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Publisher: Springer-Verlag   (Total: 2335 journals)

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Showing 1001 - 1200 of 2335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Interchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 13)
Interdisciplinary Sciences : Computational Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 10)
Intereconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 12)
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internal and Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 27)
Intl. Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 16)
Intl. Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 31)
Intl. Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 69)
Intl. Cancer Conference J.     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.181, h-index: 14)
Intl. Entrepreneurship and Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 27)
Intl. Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.832, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. for the Advancement of Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.266, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. for the Semiotics of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.143, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Applied and Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Artificial Intelligence in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Asian Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Automation and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.392, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Automotive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.847, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.905, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.708, h-index: 63)
Intl. J. of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.858, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Clinical Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 43)
Intl. J. of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Colorectal Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.102, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.539, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Computer Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 5.633, h-index: 150)
Intl. J. of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.641, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.644, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Diabetes in Developing Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Disclosure and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.407, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 70)
Intl. J. of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Game Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.878, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Care Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.446, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.779, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Hindu Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Information Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.652, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.422, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Machine Learning and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.835, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Mental Health and Addiction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 21)
Intl. J. of Multimedia Information Retrieval     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.306, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Parallel Programming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.255, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
Intl. J. of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.198, h-index: 17)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.659, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.316, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.078, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.21, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Rehabilitation and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Salt Lake Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Science and Mathematics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.851, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.557, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Stomatology & Occlusion Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.291, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Technology and Design Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.573, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Intl. J. of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.431, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Wireless Information Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 22)
Intl. J. on Digital Libraries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 568, SJR: 0.375, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.546, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.806, h-index: 41)
Intl. Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 33)
Intl. Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 59)
Intl. Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 22)
Intl. Politics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 8)
Intl. Review of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.369, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 6)
Intl. Sports Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 1)
Intl. Tax and Public Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 37)
Intl. Urogynecology J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 72)
Intl. Urology and Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.506, h-index: 38)
