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Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2574 journals)

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 Applied Solar EnergyJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.225 Number of Followers: 22      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1934-9424 - ISSN (Online) 0003-701X Published by Springer-Verlag  [2574 journals]
• The Use of Solar Power Plants to Provide Energy Security of the Crimean
Region
• Abstract: The electric power supply of the Crimean region and the city of Sevastopol requires the construction of thermal power plants and electricity supply from mainland Russia through the Strait of Kerch. Gas boiler houses are mainly used for the heat supply of the local cities, as well as solid and liquid fossil fuel heating stations. Under conditions of the energy and transit blockade of the peninsula, energy supplies for these facilities are becoming not only expensive, but also fraught with difficulty.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• Some Results of a Study of Wave Energy Converters at Sevastopol State
University
• Abstract: This paper is concerned with the issue of the efficiency of sea wave energy conversion. It is shown that the efficiency increases significantly if a low-damped mechanical oscillator, which is adapted to a wave power spectrum, is used as a primary converter. Two major types of oscillators are considered. The pendulum-type converter is found to be the most promising. A new schematic of a pendulum-type converter is suggested and briefly described. The converter consists of two oscillators adjusted to work in resonance mode. The first one includes a ballast-controlled floating platform pitching on sea waves. The second oscillator is a long sector-shaped pendulum located on the floating platform. The use of sea wave energy converters is promising in regard to the widespread use of renewable sources and elimination of the environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption in coastal regions. Various systems have been developed and projects implemented in this field.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• A Device for Remote Monitoring of Solar Power Plant Parameters
• Abstract: The need for application of a device for online remote monitoring of electrical parameters and the operability of photovoltaic converters of solar power plants is justified in the context of the problems encountered in the Sevastopol Solar Power Plant (S. Energy Sevastopol LLC) operation. A structural diagram of the device showing the connection and purpose of its main functional components is presented. The circuit is based on an ATmega 328p microcontroller, which transfers processed data from the sensors to the server by sending a GET request using a W5100 Wiznet Ethernet controller. Such a solution allows for a high data transfer rate—up to 25 Mbps—and provides a simple connection to the Internet independently from operating systems and external computers. The characteristics and performance analysis of galvanically isolated sensors used in the device are presented, such as a current sensor based on an Allegro ACS712 integrated current sensor, and a voltage sensor based on the transistor optocoupler. The results of the device operation illustrating the photovoltaic plant daily operation on a sunny fall day are provided. The device provides for continuous monitoring of the operation of the photovoltaic converters with long-term storage of measured values in graphical and numerical form, which makes it possible for operational and dispatching personnel to visually analyze the plant operation, monitor its performance, compare key performance indicators of various sections, and obtain production reports by periods with plotting of curves, as well as receive alarm signals.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• An Offshore Wind-Power-Based Water Desalination Complex as a Response to
an Emergency in Water Supply to Northern Crimea
• Abstract: — This paper is concerned with the problem of water shortage in northern Crimea. It shows that the Crimean Peninsula lacks access to fresh water from natural sources. For decades, water supply was provided mostly from the Dnieper River via the North Crimean Canal. An emergency situation arose in water supply in Crimea after the canal was shut down. It has been shown that seawater desalination from renewables is the only reliable way to tackle the problem. The work reviews perspective desalination methods, suggests a new schematic of a desalination complex based on Wind Energy Marine Units, and determines key parameters of the complex.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• Studies of the Operation of a Solar Power Plant
• Abstract: This article paper the results of studying the effect of atmospheric climatic factors on the operation of the photovoltaic modules of a power plant. The modes of operation of the solar power plant were studied depending on temperature parameters, as well as taking into account the wind load and other parameters. The change in the production of electric energy is shown for various results of the study of a serial photovoltaic module RS 250 with a power of 250 W, which is used for the generation of electric energy at some solar power plants in the south of Ukraine. The results make it possible to evaluate its performance in natural conditions depending on various climatic factors. The article describes the study of the operation of a wind power plant (WPP) with helical blades; this type of WPP allows using the kinetic energy of the wind flow more fully to convert it into mechanical energy of rotation of the wind turbine shaft. The coefficient of wind energy utilization by the rotor of a wind turbine with such a design is much higher than that of horizontal-axis wind turbines. Wind–solar power plants operating in parallel with the general power grid occupy quite large territories. In this case, as a rule, wind turbines are located in the north part of the plant, without interfering with the operation of the modules, while photovoltaic modules are located on the south side of the wind turbines, which minimizes the losses from shading by the tower, engine room, and wind turbine blades. All the studies described above allow installing additional generating capacities on wind and solar power plants, which will greatly increase the total production of the plant and the efficiency of the entire energy complex.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• Studies of the PV Array Characteristics with Changing Array Surface
