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Journal Cover   Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.122]   [H-I: 8]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Responses of Cortical Extrastriate Area 21a Neurons Specialized in Motion
    • Abstract: According to a generally accepted concept, the stationary structure of the receptive field of a visually sensitive central neuron predetermines transformation and central processing of the incoming information, including that related to moving visual stimuli. We found, however, that a small group of visually sensitive neurons of the cat extrastriate cortical area 21a does not fit this statement and exhibits no responses to stationary visual stimuli while responding vigorously to moving images. The results of our experiments showed that response patterns of these neurons to moving stimuli display high degrees of diversification and processing of incoming visual information. We suppose that these neurons may be strictly specialized in the detection and central processing of visual information necessary for perception of moving images.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Ambivalent Effects on P2X3 Receptors in Rat Sensory Neurons in the
           Presence of Opioid Receptor Antagonists
    • Abstract: In cultured neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of rats, it was found that incubation of these neurons in the presence of 50 nM naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist, OR antagonist) significantly increased the efficacy of blocking of P2X3-mediated transmembrane currents induced by application of an endogenous opioid, Leu-enkephalin (LEK); the above currents were evoked by application of α,β-Me-ATP. Under conditions of preliminary 2- to 4-min-long incubation of neurons with naloxone, 10 nM LEK completely blocked P2H3 currents (blocking developed within 2 min). Under control conditions (without incubation), the respective effect was observed only at much higher LEK concentrations (1 μM). Thus, the IC50 of inhibitory LEK action was reduced in this case from 10 nM to 1 nM. Naloxone in high concentrations (1 μM), when applied after the development of the LEK inhibitory effect, exerted a dissimilar influence on the amplitude of P2X3 currents. For a time (within 2-4 min), this amplitude exceeded the control values; later on, it returned to the initial value. Such ambivalent effect of the opioid peptide (LEK) is related to the fact that G-proteins, when binding to the ORs, can form complexes in two conformations, inhibitory (Gi/o) and stimulating (Gq/s). It is known that naloxone can increase the analgesic effect of morphine due to direct competitive antagonism with the Gq/s-bound conformation. Thus, ambivalent effects of opioids on P2X3 receptors are explained by an antagonist-induced shift of the equilibrium between conformations of G-protein complexes.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor: Pattern of the Effects and Their Dualism
    • Abstract: This review describes the peculiarities of the molecular structure of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and the mechanisms of activation of a complex including HIF, a key factor of adaptation of the cell to ischemic and hypoxic injuries. The tissue specificity of expression of different subtypes of the α HIF subunit and most typical target genes activated by this complex are described. In addition, the specificities of HIF-mediated cell responses related to ischemic damage (the latter, at present, forms one of the main medical/clinical problems) are analyzed; the expedience and prospects of further studies of the signal pathways involving the mentioned transcription factor are emphasized.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Effect of Restriction of Visual Afferentation on the Rhythmic Organization
           of Alpha EEG Activity
    • Abstract: The correlation between alpha-frequency EEG oscillations and the state of visual afferentation is unquestionable. However, the question of the presence of the true alpha rhythm in the case of visual dysfunctions is controversial. We performed an autocorrelation analysis of the rhythmic parameters of alpha activity in the occipital cortical areas of children, teenagers, and youths (age from 8 to 20 years) having different visual acuity. Five types of rhythmicity of alpha activity, the character of which was dependent on the shaping time of visual dysfunctions, have been differentiated. We found that congenital bilateral visual dysfunctions determine significant decreases in the periodicity and stability of alpha activity; a low-steady aperiodical α-like activity was observed in 45% of the recpective cases.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • F-Wave in the Upper Extremities of Patients with Primary Torsion Dystonia