Inventiones mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 5.874, h-index: 75)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 28)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.376, h-index: 68)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 36)
Iranian Polymer J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.517, h-index: 28)
Irish J. of Medical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 23)
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 46)
Israel J. of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.649, h-index: 40)
Italian Economic J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 17)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 13)
J. Africain d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.142, h-index: 3)
J. africain du cancer / African J. of Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 4)
J. d'Analyse Mathématique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.973, h-index: 36)
J. for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 10)
J. for Labour Market Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. fur Asthetische Chirurgie     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 4)
J. für Betriebswirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 9)
J. für Mathematik-Didaktik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
J. für Rechtspolitik     Hybrid Journal  
J. für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.221, h-index: 17)
J. of Abnormal Child Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.03, h-index: 107)
J. of Academic Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.395, h-index: 10)
J. of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 6)
J. of Adult Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.463, h-index: 30)
J. of Advancement in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
J. of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 8)
J. of Aging and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.508, h-index: 32)
J. of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.571, h-index: 39)
J. of Algebraic Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.436, h-index: 27)
J. of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.456, h-index: 11)
J. of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 23)
J. of Anesthesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 30)
J. of Applied and Industrial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.176, h-index: 8)
J. of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.676, h-index: 86)
J. of Applied Genetics     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.621, h-index: 38)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.483, h-index: 24)
J. of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.852, h-index: 73)
J. of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 15)
J. of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.464, h-index: 34)
J. of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 36)
J. of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.56, h-index: 9)
J. of Artificial Organs     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.66, h-index: 29)
J. of Asset Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.181, h-index: 6)
J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.858, h-index: 57)
J. of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 19)
J. of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.599, h-index: 59)
J. of Autism and Developmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.877, h-index: 123)
J. of Automated Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.63, h-index: 43)
J. of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 7)
J. of Behavioral Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 28)
J. of Behavioral Health Services & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, h-index: 41)
J. of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.069, h-index: 73)
J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion J. of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Bioeconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.391, h-index: 18)
J. of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 83)
J. of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 13)
J. of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.481, h-index: 33)
J. of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.28, h-index: 59)
J. of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.043, h-index: 89)
J. of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
J. of Biosciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.841, h-index: 54)
J. of Bone and Mineral Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.775, h-index: 56)
J. of Brand Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 22)
J. of Business and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 46)
J. of Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 98)
J. of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.955, h-index: 26)
J. of Cancer Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 33)
J. of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.19, h-index: 76)
J. of Cancer Survivorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2, h-index: 34)
J. of Cardiovascular Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.567, h-index: 32)
J. of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.195, h-index: 27)
J. of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.335, h-index: 20)
J. of Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 14)
J. of Chemical Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 28)
J. of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.559, h-index: 88)
J. of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 37)
J. of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Child and Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 50)