• Abstract: This paper presents a brief analysis of the photovoltaic (PV) modules that are currently commercially available. The most used calculation formulas and measurement procedures used for evaluating the power characteristics of photovoltaic PV modules are given. The possible causes of power losses of solar cells and modules are described, including losses caused by design features. The theoretical calculations and experimental results of measuring the characteristics of silicon PV arrays with changing surface irradiance are compared. The calculated and experimental dependences of the power output variation of the ISM-50 photovoltaic module with changing its tilt angle are presented. It is shown that there is a significant discrepancy between theoretical studies and experimental results. A hypothesis has been put forward about the dependence of a real decrease in power characteristics and refraction indices of PV array protective coatings. An adjustment factor is proposed taking into account the decrease in the solar radiation output on the silicon photocell surface when passing through the antireflective protective coatings of the PV module. The conclusions drawn from the results of this work indicate that the identified factors affecting the electricity generation by photovoltaic converters need to be considered.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• Analysis of Various Energy Supply Scenarios of Crimea with Allowance for
Operating Modes of Solar Power Planta
• Abstract: This paper considers the structure of the regional energy supply of Crimea and presents the characteristics of the main groups of regional electricity producers, including combined heat and power plants, mobile gas turbine power plants, renewable energy sources, and backup power sources. It is proposed, depending on the purpose of calculations in the context of the transportation problem under consideration, to use average actual rates for a given period with energy suppliers as tariffs (the calculation purpose is to reduce the electricity production and transportation cost), as well as conditional qualitative assessments, such as “fines” (the purpose is to improve the environmental friendliness and reliability of the system as a whole). The influence of the produced solar plant power on the operating modes of the Crimean energy system is assessed. The solar power production optimization technique that affects the reliability and quality of power supply is developed. Various energy supply scenarios for Crimea are generated, including peak and average power consumption modes with various options for solar activity, season, including and excluding energy sources under construction, and off-season repair of power sources. Based on the calculation data, the reliability of the regional energy system is estimated for various power supply scenarios, as well as the need to use an energy bridge for a power exchange with the mainland.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• Improvement of Methods for Predicting the Generation Capacity of Solar
Power Plants: the Case of the Power Systems in the Republic of Crimea and
City of Sevastopol
• Abstract: The construction and operation of large solar power plants (SPPs) and the dependence of their production on light and other meteorological factors leads to a strong dependence of the operation modes of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol power system on meteorological factors. Today, given that the share of solar power plants is about 30% of the total installed capacity, it is necessary to solve the problems that have a great impact on the power system operating modes. With large output capacity of the solar power plant, the operator has to give commands to turn off the generating equipment of thermal power plants. In power systems with a large share of solar generation, it is necessary to solve this problem by improving the generated power predicting methods, as it will reduce the dependence of operating modes on weather factors and increase the reliability of the power system. The paper discusses the use of hybrid predicting methods that imply taking into account the possibility of the weather scenarios simulation, advanced cloud-based image processing technology, and close-to-real-time cloud motion surveillance cameras. There was an experimental software created that selects coefficients of set configuration time series. In combination with the conservative methods, it makes predicting the SPP Perovo output more accurate. Taken together, the chosen methods of predicting solar power generation capacity in the power system of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol ensure not only stability of the power system as a whole, but also the maximum efficiency of power plants, allow to accelerate the integration of solar power plants into the power system, and have positive effects on the environment.
