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Showing 1 - 200 of 2352 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Aquaculture International
  [SJR: 0.613]   [H-I: 40]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-143X - ISSN (Online) 0967-6120
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Alteration of growth, intestinal Lactobacillus , selected immune and
           digestive enzyme activities in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus
           japonicus , fed dietary multiple probiotics
    • Authors: Ning Bao; Tongjun Ren; Yuzhe Han; Fuqiang Wang; Fei Chen; Zhiqiang Jiang
      Pages: 1721 - 1731
      Abstract: Abstract To assess the influences on growth performance, intestinal Lactobacillus, immune and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by administrating multiple probiotics. Multiple probiotics (0, 6 × 107 and 9 × 107 CFU g−1) and normal basal feed were mixed thoroughly at different doses of diet (T0, T1, and T2, respectively) and were administered orally to sea cucumbers for 90 days. After the feeding trial, 20 sea cucumbers were randomly sampled from each pond. The results showed that administration of multiple probiotics significantly affected on the growth performance, non-specific immune enzymes, and microbial ecology of the gut of sea cucumbers (P < 0.05). However, the lysozyme activities, the counts of total, and lactic bacteria of sea cucumbers were not significantly altered at dose of 6 × 107 CFU g−1 feed compared with control group (T0). Protease activities of sea cucumbers were significantly increased when fed with T1 diet compared with T0 (P < 0.05). Under the conditions of mass-scale culture, the present results indicate that the multiple probiotics can benefit growth performance, innate immunity, microbial ecology of the gut, several digestive enzyme activities of sea cucumber. The present study confirmed the potential effects of the multiple probiotics as dietary probiotics in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0148-8
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Ovary development and annual egg production of hake, M. merluccius : a
           promising aquaculture species
    • Authors: Jim Treasurer
      Pages: 1747 - 1759
      Abstract: Abstract The full range of stages in ovarian development and fecundity of hake in the North Sea and the west coast of Scotland are described from histological examination of ovaries. Male hake from the North Sea had a gonadosomatic index of 0.88 in February compared with 3.30 in fish from west Scotland and 0.61 compared with 8.17 in females from respective locations, suggesting that the fish had still to mature in the North Sea. The maturation cycle of hake ovaries was described by a 7-point developmental scale after Rinchard and Kestemont (J Fish Biol 49:883–894, 1996). All developmental stages were present in hake from the North Sea and the west coast in February and stages 2 to 6 from the start of vitellogenesis to maturity in fish in west Scotland in May. This suggests that peak hake spawning occurred from February to May. The mean diameter of oocytes in previtellogenesis (developmental stage 1), the beginning (stage 2) and end (3) of endogenous vitelloegenesis, and exogenous vitellogenesis (4) was 34, 56, 105 and 249 μm, respectively, in histological material. Annual egg production was in the range 0.41 to 2.95 million for females of 962 to 3710 g, and the relationship to fish weight was described by y = 3985750.0005x , r 2 = 0.916.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0146-x
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Growth and survival of cupped oysters ( Crassostrea gigas ) during nursery
           and pregrowing stages in open sea facilities using different stocking
    • Authors: Alessandra Roncarati; Alberto Felici; Gian Enrico Magi; Nina Bilandžić; Paolo Melotti
      Pages: 1777 - 1785
      Abstract: Abstract A pregrowing trial was carried out using nursery-stage cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in order to evaluate weight, length, mortality, and final costs of spat grown in long-line aquaculture at different sampling times (t1–t5) over 81 days. Spat were reared at two stocking densities in polyvinyl chloride cylinders (10 cm diameter, 24 cm length) placed within lanterns composed of five levels (60 cm diameter, 11 cm height). Each lantern level hosted two cylinders. Lanterns were hung 6 m below the surface of the water in the Middle Adriatic Sea. A total of 53,100 spat (weight 0.033 g, length 5 mm) were divided into seven cylinders at either high density (H; 5055 oysters/cylinder, 167.3 g/cylinder) or low density (L; 2530 oysters/cylinder, 83.7 g/cylinder). On the basis of the ANOVA analysis, spat were significantly heavier (0.352 vs. 0.227 g; P < 0.001) and longer (12.22 vs. 10.47 mm; P < 0.001) in the L group compared to the H group. Considering the time factor, oysters were significantly heavier (0.941 g; P < 0.001) and longer (21.30 mm; P < 0.001) at t5 than at any previous sampling time (t1–t4). A higher rate of mortality was initially observed in the L group (6.7% at t1); however, mortality in the H group was higher at later sampling dates, reaching the highest level at t4 (32.4%). Spat grew better at the low stocking density, demonstrating that a higher stocking density is not suitable.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0152-z