J. of Children's Orthopaedics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.584, h-index: 18)
J. of Chinese Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.515, h-index: 9)
J. of Chinese Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 7)
J. of Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.968, h-index: 29)
J. of Clinical Geropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.332, h-index: 75)
J. of Clinical Monitoring and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.661, h-index: 37)
J. of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 34)
J. of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.416, h-index: 31)
J. of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 8)
J. of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.474, h-index: 25)
J. of Coatings Technology and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.425, h-index: 25)
J. of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.093, h-index: 34)
J. of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 16)
J. of Community Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 14)

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Journal Cover Neurophysiology
  [SJR: 0.168]   [H-I: 9]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9007 - ISSN (Online) 0090-2977
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • Pages: 219 - 219
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9591-9
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Species-Related Differences in the Properties of TRPC4 Channels in
           Intestinal Myocytes of Rodents
    • Authors: D. O. Dryn; A. V. Gryshchenko; T. B. Bolton; M. X. Zhu; A. V. Zholos
      Pages: 220 - 229
      Abstract: TRPC4 proteins form receptor-operated cation channels that are activated in synergy by M2 and M3 ACh receptors coupled to Gq/11 and Gi/o proteins, respectively. These channels are widely expressed in the brain and smooth muscles where they perform a number of important functions, including control of GABA release from the dendrites and cholinergic excitation of smooth muscles. The biophysical properties of TRPC4 currents directly activated by GTPγS in mouse cells remain mostly unknown. We, thus, aimed to investigate these channels in mouse ileal myocytes where a prominent TRPC4-mediated cation current termed mICAT is observed, and to compare the behavior of this current to that of the better studied mICAT in guinea-pig myocytes. Although cation current responses to carbachol at –50 mV (i.e., at the value close to the normal resting potential in these cells) were highly similar, mICAT in the mouse lacked the permissive action of intracellular Ca2+ on channel opening. The slope factor of the muscarinic cation conductance, which is a defining property of voltage-dependent behavior, was identical in both species. There were differences in the potential at which the current peaked at negative potentials, but not in the maximal current densities. Major differences were found in the kinetics of mICAT voltagedependent relaxations, which were much faster in the mouse. The above rodent species employ two different strategies for the open probability increase by activated G-proteins; the mean open time was shorter in the mouse compared to that in the guinea-pig (15.1 ± 5.2 msec, n = 8, vs. 80.0 ± 19.7 msec, n = 9; P < 0.01). Correspondingly, the instantaneous frequency of channel opening was much higher in the mouse (154.1 ± 18.8 sec–1 vs. 70.2 ± 7.3 sec–1 in the guinea-pig; P < 0.001). These functional differences are discussed based on structural differences found in the corresponding TRPC4 amino acid sequences of the two rodent species, which are mainly clustered in the cytosolic C-terminus of TRPC4 protein.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9592-8
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Mechanisms Underlying Positive Modulation of a Current through P-Type
           Calcium Channels in Purkinje Neurons by an Agonist of Opioid Receptors
    • Authors: O. V. Egorova; O. I. Fisyunov; O. P. Maksymyuk; O. A. Kryshtal
      Pages: 230 - 237
      Abstract: In experiments on isolated rat Purkinje neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, the addition of 10 nM of an agonist of μ-opioid receptors (μ-ORs), DAMGO, to the bath solution led to moderate but highly significant intensification of the current through high-threshold calcium channels of the P type (increment 9-10%). We found that this effect was independent of the kind of cations (Ca2+ or Ba2+) coming via the plasma membrane. This effect (positive modulation of the current) was practically preserved in the case where a prepulse shifting the membrane potential to +50 mV preceded the test pulse, i.e., the effect was voltage-independent. The above-mentioned effect was almost unchanged under conditions where the intracellular solution contained 0.5 mM GTPβS (an irreversible blocker of G-proteins) or the same amount of GTPγS (a nonspecific activator of these proteins) instead of GTP. The addition of 0.5 mM cAMP to the intracellular solution also did not practically influence positive modulation of the P-current under the action of DAMGO. Preliminary 10-min-long incubation of the examined cells in a solution containing 0.5 μM calmidazolium (an antagonist of calmodulin-regulated enzymes) induced a twofold decrease in the DAMGO-evoked increment of the P-current. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that there is a high-affinity allosteric site of binding with agonists of μ-ORs in the molecule of the calcium P-channel, and that voltage-, calcium-, and G-protein-independent positive modulation of the current through these channels is realized by just such a mechanism.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9593-7
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Effects of a Supernatant of Fetal Neurogenic Cells on Proliferative
