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Showing 1 - 200 of 717 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 5)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 2)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.32, h-index: 18)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 23)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.319, h-index: 19)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 6)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 10)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 15)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 15)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 4)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 15)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.114, h-index: 3)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.142, h-index: 8)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 4)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 1)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 23)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 42)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 18)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 3)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 8)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.997, h-index: 25)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 29)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 0)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 16)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 4)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 9)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 19)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.307, h-index: 22)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 32)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.308, h-index: 19)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, h-index: 22)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.374, h-index: 38)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 18)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access  
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.373, h-index: 18)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 10)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.227, h-index: 5)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.231, h-index: 8)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 1)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 20)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 31)
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 34)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 35)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.424, h-index: 32)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.541, h-index: 70)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 38)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 13)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 6)
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.452, h-index: 32)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 10)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.819, h-index: 123)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 5)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 8)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 55)
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access  
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.179, h-index: 4)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 11)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 15)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 13)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.588, h-index: 30)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 4)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.117, h-index: 7)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 13)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.444, h-index: 19)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 10)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 24)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 7)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 21)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.175, h-index: 8)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.15, h-index: 3)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.525, h-index: 36)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 12)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 4)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.104, h-index: 1)
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 1)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, h-index: 4)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 13)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 4)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 2)
Cubo. A Mathematical J.     Open Access  
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (SJR: 0.429, h-index: 15)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DELTA : Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.142, h-index: 5)
Dementia & Neuropsychologia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 10)
Dental Press J. of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 7)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Diálogo Andino - Revista de Historia, Geografía y Cultura Andina     Open Access  
Diánoia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dynamis : Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.134, h-index: 7)
e-J. of Portuguese History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 2)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Economia Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.168, h-index: 6)
Economia e Sociedade     Open Access  
EconoQuantum     Open Access  
Educação & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.244, h-index: 12)
Educação e Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 8)
Educação em Revista     Open Access  
Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Educación Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 7)
Educación Médica Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 7)
Educación y Educadores     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educar em Revista     Open Access  
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros     Open Access  
Ene : Revista de Enfermería     Open Access  
Enfermería Global     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 2)
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engenharia Agrícola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.396, h-index: 18)
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.15, h-index: 10)
Ensaio Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 6)
Entomologia y Vectores     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 8)
Estudios Constitucionales     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 5)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 1)
Estudios de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.144, h-index: 7)
Estudios de historia moderna y contemporánea de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 3)
Estudios Filologicos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, h-index: 3)
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios internacionales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios Pedagogicos (Valdivia)     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 7)
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  [SJR: 0.322]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-3765 - ISSN (Online) 1678-2690
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [717 journals]
  • Publish and perish in the hands of predatory journals

  • Special metabolites isolated from Urochloa

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aims to identify special metabolites in polar extracts from Urochloa humidicola (synonym Brachiaria humidicola) that have allelopathic effects and induce secondary photosensitization in ruminants. The compounds were isolated and identified via chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid; the flavonols isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and methyl quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronate; and kaempferitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, and tricin were identified in the extract from the leaves of Urochloa humidicola. Two furostanic saponins, namely, dioscin and 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-penogenin, as well as catechin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were identified in the methanolic extract obtained from the roots of this plant. This species features a range of metabolites that may be toxic for animals if used in food and may interfere with the growth medium, thereby inhibiting the development of other species.
  • Reassessment and Relationships of †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis
           (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Neocomian of
           Recôncavo Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Clupeomorphs are found in many assemblages of the northeastern Brazil, whose ages range from the Neocomian to Paleogene. Ten species were described. Among them †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis, a torpedo-like fish found in shales of the Marfim Formation from Bahia, remains poorly known. At first it was positioned within †Scutatuspinosinae and indicated as closely related to †Diplomystus. Diagnoses for the subfamily and genus were based on certain characters masking relationships. Recently it was placed in †Ellimmichthyiformes, but its systematic position remains controversial. We furnish additional data and restorations together with a parsimony analysis with TNT program, using 60 unordered and unweighted characters from selected species of 13 genera. Our analysis produced 12 trees with 158 steps, a consistency index (CI) of 0.44 and retention index (RI) of 0.52. Low support indices still indicate insufficient data for many taxa and uncertain status for clades. According to the majority rule consensus, †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis is placed within a “†paraclupeine” group with †Ezkutuberezi carmenae, †Ellimma branneri, †Ellimmichthys longicostatus, and †Paraclupea chetunguensis. Its minimum age and position among †paraclupeids indicate an early history of the group older than it was thought to be, supporting a biogeographical hypothesis based on generalized track from China to northeastern Brazil during the Lower Cretaceous.
  • Terrestrial impact structures as geoheritage: an assessment method of
           their scientific value and its application to Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Terrestrial impact structures are geological and geomorphological features with particular importance to understand the history and evolution of the planet. Impact structures are scattered around the world but in many countries these features are under threat, essentially due to anthropic factors. Impact structures with higher scientific value should be considered as geological heritage and, consequently, be subjected to geoconservation strategies. In order to select the most important impact structures to be properly conserved and managed, this paper proposes a quantitative assessment method of the scientific value of these structures. The eight Brazilian impact structures were used to test this method that has the potential to be applied to any geological context in any country. The structures known as Araguainha Dome-MT and Serra da Cangalha-TO reached a higher scientific value, which justifies the need to develop geoconservation strategies and a proper management.
  • Are the dinosauromorph femora from the Upper Triassic of Hayden Quarry
           (New Mexico) three stages in a growth series of a single taxon'