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Diet supplemented with Grifola gargal mushroom enhances growth, lipid
           content, and nutrient retention of juvenile rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus
           mykiss )
    • Authors: Mariano M. Pascual; Juan P. Hualde; Virginia A. Bianchi; Juan M. Castro; Carlos M. Luquet
      Pages: 1787 - 1797
      Abstract: Abstract This study examined the suitability of the edible mushroom Grifola gargal as a dietary supplement for juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three treatments were established in triplicate using 50 fish (0.33 ± 0.01 g) held in 50-L containers. Treatments consisted of feeds (42–45% protein, ca. 18% lipid) supplemented with fruiting-bodies of G. gargal at 0 g kg−1 (control diet (CTRL)), 25 g kg−1 (GG25), or 100 g kg−1 (GG100). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation twice a day (except on Sundays) for 56 days. Feed intake and growth were recorded throughout the study, and fish body proximate composition and nutrient retention were assessed at the end of the trial. Fish given GG25 diet had better growth and feed utilization than those given the other feeds. Final body weight was 2.37 ± 0.04 g (CTRL), 4.07 ± 0.07 g (GG25), and 1.94 ± 0.06 g (GG100) and the thermal-unit growth coefficient increased significantly from 0.64 ± 0.01 in CTRL to 0.87 ± 0.01 in GG25. The feed efficiency and the protein efficiency ratio were best for fish fed GG25, and body lipid was 42.3 ± 2.6 g kg−1 in CTRL and 75.3 ± 1.5 g kg−1 in GG25 treatments. This coincided with a lower viscerosomatic index in the fish given GG25 than in those provided with the other feeds. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with G. gargal at 25 g kg−1 enhances growth and leads to improved feed utilization in small rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0154-x
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Fucus vesiculosus extract inhibits the proteolytic activity and gene
           expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar
    • Authors: Jonhard Eysturskarð; Sunnvør í Kongsstovu; Daisy Færø; Ása Jacobsen; Hóraldur Joensen
      Pages: 1813 - 1819
      Abstract: Abstract Fucoidans are sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides found in macroalgae. Multiple biological functions have been attributed to fucoidans including inhibitory activity against matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). A recent study showed that kidney and blood remains left in the abdominal cavity after gutting had a significant negative effect on gaping and fillet firmness in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The authors hypothesized that one reason could be that MMPs from kidney and blood remains break down the connective tissue in Atlantic salmon fillets. The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of MMPs in Atlantic salmon kidney and the inhibitory effect of a Fucus vesiculosus extract (FVE) on the proteolytic activity and gene expression of MMPs in Atlantic salmon. The inhibitory effect of FVE was compared to the inhibitory effect of the synthetic broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor marimastat. In this study, we found that FVE inhibits the proteolytic activity of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13 in Atlantic salmon kidney as well as MMP-2 gene expression in Atlantic salmon liver. Although the inhibitory effect of FVE on the proteolytic activity of MMPs is small compared to the inhibitory effect of marimastat, both FVE and marimastat inhibit 80% of the DQ-gelatin breakdown caused by Atlantic salmon kidney at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL−1. This indicates that FVE may also be capable of inhibiting other proteinases present in Atlantic salmon kidney. Overall, our findings suggest that FVE could be used in the fish processing industry to limit collagenase and gelatinase activity, thus reducing the connective tissue degradation in Atlantic salmon fillets.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0157-7
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effects of feeding rates on growth, feed utilization, and body composition
           of juvenile Pseudobagrus ussuriensis