           Activity in Glioma C6 Cell Culture
    • Authors: L. D. Liubich; V. M. Semenova; T. A. Malysheva; L. P. Stayno; V. V. Vaslovich
      Pages: 238 - 245
      Abstract: We estimated the effects of a rat fetal neurogenic cell supernatant (RFNCS) on proliferative activity of cultured cells of rat brain glioma (C6 cell line). The RFNCS was obtained from a cell suspension of the brains from rat fetuses (gestation day 14, E14). We added 0.10 mg/ml of RFNCS to the culture medium of experimental cultures and incubated the latter for 48 h. Immunocytochemical staining with respect to the Ki-67 proliferation marker was performed using rabbit monoclonal antibodies against this protein. In glioma C6 cell cultures, we observed degenerating and necrobiotically modified tumor cells with rounded cell bodies and reduction of the processes. Under the action of RFNCS, the mean density of the cells in 10 test fields of vision in experimental cultures (0.04 mm2) became significantly smaller than that in the control (332.0 ± 36.0 vs. 569.5 ± 70.5; P = 0.00026); the mean value of the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in malignant cells mildly (insignificantly) decreased (0.28 ± 0.01 vs. 0.32 ± 0.02; P = 0.64) and the share of cells with multiple nucleoli was more than two times smaller (3.53 ± 0.33% and 7.97 ± 0.25%, respectively; P = 0.053). The mitotic index of cultured malignant cells subjected to the action of RFNCS became four times lower (1.10 ± 0.04% vs. 4.90 ± 0.09%; P = 0.009), while the share of malignant cells immunopositive with respect to Ki-67 decreased (10.47 ± 0.91% vs. 27.86 ± ± 2.91%; P = 0.0015). The observed antiproliferative effect of RFNCS confirms the possibility and expedience of the development of complex pathogenetic therapy for malignant tumors of the brain using preparations obtained from fetal neurogenic cells.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9594-6
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Effect of Cyclosporin A on the Viability of Hippocampal Cells Cultured
           under Conditions of Modeling of Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Authors: E. V. Kravenska; V. V. Ganzha; E. N. Yavorskaya; E. A. Lukyanetz
      Pages: 246 - 251
      Abstract: The presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by manifestations of intense neurodegeneration in the brain is the main syndrome of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Until now, the mechanisms underlying neurotoxic properties of the protein specific with respect to AD (amyloid β1–42) have not been fully interpreted. There are reasons to believe that the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs) may play a significant role in the respective processes. We estimated the impact of the mentioned protein on the viability of cultured hippocampal cells of rats. The use of confocal microscopy after staining of the cells by two dyes, Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide, allowed us to measure the numbers of viable and necrotized units. When 2.0 μm of amyloid β1–42 was added to the culturing medium, the cell death index (CDI) of hippocampal cells (number of cells stained by propidium iodide normalized with respect to the number of examined units) on day in vitro (DIV) 14 was 59 ± 4%, on average, as compared with 28 ± 6% under control conditions. When not only amyloid β1–42 was added to the medium but cells were also treated with 1.25 μM of a MPTP blocker, cyclosporin A (CsA), the mean CDI was significantly smaller than that with no treatment (42 ± 6%; P < 0.05). Thus, changes in the mitochondria resulting in opening of MPTPs can be considerably involved in the process of necrotic death of hippocampal cells under conditions of modeling of AD.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9595-5
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Ketosis Level as a Factor Determining Addictive Behavior of Alcoholized
    • Authors: T. I. Panova; A. K. Bortnikova
      Pages: 252 - 258
      Abstract: A group of 20 rats was subjected to long-lasting alcoholization (90-day-long forced consumption of 10% aqueous ethanol solution, ES). Every day at 17.00, the ES volume consumed by the animals per day was measured, and the level of ketone bodies in the urine was estimated in points using a semiquantitative quick ketone test. Then, rats were divided into two equivalent groups, experimental and control ones (n = 10 in each group). During the subsequent three-day-long main stage of the experiment, animals of the experimental group were preliminarily (at 17.00 of the preceding day) subjected to peroral administration of 1.0 ml of solution of unithiol, i.e., an agent neutralizing ketone bodies. Within three days of the mentioned period, the level of ketonuria was estimated within a 9.00–17.00 observation period with one-hour-long intervals. This time, free access of rats to water or ES was provided. We found that rats of the experimental group consumed more than one-third of the daily ES norm within the first hour of observation; i.e., within the interval where the level of ketonuria was minimum (0.17 points, on average). After this, the amount of the consumed ES decreased, while the level of ketonuria increased significantly in a parallel manner. In control rats throughout the observation period, hourly consumption of ES and the level of ketonuria demonstrated no significant dynamics. We hypothesize that there is a causal relationship between the ketosis level and the behavioral reaction of alcohol consumption (the lower the ketosis, the higher the consumption). Under conditions of alcoholization resulting in the development of hypoglycemia, ketone bodies begin to be used in the brain as an energy substrate, and the brain becomes dependent on the level of ketonemia to a significant extent. These level is a rather important factor determining alcohol addiction; direct factors initiating a situational drive for alcohol consumption are hypoketonemia episodes.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9596-4