    • Abstract: We investigated characteristics of the F-waves in the upper limbs of patients suffering from primary torsion dystonia (PTD) by means of surface-electrode electromyography. Single electric stimulation was used to obtain optimum M-responses from the m. abductor pollicis brevis (median nerve) and m. abductor digiti minimi (ulnar nerve). Ten consecutive supramaximum electrical stimuli were applied to each nerve to obtain F-waves from the wrist. In general, the registered M-response latencies and amplitudes, as well as conduction velocities via all inspected nerves, demonstrated no significant deviations from the normal ranges. Nearly all investigated patients, except one, had normal F-wave minimal latencies. The mean amplitudes of F-waves from both median and ulnar nerves were higher than the average F-wave amplitudes described in the literature. The frequency of occurrence of F-waves in both median and ulnar nerves was greater than in the norm. According to our results, it can be concluded that the amplitude and, to some extent, frequency rather than the latency of F-waves are important in the studies of patients with PTD. Increased amplitudes and frequencies reveal changes in the excitability of alpha motoneurons, which could be accepted as a measure of a disturbed interneuronal balance probably caused by alterations in the suprasegmental control mechanisms related to PTD.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Biophysical Processes in a Urinary Bladder Detrusor Smooth Muscle Cell
           during Rehabilitation Electrostimulation: a Simulation Study
    • Abstract: The work was aimed at the search for approaches to solving the problem of biophysically reasonable selection of the parameters of electrical stimulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the urinary bladder detrusor (UBD). Such stimulation is widely used in the rehabilitation of patients with surgical correction of congenital malformations accompanied by total or partial deficiency of the M2/M3 cholinergic receptors in the UBD. A computer model built on the basis of experimental data on ion channels and pumps of the sarcolemma and mechanisms of regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca22+]i), providing both electrogenesis and the contractile function of the cell inherent to the biological prototype, was used. We studied changes in the membrane potential, partial transmembrane currents, and [Ca2+]i, caused by depolarizing current pulses applied with constant frequencies and combined in “packs” or “envelopes” typical of the protocols of rehabilitation stimulation; the stimuli had constant or trapezoid-modulated amplitudes. The examined UBD SMC responded to a single pulse by generation of the action potential (AP) close in its properties to the prototype. Stimulation by both packs and envelopes of identical pulses eventually led to the establishing of equal forced electrical and concentration oscillations with the parameters depending on the duration of interpulse intervals (IPIs). Such oscillations caused by stimulation with 5- and 50-msec-long IPIs, typical of the rehabilitation protocols and comparable with the durations of the absolute and relative refractoriness of the model SMC, significantly differed in the pattern of the regenerative responses (APs) and in the range and mean levels of depolarization shifts of the membrane potential and those of [Ca2+]i, which were greater at high-frequency stimulation. In the case of short IPIs, [Ca2+]i, having no time to return to the basal level, oscillated within a range of values which in other excitable cells are considered to exceed significantly the physiological norm. These data emphasize the necessity to estimate the exact kinetic characteristics of the mechanisms underlying the inflow and extrusion of Ca2+ in the UBD SMC necessary for a biophysically justified choice of the parameters of rehabilitation stimulation that would prevent possible cytotoxic side effects associated with excessively long-lasting high levels of [Ca2+]i. Essential for the observed processes and, therefore, requiring targeted studies, was such a parameter of UBD SMCs as the reversal potential for Ca2+-dependent chloride current (E Cl); this current is activated, in particular, by parasympathetic action on the M2/M3 receptors. When high-frequency oscillations of the membrane potential periodically exceeded the E Cl level, the mentioned current changed its main (depolarizing) direction to the opposite (hyperpolarizing) one.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Reversible Inactivation of the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Increases
           Morphine-Induced Antinociception in Tolerated but Not in Nontolerated Rats
    • Abstract: We examined possible effects of the state of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) on morphine-induced antinociception in morphine-tolerated and nontolerated rats. Stereotaxically, lidocaine (2%) was applied to the DRN for its reversible inactivation. On the test day, all animals received 10 mg/kg morphine 10 min before the tail-flick test (induction of thermal acute pain), and the maximum antinociceptive effect (MPE) was measured. In the morphine-tolerated group, animals preliminarily received everyday introductions of 20 mg/kg morphine for four consecutive days. There was a significant increase in the MPE (%) in the lidocaine-treated group (with inactivation of the DRN) compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference in morphine-induced antinociception between the saline- and lidocaine-treated groups. Nonetheless, the antinociceptive responses to morphine (MPE) in morphine-tolerated rats were more significant in animals treated with lidocaine compared to the control group. Our results suggest that lack of GABA in the locus coeruleus, which follows inhibition of serotonin release in the DRN during ablation, may cause adrenergic cell-induced analgesic effects.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Improvement of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow After Stimulation of the Nucl.
