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Showing 1 - 200 of 2341 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 10)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 25)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.192, h-index: 74)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.718, h-index: 54)
Abdominal Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.723, h-index: 60)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.447, h-index: 12)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.492, h-index: 32)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 30)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.355, h-index: 20)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 6)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.624, h-index: 34)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.419, h-index: 25)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.318, h-index: 46)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 8)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.465, h-index: 23)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.294, h-index: 13)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 22)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 32)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.021, h-index: 47)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 29)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.406, h-index: 30)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.451, h-index: 5)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.22, h-index: 20)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 52)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.426, h-index: 29)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.525, h-index: 18)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.524, h-index: 14)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.833, h-index: 73)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.348, h-index: 27)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.61, h-index: 117)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 17)
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 28)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 39)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.658, h-index: 20)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 15)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.795, h-index: 40)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 52)
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 15)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.959, h-index: 44)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.113, h-index: 14)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.397, h-index: 42)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, h-index: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.637, h-index: 89)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.79, h-index: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.882, h-index: 23)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.511, h-index: 36)
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.821, h-index: 49)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 24)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 6)
AGE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.358, h-index: 33)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.337, h-index: 10)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 55)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.197, h-index: 49)
Agroforestry Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.64, h-index: 56)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.732, h-index: 59)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 19)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.006, h-index: 71)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.706, h-index: 19)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, h-index: 18)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 22)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.868, h-index: 20)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.898, h-index: 56)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 20)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.729, h-index: 20)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.392, h-index: 32)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.094, h-index: 87)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 39)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 83)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 13)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 3)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.175, h-index: 13)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 35)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 13)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 13)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.362, h-index: 83)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 37)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 7)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.096, h-index: 123)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.301, h-index: 26)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 69)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 55)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 4)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.377, h-index: 32)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.504, h-index: 14)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 26)