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The lagerpetid Dromomeron romeri and the theropod Tawa hallae are two dinosauromorphs from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Chinle Formation, situated in New Mexico, USA. However, a recent study suggests the inclusion of the holotype of D. romeri (GR 218) and paratype (GR 155) and referred (GR 235) specimens of T. hallae in an ontogenetic series of a single species. The specimens GR 218 and GR 155 include just an isolated femur, while GR235 includes femora, pelvis and tail. The inclusion of the specimens in an unique ontogenetic series relies on the putative immature condition and plastic deformation of the specimen GR 218. However, as observed here, the disparity between the femora of D. romeri and T. hallae is considerably higher than those expected from the ontogenetic variance in dinosauromorphs. In addition, D. romeri shares an unique suite of traits with Dromomeron gigas, a species known from a mature specimen. Therefore, the high disparity between D. romeri and T. hallae, lack of traits shared solely between the three femora, and a suite of traits shared between D. romeri and D. gigas, precludes the inclusion of the three femora from Hayden Quarry in a growth series of a single taxon.
  • Carbonate Buildups in the Pernambuco Basin, NE Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The Pernambuco Basin represents one of the most prominent regions for deep water oil and gas exploration off the Brazilian coast. This study aims to identify and describe the occurrence of carbonate buildups in the offshore regions of the basin. The study was based on an analysis of a set of 143 2D time-migrated seismic sections that cover the offshore region of the Pernambuco Basin. An interpretation of the seismic dataset was used to define the main seismic sequences related to the main regional pulses of deposition and to identify three main groups of carbonate buildups: 1) shelf margin reefs, 2) patch reefs, and 3) isolated carbonate buildups. The carbonate buildups formed in two main intervals during post-rift sequences of the Santonian-Maastrichtian and Paleocene-Middle Miocene, which extend the known periods of carbonate deposit formation in the basin. The formation of carbonate buildups was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the Pernambuco Plateau, which created a series of paleotopographic highs that enabled the establishment of oceanographically and climatically favorable conditions for carbonate formation and deposition. These findings are important for understanding the evolution of the basin and for future evaluations of its petroleum potential.
  • Applicability of geomechanical classifications for estimation of strength
           properties in Brazilian rock masses

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Many authors have been proposed several correlation equations between geomechanical classifications and strength parameters. However, these correlation equations have been based in rock masses with different characteristics when compared to Brazilian rock masses. This paper aims to study the applicability of the geomechanical classifications to obtain strength parameters of three Brazilian rock masses. Four classification systems have been used; the Rock Mass Rating (RMR), the Rock Mass Quality (Q), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and the Rock Mass Index (RMi). A strong rock mass and two soft rock masses with different degrees of weathering located in the cities of Ouro Preto and Mariana, Brazil; were selected for the study. Correlation equations were used to estimate the strength properties of these rock masses. However, such correlations do not always provide compatible results with the rock mass behavior. For the calibration of the strength values obtained through the use of classification systems, ​​stability analyses of failures in these rock masses have been done. After calibration of these parameters, the applicability of the various correlation equations found in the literature have been discussed. According to the results presented in this paper, some of these equations are not suitable for the studied rock masses.
  • Population dynamics of Siderastrea stellata Verrill, 1868 from Rocas
           Atoll, RN: implications for predicted climate change impacts at the only
           South Atlantic atoll