PubDate: 2019-07-01

• Automated Sun-Tracking System as Part of the Photovoltaic Thermal
Installation with Solar Radiation Concentration
• Abstract: — Automated Sun-tracking systems are important elements of solar power devices, which make it possible to increase the amount of solar energy converted to consumer formats during the daylight period, especially true for devices with solar energy concentration. In this study, we investigated the parameters of functioning of the Sun-tracking system built into the photovoltaic thermal installation with parabolic cylindrical concentrators of solar radiation, as well as the main characteristics of the complex as a whole. With attention to the installation structure and tracking system schematics, the studies were carried out on natural solar radiation, with simultaneous measurement of the photovoltaic characteristics and the solar radiation flux density using a pyranometer. The installation parameters were estimated in relation to the angular motion of the Sun across the celestial hemisphere. Due to numerous heterogeneous factors affecting the result, the experimental data were largely statistical in nature. For this reason, the parameters were evaluated using methods of regression analysis. In a number of experimental dependences, the correlation coefficient of the short-circuit current and the solar radiation flux density reached 98%. The studies allowed us to estimate the accuracy of Sun tracking at 1.5–2 angular degrees. In this case, the short-circuit current in the photovoltaic part of the installation varied by ±4% within an hour. In the course of field studies, the fraction of scattered solar radiation was estimated at ~20% of the total intensity. The concentration coefficient of 5.0–5.1 times was calculated from the dependence of the short-circuit current on the solar radiation intensity.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• The Main Changes Made to the Building Codes and Regulations of the
“Solar Hot Water Installations” to Increase Energy Efficiency of
Projected Solar Power Plants
• Abstract: The progress of work on the revising of building codes and regulations of the “Solar Hot Water Installations”, operating in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan is shown. The goal of the work is to create a modified republican regulatory document that meets modern requirements and provides an increase in the energy efficiency of designed solar hot water installations by 30%. The analysis was conducted with domestic and foreign experience in the design, and construction and operation of solar hot water installations for various purposes was studied and summarized. The selection of advanced technical achievements and scientific research of different countries in the field of energy saving and efficient use of solar energy has been carried out. In the process of revising the regulatory document, outdated regulations were excluded; new regulatory requirements were included, taking into account the current level of scientific and technological achievements, design and construction practices, and regional features of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The article introduces and substantiates main changes made to the previously existing building codes and rules, developed on the basis of the analysis of generally accepted results of completed research, development and experimental work, the study and synthesis of domestic and foreign experience in designing, building and operating solar hot water installations for various purposes.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• Solar Power Plants with Parabolic Trough Concentrators in the Desert Area
of Karakum
• Abstract: The article discusses the state and prospects for development of solar power plants with concentrators and their current-voltage characteristics, as well as the placement of solar modules in various positions; in addition, their technical and economic indicators are provided. The suggested project of a solar photovoltaic power plant in the Karakum Desert allows saving organic fuel and has the following performance features: the power is 1 GW, the annual electricity output is 1.3 to 1.7 billion kW h, and the power plant costs one billion Euros. This power plant is meant to supply electricity to consumption sites along HV DC power lines without using HV transducers and transformers at the transmitting substation to the neighbor states of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and Turkey.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• Storage System for Solar Plants
• Abstract: — Power supply to consumers, especially in remote areas, is often subject to emergency power outages. This leads to numerous problems such as the breakdown of household appliances and electronics, the inability to provide vital functions in homes and special institutions, and production failure. Also, grid companies sometimes cannot efficiently provide energy to private consumers due to insufficient capacity of the power grid. This journal discusses the use of power plants on alternative energy sources and systems of accumulation of electric energy connected to renewable energy sources. Such systems can be used in parallel with the existing electric power grid, as well as directly by autonomous consumers. This journal also describes the possibility of providing electric power to individual consumers using solar panels in combination with a system of accumulator batteries. The process of charge–discharge of capacitive batteries in the photovoltaic module–battery system is studied in order to increase the efficiency of low-power autonomous power plants. Studies show an increase in the efficiency of the system designed for the individual consumer by 30%, as well as the possibility of uninterrupted operation. The proposed model of the combined photovoltaic and storage system avoids the problems associated with emergency power outages. More importantly, for various Russian Federation regions that are neither close to the generating facilities nor have reliable uninterrupted electricity supply, the presented system can significantly extend both the time of efficient use of energy resources and the service life of the equipment.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Grid-Connected Solar PV Plant in Syria
• Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the techno-economic feasibility of installing a 300 kW grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) plant in Syria. Umm Al-Zaytun village in As-Suwayda province was chosen as a location of the plant, because it is characterized by the high annual solar irradiance on the horizontal surface of about 1900 kW h/m2. Technical performance analysis, system configuration, detailed losses and energy yield simulation for a proposed PV plant were performed, using the PVsyst software. The simulation results show, that the annual optimal tilt angle of PV modules is 25°, energy production is 493 MWh/yr, the annual average performance ratio is 0.799 and the capacity factor is 18.7%. In addition, by considering, that the electric power consumption per capita in Syria is 2232 kW h/yr, so the proposed solar power plant with 493 MW h/yr can provide energy to 220 capita/yr and save about 42.4 tons of oil equivalent yearly with carbon emission reduction of about 320.45 tCO2/yr. The economic evaluation of the proposed PV plant was carried out by Excel software with consideration, that the discount rate is 9%, the lifetime of the project is 25 years and the selling price of electricity to Syrian electricity distribution establishment is 0.119 $/kW h. The results of economic calculations show, that levelized cost of electricity is 0.094$/kW h, the discounted payback period is about 11 years, the internal rate of return is 14%, profitability index is 1.46 and the net present value is 190587.3 \$. As a result, the proposed grid-connected PV solar plant is considered economically, technically and environmentally feasible in Syria.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• Experience and Possibilities of Effective Use of Energy Resources
Dargom-Taligulyanskiy Water and Energy Tract. Part I
• Abstract: This part of the article briefly analyzes the current and future development of the electricity sector of the Republic of Uzbekistan until 2030. The continuing trend of the predominant use of natural gas as a fuel in the production of electric and thermal energy in thermal power plants (TPPs) is established and marks the need for technological complexity of future mining, processing of natural gas with a promising multicomponent gas–condensate, oil–gas–condensate deposits of hydrocarbons, and the creation of modern gas chemical complexes. The data on the remaining significant emissions of harmful substances into the environment of TPPs are given. Using renewable energy resources of the country, in the priority order of hydropower resources of natural and artificial watercourses, is necessary. The experience of the use of hydropower resources of water–energy tract of a complex purpose, created earlier in the Samarkand region, is important. The volume of electricity generation data operated by hydroelectric power plants on the path and the volume of natural gas savings are shown. The influence of hydrological regimes of the water–energy tract on monthly power generation is shown. The possibility of the further development of hydropower potential usage of the water–energy tract through the construction of new small hydropower plants is shown. Upon analysis of hydrological regimes, using a water supply by a water–power path, the differentiation of the number of hours of use of promising small hydropower plants is established. The necessity to search for technologies and technical solutions to ensure uniform power generation all year round by promising small hydropower plants is substantiated.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• Influence of Temperature on the Output Parameters of a Photovoltaic Module
Based on Amorphous Hydrogenated Silicon
• Abstract: The light load current-voltage characteristics of a solar photovoltaic module based on amorphous hydrogenated silicon have been studied at different temperatures under conditions of natural solar illumination (Рrad = 870 ± 10 W/m2). It has been found that the temperature dependence of the photocurrent has two slopes due to a change in the generation–recombination mechanism. The increase in the value of the short-circuit current with increasing temperature of the photovoltaic module is explained by a rise in the drift lengths of minority charge carriers due to an increase in the lifetime of minority carriers. In this case, the quasi Fermi level shifts to the conduction band, and the concentration of recombination centers decreases due to recharging of defective levels (D0 → D–). The decrease in the value of the open-circuit voltage with increasing temperature is explained by the exponential increase in the reverse saturation current and decrease in the band gap of the semiconductor. It has been found that the fill factor (FF) of the current–voltage characteristics decreases with increasing temperature, most likely due to a decrease in the shunt resistance (Rsh), which connects parallel to the p–n junction, consists of parasitic resistances, and leads to an increase in leakage currents. The temperature coefficient of the maximum output power has a positive value in the range of 320–332 K, i.e., increases with temperature. It has been revealed that the values of shunt and series resistance decrease with increasing temperature. A large loss of power output (up to 19%) has been observed on the series resistance of the solar photovoltaic module in the temperature range of 320–332 K. With increasing temperature, the loss of generated power on the shunt resistance grows sublinearly. The efficiency of the solar photovoltaic module decreases from 7.95 to 7.65% and has a coefficient of temperature dependence of efficiency, which decreases from $${{K}_{{{\text{Ef}}{{{\text{f}}}_{1}}}}}$$ ≈ –0.046 to $${{K}_{{{\text{Ef}}{{{\text{f}}}_{2}}}}}$$ ≈ –0.029%/K.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• Decentralized Energy Systems, Based on Renewable Energy Sources