Annals of Behavioral Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.112, h-index: 98)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 94)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.849, h-index: 15)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 40)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 14)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.929, h-index: 57)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 23)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.117, h-index: 62)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 42)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 26)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.68, h-index: 45)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.186, h-index: 78)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.405, h-index: 42)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.553, h-index: 8)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.902, h-index: 127)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.315, h-index: 25)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.931, h-index: 31)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 87)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.14, h-index: 57)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.554, h-index: 87)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 27)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 80)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 26)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 21)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.705, h-index: 35)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 34)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 9)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 13)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.777, h-index: 43)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 34)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 33)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 8)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, h-index: 26)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.262, h-index: 161)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, h-index: 121)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 104)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.677, h-index: 47)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 15)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 9)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 40)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 39)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.172, h-index: 53)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 20)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.417, h-index: 16)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.056, h-index: 15)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 13)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.597, h-index: 29)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 22)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.946, h-index: 23)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 4.091, h-index: 66)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 40)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.841, h-index: 40)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 65)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.846, h-index: 84)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 47)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 85)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 56)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.198, h-index: 74)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.595, h-index: 76)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.086, h-index: 90)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.264, h-index: 50)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.2, h-index: 42)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, h-index: 18)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 22)
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.797, h-index: 17)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 25)
Artificial Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.948, h-index: 48)
Artificial Life and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 14)
Asia Europe J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.247, h-index: 9)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 17)
Asia Pacific J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.676, h-index: 50)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 13)
Asia-Pacific Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 14)
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.41, h-index: 10)
Asian J. of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.681, h-index: 15)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.195, h-index: 5)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 4.511, h-index: 44)
Astronomy Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 30)
Astronomy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.473, h-index: 23)
Astrophysical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Aquaculture International
  [SJR: 0.613]   [H-I: 40]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-143X - ISSN (Online) 0967-6120
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Effects of different wavelengths and intensities of visible light on the
           hatching success of Acartia tonsa Dana eggs
    • Authors: Andreas Hagemann; Sigbjørn Hjetland Vorren; Yngve Attramadal; Jan Ove Evjemo; Yngvar Olsen
      Pages: 531 - 541
      Abstract: Abstract Mass production of copepod eggs in intensive systems has recently been demonstrated to be economically feasible; a few companies producing copepod eggs have been established. It is well documented that water physiochemical variables could significantly influence the hatching success of Acartia tonsa Dana, 1849 (Copepoda: Calanoida) eggs. This information is important to end users in order to achieve a predictable output of nauplii when hatching eggs for live feed production in marine larviculture. The effect of different wavelengths and intensities of light on the 48-h egg hatching success (HS) of fresh and cold-stored (2 °C) A. tonsa eggs were examined in the present study. No correlations were observed between HS and light environment for fresh or cold eggs when they were hatched at wavelengths between 400 and 630 nm and at light intensities of 0.0016, 1, 5 and 16 µE m−2 s−1. Fresh eggs displayed the highest HS and declined with the time of storage. However, eggs being of same age showed a similar HS regardless of the light intensity and wavelength, including when hatched in darkness. We suggest that A. tonsa eggs produced in intensive cultures can be hatched without any concern to the light environment.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0047-4