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Effects of Systemic Introductions of Nanoparticles and Salts of Gold and
           Silver on the Size of the Nuclei of Hypothalamic Neurons in Male Rats
    • Authors: V. Ye. Kalynovskyi; A. S. Pustovalov; G. Ya. Grodzyuk; N. S. Andriushyna; M. E. Dzerzhynsky
      Pages: 259 - 263
      Abstract: We studied the effects of course (10 days) intraperitoneal injections of salts of gold and silver and colloid solutions of nanoparticles of these metals on the size (mean value of the cross-sections) of the nuclei of hypothalamic neurocytes localized in the preoptic and arcuate nuclei of immature male albino rats. In animals injected with a solution containing tetrachloroaurate ions, the examined morphometric parameters in both structures significantly exceeded the control values. Injections of gold nanoparticles led to significant decreases in the cross-sections of the neurocyte nuclei; thus, the pattern of the effects of gold depended on its physicochemical form. Injections of both silver salt (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles led to drops in the mean values of cross-sections of the nuclei of neurocytes. Therefore, shifts of the studied morphofunctional characteristics of the cells belonging to the hypothalamic nuclei resulting from systemic injections of colloid solutions (nanoparticles) of gold and silver are indicative of suppression of functions of the central link of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system after the influence of these factors.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9597-3
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Effects of a Cardiotonic Medicine, Danshen Pills, on Cognitive Ability and
           Expression of PSD-95 in a Vascular Dementia Rat Model
    • Authors: Yanzhen Zhu; Yanjun Zeng; Caigu He; Shu Jiang; Linying Zhou; Yumei Huang; Changhui Qiang; Yiyan Jiang
      Pages: 264 - 269
      Abstract: Abstract A widely used Chinese cardiotonic proprietary medicine, compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDP, Fufang Danshen Diwan) has also begun to be used for treatment of vascular dementia (VaD). We tried to explore the mechanism of CDDP action in this case. A VaD experimental model was built in rats by bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries. The cognitive ability of experimental animals was evaluated in the Morris water maze test. Synaptic ultrastructural changes in the hippocampus were detected by transmission electron microscopy; expression of PSD-95 mRNA in the hippocampus was examined using hybridization in situ. The latter index (mRNA expression) in the VaD group was significantly lower than those in the CDDP and sham-operated groups (P < 0.05). CDDP treatment considerably improved disturbed ultrastructural synaptic characteristics in the hippocampus of VaD rats. The mean escape latency in the Morris water maze test was significantly shorter in CDDP-treated VaD rats, compared with that those of the VaD group (P < 0.05). In the CDDP group compared to the VaD one, escape strategies improved from edge and random searches to more linear swim pathway (P < 0.05). Thus, decreasing expression of PSD-95 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of VaD. CDDP treatment improves the learning and memory ability of VaD rats by improving neural synaptic ultrastructural characteristics and increasing expression of PSD-95 mRNA in the hippocampus.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9598-2
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Relationship Between the Reaction Time and EEG Parameters During Judgments
           on the Correspondence of Delayed or Simultaneously Presented Images of Two
    • Authors: T. Ishikura
      Pages: 270 - 276
      Abstract: Abstract This study examined how judging whether the poses of two figures are the same in tasks with delayed and simultaneous image presentation affects the participants’ reaction times and electroencephalograms (EEGs). Eighteen university students performed a delayed task, in which an image of a doll was first presented for 3 sec followed by a second image of the doll, and a simultaneous task, in which images of two dolls were presented on the left and right sides of the monitor at the same time. The dolls were shown from the front and rear angles. The participants were instructed to judge whether the images were the same as accurately and quickly as possible, and the reaction times were recorded. EEG signals were recorded from Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, and P4. The reaction times in the delayed task were found to be shorter then those in the simultaneous task, and that these times for the 0° condition were shorter than for the 180° condition. The amplitudes of EEG responses at Fp1 and Fp2 were larger than those at other electrodes, and the responses in the right hemisphere during the 180° condition and the delayed task within the α1 frequency band were smaller than the responses at other electrodes. These results indicate that cerebral activity in the frontal region of the right hemisphere is associated with the judgment of correspondence or non-correspondence in spatial compatibility tasks.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9599-1
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Indices of Coherence of EEG Rhythms in the Course of Cognitive Activity as
           Markers of Creative Thinking: Gender Specificity
    • Authors: I. Ya. Kotsan; N. O. Kozachuk; I. P. Kuznetsov; A. I. Poruchynskii
      Pages: 277 - 286
