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Showing 1001 - 1200 of 2281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Intl. J. of Artificial Intelligence in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.329, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Asian Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Automation and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.555, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.836, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.762, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.064, h-index: 40)
Intl. J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.732, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Clinical Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.528, h-index: 37)
Intl. J. of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Colorectal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.133, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.588, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Computer Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.293, h-index: 132)
Intl. J. of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.351, h-index: 31)
Intl. J. of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Diabetes in Developing Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.24, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.163, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 34)
Intl. J. of Euro-Mediterranean Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.252, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Game Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.662, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Care Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.504, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.815, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Information Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.6, h-index: 56)
Intl. J. of Machine Learning and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.673, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.652, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.52, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.456, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Multimedia Information Retrieval     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.476, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Parallel Programming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.224, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Rehabilitation and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Science and Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.759, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Stomatology & Occlusion Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.234, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Technology and Design Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.756, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.589, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Wireless Information Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. on Digital Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 504, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.749, h-index: 31)
Intl. J. on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.608, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.751, h-index: 35)
Intl. Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 28)
Intl. Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.527, h-index: 47)
Intl. Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 6)
Intl. Review of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 16)
Intl. Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 5)
Intl. Sports Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Tax and Public Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 30)
Intl. Urogynecology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.314, h-index: 62)
Intl. Urology and Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 33)
Inventiones mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 7.283, h-index: 64)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 25)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.108, h-index: 60)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.497, h-index: 27)
Iranian Polymer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.591, h-index: 23)
Irish J. of Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 21)
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 20)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.087, h-index: 39)
Israel J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.205, h-index: 34)
Italian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.376, h-index: 11)
J. Africain d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
J. africain du cancer / African J. of Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
J. d'Analyse Mathématique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.45, h-index: 32)
J. for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 7)
J. for Labour Market Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
J. fur Asthetische Chirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.141, h-index: 4)
J. für Betriebswirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
J. für Mathematik-Didaktik     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.319, h-index: 6)
J. für Rechtspolitik     Hybrid Journal  
J. für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.391, h-index: 13)
J. of Abnormal Child Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.034, h-index: 91)
J. of Academic Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 7)
J. of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 5)
J. of Adult Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 23)
J. of Advancement in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
J. of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 6)
J. of Aging and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.468, h-index: 24)
J. of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 35)
J. of Algebraic Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.104, h-index: 23)
J. of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 7)
J. of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.33, h-index: 19)
J. of Anesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.507, h-index: 24)