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effects of soybean meal processing treatments on growth performance,
           nutrient digestibility, nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in red swamp
           crayfish, Procambarus clarkii
    • Authors: Jin-juan Wan; Mei-fang Shen; Jian-qing Tang; Hai Lin; Wei-hui Yan; Jia-jia Li; Lin Zhu
      Pages: 543 - 554
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients, phosphorus and nitrogen excretion were determined in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (5.39 ± 0.12 g) for four soybean products: soybean meal (SBM), soybean meal diets supplemented with 1000 IU/kg phytase (SBM + P), extruded soybean meal (ESBM) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM). The results showed that compared with the SBM diet, the crayfish fed the SBM + P and FSBM diets showed significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). The highest and lowest dry matter (DM) digestibilities were observed in SBM + P and ESBM diets, respectively (P < 0.05). Differences in crude protein (CP) and gross energy (GE) followed differences in DM digestibility. SBM + P had the highest phosphorus digestibility, and ESBM had the lowest. The highest crude lipid (CL) digestibility coefficient was observed in FSBM, followed by SBM + P, and the lowest in ESBM (P < 0.05), which was similar to SBM. And the ESBM group had the highest phosphorus content in sediments (P < 0.05); while the highest nitrogen content was observed in SBM group, which was significantly higher than SBM + P group (P < 0.05). The water phosphorus contents in SBM and ESBM groups were significant higher than SBM + P group at 48 h (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences among the water nitrogen content of all groups (P > 0.05).
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0052-7
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Dietary supplementation of microbial phytase improves growth and protein
           efficiency ratio of freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii )
    • Authors: Sharanappa Biradar; H. Shivananda Murthy; Prakash Patil; E. G. Jayaraj; Naveen Kumar B. Tammegowda
      Pages: 567 - 575
      Abstract: Abstract Phytase is a phosphatase enzyme involved in catalyzing the hydrolysis of phytic acid, which is abundant in plant-derived ingredients that are known to be best alternatives for expensive and scarce fish meal in aquafeeds. In this study, the effect of dietary supplementation of microbial phytase at 250, 500, and 750 FTU/Kg on growth, survival and body composition of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) was investigated. The growth and protein efficiency ratio in phytase-incorporated diet-fed prawns were significantly increased when compared to the phytase-free diet-fed prawns. The diet supplemented with 250 FTU microbial phytase-fed prawns showed best growth of 50.84 g in terms of mean weight, compared with the phytase-free diet-fed prawns showing 27.88 g in 90 days trial. In addition, a highest protein efficiency ratio of 2.12 was found in 250 FTU phytase-incorporated-diet-fed prawns, compared with 1.53 in phytase-free diet-fed prawns. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the survival of prawns fed with phytase-supplemented and phytase-free diets. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of microbial phytase in prawn diet would be beneficial in better utilization of plant-derived feed ingredients, which are of most promising alternatives to expensive and scarce fish meal in aqua feed formulation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0057-2
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of continuous exposure to low-dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell
           growth and lipid accumulation of marine microalgae
    • Authors: Dong Hyeok Jeong; Min Ho Jeong; Soo Kyung Jeong; Kwangmo Yang; Wol Soon Jo
      Pages: 589 - 601
      Abstract: Abstract Microalgae are a promising alternative source of lipid for biodiesel production. One of the most important decisions is biomass productivity and the lipid content of microalgae. However, few studies have investigated the correlation between low-dose-rate (LDR) chronic irradiation and lipid production using microalgae to date. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the LDR chronic irradiation increases cell growth and lipid content in Tetraselmis suecica, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oceanic. Exposure to LDR chronic irradiation increased cell density, specific growth rate and biomass in four microalgae strains. Furthermore, T. suecica, D. tertiolecta and P. tricornutum enhanced the lipid-specific BODIPY fluorescence intensity dependent on low-dose-rate irradiation. In particular, T. suecica showed the highest increase ratio of biomass and lipid content in 6 mGy h−1. These results suggest that LDR chronic irradiation induces enhancement of biomass and lipid content of marine microalgae.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0054-5
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Quantification of biofouling on nets: a comparison of wet weight
           measurements and optical (image analysis) methods
    • Authors: L. C. Gansel; N. Bloecher; O. Floerl; J. Guenther
      Pages: 679 - 692