    • Authors: Xianyong Bu; Xuqiu Lian; Ying Zhang; Chenghui Yang; Cunhe Cui; Jianfang Che; Baibing Tang; Baohui Su; Qicun Zhou; Yuhong Yang
      Pages: 1821 - 1831
      Abstract: Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding rates on growth, feed utilization, and body composition of juvenile Pseudobagrus ussuriensis. Juvenile P. ussuriensis (initial body weight of 2.30 ± 0.01 g) were distributed into 15 tanks, and each tank was stocked with 30 fish. Satiation feeding (3.57% BW day−1) was determined by the point of cessation of voluntary feeding activity by fish. Five treatments that included triplicate groups were prepared for this study: 100% (satiation), 75, 50, and 25% of satiation groups and unfed group. The results indicated that weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing feeding rates. WG and SGR of fish fed to satiation were significantly higher than that of fish fed to 50 and 25% of satiation and unfed fish (P < 0.05), but not significantly different from that of fish fed to 75% of satiation (P > 0.05). Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed to 75% of satiation were significantly higher than that of fish fed other groups. There was a trend towards increased whole-body crude lipid and decreased whole-body moisture with increasing feeding rates, while whole-body protein content was not significantly affected by feeding rates. Condition factor and hepatosomatic index were increased with increasing feeding rates (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in viscerosomatic index with increasing feeding rates. Considering these experimental results, it can be concluded that the optimum feeding rate for growth of juvenile P. ussuriensis could be lowered to 75% of satiation without growth suppression.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0156-8
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • High-resolution detection of bacterial profile of ocean water, before and
           after being used by shrimp farms
    • Authors: Marco A. Porchas-Cornejo; Marcel Martínez-Porchas; Francisco Vargas-Albores; Teresa Gollas-Galvan; Luis Rafael Martínez-Córdova; Roberto Vazquez-Euan; Emilio Peña-Messina
      Pages: 1833 - 1843
      Abstract: Abstract Bacterial diversity was evaluated in ocean water by next-generation sequencing (16S rRNA gene, V3/V4 regions) before and after being used by several shrimp farms with an operative capacity of >500 Ha and biomass producing of 3.5 t/Ha. A total of 22 bacteria species were identified in water before being incorporated into farm facilities; of these, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria resulted to be the most abundant phyla. After being used by shrimp farms, water decreased in quality (high concentrations of organic matter and nitrogenous metabolites) and the bacterial profile was modified in the outlet channel (effluent). Herein, beta diversity revealed changes in the bacterial profile of inlet and outlet water; for instance, different bacteria were detected de novo (some non-indigenous) and other were no longer detected; a total of 16 species (5 de novo) were registered in the effluent and Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were the most abundant phyla. Many of the species thriving in the effluent resulted to be associated to the decomposition and recycling of organic matter and nitrogenous compounds. The farms acted as bioreactors favoring bacteria other than those detected in the inlet channel.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0160-z
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with red seaweed, Gracilaria pygmaea ,
           on growth, carcass composition and hematology of juvenile rainbow trout,
           Oncorhynchus mykiss
    • Authors: Ebrahim Sotoudeh; Marziyeh Jafari
      Pages: 1857 - 1867
      Abstract: Abstract A feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of inclusion of 3 (GL3), 6 (GL6), 9 (GL9), and 12 (GL12) % red seaweed, Gracilaria pygmaea, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, feeds. A feed without seaweed was used as the control. All feeds were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (48% protein), iso-lipidic (16%), and iso-energetic (20 kJ g−1), and they were fed to triplicate groups of 30 rainbow trout (initial average body weight 0.26 g) for 7 weeks. At the end of the trial, the final weight (FW) was significantly higher in fish fed the GL6 feed (3.49 ± 0.03 g) than that in fish fed the control (3.23 ± 0.03 g) and GL12 (2.85 ± 0.02 g) feeds (P < 0.05), but did not differ significantly from fish given the GL9 feed (3.30 ± 0.05 g). Moreover, specific growth rate (SGR) was significantly lower in fish fed the GL12 diet than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Feed intake (FI) showed a progressive increase with increasing Gracilaria levels. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased up to a Gracilaria inclusion level of 6% (1.08 to 0.88) and then increased (1.12 in GL12). Supplementation of the experimental diets with G. pygmaea did not affect whole body composition and hematological parameters of juvenile rainbow trout (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the findings suggest that a dietary supplement of circa 6% G. pygmaea may be useful to promote the growth of juvenile rainbow trout.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0158-6