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems. Here, we present the first evidence of Siderastrea stellata planulation, its early growth, population size-frequency distribution and growth rate of adult colonies in Rocas Atoll. Our results, together with the environmental protection policies and the absence of anthropogenic pressures, suggest that S. stellata population may have a good potential in the maintenance and recovery in the atoll. However, our results also indicate an impact on corals' recruitment, probably as a consequence of the positive temperature anomaly that occurred in 2010. Thus, despite the pristine status of Rocas Atoll, the preservation of its coral community seems to be threatened by current global changes, such as more frequent thermal stress events.
  • The peculiar breeding biology of the Amazonian frog Allobates
           subfolionidificans (Aromobatidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females. The daily cycle of calling activity showed peaks in the morning and in the afternoon, and the occurrence of reproductive events was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. The breeding behavior comprised vocal and tactile interactions, although the species lacked reproductive amplexus. Egg and larvae attendance, as well as tadpole transport to water environments was performed mostly by males but occasionally by females, probably in cases of desertion by the father. This species is characterized by performing courtship, mating, oviposition, as well as egg and larvae attendance exclusively on the under surface of leaves, a unique behavior among members of the superfamily Dendrobatoidea.
  • Screening of plant extracts and fractions on Aedes aegypti larvae found in
           the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (linnaeus, 1762) (culicidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The constant use of chemical insecticides for Aedes aegypti control has caused resistance in the mosquito populations. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the larvicidal potential of extracts and fractions of plants on A. aegypti larvae. The analysis included sixty one extracts and twenty five fractions of fifty botanical species at concentrations of 0.25; 0.12; 0.06 to 0.03 mg mL-1; 4 replications and one negative control of dechlorinate water and 1% DMSO; and a positive control with rotenone. The toxicity index in descending order with LC50 for the most active of the extracts selected were ethanol extract of Ormosea arborea (0.111 mg mL-1) seeds and ethanol extracts of leaves such as Piper hispidum (0.169 mg mL-1), Solanum variabile (0.188 mg mL-1), O. arborea (0.238 mg mL-1), Turnera umifolia (0.242 mg mL-1) and Piper hispidum (0.567 mg mL-1). For plant fractions, the most active were chloroform (0.192 mg mL-1) and hexane (0.342 mg mL-1) P. aduncum leaves, hexane fraction (0.415 mg mL-1) and methanol extract (0.625 mg mL-1) of Spermacocea latifolia leaves. Regarding the extract of T. umifolia single species, there is no bibliographic report on their degree of efficiency as an insecticide.
  • Abundance of the reef-building Petaloconchus varians (Gastropoda:
           Vermetidae) on intertidal rocky shores at Ilha Grande Bay, southeastern

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The reef-building vermetid Petaloconchus varians occurs in the western Atlantic Ocean, from the Caribbean Sea to the southern coast of Brazil. The present study evaluated the abundance of P. varians on intertidal rocky shores in Ilha Grande Bay (Rio de Janeiro State), and characterized their reefs, describing the species density, besides the weight and the belt width of the reefs. Petaloconchus varians reefs were recorded at 25 sites, with rocky shores exposed to different wave action (very sheltered, sheltered, semi-exposed and exposed) and slopes (10° to 46°). Clusters of individuals constructed large reefs along the middle intertidal zone, creating a wide belt (38 cm to 2 m). The density of P. varians and the weight of the reefs ranged from 620 to 2,559 ind.100 cm-2 and from 100 to 1,500 g.100 cm-2, respectively. Considering that the species was last reported from the area in the mid-20th century, the present study suggests that P. varians reefs are becoming dominant in the intertidal zone of rocky shores in Ilha Grande Bay. This is a contribution to knowledge of this ecosystem in Ilha Grande Bay, in view of local or global ecological changes.
  • N deposition affects allelopathic potential of Amaranthus retroflexus with
           different distribution regions