      Abstract: Abstract Biofouling has been shown to have a number of negative impacts on marine aquaculture. Studies aiming to characterize, inhibit or remove biofouling typically require the quantification of biofouling assemblages on cage nets. Several methods have been used for this whose results are not easily comparable. This study compares three widely used biofouling quantification methods: measurements of (1) wet weight and the (2) analysis of images taken of nets under water and (3) in air to determine percent net aperture occlusion. Comparisons were made for two common types of net biofouling, hydroids and ascidians. Both image analysis methods correlate linearly for both biofouling types, but percent net aperture occlusion calculated from images taken under water (PNOUW) was generally higher in comparison with images taken in air (PNOair). PNOUW was about 50 % larger than PNOair for hydroids, which collapsed when exposed to air and about 10 % larger for ascidians, which retained much of their volume when lifted from the water. Both PNO measures correlate linearly with wet weight for both biofouling types, but for hydroids this study found an upper limit for this correlation at PNOair of around 80 % and a wet weight of about 2 kg m−2. The upper limit for a linear correlation was given by complete net aperture occlusion from wet weight of about 1 kg m−2. Transfer functions were derived between PNOUW, PNOair and wet weight. Such transfer functions may allow the comparison of studies using different quantification methods, but similar fouling organisms.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0062-5
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Survival and osmoregulation of juvenile of hybrid grouper ( Epinephelus
           fuscoguttatus  ×  Epinephelus lanceolatus ) during acclimation in
           calcium-supplemented freshwater
    • Authors: Salim Arrokhman; Nastiti Wijayanti; Agoes Soegianto
      Pages: 693 - 704
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of calcium concentration in water to the osmoregulation and survival of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × Epinephelus lanceolatus) acclimated in freshwater environment. There was no mortality observed in all groups during acclimation to the freshwater up to 3 ‰. Once the fish reached the freshwater (0 ‰), rapid mortality was occurred. Lower salinity induced the lower serum osmolality. Lowest serum osmolality value was observed in the positive control group at 6 h post-transfer (HPT) to freshwater. The values of muscle water content were not significantly different among all groups in all salinities. The highest Na+–K+-ATPase (NKA) activities were observed in the 500 and 1000 mg/L CaCl2 groups at D 10 1 and 6 HPT, respectively, whereas lowest NKA activities were recorded in the positive control and 100 mg/L CaCl2 groups at D 10 6 HPT. This study shows that the hybrid grouper demonstrates excellent tolerance in environment up to 3 ‰.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0069-y
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effects of dietary canthaxanthin on growth and body colour of blood parrot
           cichlid Amphilophus citrinellus  ×  Paraneetroplus synspilus
    • Authors: M. Li; M. M. Rahman; B. Wu; Y.-C. Lin
      Pages: 705 - 713
      Abstract: Abstract A 6-week experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing 0, 0.004, 0.008, 0.012 and 0.016 % synthetic canthaxanthin on growth, feed utilization and skin pigmentation of parrot cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus × Paraneetroplus synspilus). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial body weights of 18.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly stocked equally into 15 glass aquaria (each 80 × 40 × 50 cm3) to form five triplicate groups. Fish were fed one of five diets daily at 2 % of their total body weight. At the end of the experiment, all fish were harvested and weighed to calculate growth parameters. After weighing, randomly selected two fish from each aquarium were used to assess the body colour using a colorimeter. Results indicated that dietary canthaxanthin supplementation had no effect on growth, feed conversion ratio, ingestion rate and condition factor of parrot cichlid. The degree of pigmentation in skin of parrot cichlid increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing inclusion of canthaxanthin up to 0.012 % in the diet. Canthaxanthin inclusion over that level did not lead to increase more redness, yellowness, hue and chroma of parrot cichlid skin. Diet containing more than 0.012 % canthaxanthin even decreased redness of fish skin (16 % decreased) compared to diet containing 0.012 % canthaxanthin (18.67 ± 0.32). In the present study, observations based on the effects of various canthaxanthin levels on colour parameters suggest that the diet containing a 0.012 % canthaxanthin may be considered as the best level of canthaxanthin supplementation for best skin colouration of parrot cichlid.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0068-z
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of pyocyanin toxicity in various life stages of Penaeus monodon
           and in nitrifying bacterial consortia for their safe application in
           recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to abrogate pathogenic vibrios
    • Authors: P. Priyaja; P. Jayesh; M. Haseeb; Blessy Jose; Rosamma Philip; I. S. Bright Singh
      Pages: 743 - 753