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effects of near-future-predicted ocean temperatures on early development
           and calcification of the queen conch Strombus gigas
    • Authors: Dalila Aldana Aranda; Nancy Brito Manzano
      Pages: 1869 - 1881
      Abstract: Abstract The queen conch, Strombus (Lobatus) gigas, is one of six species of conch distributed throughout the Caribbean of significant commercial importance. The Caribbean region is adversely impacted by climate change, which affects the marine ecosystems and the calcification process of organisms with calcareous structures, such as mollusks. We tested the influence of global warming predicted in 2100 on queen conch, Strombus gigas larval development, growth, survival rate, and calcification by exposing egg masses and larvae to increased temperatures (28, 28.5, 29, 29.5, and 30 °C) for 30 days. For analysis of calcification, imaging and chemical mapping (proportion, wt) were performed on 30-day-old larvae using a high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A temperature of 30 °C resulted in the highest larval growth rate (mean ± SD 27.33 ± 2.96 μm day−1), significantly among treatments (p ≤ 0.05). Development was fastest at 30 °C, where the first larvae settled by day 27 (49%) and the mortality rate was 76%. At 28 °C, day 29 was the first day where settlement was observed for 20% of the larvae. There are significant differences among treatments on larval growth and development. The calcification process of S. gigas larvae was not affected by the experimental temperatures tested. Percent Ca content of shelled larvae showed no significant differences among treatments (mean ± SD 25.44 ± 4.74 and 24.99 ± 0.74% w for larvae grown at 30 and 28 °C, respectively).
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0153-y
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • The use of biofilm and different feeding rates in biofloc culture system:
           the effects in shrimp growth parameters
    • Authors: Gabriele Lara; Marcelo Honda; Luís Poersch; Wilson Wasielesky
      Pages: 1959 - 1970
      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the use of biofilm in a Litopenaeus vannamei biofloc system using different feeding rates. Shrimp juveniles (0.89 ± 0.35 g) were stocked at 300 shrimp m−3 in 24,150-L tanks. The feeding rates were calculated by considering an expected weekly growth of 1 g week−1 and an estimated weekly mortality of 0.5%. Each treatment corresponded to a different feeding rate, and each feeding rate corresponded to a fixed food conversion ratio. Thus, the treatments tested were as follows: T0 and T0+B (without addition of artificial food, with and without biofilm addition, respectively); T0.6 and T0.6+B; T1.2 and T1.2+B; and T1.8 and T1.8+B. The study lasted 42 days. At the end of the study, shrimp that were grown with no artificial food presented lower final weights and minor survival, independent of the addition of biofilm. The T1.2+B treatment did not differ significantly from the T1.2, T1.8, and T1.8+B treatments for the growth and feeding parameters. The survivals were higher than 91% in all of the feed treatments, and no significant differences were detected among these treatments. In contrast, the results allowed the conclusion that the presence of biofilm in the T1.2+B treatment represented a feed saving of 35% of the total amount of artificial food offered. This could represent a significant value in the cost of operation and may make the biofloc technology (BFT) system more cost-effective and environmentally friendly. The use of BFT in conjunction with biofilm can benefit shrimp farming by reducing the amount of feed supplied.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0151-0
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 5 (2017)
  • Dietary β-glucans and mannanoligosaccharides improve growth performance
           and intestinal morphology of juvenile pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus
           (Holmberg, 1887)
    • Authors: Hamilton Hisano; Michelly Pereira Soares; Fabiana Golin Luiggi; Arielle Cristina Arena