J. of Applied and Industrial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.136, h-index: 4)
J. of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 77)
J. of Applied Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.719, h-index: 31)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.459, h-index: 18)
J. of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 10)
J. of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 56)
J. of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 12)
J. of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.06, h-index: 27)
J. of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 29)
J. of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 5)
J. of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.529, h-index: 24)
J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.072, h-index: 49)
J. of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 18)
J. of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 55)
J. of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.837, h-index: 97)
J. of Automated Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.928, h-index: 36)
J. of Behavioral Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 23)
J. of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.518, h-index: 34)
J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.061, h-index: 62)
J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Bioeconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.828, h-index: 15)
J. of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 76)
J. of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 9)
J. of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.438, h-index: 29)
J. of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.112, h-index: 51)
J. of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.841, h-index: 80)
J. of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.274, h-index: 5)
J. of Biosciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.781, h-index: 47)
J. of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.844, h-index: 48)
J. of Business and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.809, h-index: 35)
J. of Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.962, h-index: 75)
J. of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.442, h-index: 17)
J. of Cancer Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.453, h-index: 30)
J. of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.327, h-index: 65)
J. of Cancer Survivorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.479, h-index: 25)
J. of Cardiovascular Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.416, h-index: 21)
J. of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.985, h-index: 20)
J. of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.099, h-index: 9)
J. of Chemical Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 25)
J. of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.161, h-index: 75)
J. of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 33)
J. of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Child and Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.626, h-index: 42)
J. of Children's Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.602, h-index: 11)
J. of Chinese Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.692, h-index: 5)
J. of Chinese Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.6, h-index: 4)
J. of Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.516, h-index: 25)
J. of Clinical Geropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.481, h-index: 66)
J. of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.561, h-index: 34)
J. of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.641, h-index: 27)
J. of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.39, h-index: 29)
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.175, h-index: 7)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.379, h-index: 19)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 19)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 30)
J. of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 14)
J. of Community Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.699, h-index: 8)
J. of Community Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.676, h-index: 39)
J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.98, h-index: 63)
J. of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.981, h-index: 50)
J. of Compassionate Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Computational Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 16)
J. of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 17)
J. of Computational Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.419, h-index: 54)
J. of Computer and Systems Sciences Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.252, h-index: 11)
J. of Computer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.342, h-index: 26)
J. of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Computer-Aided Molecular Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.951, h-index: 70)
J. of Computers in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Computing in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 16)
J. of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, h-index: 23)
J. of Contemporary Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.115, h-index: 4)
J. of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 4)
J. of Contemporary Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 16)
J. of Control Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 13)
J. of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.168, h-index: 8)
J. of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Cross-Cultural Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.412, h-index: 23)
J. of Cryptographic Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 6)
J. of Cryptology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.598, h-index: 49)
J. of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.445, h-index: 24)
J. of Developmental and Physical Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 23)
J. of Digital Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 29)
J. of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.556, h-index: 22)

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Journal Cover Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.122]   [H-I: 8]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2016-02-26