           Fastigius in Cerebral Infarction Patients
    • Abstract: Experimental studies reported that focal stimulation of the nucl. fastigius (fastigial nucleus stimulation, FNS) increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and ameliorates disorders of cerebral blood circulation. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of FNS on rCBF in cerebral infarction patients and to estimate correlation of the respective effect with prognosis and treatment. The rCBF of 20 cerebral infarction patients was measured before and after FNS using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the data were subjected to semiquantitative analysis. Results of the neural ability defect test were used to evaluate prognosis. In the above patients, different levels of decreased rCBF were observed. Focal FNS noticeably ameliorated disorders of scirculation in both the infarction area and the corresponding contralateral cerebral area (P < 0.05). The SPECT images showed that the improvement of rCBF was more evident in the central region of the lesion than in the surrounding area. Thus, it was demonstrated that FNS treatment enhances rCBF, which is followed by the improvement of clinical symptoms in cerebral infarction patients.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Effects of an Extract of Salvia Miltiorrhiza on a Penicillin-Induced
           Epilepsy Model in Rats
    • Abstract: In a penciling-induced epilepsy model, Wistar rats (16 males, 16 females) were i.p. administered with an extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmE; total dose 50 mg/kg) once a day for 15 days. The rats were divided into four equal groups, control and SmE-treated for each sex. After the treatment period, an epilepsy model was produced by penicillin G injection (500 IU) into the motor cortex; the electrocorticogram (EcoG) was recorded for 120 min, and statistical analysis was performed. In the male control group with penicillin-induced epilepsy, the spike frequency was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in the female control group. The frequency values have been significantly (P < 0.01) increased within the observation period in the female SmE-treated group, while the respective values significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the analogous male group. There were insignificant differences in the amplitude values and latency to onset of the spike/wave events between female/male SmE and female/male control groups (P > 0.05). Thus, the SmE exerts anticonvulsant effects in the male rat group, while its effect should be characterized as proconvulsant in the female group in the penicillin-induced epilepsy model. The difference (related to the presence of estrogen analogs in the SmE) is determined by dissimilar hormonal backgrounds in males and females. The SmE may be considered as the base for development of anticonvulsant drugs for clinical therapy of epilepsy in the future.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Effects of Injection of Carbon Nanotubes on EEG and Results of a
           Behavioral Test in Rats
    • Abstract: We examined the biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) injected i.p. into rats (1 mg/kg body mass) by recording EEG from the frontal and occipital cortex and performing the water maze router test before and after such injection. For EEG, the energy and average power spectral density of wavelet coefficients in the β, α, and θ bands were considered the features. In the water maze router experiment, the distance, time, and speed of rats were investigated as behavioral factors. Comparison of EEG signals before and after injection showed that introduction of CNTs exerted no significant effect on electrophysiological brain indices. A comparison of behavioral factors before and after injection, however, showed that injections of CNTs increased the pacing distance and time to find the desired platform and decreased somewhat the speed in the water maze router experiment. A possible reason of this phenomenon is the possible influence of CNTs on ion fluxes in brain neurons.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Role of the Serotonergic System in Suppression of Visceral Pain Induced in
           Mice by Preliminary Microwave Irradiation of an Acupuncture Point