      Abstract: Abstract Pyocyanin has recently been recognized as antimicrobial agent in aquaculture industry, an alternative to antibiotics, as it accorded higher level inhibitory effect on aquaculture pathogens. As pyocyanin-induced toxicity is a major concern, this study has been undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of purified pyocyanin and to determine the LC50 value for its safe application in aquaculture. The dose-dependent pyocyanin-induced toxicity was tested on various life stages of P. monodon such as nauplius, zoea, mysis and post-larva as well as on nitrifying bacterial consortia used in aquaculture in order to fix the concentration limits to the animal rearing systems. The study revealed that pyocyanin was a potential inhibitory compound to V. harveyi, bacteriostatic at 5 mg L−1 and bactericidal at 10 mg L−1. The LC50 values of pyocyanin at various life stages of P. monodon were higher than the concentration required to abrogate pathogenic V. harveyi. Moreover, pyocyanin did not inhibit nitrification, specifically of nitrifying bacterial consortia used for activating nitrifying bioreactors, at different salinities, suggesting its potential application in recirculating aquaculture systems to control pathogenic vibrios.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0075-0
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effects of dietary vitamin C on skeleton abnormalities, blood biochemical
           factors, haematocrit, growth, survival and stress response of Cyprinus
           carpio fry
    • Authors: Mehdi Imanpoor; Mohammad Reza Imanpoor; Zahra Roohi
      Pages: 793 - 803
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vitamin C (vitC) on the growth, skeletal abnormalities (vertebral column and lack of operculum), blood biochemical parameters, haematocrit, survival and resistance to salinity stress in common carp fry (0.5 ± 0.08 g). Fish were fed diets containing vitC at different levels: 0 (control), 50, 100 and 1000 mg kg−1 diet for 48 days. The results showed that there was a significant increase in final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed vitC diets compared with the control (P < 0.05). Food conversion rate of fish fed vitC diets was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the control group. On the other hand, abnormalities in the operculum and vertebral column were found in fish fed the vitC-free diet, but did not significantly different compared with treatment groups (P < 0.05). Challenges were carried out after 48 days of feeding, to determine the effect of vitamin C on resistance to different salinities (0, 6 and 12 ppt). Cortisol, haematocrit (fish fed control diet), sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium levels increased with the increase in salinity (P < 0.05). Haematocrit levels of fish fed the vitamin C-supplemented diets were not significantly affected by different salinities (P > 0.05). In addition, supplementation of vitC significantly increased survival rate and resistance to salinity stress challenge of fed fish. These results confirm that vitC improves growth performance, skeletal development, blood parameters, survival and resistance to salinity stress of common carp fry, a very important fish species in the Caspian Sea.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0080-3
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Parentage determination in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon ) based on
           microsatellite DNA markers
    • Authors: Kecheng Zhu; Wenbo Yu; Jianhua Huang; Falin Zhou; Huayang Guo; Nan Zhang; Shigui Jiang; Dianchang Zhang
      Pages: 827 - 836
      Abstract: Abstract Parentage determination was a kind of important technology of selective breeding for aquaculture species. In this study, fourteen microsatellite markers were isolated and chosen to estimate the parentage of 100 progeny in ten black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) full-sib families. Simulation analysis indicated that the power of five loci to exclude false parents was 98.9 % and that of six loci over 99.9 % based on allele frequency data. Moreover, the cumulative assignment success rate was 99 % when no parent information was available using six most informative microsatellite markers. Furthermore, the marker panel tested in mixed families, 89.0 % of progeny was correctly assigned to their parental pairs. Based on the microsatellite analysis, it could be quickly and effectively identified different genealogy and sources of P. monodon; moreover, it provided for selective breeding and multiplication release in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0082-1
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth, body
           composition, hematological and immunological parameters of Asian seabass (
           Lates calcarifer )
    • Authors: Sajjad Syed Raffic Ali; Kondusamy Ambasankar; Peter Ezhil Praveena; Sambasivam Nandakumar; Jagabatula Syamadayal
      Pages: 837 - 848
      Abstract: Abstract A feeding trial to study the effect of addition of prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on feeds for juvenile Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) (12.2 ± 0.4 g) was carried out. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated that contained 400 g kg−1 protein and 90 g kg−1 lipid. The FOS was supplemented at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 g kg−1 in the diet of L. calcarifer with a control that was devoid of FOS. The trial was carried out in 1000-L fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) tanks with three replicates (each containing 20 fish) for each treatment. After 45 days of feeding, it was observed that FOS supplementation at 10 g kg−1 in the diet resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher final biomass (334.2 ± 7.3 g) and survival (97.7 ± 3.8 %). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in biological indices of fish fed with the experimental and control diets. Whole body chemical composition of animals post-feeding revealed significantly (P < 0.05) higher crude protein, crude lipid and total ash content in 5 g kg−1 FOS-supplemented diet. The analysis of hematological parameters revealed that red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) with dietary FOS supplementation up to 5 g kg−1.The second-degree polynomial regression analysis of RBC (4.06 ± 0.05 × 106 mm−3) showed that FOS 5 g kg−1 is an optimal level in seabass diet. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher lysozyme (77.4 ± 0.5 U mL−1) and superoxide dismutase (75.2 ± 0.3 U mL−1) activity was recorded at 10 g kg−1 FOS supplementation. It could therefore be concluded that 10 g kg−1 FOS supplementation has a beneficial effect in improving the survival rate and immunological parameters in L. calcarifer juveniles.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0081-2