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2016-02-24
  • Abnormalities in the GABAergic Inhibitory System Leading to the
           Development of Spike-Wave Discharges in the Somatosensory Cortex of
           Wag/Rij Rats
    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of muscimol on generation of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and shortterm plasticity alterations in the somatosensory cortex of WAG/Rij rats. The rats were implanted with a twisted tripolar electrode into the somatosensory cortex and with an intraventricular cannula into the right cerebral ventricle. EEG recordings were made before and after muscimol and saline injections. Paired-pulse stimulations (200 μsec, 100-1000 μA, 0.1 sec–1) were applied to the somatosensory cortex at 50-, 100-, 400-, and 500-msec-long intervals for 50 min. Pharmacological amplification of GABAergic transmission in the somatosensory cortex exerted an inhibitory effect on the thalamo-cortical circuit underlying the generation of spike-wave discharges (SWDs). Ten minutes post-injection of muscimol, paired-pulse facilitation was significantly reduced at 50- and 100-msec-long interpulse intervals (P < 0.05). The data obtained suggest that muscimol suppresses generation of SWDs and changes short-term plasticity via imitation of the effects of GABA in inhibitory synapses.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
  • Spatial Patterns of Correlations between Amplitudes of the Main EEG
           Rhythms in Children in the Norm and with Central Disorders of Motor
    • Abstract: We recorded resting-state ongoing EEG in two groups of 8- to 12-year-old children, boys and girls, with no disorders in the motor sphere and with a clinically diagnosed form of cerebral palsy (control and CP groups, n = 100 and n = 78, respectively). The sign and intensity of correlations between values of the mean amplitudes of oscillations of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta rhythms in the pairs of eight recording sites were estimated. Recording electrodes were positioned in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital loci of the left and right hemispheres (28 pairs of leads). Cases with the modulus of the correlation coefficient, ǀrǀ, 0.30–0.49, 0.50–0.69, and 0.70–0.99, respectively, were classified as those of weak, moderate, and strong correlation between the amplitudes. At ǀrǀ < 0.30, correlations were considered insignificant. Cases of significant direct (positive) and inverse (negative) correlations, including those with rather high r values, were observed in children of both examined groups, but the numbers of such correlations demonstrated certain intergroup differences. In children suffering from CP, such cases were met noticeably more frequently than in the control group. In boys and girls of the control group, the total number of significant (both direct and inverse) correlations between oscillations of the four above-mentioned rhythms, normalized with respect to the number of all lead pairs (n = 28), varied from 14 to 50%, and only in two cases among 16 (4 analyzed rhythms × 2 examined groups × × 2 gender subgroups) did it exceed 40%. In children with CP, this index varied between 32 and 68%, and only in two cases was it smaller than 40%. Patterns of correlations between amplitudes of the EEG rhythms in girls of both examined groups significantly differed from those in boys; girls were characterized by more frequent cases of inverse correlations.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
  • Electrophysiological Indices in Sportsmen: Correlations with the Contents
           of Iron and Copper in the Organism
    • Abstract: Using the roentgen-fluorescent analysis, we found mostly below-norm contents of iron and copper in stable tissue samples (hairs) of 18- to 20-year-old sportsmen (university students). Correlations of the results of such analysis with sets of indices characterizing the state of the CNS (parameters of background EEG and of evoked/event-related EEG potentials), that of the cardiovascular system (CVS, data of electrocardiography and rheography), and of the mechanisms providing autonomic regulation of the latter system (indices of cardiointervalography) were calculated. According to the number of significant correlations (0.44 < r < 0.56) and their intensity, we found that the content of copper is more significant for the indices characterizing functioning of the CNS, especially for those of EEG phenomena related to mental processes. At the same time, the content of iron exerts more significant influences on the functional state of the CVS. It should be taken into account that the pattern of correlations found in our study is typical of a relatively specific sampling of the subjects (with a clearly pronounced deficiency of the above-mentioned elements in the organism) and can be dissimilar in the case of normal (and, especially, increased) contents of these metals.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
  • Daytime Sleepiness and Epilepsy: a Pilot Study
    • Abstract: As was reported, sleep disorders, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in particular, are frequently manifested in epilepsy; insufficient attention has been devoted to this issue in clinical practice in Georgia. We investigated the frequency of EDS cases among healthy individuals and epilepsy patients. A questionnaire study has been conducted using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A group of 251 volunteers (mean age 33.4 years), including 135 subjects without epilepsy and 116 outpatients with this diagnosis (cryptogenic focal/idiopathic generalized epilepsy without cognitive or brain abnormalities), completed the above questionnaire. The EDS phenomenon was found in 8.9% of healthy individuals and in 17.2% of the patients with epilepsy. This problem was more frequent among the epilepsy patients treated by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The prevalence of EDS was higher among men suffering from epilepsy as compared to women with this disease. In the untreated group of the newly diagnosed epilepsy patients, there were more men with EDS than women having this problem. The difference in the EDS occurrence between the two groups of outpatients, treated and untreated with AEDs was statistically insignificant. Unlike the individuals without epilepsy, a gender difference in terms of the EDS frequency was revealed among the newly diagnosed patients.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