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the allelopathic potential of Amaranthus retroflexus (Ar) with different climatic zones on seed germination and growth of A. tricolor (At) treated with a gradient N addition. Ar leaf extracts only displayed significantly allelopathic potential on the underground growth of Ar but not the aboveground growth of At. The allelopathic potential of Ar leaf extracts on root length of At were enhanced under N addition and there may be a N-concentration-dependent relationship. The effects of the extracts of Ar leaves that collected from Zhenjiang on seed germination and growth of At may be higher than that collected from Jinan especially on root length of At under medium N addition. This reason may be the contained higher concentration of secondary metabolites for the leaves of plants that growths in high latitudes compare with that growth in low latitudes. This phenomenon may also partly be attributed to the fact that Ar originated in America and/or south-eastern Asia which have higher similarity climate conditions as Zhenjiang rather than Jinan. The allelopathic potential of Ar on seed germination and growth of acceptor species may play an important role in its successful invasion especially in the distribution region with low latitudes.
  • Psychotria viridis : Chemical constituents from leaves and biological

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The phytochemical study of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Psychotria viridis resulted in the identification of: the pentacyclic triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acid; the steroids, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol; the glycosylated steroids 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol; a polyunsaturated triterpene, squalene; the esters of glycerol, 1-palmitoylglycerol and triacylglycerol; a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons; the aldehyde nonacosanal; the long chain fat acids hentriacontanoic, hexadecanoic and heptadenoic acid; the ester methyl heptadecanoate; the 4-methyl-epi-quinate and two indole alkaloids, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and N-methyltryptamine. The chemical structures were determined by means of spectroscopic (IR, 1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and spectrometric (CG-MS and LCMS-ESI-ITTOF) methods. The study of biologic properties of P. viridis consisted in the evaluation of the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cytotoxic activities. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, the substances 24-methylene-cycloartanol, DMT and a mixture of 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol showed cholinesterase inhibiting activity. This activity induced by chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts was higher than 90%. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibit the growth and/or induce the death of the tumor cells strains B16F10 and 4T1, without damaging the integrity of the normal cells BHK and CHO. DMT also demonstrated a marked activity against tumor cell strains B16F10 and 4T1.
  • Climatically-mediated landcover change: impacts on Brazilian territory

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. However, the lack of distribution data makes predictions at species level a difficult task, mainly in regions of higher biodiversity. To overcome this problem, we use native landcover as a surrogate biodiversity, because it can represent specialized habitat for species, and investigate the effects of future climate change on Brazilian biomes. We characterize the climatic niches of native landcover and use ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios. Our results highlight expansion of the distribution of open vegetation and the contraction of closed forests. Drier Brazilian biomes, like Caatinga and Cerrado, are predicted to expand their distributions, being the most resistant to climate change impacts. However, these would also be affected by losses of their closed forest enclaves and their habitat-specific or endemic species. Replacement by open vegetation and overall reductions are a considerable risk for closed forest, threatening Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. Here, we evidence the impacts of climate change on Brazilian biomes, and draw attention to the necessity for management and attenuation plans to guarantee the future of Brazilian biodiversity.
  • Parasite infracommunities of Leporinus friderici : A comparison of three
           tributaries of the Jurumirim Reservoir in southeastern Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The degradation and homogenization of natural habitats is considered a major cause of biotic homogenization. Many studies have been undertaken on the effects of dams on aquatic wildlife, in particular fish assemblages. But how do dams affect the parasitic fauna of such fish' The aim of the present study was to examine parasitic similarity, comparing the diversity and structure of parasite communities of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam on the Upper Paranapanema River in southeastern Brazil. The present study did not find any significant differences in parasite communities among populations of L. friderici in the three upstream tributaries. This result highlights that dams promote and facilitate the dispersal of organisms between localities, and therefore the spatial homogenization of parasite communities. Overall, the results suggest that fish parasite assemblages can provide suitable data for evaluating biotic homogenization caused by dams.
  • Mitochondria-rich cells changes induced by nitrite exposure in tambaqui
           (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The gill mitochondria-rich cells of the juvenile Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum were analyzed using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy after 96 h exposure to 0.04 and 0.2 mM nitrite. Although the number of mitochondria-rich cells decreased significantly in the lamellar epithelium, no decrease was found in the interlamellar region of the gill filament. Nitrite exposure caused significant reduction on the apical surface area of individual mitochondria-rich cells (p < 0.05), with a resulting reduction of the fractional area of these cells in both the lamellar and filament epithelium. Swelling of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, nuclear envelope and mitochondria were the main changes found in the mitochondria-rich cells. Cristae lysis and matrix vacuolization characterized the mitochondrial changes. The overall ultrastructural changes indicated cellular functional disruption caused by exposure to nitrite. The changes observed in the gill indicate that the cellular structures involved in the process of energy production become severely damaged by exposure to nitrite indicating irreversible damage conducting to cell death.
  • Global patterns of aboveground carbon stock and sequestration in mangroves