• Abstract: The article provides information on the worldwide development of decentralized energy systems which are created on the basis of utilizing, distributing and storing renewable energy, using smart control systems, about energy storage in various energy storage systems, including pumped storage power plants considered one of the most efficient energy storage units. The map of a decentralized power system, based on a wind energy, a photovoltaic, and a pumped storage plant (PSP) is proposed; the methods of making estimates to determine its parameters are given. The article also provides the results of simplified estimates made to determine the main parameters of a 5 MW decentralized power system based on a wind power and a PSP, which prove the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed map.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• The Development of the Optimal Model of Energy Resources Management in
Energy Systems of the Republic of Crimea and the Middle East
• Abstract: The factors influencing the energy system of the Republic of Crimea were studied. Analysis of generating capacity to ensure reliable power supply to consumers and sustainability of the power system in different periods of the year was carried out. Research of the renewable energy role in the power system management was conducted, including the improvement of methods of management and optimization of solar power plants capacity. A study of the data necessary to build an optimal model of power system management was performed. Power system efficiency increased in relation to the price of electricity for consumers. We proposed the development of methods to optimize the production of solar power plants, affecting the operation of the Republic of Crimea and the Middle East power systems. Studies have established the dependence of the power system on the changeable generation of renewable energy sources, thereby showing the impact of meteorological factors on the power system operating modes. One of the rational approaches is the use of genetic algorithms to solve the problems of structural-parametric optimization of energy systems modes. It will allow optimizing of the management of the Republic of Crimea power system, including the creation of opportunities for optimal loading of the network, taking into account various specified conditions. The work identified the potential of Iraq’s energy industry for renewable sources, where solar photovoltaic technologies are suitable for the production of electricity throughout Iraq, due to the uniform distribution of solar radiation throughout the country. The results of the work revealed that the result obtained is applicable not only to the power system of the Republic of Crimea, but also to other foreign power systems of the Middle East with a large number of renewable energy sources and the potential construction of new solar power plants, that can make it possible to optimize the power system management.
PubDate: 2019-05-01

• Increasing Solar Radiation Flux on the Surface of Flat-Plate Solar Power
Plants in Kamchatka Krai Conditions
• Abstract: One of the main problems in solar power plants design is determining the optimal parameters of photovoltaic modules and auxiliary equipment (backup energy sources) that make it possible to economically justify electrical energy generation. Increasing the solar radiation utilization efficiency of the receiving surface by optimally orienting it relative to the horizon allows one to increase its performance without making changes to the design and equipment of the solar power plant. The subject of this study is an increase in the solar radiation flux on the receiving surface of flat-plate solar power plants by optimizing its orientation relative to the horizon. For the entire territory of Kamchatka krai, according to the available actinometric data on the solar radiation intensity, the optimal unregulated angle of the receiving surface relative to the horizon is 40°–45°. With transition from the south to the north of the region, the radiation intensity drops from 1395.4 kW h/m2 for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to 1206.6 kW h/m2 for Korf. The optimal angle also lies within 75°–80° for winter, 15° for summer, 35°–40° in spring, and 60° in autumn. The use of seasonal adjustment leads to an increase in the solar radiation density on the receiving surfaces of flat-plate solar plants by 50 kW h/m2. Thus, increasing insolation on the surface of flat-plate solar power plants by optimally orienting it relative to the horizon allows one to increase its performance without making changes to the design and equipment of the solar power plant.
PubDate: 2019-03-01

• Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions
• Abstract: This paper describes methods to develop the use of the renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy. It considers the key mechanisms to stimulate accelerated development of renewable energy sources, using the Republic of Uzbekistan as an example.
PubDate: 2019-03-01

• Statistical Analysis of Wind Energy Potential in Uzbekistan’s Bukhara
Region Using Weibull Distribution
• Abstract: With the development of small business in Uzbekistan’s rural areas, there is a shortage of electric power, as well as power outages for these consumers. The use of renewable energy sources is one way to solve this problem, and this has been little studied in Bukhara oblast. A preliminary study of this problem shows that the region has the necessary capacity of renewable energy sources. This paper presents the results of a study of wind speed and wind energy potential in Bukhara oblast located in southwestern Uzbekistan. The data of wind speed and direction measured at the weather station at Bukhara’s international airport, taken at an altitude of 10 meters, were analyzed on the basis of the two-parameter Weibull distribution function. The main parameters k and c of the Weibull distribution function were determined using the empirical method. Wind speed and direction were statistically analyzed in MatLab and a graph (wind rose) was plotted. Wind energy potentials at different altitudes were also evaluated.
PubDate: 2019-03-01

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