  • Processes of Proliferation and Apoptosis in the Cerebellum of the Parr (
           Oncorhynchus masou ) after Mechanical Injury
    • Abstract: We studied the processes of proliferation and apoptosis in different zones of the cerebellum in juvenile individuals of the parr (masu) salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, after experimental mechanical trauma; we took into account that the brain of young fishes of this species is in the state of development, and that this is accompanied by intense proliferative activity in the matrix zones. In the damaged cerebellum, results of TUNEL labeling demonstrated manifestations of high apoptotic activity in both zones of postembryonic neurogenesis (granular eminences and molecular layer) and the superficial layer of the cerebellum body. The reaction to mechanical injury of the cerebellum looked like post-traumatic intensifications of proliferative activity in the matrix zones and regional neurogenic niches combined with intensification of the processes of apoptosis, which reached the maximum in the zones of radial migration of the cells. This, obviously, provided elimination of some cells formed due to both reparative neurogenesis and natural morphogenetic processes. In the injured region, we observed manifestations of tangential and radial migration of the cells. A high value of the apoptosis index was observed in the dorsal part of the cerebellum, which corresponded to the zone of secondary neurogenesis. Therefore, apoptotic elimination of some cells is realized already at the stage of formation of the latter in the matrix zones. Apoptotic reactions in the regions where the background morphogenetic processes and processes related to physiological reparation after a traumatic influence prevail and in the remote regions are characterized by dissimilar intensities.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Effects of Destabilization of Visual Environment Perception on the
           Maintenance of Upright Stance by Humans on Different Support Surfaces
    • Abstract: We compared characteristics of the maintenance of human upright stance under conditions of a real visual environment (VE) and “immersion” into a virtual visual environment (VVE). The foreground of the latter corresponded to the window in the room, while the background was a view of the aqueduct with the adjacent terrain. Destabilization of the VVE was created by “coupling” of the foreground position with oscillations of the subject’s body within the sagittal plane. We measured elementary variables calculated according to the trajectory of the center of feet pressure (CFP); these variables were: (i) displacement of the vertical projection of the center of gravity (CGv) and (ii) difference between the positions of the CFP and CGv (variables CGv and CFP – CGv). When standing on a rigid support surface, the root mean square (RMS) of the spectra of oscillations of both variables decreased in the case of an antiphase relation between displacements of the VE foreground with oscillations of the body and increased in the case of an inphase relation between these variables, as compared with the RMS in the maintenance of upright stance under conditions of an immobile VE (ImVE). Under conditions of the inphase relation, however, there were no dramatic disorders in the vertical stance; maximum oscillations of the body in this case did not exceed values typical of the upright stance with the eyes closed (EC). When the upright stance was maintained on a squeezable support, body oscillations increased significantly under all visual conditions, and the difference between the RMS of the CGv spectra obtained for the conditions of the inphase relation and EC became statistically significant. In the case of standing on a squeezable support, RMSs of the CFP – CGv variable at the antiphase relation of the VVE foreground were greater than those at the inphase relation. At the same time, the RMS of the CGv spectra were, vice versa, greater at the inphase relation. Thus, upon variation of the conditions for the vertical stance maintenance, the amplitude characteristics of elementary variables (CGv and CFP – CGv) determining the CFP on a support can vary in both a parallel and an independent manner. These variables can be controlled not only by coupled but also by independent (uncoupled) mechanisms controlling their amplitude/frequency parameters.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Correction of Pathological Morphofunctional Changes in the Mammalian
    • Abstract: The retina (a peripheral link of the visual analyzer) is a complex system whose adequate functioning is necessary for normal functioning of the eye. The loss of any cell type in the retina resulting from some diseases or trauma destroys complex neuronal chains that play a key role in the control of visual function. To gain an insight into the mechanisms underlying different pathological processes in the retina, which lead in humans to hereditary or acquired loss of vision, modeling of the corresponding pathological states in experiments on laboratory animals is used. Achievements in molecular and cellular biology led to significant progress in the development of new techniques for therapy of different visual disturbances. In the literature, techniques for neurotrophic and gene therapy used in experiments have been described. The successful use of techniques of gene therapy in experiments on laboratory animals allowed researchers to initiate phase-I clinical trials of treatment of retinoblastoma, age-related macular degeneration, and Leber’s congenital amaurosis. It this review, we discuss the possibilities for application of gene therapy to a wider range of eye diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • 3D Reconstruction of a Full-Size GABA B Receptor