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Dependency on aquaculture in northern Vietnam
    • Authors: Le Minh Hanh; Van Thi Phan; Nguyen Huu Nghia; Martin Rudbeck Jepsen
      Pages: 881 - 891
      Abstract: Abstract Whilst a range of studies address the aquaculture livelihoods in southern Vietnam’s Mekong Delta, the role of aquaculture in northern Vietnam remains less described. We, therefore, conducted interviews with 199 households in the two northern provinces Quang Ninh and Nghe An in 2014 to analyse the dependence on aquaculture in these two provinces and amongst farmers specializing in shrimp and freshwater fish production, respectively. Further, we tested the ability of different socio-economic variables to explain the observed reliance on aquaculture using an ANCOVA model. The study identifies a substantial reliance on aquaculture of farmers in the study area with at least half of their income generated by aquaculture. Our analyses highlight that the educational background of farmers explain their engagement in aquaculture better than how long they have worked as aquaculture farmers. Freshwater fish farmers were shown to rely less on aquaculture as it is only generating a supplementary income. In contrast, the shrimp farmers are not only those having the highest share of income from aquaculture but also earning their main living from aquaculture. The fact that both shrimp and fish farmers have diverse sources of income shows the unstable or risky nature of aquaculture livelihoods in the study area. Our findings suggest that policies promoting aquaculture should focus on training of farmers whilst acknowledging that a diverse income portfolio increases livelihood resilience to external shocks such as extreme weather events, diseases and fluctuating market prices.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0083-0
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of supplementary manganese on growth performance, tissue manganese
           content, antioxidant activities, and cytosolic manganese superoxide
           dismutase gene mRNA expression in juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (
           Eriocheir sinensis )
    • Authors: Daxian Zhao; Zhenfang Mao; Qichen Lin; Chuanjie Qin; Yijiang Hong
      Pages: 893 - 903
      Abstract: Abstract A 50-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary manganese (Mn) requirement of juvenile Chinese mitten crabs Eriocheir sinensis. Manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4·H2O) was added to a semi-purified basal diet to prepare six experimental diets with graded levels of Mn (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg) providing the actual dietary Mn value of 2.12, 12.26, 22.45, 33.78, 44.05, and 66.18 mg/kg. Results showed that Mn supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the weight growth rate (WGR), feed efficiency (FE), and activities of both hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and total SOD (T-SOD). Survival rate was not affected by supplementary Mn (P > 0.05). Mn concentration in the whole body and hepatopancreas significantly increased with increasing levels of dietary Mn supplementation. However, crabs fed an additional 2.12 mg/kg of Mn had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher Mn retention and proportion of hepatic Mn to whole-body Mn than other groups. As biomarkers of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde content in the serum was significantly higher in crabs fed the basal diet (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of the cytosolic Mn-SOD gene in the hepatopancreas was upregulated with increasing dietary Mn levels up to 22.45 mg/kg and then plateaued. Using the broken-line model based on WGR, the dietary Mn requirement of the juvenile Chinese mitten crab was estimated to be 30.34 mg/kg.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0086-x
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Gulfweed Sargassum horneri is an alternative diet for aquaculture of
           juvenile sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius in summer
    • Authors: Lisheng Zhang; Chong Zhao; Dongtao Shi; Wanbin Hu; Jing Wei; Yaqing Chang
      Pages: 905 - 914
      Abstract: Abstract Food shortage of kelp Saccharina japonica is one of the most serious concerns for aquaculture of juvenile Strongylocentrotus intermedius in summer. For the first time, the present study provides a cost-effective approach to addressing this problem for field aquaculture. We found juvenile S. intermedius fed gulfweed Sargassum horneri (group S) had significantly higher food consumption and better growth than those fed S. japonica (group K). S. intermedius fed S. horneri and S. japonica (group M) showed significantly larger test diameter, test weight, body weight, and higher specific growth rate than those fed S. japonica only (group K), but not significantly larger or higher than those fed S. horneri only (group S). Further, gonad weight and index were significantly smaller in the group S than in the groups K and M, which indicates that S. horneri is not only a better diet for aquaculture of juvenile sea urchins S. intermedius, but leads a suitable energy allocation for cultured juvenile S. intermedius in summer. According to the present study, full replacement of S. japonica with S. horneri and the feeding regime of S. horneri and S. japonica are both acceptable for juvenile S. intermedius aquaculture in summer. Therefore, we suggest aqua-farmers choose suitable replacement according to the local availability and cost of S. horneri and S. japonica in summer.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0088-8