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased levels (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) of a combination of β-glucans and mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) in isonitrogenous (23% of digestible protein) and isoenergetic (13.38 MJ of digestible energy kg-1) pacu diets, corresponding to five treatments and four replicates. A 30-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects on growth performance, hematological parameters, and intestinal morphology. Fish (n = 160, 30.92 ± 0.46 g) were distributed randomly in 20 aquaria (300 L) with a recirculating water system with controlled temperature (26.20 ± 0.32 °C) and fed four times a day until apparent satiation. A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was observed for weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER). The hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indexes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) did not show differences (P > 0.05) among treatments. Pacu fed β-glucans and MOS at 0.1 and 0.2% resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) villus height and perimeter. The diet containing 0.2% β-glucans and MOS promoted the best growth response, feed efficiency, and intestinal morphology, without detrimental effects on the hematological parameters for juvenile pacu.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0210-6
  • Compensatory growth and feed restriction in marine shrimp production, with
           emphasis on biofloc technology
    • Authors: Julio Cesar Maciel; Claire Juliana Francisco; Kleber Campos Miranda-Filho
      Abstract: Abstract In Brazil, studies and production of penaeid shrimp in a biofloc technology (BFT) system are recent, but the results point to a promising future. Research with feed restriction inducing compensatory growth in shrimps has been shown to be a technique that allows a saving of around 25% in the use of feed for shrimp production. It also allows the reduction of costs with salaries and adapts shrimp farming to the world demand for environmentally friendly production, with the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus levels in its effluents, as well as lower water use in shrimp farming. In crustaceans, it has been shown that after a period of feed restriction, the animals show a pronounced compensatory growth when they return to a sufficient food source. Studies with the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reported the ability of the species to obtain a complete compensatory growth after short feeding periods (1 to 3 days) followed by feeding; These short periods of fasting presented a greater efficiency in the feed conversion besides the decrease in the concentration of phosphorus present in the aquatic environment, coming from the excreta. The adoption of a restriction program in the feeding using BFT may contribute to a reduction in operating costs, reduction of metabolic nutrients dissolved in water, and, consequently, an increase in the number of cycles in which the same water can be reused for production reducing production costs and improving productivity indices in shrimp farming.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0209-z
  • Effect of formulated diets on the proximate composition and fatty acid
           profiles of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus gonad
    • Authors: Ermelinda Prato; Mariachiara Chiantore; Maeve S. Kelly; Adam D. Hughes; Philip James; Maria Paola Ferranti; Francesca Biandolino; Isabella Parlapiano; Benedetto Sicuro; Giovanni Fanelli
      Abstract: Abstract Three formulated diets were tested to evaluate their effects on gonad quality in Paracentrotus lividus. Experiments were conducted in parallel by the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) of Taranto (trial 1) and the University of Genoa (trial 2), in land-based systems. In both trials, somatic and gonadsomatic index (GSI) were measured and the nutritional profile of the sea urchins has determined significant variations in the biochemical composition. Sea urchins fed the experimental diets contained higher levels of nutrients (protein and lipid and carbohydrate) compared to wild sea urchins. However, total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially EPA and DHA, and the n-3/n-6 ratio were lower in urchins fed with formulated diets. In both trials, sea urchins fed with diet 2 (SABS) showed a similar profile with PUFAs higher than SAFAs and MUFAs, the highest UNS/SAT ratio, although the highest n3/n6 ratio was observed in the group fed diet 3 (CNR). Atherogenicity, thrombogenicity, and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic indices showed the best values in sea urchins fed diet 2 in both trials.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0203-5
  • Effect of diets supplemented with feed additives on growth, feed
           utilization, survival, body composition and intestinal bacterial load of
           early weaning European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax post-larvae
    • Authors: A. M. Goda; E. A. Omar; T. M. Srour; A. M. Kotiet; E. El-Haroun; Simon J. Davies