    • Abstract: The three-dimensional (3D) pattern of a full-size GABAB receptor has been reconstructed using computer techniques. To simulate a real microenvironment for the GABAB receptor, the latter was embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane with the corresponding salt-water environment. Since homology modeling of the GABAB receptor is among the computational methods allowing one to predict 3D coordinates when experimental data are not available, we reconstructed the structure of a full-size GABAB receptor by stepwise homology modeling of individual subunit parts. The stability of receptor subunits was evaluated by calculating the molecular dynamics. It has been found that C-terminal domains of the intracellular receptor show a tendency toward compaction, and coiled-coil areas form a structure almost identical to that specified by crystallization of these fragments. The structure obtained can be applied for further examination of the structural mechanisms of GABAB receptor interaction with GABA agonists and antagonists. It is quite evident that molecular dynamics computations might be a valuable tool in probing details of the receptor function.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Mechanisms and Possible Treatments
    • Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental condition occurring after a tragedy or a traumatic experience, such as rape, assault, natural disasters, war, car or plane accidents, etc. PSTD can cause a number of symptoms, such as fear, high anxiety, hyperarousal, bad dreams, nightmares, etc., existing for a long time after the traumatic event. In recent years, the spread of PTSD has increased in the world, especially in Asia (Middle East), particularly among soldiers who have taken part in military conflicts. This situation confirms the importance of understanding how PTSD develops and of improving its treatment. This paper is a review of the literature related to the respective topics. Like other anxiety disorders, PTSD is related to disruption of the endocrine system, particularly disintegration of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). People suffering from PTSD are characterized by elevated levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone, low basal cortisol levels, and enhanced negative feedback suppression of the HPAA. At the present time, certain plant-derived compounds are considered to be a new important source to treat PTSD. For example, remedies obtained from saffron are such possible means. According to our findings, saffron components may considerably affect some parts of the HPAA for reduction of stress-induced corticosterone release.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Firing Patterns of Leech Heartbeat Interneurons under External Current
           Stimulation: a Model Study
    • Abstract: Leech heartbeat interneurons (HN cells) interconnected by inhibitory synapses have been simulated using several modified models based on the Hodgkin-Huxley equations; yet, adequate characteristics of HN cells are hardly possible to be summarized due to the complexity of these models. The Winnerless Competition (WLC) model created as an inhibitory-connected nervous network is more appropriate for networks consisting of HN cells. We investigated different firing patterns produced by such model under application of various stimuli simulating changes in the leech’s environment. By means of recording the firing frequency, synchronization, interspike intervals (ISIs), and maxima of action potentials (APs) and also by application of the theory of mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs), different properties of firing patterns in HN cells were examined. According to the results of computational analyses, DC and AC stimulations were found to play different roles in modulating the leech’s heartbeat rhythm; external stimuli could influence the intensity and duration of the network reaction by changing both AP frequency and amplitude. Besides, changes in the recovery abilities of neurons can lead to various release modes of HN cells. Combined with physiological experiments on medical leeches, numerical analysis allows us to gain a deeper understanding of how HN cells coordinate with each other to bring the rhythm to the leech heartbeat system.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Neuronal Networks Responsible for Genetic and Acquired (Ontogenetic)
           Memory: Probable Fundamental Differences
    • Abstract: Functional capabilities of the two types of neuronal networks in the human brain, namely those formed on the basis of exclusively genetic information and those formed with the use of the experience stored within the lifetime, have been compared. It is stated that modifications of behavior based on accumulation of biologically and/or socially expedient experience may be provided only by neuronal networks formed with the involvement of psychic (mental) phenomena.It is assumed that the process of using the experience accumulated within the ontogenetic development is accompanied by the formation of hierarchical functional relationships among neuronal networks of various cerebral structures. Within the framework of such hierarchical functional relations, synaptic connections, which perform functions well known from the neurophysiologic aspect, may also appear neuronal elements providing systemic effects on certain neuronal networks of other networks; these modulatory effects are realized with the involvement of mental phenomena, necessary for storing and using of the ontogenetic experience.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Effects of Bacterial Melanin on Neuronal Activity in the Rat Sensorimotor
    • Abstract: We examined post-stimulation changes in the electrical activity of neurons of the rat sensorimotor cortex after intapraperitoneal injections or direct applications of bacterial melanin (a strict analog of neuromelanin). Activation of cortical neurons was evoked by high-frequency stimulation of the hindlimb peripheral nerves. The patterns of within-stimulation responses and long-lasting post-stimulation effects were rather similar in both subgroups (with systemic introductions or direct applications of melanin). Comparison of the results of previous electrophysiological experiments, where the effects of melanin on electrical activity generated by neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta were studied, showed close similarities of the effects of this agent (mostly activating influence of bacterial melanin with the predominance of excitatory/facilitatory post-stimulation modifications of spike activity). The effects of bacterial melanin can contribute to the recovery processes in neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Effects of Neurotrophin-3 Plasmids on Myocyte Apoptosis and Ca 2+ -ATPase
           Content in the Muscle After Nerve Injury in Rats