      Abstract: Abstract According to the results of psychological testing, persons aged 18 to 21 years were divided into four groups, women and men with low and high productivity of divergent (creative, nonroutine) thinking (n = = 18 to 23). Results of EEG recording (19 leads) were used for calculation of the coherence coefficients for oscillations of the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, beta, and gamma frequencies in lead pairs and estimation of integral indices of coherence within the anterior and posterior cortical regions and between these zones (interaction coefficients, IC1-IC3, respectively). EEG was recorded in the resting state and in the course of resolving convergent- and divergent-type cognitive test tasks. It was found that, during the performance of tests of both types, men with a higher productivity of divergent thinking demonstrated significantly higher values of IC1 (that characterizes the coherence in associative linkages within the anterior cortex) for oscillations of all EEG frequency ranges compared with the respective estimates for “low-creative” men. Similar increments were typical of the IC2 values for low- and midfrequency EEG rhythms (delta, theta, and alpha). At the same time, values of the “interregional” IC3 for theta, beta, and gamma activity in “high-creativity” men were significantly lower. In women of both groups (low and high creativity), such specificity of the IC1-IC3 patterns was practically not observed, i.e., the respective aspect demonstrated clear gender specificity. The sex of the subjects and type of the performed cognitive tests could not be considered factors significantly affecting the calculated absolute IC values. The observed specificities of integral coherence indices are probably associated with different strategies of the performance of cognitive tasks in men and women. Our findings allow us to believe that the above interrelations between integrated coherence indices can be used as EEG markers of high productivity of divergent thinking in men. The more flexible strategies of thinking in women are probably related to more variable neurophysiological cortical mechanisms (compared with those in men), and this type of organization is not clearly reflected in the pattern of intracortical interactions estimated by coherence indices.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9600-z
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Theoretical Analysis of the Force and Position Synergies in Two-Joint
    • Authors: A. I. Kostyukov
      Pages: 287 - 296
      Abstract: Abstract A theoretical approach is proposed to define the force and position singular points (FSPs and PSPs) in the circular, ellipsoidal, and linear planar two-joint movements produced under steady loadings directed along the movement traces. The FSPs coincide with changes in the direction of the force moments acting around the joints; the PSPs show the locations of the extrema at the joint angle trajectories. The force synergy (defined by the location of FSPs) provides a strong influence on the activation synergy; the latter is largely described by correlations between the activities recorded from the muscles participating in the movement. The position synergy (defined by the location of PSPs) is responsible for a hysteresis-related modulation of the activation synergy. Geometrical procedures are proposed to define positions of the FSPs and PSPs along various movement traces; this can provide a general description of the force and position synergies for the movements. The force synergies in the circular movements cover four sectors with diverse loading combinations of the flexor and extensor muscles belonging to different joints. The variability of the synergy effects for changes in the size and position of the circular trajectories is analyzed; the synergy patterns are also considered for ellipsoidal and linear movement traces. A Force Feedback Control Hypothesis is proposed; it allows one to explain the decrease in the number of controlled variables during real multi-joint movements.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9601-y
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Control of the Power of Strokes and Muscle Activities in Cyclic Rowing
           Movements (a Research using Rowing Simulators)
    • Authors: T. Tomiak; A. V. Gorkovenko; V. S. Mishchenko; A. Korol; P. Bulinski; I. V. Vereschaka; A. N. Tal’nov; D. A. Vasilenko
      Pages: 297 - 311
      Abstract: We investigated the relationship between the power of rowing movements strokes and the rate of the latter in various testing modes and under different conditions of rowing performance; 25 elite sportsmen specialized in rowing on racing shells were involved in the tests. Two series of tests were carried out on rowing simulators of two types; mechanographic parameters (in particular, joint angles) and EMG activity of broad sets of the muscles involved in this type of locomotor activity were simultaneously recorded. Separate tasks included (i) evaluation of the maximum power of rowing movements, (ii) a controlled step-like increase in the power of the latter, (iii) passing a test “distance” with the maximum speed, (iv) performance of the rowing movements with the presence of visual feedback (with visual presentation of the parameters of motor activity on a monitor), and (v) “rowing” with variations of the external loading. It was found that increases in the power of rowing motions rather rigidly correlated with a nearly proportional increase in the rate of rowing cycles (at all performance modes); a subjectively comfortable rate of such cyclic movements increased with increase in the external loading. Under conditions where rowing movements were initiated with the presence of visual feedback that provided the subject with information on the characteristics of these movements, tested subjects were capable of controlling the power and rate of rowing movements separately. The intensities of EMG discharges of the muscles involved in realization of separate rowing movements correlated mostly with the velocity of these movements and not with the power of the latter. Thus, a strong interrelation between the power and rate of the movements in rowing is, to a great extent, a universal phenomenon; it can be disturbed only at the additional involvement of some external conditions. The value of this interrelation significantly varies between individuals and can be used for characterization of the functional productivity of the athletes and of their functional state.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9602-x