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB) from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1) and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1) showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area. On the global scale, carbon stock increases toward the equator (R²=0.22) and is dependent on 13 climatic parameters, which can be integrated in the following predictive equation: Carbon Stock in AGB = -16.342 + (8.341 x Isothermality) + (0.021 x Annual Precipitation) [R²=0.34; p < 0.05]. It was shown that almost 70% of carbon stock variability is explained by age. Carbon stock and sequestration also vary according to physiographic types, indicating the importance of hydroperiod and edaphic parameters to the local variability of carbon stock. By demonstrating the contribution of local and regional-global factors to carbon stock, this study provides information to the forecast of the effects of future climate changes and local anthropogenic forcings on this ecosystem service.
  • Use of GC/MS to identify chemical constituents and cytotoxic activity of
           the leaves of Phoradendron mucronatum and Phoradendron microphyllum

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Phoradendron mucronatum and P. microphyllum are plants that found in tropical and subtropical areas, used in traditional medicine and popularly known as mistle-thrush. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical constituents of different leaf extracts from P. mucronatum and P. microphyllum and assess cytotoxic activity against strains from a human tumour cells. Extracts obtained with hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform and ethyl acetate from the leaves were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT method (bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)). The tested human tumour cells were NCI-H292 (human pulmonar mucoepidermoid carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HEp-2 (epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx). Analysis by GC/MS of the extracts from leaves of P. microphyllum and P. mucronatum detected 51 different compounds, such as alkaloids, diterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons. In the cytotoxic evaluation, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves P. microphyllum inhibited cell growth of NCI-H292 strains (72.97%) and HEp-2 (87.53%), respectively. The extracts of P. mucronatum species showed an inhibitory effect towards NCI-H292 (83.19%/hexane), MCF-7 (88.69%/dichloromethane) and HEp-2 (93.40%/hexane). The extracts showed cytotoxic activity against the tested strains, especially the P. mucronatum, which presented the highest percentages of inhibition of cell growth.
  • Effects of electroacupuncture on stress and anxiety-related responses in

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to investigate if eletroacupuncture at PC6 would modulate the stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and the level of activation of several brain areas. Rats were distributed in groups: control; submitted to immobilization; submitted to immobilization and eletroacupuncture at PC6 or at the tail. Immobilization increased grooming and decreased stretched attend postures and the time spent in the open arms of the ele-vated plus-maze. Eletroacupuncture at PC6 or tail canceled the effect of immobilization on grooming and attenuated the stretched attend posture. Immobilization increased Fos-immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex, medial and central amygdala, paraventricular and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus, dentate gyrus, CA1, CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas. The activation of paraventricular, dorsomedial nuclei and prefrontal cortex by immobilization was canceled by electroacupuncture at PC6 and attenuated by electroacupuncture in the tail. The activation of the other areas was canceled by electroacupuncture in PC6 or the tail. It is concluded that immobilization induced anxiety-like behavior that was moderately attenuated by eletroacupuncture with difference between the stimulation in PC6 or the rat tail. Eletroacupuncture showed specificity concerning to the attenuation of the effects of immobilization in the CNS areas related to the stress response, anxiety and cardiovascular system.
  • Population dynamics of Rimapenaeus constrictus (Stimpson, 1874)
           (Penaeoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast: implications for shrimp
           fishing management from a 5-year study on a bycatch species