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Dietary vitamin E effects on growth, fillet textural parameters, and
           antioxidant capacity of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT),
           Oreochromis niloticus
    • Authors: Fan Wu; Ming Jiang; Hua Wen; Wei Liu; Juan Tian; Chang-geng Yang; Feng Huang
      Pages: 991 - 1003
      Abstract: Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was carried out to assess the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth, fillet texture, and antioxidant capacity of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT), Oreochromis niloticus. In total, 240 fish (initial body weight 79.37 g) were assigned to four triplicate groups (20 fish per replicate) and fed diets supplemented with one of the four vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) concentrations: 0 (control diet), 40, 200, and 1000 mg kg−1. Fish fed the control diet had significantly poorer growth (weight gain; 185.29 vs 214.25–219.28%), feed efficiency (63.99 vs 70.44–72.30%), and survival rate (86.67 vs 95–100%) than those fed vitamin E-supplemented diets (P < 0.05). Protein percentage in muscle of the fish fed the 40 mg kg−1 diet was significantly higher than that of the control group (19.95 vs 18.65%) (P < 0.05). Based on texture profile analysis, fish in the control group had significantly lower cohesiveness (0.43 vs 0.47–0.50), resilience (0.25 vs 0.28–0.31), and chewiness (340.8 vs 406.4–504.5 g) than fish in the other groups (P < 0.05). Vitamin E supplementation significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in serum and muscle and catalase activity in serum (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde contents in serum and muscle significantly decreased (P < 0.05). These results suggest that no less than 40 mg kg−1 vitamin E improve growth performance, fillet flesh quality, and antioxidant capacity of GIFT. On the basis of second-order polynomial regression, the optimum vitamin E supplemented level for GIFT is about 573.8–582.3 and 655–752.5 mg kg−1 based on fillet texture and serum antioxidant capacity, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-016-0089-7
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 2 (2017)
  • Alteration of growth, intestinal Lactobacillus , selected immune and
           digestive enzyme activities in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus
           japonicus , fed dietary multiple probiotics
    • Authors: Ning Bao; Tongjun Ren; Yuzhe Han; Fuqiang Wang; Fei Chen; Zhiqiang Jiang
      Abstract: Abstract To assess the influences on growth performance, intestinal Lactobacillus, immune and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by administrating multiple probiotics. Multiple probiotics (0, 6 × 107 and 9 × 107 CFU g−1) and normal basal feed were mixed thoroughly at different doses of diet (T0, T1, and T2, respectively) and were administered orally to sea cucumbers for 90 days. After the feeding trial, 20 sea cucumbers were randomly sampled from each pond. The results showed that administration of multiple probiotics significantly affected on the growth performance, non-specific immune enzymes, and microbial ecology of the gut of sea cucumbers (P < 0.05). However, the lysozyme activities, the counts of total, and lactic bacteria of sea cucumbers were not significantly altered at dose of 6 × 107 CFU g−1 feed compared with control group (T0). Protease activities of sea cucumbers were significantly increased when fed with T1 diet compared with T0 (P < 0.05). Under the conditions of mass-scale culture, the present results indicate that the multiple probiotics can benefit growth performance, innate immunity, microbial ecology of the gut, several digestive enzyme activities of sea cucumber. The present study confirmed the potential effects of the multiple probiotics as dietary probiotics in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0148-8
  • Characterization of novel EST-SNP markers and their association analysis
           with growth-related traits in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas
    • Authors: Jiulong Wang; Qi Li
      Abstract: Abstract The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is one of the most commercially important and worldwide cultured fishery animals. To facilitate marker-assisted selection in genetic improvement of this species, 108 novel polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) by high-resolution melting analysis. The association between the markers and growth traits in a fast-growing strain and validation in two cultured populations was analyzed. For the 108 SNP loci, the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.011 to 0.625 and the expected heterozygosity varied from 0.031 to 0.501. By selective genotyping method, special allele frequencies of nine SNP markers showed significant difference between the fast-growing strain and the commercial control population (P < 0.0001). The nine SNP loci were further validated in extreme phenotype tails of the commercial control population and an independent cultured population. Three markers, jl027, ji090, and jl615, were found to be significantly associated with growth traits in oysters (P < 0.01). The proportion of additive genetive variance explained by the three confirmed SNPs ranged from 0.27 to 2.23%. The putative functions of the ESTs containing the jl090 and jl615 markers indicated that they might be related to growth of C. gigas. The three confirmed SNPs associated with growth traits would have potential applications in future genetic improvement of C. gigas.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0142-1
  • Effect of protein solubility of soybean meal on growth, digestibility and
           nutrient utilization in Penaeus vannamei
    • Authors: Rajabdeen Jannathulla; Jagabattula Syama Dayal; Kondusamy Ambasankar; Hajah Imran Khan; Eda Purudhvi Madhubabu; Moturi Muralidhar