    • Abstract: In experiments on male albino mice, we examined the role of the serotonergic cerebral system in analgesia induced by microwave irradiation of the acupuncture point (AP) E-36. Two modes of irradiation were used: broadband (30–300 GHz) radiation with low-frequency (0.1–100 Hz) amplitude modulation and fixed-frequency (61 ± 4 GHz) radiation. Irradiation of the AP preceded induction of visceral pain by i.p. injections of acetic acid. A blocker of serotonin (ST) synthesis, DL para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg), introduced 72 h before injection of acetic acid, provided significant prolongation of manifestations of the pain behavioral reaction (PBR) by 41.6 and 66.7%, respectively, as compared with the duration of this reaction in mice subjected to irradiation of the AP in the above modes but with no PCPA injection (P < 0.05 in both cases). Intensification of the PBR against the background of blockade of ST synthesis shows that the respective cerebral system is significantly involved in analgesia induced by preliminary (preceding the induction of the pain syndrome) microwave irradiation of the AP E-36.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Neurobehavioral Consequences of Chronic Lead Intoxication: Effects of
           Vitamin E Supplementation
    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of vitamin E supplementation on neurobehavioral alterations induced by chronic ingestion of lead acetate in mice. The animals were divided into three main groups, group 1 (control) given with normal saline (10 ml/kg) and groups 2 and 3 given with 3000 mg/kg lead acetate alone and in combination with 13 IU of vitamin E, respectively, for a period of 90 days. Lead intoxication resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reduction of the number of head dips in the hole-board test and the time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze test, compared with the control. Intoxication also induced increased pain sensitivity, as shown by significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the tail flick latency and increase in the frequency of abdominal constrictions in the writhing test. The periods of immobility in both tail suspension and forced swimming tests in intoxicated animals were greater, as compared with the control. Co-administration of vitamin E with lead in group 3 significantly (P < 0.05) reversed all the mentioned shifts (increased the number of head dips and time spent in the maze open arm, increased the tail flick latency, decreased the frequency of writhings, and decreased the periods of immobility in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests). Thus, vitamin E treatment is capable of effectively attenuating the negative neurobehavioral consequences of lead intoxication.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Ethical responsibilities of the authors
    • PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Dopamine Responsiveness in the Nucl. Accumbens Shell and Parameters of the
           Heroin-Influenced Conditioned Place Preference in Rats
    • Abstract: Previous evidence demonstrated that drug-induced extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations in the nucl. accumbens shell (AcbSh) might underlie different vulnerabilities to heroin addiction in inbred mice strains. We investigated a potential role of the responsiveness of the DA system in the AcbSh with respect to the vulnerability to heroin-influenced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. Animals were randomly assigned to the heroin and saline (control) groups. Heroin-group rats were then reclassified into two groups according to the degree of heroin-induced CPP, high preference (HP) and low-preference (LP) ones. The levels of extracellular DA and dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) were estimated dynamically by in vivo microdialysis. Compared with the saline group, extracellular DA and DOPAC concentrations in the heroin-treated groups were significantly higher 30 min after the last injection, but the DA level decreased sharply in these groups on days 1 and 3 and became lower than that of the saline group. Compared with LP-group rats, HP-rats displayed a higher heroin-induced increase in the DA concentration 30 min after the last heroin injection and higher DOPAC and DOPAC/DA ratios 14 days after such injection. These results suggest that differences in the DA system responsiveness in the AcbSh may determine individual differences in vulnerability to heroin addiction.