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Concept of Suicide: Neurophysiological/Genetic Theories and Possible
           Oxytocin Relevance
    • Authors: M. Padurariu; R. Prepelita; A. Ciobica; R. Dobrin; D. Timofte; C. Stefanescu; R. Chirita
      Pages: 312 - 321
      Abstract: The suicidal behavior is regarded as the act by which a person seeks to take his life, being aware of the consequences of his action. In our review, besides describing the main introductory aspects for the concept of suicide, we focus our attention on the main neurophysiological and genetical mechanisms relevant for this extremely difficult to manage and controversial behavior. Moreover, considering the latest interests in the current literature on the relevance of central oxytocin to various superior cognitive behaviors, we will also make a short description on how important effects of oxytocin could be in the context of suicidal behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9603-9
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 4 (2016)
  • Neuroprotective and Antiapoptotic Potential of Trigonelline in a Striatal
           6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
    • Authors: M. Mirzaie; M. Khalili; Z. Kiasalari; M. Roghani
      Pages: 176 - 183
      Abstract: Considering neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of trigonelline, our study was undertaken to evaluate its protective effect in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in rats. Unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with trigonelline at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Significant rotational behavior, a significant reduction in the number of Nissl-stained neurons on the left side of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC), increased apoptosis, enhanced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite, and a lower level of glutathione (GSH) were observed in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Trigonelline at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly reduced rotations, prevented reduction of SNC neurons, prevented apoptosis, and restored the MDA level. These results suggest that pre-lesion trigonelline treatment exerts dose-dependent neuroprotective and antiapoptotic effects under conditions of 6-OHDA toxicity and may be, henceforth, advantageous for the management of early PD.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9586-6
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cognitive Loading-Related Changes in the Coherence of EEG Rhythms in
           Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents
    • Authors: A. Shkuropat
      Pages: 197 - 204
      Abstract: We recorded EEG activity in 82 12- to 15-year-old adolescents suffering from sensorineural hearing loss (II or III degree) and 80 secondary-school similar-age pupils with normal hearing. Four pairs of recording electrodes (frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital) were used. The recording was performed under resting conditions and during the performance of the Raven test, which provided the action of cognitive loading. In hard-of-hearing boys and girls in the resting state, the number of lead pairs with significant or high coherence of oscillations of the EEG rhythms (coherence coefficients, CC, 0.51 to 0.70 and 0.71 to 1.00, respectively) usually exceeded the respective figures in normally hearing adolescents. In boys of both groups performing the cognitive test, the number of lead pairs with the CCs exceeding 0.50 increased in most cases. This was especially significantly manifested with respect to theta activity in hard-of-hearing boys; a focus of intense coherence of theta oscillations was formed in subjects of this group in the right temporal area. In girls of both groups, cognitive loading usually did not induce considerable increases in the coherence of EEG rhythms; the number of lead pairs with CC values > > 0.50 either remained unchanged or even decreased. Thus, hard-of-hearing adolescents (especially boys subjected to cognitive loading) demonstrated an intense trend toward increase in coherence relations between remote cortical loci (generalization of coherence), i.e., toward the formation of more extensive associative networks. Changes in the spatial organization of coherent relationships under the action of cognitive loading demonstrate certain gender specificity.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9589-3
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 3 (2016)
  • Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors
    • PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9582-x
  • Modulatory Effects of the Glucocorticoid and Opioid Systems on
           Anxiety-Related Behavior in Young and Mature Rats
    • Authors: M. Kesmati; M. Rezai; M. Torabi
