etc., but its effects have not been examined experimentally. We studied effects of an aqueous extract of leafs of this plant on the parameters of nociception-related tests, tail-flick, and writhing ones. The first aqueous extract of LV leafs was prepared and dried. Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, which received i.p. injections of saline (control), LV extract (10, 100, 500, and 1000 mg of dry substance per 1 kg of the body mass), morphine, and 1000 mg/kg of the LV extract + naloxone. Injections of 500 and 1000 mg/kg of the extract significantly increased the tail-flick latency, as compared to that in the control group (P < < 0.001). The number of writhings per one hour decreased after injections of the extract (100-1000 mg/kg). The maximum analgesic effects of the extract were comparable with those of morphine (10 mg/kg). Naloxone completely abolished the effect of the LV extract in the tail-flick test and partly suppressed such action in the writhing test. Thus, our experiments demonstrated noticeable anti-nociceptive effects of the aqueous LV extract; possibilities for application of this extract or its derivatives in pain management should be examined.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9575-9
  • Modulatory Effects of the Glucocorticoid and Opioid Systems on
           Anxiety-Related Behavior in Young and Mature Rats
    • Authors: M. Kesmati; M. Rezai; M. Torabi
      Abstract: Considering that there is limited information on interaction between age and effects of the opioid system and glucocorticoids in determination of the anxiety level, we examined the influences of 1 mg/kg dexamethasone and 20 mg/kg RU486 (as an agonist and an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptors), and also of 5 mg/kg morphine and 20 mg/kg naloxone (as an agonist and an antagonist of the opioid system) on the above level in young and mature male Wistar rats. The percentage of time in the open arms in the plus-maze test was evaluated as an index of anxiety behavior, and the percentage of number of entries in the closed arms was measured as an index of locomotor activity. Morphine (5 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) exerted anxiolytic effects in both young and mature rats, while these agents reduced locomotor activity only in young animals. RU486 could prevent the anxiolytic effect of morphine, and the anxiolytic effect of dexamethasone was inhibited by naloxone in young animals; this, however, was not observed in mature rats. Thus, there is an interactive effect between glucocorticoids and the opioid system in mediation of anxiety, and the respective events are age-dependent.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9587-5
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9582-x
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9570-1
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Heriot-Watt University
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