      Abstract: Abstract The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of Garlen®, Diamond V XPC®, and Bactozyme® and their combination in the diets of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax larvae development in hatcheries on feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal bacterial, survival rate, and economics analysis. Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles (1.4 ± 0.5 mg) were distributed into eight experimental groups with a density of 2.5 larvae per liter. Eight iso-nitrogenous (55% crude protein) and iso-caloric (19.2 ± 0.2 MJ/kg, DM) weaning diets were formulated to contain the control diet (no feed additives), individually or mixed alternatively with three feed additives (Garlen®; Diamond V XPC®, and Bactozyme®). Each experimental diet was allocated to three tanks of fish and fed for 12 weeks. Growth and survival rate (S %) were improved for larvae fed the diets supplied with either (Diamond V XPC® + Bactozyme®) or (Garlen® + Diamond V XPC® + Bactozyme®), respectively compared to the control larvae group. The best FCR value was recorded for larvae fed a diet supply with (Garlen® + Diamond V XPC® + Bactozyme®), while the control larvae group recorded the worst FCR. The optimum significant (P ≤ 0.05) nutrient utilization values, larvae body crude protein content, activity test (ATV%), and profit index (PI) values were observed for larvae fed a diet containing Diamond V XPC® + Bactozyme® or Garlen® + Diamond V XPC + Bactozyme® compared to other treatments. The opposite trend was observed for total bacterial (TBC) and Vibrio sp. counts. No significant (P ≥ 0.01) difference was recorded in Aeromonas sp. count values in all experimental treatments. The results from this study show that (Garlen®; Diamond V XPC®, and Bactozyme®) individually or mixed alternately as growth promoters and immune stimulants in early weaning larval diets of European sea bass under hatchery conditions led to improve growth performance, feed utilization, survival, lowest intestinal bacterial load, and highest profit index (LE).
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0200-8
  • Effect of dietary protein levels and feeding rates on the growth and
           health status of juvenile genetically improved farmed tilapia (
           Oreochromis niloticus )
    • Authors: Wei Liu; Hua Wen; Zhi Luo
      Abstract: Abstract A 2 × 3 factorial study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels (DPLs) and feeding rates (FRs) on the growth and health status of juvenile genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT), Oreochromis niloticus. Triplicate tanks of fish (initial weight 15.87 ± 0.11 g) were fed diets containing 25 or 35% protein at rates of 3, 5, or 7% body weight per day (BW day−1) for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the results showed that fish growth (final mean weight 34.61–81.07 g) and condition factor (3.39–4.45 g cm−3) increased with the DPLs and FRs. Feed efficiency (FE, 0.48–0.88) increased as DPLs increased but decreased as FRs increased; the opposite trend was observed for feed cost (FC, 3.24–5.82 CHN Yuan kg−1) and hepatosomatic index (0.98–2.33%). Apparent protein retention efficiency (APRE, 23.92–38.78%) was reduced by high FR. A 35% protein diet resulted in higher (P < 0.05) FE and APRE, and lower (P < 0.05) FC at 5% BW day−1 than those at 7% BW day−1. As FRs increased, lipid contents of the hepatopancreas, viscera, muscle, and eviscerated body increased, while moisture contents of hepatopancreas and viscera decreased. All serum biochemical parameters, including glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and levels of creatinine, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and total protein were unaffected by DPL or FR (P > 0.05), except urea nitrogen levels, which were affected by DPLs (P < 0.05). Moreover, the size of hepatocytes and the area ratio of hepatocyte vacuoles were enlarged (P < 0.05), whereas the area ratios of the nucleus and cytoplasm were reduced (P < 0.05) with increasing FRs. These results suggested that the optimal feeding strategy for juvenile GIFT is 35% protein diet at 5% BW day−1.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0202-6
  • Effects of dietary Biogen and sodium butyrate on hematological parameters,
           immune response, and histological characteristics of Nile tilapia (
           Oreochromis niloticus ) fingerlings
    • Authors: Tamer El-Sayed Ali; Abdelfattah Mohamed El-Sayed; Mohamed Abdel-Razek Eissa; Hebatollah Moustafa Hanafi