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2015-07-04
  • Erratum to: Hysteresis Properties of EMG Activity of the Shoulder Belt and
    • PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Effect of a Hydroalcoholic Extract of Rosa Canina Flowers on Anxiety in
    • Abstract: We investigated effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa сanina (dog rose) petals on behavior of rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test; adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-240 g were used. Oral everyday administration of the Rosa extract in three doses (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) was done for one week. Animal behavior in the EPM was videotaped for 10 min, and conventional indices considered to be related to the anxiety level were scored. Introduction of the Rosa canina extract significantly increased the number of open arm entries in a dose-dependent manner and also increased the time of stay in the open arms at a high dose (450 mg/kg). At the same time, the number of closed arm entries interpreted as a correlate of the locomotion intensity did not differ from the control at all doses. Thus, the Rosa canina extract, when orally administered, demonstrates an anxiolytic profile in rats. Future investigations are essential for better understanding of the anxiolytic properties of the extract and neurobiological mechanisms of its action (probable interactions of the Rose extract active agents with neurotransmitter systems.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Aging-Related Peculiarities of the Distribution of Myelin Basic Protein in
           Cerebral Structures of Gerbils
    • Abstract: Using an indirect immuno-enzyme technique, we measured the contents of myelin basic protein (MBP) in different cerebral structures of young adult and old (6- and 24-month-old, respectively) mongolian gerbils. The mean MBP content in the cerebellum of old gerbils was about 47% of the corresponding value in younger individuals (1.04 ± 0.10 and 2.20 ± 0.50 μg per 100 mg tissue, respectively). At the same time, the mean MBP contents in the thalamus and hippocampus of old gerbils demonstrated no decrease and even somewhat exceeded the corresponding values in young animals (the differences were, however, insignificant). Thus, aging-related changes in the MBP content in different brain structures of gerbils demonstrate clearly expressed specificities; there are reasons to believe that age-related processes of demyelination develop, first of all, in the cerebellum.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Effects of Agonists of μ-Opioid Receptors on P-Type Calcium Channels
           in Rat Purkinje Neurons
    • Abstract: Calcium channels of the P-type play an important role in synaptic transmission in the CNS of mammals; the major part of calcium ions entering the presynaptic terminal comes precisely via these channels. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we studied the effects of μ-opioids on P-type calcium channels in freshly isolated Purkinje neurons of the rat cerebellum. A selective agonist of μ-opioid receptors, DAMGO (10 nM), caused stable moderate (10 ± 1%, on average) but significant (Р < 0.001; n = 27) potentiation of P-type current in most units. This effect of DAMGO was rather appreciable already at a concentration of 1 nM and reached saturation at 100 nM. The effect developed rapidly (in about 10 sec); it was voltage-dependent and completely reversible. An endogenous selective agonist of μ-opioid receptors, endorphin-1, evoked nearly the same effect (increment 8 ± 1%, n = 6, P < 0.01). DAMGO-caused increase in the amplitude of P-type currents was completely removed after application of an antagonist of opioid receptors, naloxone (100 nM). These data indicate that agonists of μ-opioid receptors, even in nanomolar concentrations, can evoke appreciable potentiation of P-type calcium current mediated by interaction with opioid receptors of the corresponding type.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
  • Long-Term Video Electroencephalography and Electrocorticography in
           Temporal Lobe Epilepsy- Related Surgery
    • Abstract: Eighty-eight patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) underwent epilepsy-related surgery monitored by preoperative long-term video EEG (VEEG) and intraoperative ECoG. The patterns, location, and spatial distribution of epileptiform discharges recorded by VEEG and ECoG were analyzed and compared. In 56 patients, frequent focal epileptiform discharges were recorded by VEEG at one side of the temporal lobe and identified in the temporal lobe and interior frontal gyrus by ECoG. Epileptiform discharges were recorded by VEEG at both sides of the temporal lobe in 20 patients and by all recording electrodes at one side of the temporal lobe in 12 patients. In these patients, epileptiform discharges were identified by ECoG in the left sylvian gyrus of the temporal lobe and in the inferior and middle frontal gyri. Spatial distributions of epileptiform discharges were adequately identified by ECoG in 52 (59%) patients, with a consistency of > 80% in 24 (27%) patients, and with a consistency of 60-80% in 12 (14%) patients, compared with that estimated by VEEG. Patients remained seizure-free in 72 (81.8%) cases; their state was improved significantly in 12 (13.6%) cases and remained unimproved in 4 (4.5%) cases. Our data suggest that ECoG possesses certain advantages over VEEG in accurate localization of the epileptogenic foci and, thus, is important for surgical treatment of TLE.
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
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