    • Abstract: We estimated the influence of plasmids with DNA carrying the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene on apoptosis in the gastrocnemius muscle and content of Ca2+-ATPase in the latter after sciatic nerve injury. Sixty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into the saline (control) and NT-3 groups. The related indices, such as expression of caspase-3 protein, the rate of apoptosis in the muscle evaluated using a TUNEL technique, and the level of Ca2+-ATPase estimated using Western blot, were observed. Expression of caspase-3 protein was elevated at different post-operative times after peripheral nerve injury; NT-3 expression and the rate of muscle cell apoptosis decreased, whereas the level of Ca2+-ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum increased; significant differences were observed compared with the saline group (P < 0.05). The mitigation mechanism of NT-3 on muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury is expressed as inhibition of caspase-3 gene expression, increase in the Ca2+-ATPase level, and reduction in the rate of muscle apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Catecholaminergic Regulation of the Production of Gonadotropins in Female
    • Abstract: The involvement of the central monoaminergic systems in regulation of the gonadotropic function of the hypophysis is not, at present, in question. At the same time, the question of whether catecholamines influence only the release of luliberin by neurons of the median eminence (ME) or these agents affect simultaneously other structures of the preoptico-tubero-infundibular luliberin-producing system remains open. In experiments with recording of an evoked increase (surge) in the level of gonadotropins in ovariectomized rats that received sex steroids, we studied the effects of some agonists and antagonists of catecholamines on the amount of luliberin in the mediopreoptic region (MPR), arcuate nucleus (ANs), and ME of the hypothalamus, as well as on the levels of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH and FSH, respectively) in the blood. Important fundamental differences in modulation of the evoked surge of hypophyseal gonadotropins under the action of a few pharmacological agents (agonists and antagonists of catecholamines) were observed. Noradrenergic influences on the preoptic region play a dominant role in the control of cyclic release of LH, while the release of FSH is regulated by influences coming from the dopaminergic system.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Effect of a Rho Kinase Inhibitor on Cognitive Impairment Induced by
           Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats
    • Abstract: We examined the efficacy of a Rho kinase inhibitor, Fasudil, on cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Thirty-two male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups; treated (T), control (C), and sham-operated (Sh); severe stenosis of the carotid arteries was modeled in the former two groups. During two weeks, 8.35 mg/kg Fasudil and physiological saline were i.p. applied twice per day in the T and C groups, respectively. The Morris water maze test was performed in each group to detect changes in the cognitive function and to observe pathological shifts in hippocampal morphology in rats after eight weeks. The mean escape latency was distinctly shorter (P < 0.01), and the percentage of swimming distance within the platform quadrant was significantly greater (P < 0.01) in the T group, compared to those in the C group at the corresponding time points. The rate of carotid artery stenosis in rats demonstrated no statistical difference between the T and C groups (P > 0.05). Fasudil injections effectively normalized hippocampal pathomorphology in the T group. Thus, the Rho kinase inhibitor obviously ameliorated cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.
      PubDate: 2016-02-20
  • Inactivation of the Nucl. Accumbens Core Exerts No Effect on
           Nicotine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference
    • Abstract: Effects of transient inhibition of the core part of the nucl. accumbens (NAcC) by lidocaine on nicotineinduced conditioned place preference in male Wistar rats were examined. Lidocaine (2%) was injected into the NAcC of nicotine-conditioned animals before each nicotine i.p. injection. On the test day, behavior of the animals in a two-lcompartment apparatus was recorded during 10 min. Results revealed that i.p. injections of nicotine (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg) induced place preference. Transient lidocaine-induced inhibition of one or both sides of the NAcC did not change place preference but changed the numbers of compartment crossings, rearings, and sniffings. Inhibition of the left part and both parts of the structure reduced sniffing and increased place preference; inhibition of the right part of the nucleus increased the intensity of this phenomena.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2015-11-13
  • Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the CA1 Pyramidal Neuron in a Modeled
           Hippocampal Circuit
    • Abstract: Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) plays an important role in sculpting information-storing circuits in the hippocampus, since motor learning and memory are thought to be closely linked with this classical plasticity. To further understand the information delivery in a hippocampus circuit, we build a computational model to study the potential role of linear changes in the synaptic weight and synaptic number. Several key results have been obtained: (i) Changes in the synaptic weight and numbers lead to different long-term modifications; (ii) the first paired spiking from two neurons significantly influences the adjusted subsequent paired spiking; the pre-post spiking pair strengthens the following paired spiking; however, the post-pre spiking pair depresses the subsequent spiking; (iii) when the synaptic weight and synaptic numbers are changed, the interval of the first spiking pair may undergo reduction, and (iv) when we stimulate a stellate neuron weakly or decrease the capacitance of the CA1 pyramidal neuron, LTP is more easily produced than LTD; on the contrary, LTD is more easily produced in an opposite situation; increase in the synaptic numbers can promote activation of the CA1 pyramidal neuron.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
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