      Abstract: Abstract The present study was carried out to evaluate the use of Biogen and sodium butyrate (SB) as feed additives in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings, in two parallel experiments. Biogen was incorporated in isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) and isocaloric (19 MJ kg−1) diets at four levels (0.0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%), while SB was included at five levels (0.0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0%). The diets were fed to fingerling Nile tilapia (10.5 ± 0.5 g) at a daily rate of 4% of their body weight, three times a day, for 60 days. Except the lymphocytes and monocyte numbers in fish fed SB, hematological parameters, including red blood cell (RBC) hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and white blood cells (WBC) were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by dietary Biogen and SB. The lymphocytes number in Nile tilapia fed on SB increased with increasing SB up to 2% level, and decreased afterwards. Monocyte numbers showed irregular patterns. The activities of serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of fish fed diets containing Biogen or SB were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). No structural differences of tilapia liver were detected between all Biogen treatments and sodium butyrate concentrations up to 1% with control. At concentrations of 2 and 3% sodium butyrate, liver steatosis increased leading to shrinked acentric nuclei. At a concentration of 2% Biogen, some glomerulus cells had fading cytoplasm. Concerning fish fed SB diets, the structure of kidney was the same as in control except at concentration of 3% SB, where the septum between cells disappeared. No changes in gill structure were noticed at all concentrations of Biogen and SB.
      PubDate: 2017-10-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0205-3
  • Monitoring of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed Nile
           tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in Brazil
    • Authors: Marianna Vaz Rodrigues; Claire Juliana Francisco; Gianmarco S. David; Reinaldo José da Silva; Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias; João Pessoa Araújo Júnior
      Abstract: Abstract Francisella noatunensis orientalis is a bacterium that causes emerging bacteriosis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in many parts of the world, including Brazil. It is a non-motile, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, facultative intracellular coccobacillus. This species of bacteria is responsible for low to high mortality in fish farms, causing economic losses for fish farmers. This study aimed to detect the presence of F. noatunensis orientalis using qPCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and to describe lesions caused by the bacterium in O. niloticus in Brazilian aquaculture. For this purpose, 360 fish from six fish farms (30 per farm) were sampled at two time points (n = 180 per sampling). Necropsies and histopathology were performed for lesion observation, in addition to qPCR and sequencing for detection and identification of Francisella species. Environmental data were collected using a multiparameter sonde YSI EXO2. All measured limnological variables were within the optimum range for cultivation of Nile tilapia. The major lesions present were melanization of the skin, splenomegaly, granulomas, and inflammatory cell responses. The prevalence of francisellosis varied from 0 to 86.66% between time periods and fish farms analyzed, and an outbreak was observed during the second sampling period. This study describes the prevalence of francisellosis in O. niloticus and reports that the lesions found are not exclusively associated with this bacterial disease.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0204-4
  • Integrated production of fish (pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus and red
           tilapia Oreochromis sp.) with two varieties of garnish (scallion and
           parsley) in aquaponics system
    • Authors: Sara Mello Pinho; Giovanni Lemos de Mello; Kevin M. Fitzsimmons; Maurício Gustavo Coelho Emerenciano
      Abstract: Abstract Aquaponics is emerging as an alternative for high-health food production. Being able to identify the technical viability of non-conventional plants and fish species would help to increase the interest and possibilities in aquaponic systems. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the aquaponics production of two garnish species: scallion (S) and parsley (P), using effluents of pacu and red tilapia culture. Two aquaponics devices were used, differing according to the fish species, generating two different effluents. Thus, for plant performance, four treatments were evaluated in a factorial design (plant species and fish effluent as main factors), as followed: Pacu-S, Tilapia-S, Pacu-P, and Tilapia-P, with three replicates each, for 35 days. Fish performance was evaluated using Student’s t test. Each experimental device included a fish tank, filters, and six experimental units for the plants (floating rafts). Results indicated that feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in tilapia as compared to pacu (p < 0.05); however, fish productivity and survival were similar between species. Plant performance parameters were similar with no significant differences regardless of the fish effluent (p > 0.05), except for higher number of leaves per plant in scallion cultured using pacu effluent. Plant performance comparing both plant species indicated that scallion performed better as compared to parsley in all parameters. In addition, scallion also performed better related to the plant quality index. The results indicate that pacu presented a viable alternative for the aquaponics production, and regarding to the garnish, scallion performed better results as compared to parsley.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0198-y
  • Prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic in the diet of Nile tilapia
           post-larvae during the sex reversal phase
    • Authors: Ednara Ronise Lima de Araújo; Luis André Luz Barbas; Carlos Massatoshi Ishikawa; Danielle de Carla Dias; Fábio Rosa Sussel; Hélcio Luis de Almeida Marques; Leonardo Tachibana
      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the use of the prebiotic Active-MOS® (mannanoligosaccharides—Biorigin®) and two probiotics: PAS-TR® (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus var. toyoi—Imeve®) and Bioplus 2BC® (1.6 × 1010 UFC g−1 de Bacillus subtilis and 1.6 × 1010 UFC g−1 Bacillus licheniformis—Christian Hansen®) tested separately and together, in the diet of Nile tilapia post-larvae during the sex reversal phase. The experiment was conducted in two stages: (i) a total of 2160 3-day-old post-larvae (PL) (10.39 ± 0.85 mm and 12.28 ± 3.15 mg) were used and distributed in 24 tanks of 40 L each (3.0 PL L−1). Growth performance, chemical analysis of carcass, bacterial recovery, and histomorphometry of intestinal villi were evaluated; (ii) 240 tilapia (4.28 ± 0.19 cm and 1.19 ± 0.09 g) from the previous experiment were used and stocked at 10 PL per aquarium. The parameters evaluated were survival and relative protection level after bacterial challenge against Aeromonas hydrophila. Six treatments with four replications in a completely randomized design were used for both experimental stages. Additives in the diet of tilapia post-larvae did not determine significant differences in growth, survival, microbiological, or histomorphometric parameters in this study. Nevertheless, after the experimental infection, advantages on the use of the additives were observed in terms of higher relative protection levels (38.10%) and relative percent survival in fish receiving Active-MOS® + Bioplus 2BC®. Therefore, we recommend the use of synbiotic (Active-MOS® + Bioplus 2BC®) in the farming of Nile tilapia PL with recurrent outbreaks of bacterial diseases during the sex reversal phase.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0201-7
  • The impact of successive mass selection on population genetic structure in
           the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) revealed by microsatellite
    • Authors: Jingxiao Zhang; Qi Li; Qingzhi Wang; Rihao Cong; Jianlong Ge; Lingfeng Kong
      Abstract: Abstract To evaluate the impact of mass selection on genetic structure in artificially closed populations of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, we performed mass selection over six generations on two stocks from Japan and Korea and analyzed their temporal genetic variation and structure using 18 microsatellite makers, which were compared with the base populations of the two selected lines and one wild population from China. The average numbers of alleles (Na), mean observed heterozygosities (Ho), and expected heterozygosities (He) varied over generations in the two selected lines (selected lines of Japan, Na = 10.7–14.9, Ho = 0.757–0.846, He = 0.778–0.871; selected lines of Korea, Na = 9.4–17.3, Ho = 0.736–0.865, He = 0.744–0.854). There was no significant reduction in heterozygosity in the two selected lines. However, the average number of alleles per locus was significantly lower in the fifth and sixth generations of the two selected lines compared with that in the base population and wild population (P < 0.05), suggesting that the successive mass selection in closed populations may increase the sensibility of rare alleles to genetic drift. Equalizing the sex ratio of parents and reducing the selection intensity properly with the increase of selective generations is recommended to minimize the deleterious effect of genetic drift and bottleneck caused by successive mass selection. The information obtained in this study is useful for the design of appropriate management strategies for selective breeding of C. gigas.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0196-0
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