      Abstract: Abstract Soybean meal was subjected to autoclaving for different durations (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min) to alter its protein solubility index (PSI). As a result of autoclaving, the PSI of soybean meal was reduced from 85–64% but the protein quantity was not affected. Among amino acids, methionine and cystine were reduced significantly (P < 0.05) beyond autoclaving for 15 min. Trypsin inhibitor was below detectable level after 20 min of autoclave. Saponin and phytic acid were reduced by 0.3–8 and 1–24%, respectively, in treated soybean meal. Five iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated by replacing untreated soybean meal using processed soybean meal, and its effects on growth performance, feed efficiency, and digestibility parameters were assessed in Penaeus vannamei. The results revealed that the growth rate was not affected (P > 0.05) in shrimp fed with diets having soybean meal autoclaved up to 10 min (PSI 72%). The similar trend was noticed in feed efficiency parameters. The apparent dry matter and crude protein digestibility parameters were reduced (P < 0.05) in shrimp fed diets having soybean meal autoclaved for 15 and 20 min (PSI 68 and 64%). The inclusion of processed soybean meal has not influenced the shrimp carcass composition. The present study showed that though anti-nutritional factors were reduced in prolonged heat treatment, the declined protein solubility has resulted in the reduction of growth parameters and digestibility in those treatments. Hence, the present preliminary results suggest to scrutinize the quality of protein whenever heat is being applied during the processing of soybean meal and also other protein sources.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0147-9
  • Hormonal sex reversal in red tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus and
           Oreochromis mossambicus ) and inheritance of body colour in O. mossambicus
           and red tilapia: implications for commercial farming
    • Authors: N. Basavaraja; C. H. Raghavendra
      Abstract: Abstract The present investigation was conducted with a view to produce a female-free population and to test the heredity of body colour in tilapia. In this study, 6-day-old red tilapia were fed diets incorporated with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg diet of a synthetic androgen, 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MT), for 30 days. Administration was followed by 120 days of rearing in nylon hapas where hormone-free diet was given. At the end of the 120-day rearing, 17α-MT at 50 ppm induced 100% sex reversal, whereas 25, 75 and 100 mg/kg resulted in incomplete sex reversal. Immersion of newly hatched red tilapia fry in an aqueous solution of 17α-MT at 200 μg/L for 1 h produced 73% males; however, when given to 2-day-old fry, it yielded 78% males. The results indicate that oral administration of 17α-MT is more effective than treatment by immersion to produce male dominant red tilapia populations. Treatment of red tilapia with the androgen did not indicate any definite trend in the gonado-somatic index of both males and females. The results of progeny testing indicate that red tilapia does not belong to either XX-XY or WZ-ZZ sex determination systems, the two most common sex determination systems that exist in fish. When mating, Oreochromis mossambica (black tilapia) and red hybrid tilapia produced F1 progeny with a brown colour, the intermediate colour between the two parental body colours. When F1 hybrids were interbred, the three phenotypes got separated in the F2 generation with a 1 black/2 brown/1 red phenotypic ratio as expected of a single autosomal gene with incomplete dominant gene action. The importance of monosex male red tilapia farming and body colour inheritance is also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0116-3
  • Probiotic bacteria ( Lactobacillus plantarum ) expressing specific
           double-stranded RNA and its potential for controlling shrimp viral and
           bacterial diseases
    • Authors: Thitiporn Thammasorn; Sarocha Jitrakorn; Patai Charoonnart; Suwitchaya Sirimanakul; Triwit Rattanarojpong; Soraya Chaturongakul; Vanvimon Saksmerprome
      Abstract: Abstract We engineered probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum, to produce specific double-stranded (ds)RNA for viral inhibition in penaeid shrimp. When supplemented in feed, the developed strain should offer specific viral disease resistance and still remain other beneficial effects on shrimp health against other bacterial pathogens. The pWH1520 expression vector was constructed to encode hairpin RNA targeting shrimp yellow head virus (YHV) in L. plantarum. The quantity of YHV-specific dsRNA (dsYHV) was approximately 1.66 ± 0.25 ng from 7 × 1011 CFU of L. plantarum. Feeding shrimp with the probiotic expressing dsYHV (at 1011 CFU g−1 feed) for 5 days prior to YHV challenge provided shrimp partial protection against YHV. In vitro agar well diffusion analysis revealed that both wild-type and transformed L. plantarum inhibited growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the shrimp pathogen responsible for acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and early mortality syndrome (EMS). When tested in shrimp by immersion method, both L. plantarum strains (at 107 CFUs ml−1 seawater) also provided shrimp protection against V. parahaemolyticus. In conclusion, this study suggested the potential of the dsRNA-expressed L. plantarum for promoting shrimp health against the pathogenic virus. In addition, engineering L. plantarum for dsRNA production did not alter the probiotic’s intrinsic antibacterial property, and therefore, the developed strain can be used to protect shrimp against the important bacterial pathogen, V. parahaemolyticus causing AHPND/EMS.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10499-017-0144-z
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