      Abstract: Considering that there is limited information on interaction between age and effects of the opioid system and glucocorticoids in determination of the anxiety level, we examined the influences of 1 mg/kg dexamethasone and 20 mg/kg RU486 (as an agonist and an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptors), and also of 5 mg/kg morphine and 20 mg/kg naloxone (as an agonist and an antagonist of the opioid system) on the above level in young and mature male Wistar rats. The percentage of time in the open arms in the plus-maze test was evaluated as an index of anxiety behavior, and the percentage of number of entries in the closed arms was measured as an index of locomotor activity. Morphine (5 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) exerted anxiolytic effects in both young and mature rats, while these agents reduced locomotor activity only in young animals. RU486 could prevent the anxiolytic effect of morphine, and the anxiolytic effect of dexamethasone was inhibited by naloxone in young animals; this, however, was not observed in mature rats. Thus, there is an interactive effect between glucocorticoids and the opioid system in mediation of anxiety, and the respective events are age-dependent.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9587-5
  • Protective Effects of Thiotriazolinum and Mildronate Against Mercury
           Chloride Toxicity in Neuroblastoma Cell Culture
    • Authors: L. M. Sokurenko; Yu. B. Chaikovskii
      Abstract: We studied the toxic action of mercury (II) chloride (10.9 μM) on cultured IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and possible protective effects of the antioxidant thiotriazolinum and cardioprotector mildronate (concentrations of the former agent in the medium 0.01-10.0 mg/ml). Isolated addition of thiotriazolinum and a combination of thiotriazolinum + mildronate to the medium did not cause dramatic negative effects (number of dead cells at all concentrations used did not exceed 7–10% of the population under control conditions). Thiotriazolinum in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml demonstrated a significant neuroprotective activity against the toxic action of mercury (II) chloride: the mean number of living cells under such conditions of culturing was, on average, about 83.0% vs 54.7% in the case where isolated action of HgCl2 was used. The mean number of living (morphologically unaffected) cells cultured in the medium containing 10.9 μM HgCl2 with the addition of mildronate + thiotriazolinum reached 87.0% of the control value taken as 100%. Therefore, under the toxic action of HgCl2 on cultured IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells, the combination of mildronate and thiotriazolinum demonstrated a significant protective effect, which was more intense than that of thiotriazolinum at its isolated application. Thiotriazolinum in concentrations of 0.001 to 0.1 mg/ml exerts rather moderate negative effects on the studied culture of neuroblastoma cells.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9585-7
  • Sympathetic Skin Response and Boston Questionnaire in Carpal Tunnel
    • Authors: B. Cevik; S. Kurt; D. Aksoy; V. Solmaz
      Abstract: We aimed to determine relations between the sudomotor efferent nerve fiber function and Boston questionnaire in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Median-nerve sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) evoked by wrist stimulation were recorded in 108 CTS patients and compared with those in 88 healthy volunteers. The Boston questionnaire form (BQF) was applied to patients. All patients and healthy individuals were questioned about the autonomic symptoms in the hand (red or purple coloration, excessive sweating, and feeling cold). The average SSR latencies of the patients with CTS were significantly longer than those in the control group (P < 0.001). Positive significant, while weak, correlation was found between the SSR latency, autonomic symptoms, and total sympathetic system scores. No statistically significant relationship was found between the Boston symptom severity, functional capacity scores, and SSR latency. The latter obtained through wrist stimulation was sensitive to support the sudomotor sympathetic dysfunction in patients with CTS. As we found no relationship between the BQF and SSR, these indices may evaluate different aspects of CTS.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9588-4
  • Peculiarities of Tetraethylammonium-Induced Blocking of Potassium Currents
           in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells
    • Authors: N. Ya. Martynyuk; V. Yu. Maslov; H. Purnyn; S. A. Fedulova; N. S. Veselovsky
      Abstract: We studied the sensitivity of integral potassium currents in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of 21-day-old rats to the blocking action of tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied in concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0 mM. The currents were recorded using a patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration using a voltage-clamp mode; retinal preparations were not subjected to enzymatic treatment. Potassium currents were induced by long-lasting (400 msec) depolarizing current pulses of increased intensities. Under the action of 0.25 mM TEA, the integral potassium current was blocked by 18 ± 5%, on average; the amplitude of the TEA-sensitive (blocked) component at the membrane potential of +40 mV was 0.75 ± ± 0.02 nA (n = 6). At 1.0 mM TEA, 32 ± 5% of the current was blocked, and the mean amplitude of the TEA-sensitive component was 1.12 ± 0.02 nA (n = 9). The effect of TEA was reversible; the relative intensity of the TEA-sensitive component in different cells varied within a wide range (from 3 to 38% at 0.25 mM TEA and from 12 to 54% at 1.0 mM). A comparison of the findings with the data reported earlier showed that the dependence of the intensity of TEA blocking within a 0.25 to 1.0 mM range is nonlinear; it appears that the 0.5 mM concentration is relatively close to the saturating one. Analysis of the obtained data shows that TEA applied in the tested concentrations blocks mostly the potassium current through Kv3.1/Kv3.2 channels; the effects of the blocker on other types of channels (Kv3.3/Kv3.4, Kv1.1, and BK) are, in any case, much less significant.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11062-016-9584-8
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