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This is the first study to evaluate in broad spatiotemporal scales the growth parameters and population structure of Rimapenaeus constrictus, a barely damaged species composing the bycatch from shrimp fishing in the Western Atlantic. The abundance and size-class frequency distribution, growth, longevity and sex ratio were evaluated from monthly samples obtained in the northern littoral of São Paulo state from Jan/1998 to Jun/2003. We measured 5,812 individuals in which the sex ratio was skewed toward females; this was more evident in size classes greater than 10 mm in CL (carapace length) (binomial test, p<0.05). We selected 16 growth cohorts of females, and 8 of males, the majority consisting of younger individual cohorts excluded from the fisheries closure period. Growth estimates resulted in a CL∞ of 17.42 mm, a growth coefficient of 0.008 and a longevity of 579 days (1.60 year) for females, as well as a CL∞ of 16.3 mm, a growth coefficient of 0.01 and a longevity of 425 days (1.17 year) for males. Our results provide information of incontestable relevance to our knowledge of fishing management. We therefore strongly recommend that the fisheries closure period be changed to protect this species' recruitment period and consequently its adult individuals.
  • Compatibility of Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens in
           growth promotion of groundnut ( Arachis hypogea L.)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT We attempted to study the compatibility among plant beneficial bacteria in the culture level by growing them near in the nutrient agar plates. Among all the bacteria tested, Rhizobium was found to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. From the compatible group of PGPR, we have selected one biofertilizer (Azospirillum brasilense strain TNAU) and one biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PF1) for further studies in the pot culture. We have also developed a bioformulation which is talc powder based, for individual bacteria and mixed culture. This formulation was used as seed treatment, soil application, seedling root dip and foliar spray in groundnut crop in vitro germination conditions. A. brasilense was found to enhance the tap root growth and P. fluorescens, the lateral root growth. The other growth parameters like shoot growth, number of leaves were enhanced by the combination of both of the bacteria than their individual formulations. Among the method of application tested in our study, soil application was found to be the best in yielding better results of plant growth promotion.
  • Development of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of the golden
           mussel ( Limnoperna fortunei , Mytilidae) in environmental samples

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, is among the most devastating invasive species in freshwater habitats worldwide, leading to severe environmental disturbances and economic losses. Therefore, management efforts would be greatly improved by methods that efficiently detect and quantify the abundance of the golden mussel in freshwater habitats, particularly in early stages of colonization. In this study, we describe a highly-sensitive real-time PCR assay targeting a 100-bp region of the COI mitochondrial gene of the golden mussel. The method was able to detect as little as 0.225 pg of target DNA. This assay represents an important contribution to surveillance methods, as well as to optimize field measures to contain and manage populations of the golden mussel in its introduced range.
  • Occurrence of Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921 (Crustacea,
           Anostraca) in the Caras river, southern Ceara, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Occurrence of Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921 (Crustacea, Anostraca) in the Caras river, southern Ceara, Brazil. The specimens were collected in March and April 2014. The new occurrence extends the distribution and update area of occupancy of the species, which is characterized by a specific habitat: temporary lakes.
  • Synthesis and evaluation of arylamidine derivatives for new antimicrobial
           and cytotoxic activities

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A series of arylamidines 3a-j was designed, synthesized and investigated for antimicrobial activity. Structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and a 2D spectroscopic study was performed. A preliminary screening of the antimicrobial tests clearly showed that three out of ten arylamidines, viz, 3f, 3g and 3i, were effective against all the gram-negative bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric; and against the yeast, candida albicans. Further, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) against the bacteria and yeast were determined. All compounds 3a-d, 3f, 3g, 3i and 3j were also investigated for their low cytotoxic effects on tested cell lines. Compounds 3d and 3f were the most effective derivatives against HL-60 and HEp-2 cells, respectively, with IC50 value (2µg/mL), and low normal cells toxicity.
  • Ecology of the non-native snail Sinotaia cf quadrata (Caenogastropoda:
           Viviparidae). A study in a lowland stream of South America with different
           water qualities

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Sinotaia quadrata is a snail native from Asia recorded for the first time in South America in 2009 in central Argentina. In 2015, this species was also found in a lowland stream with different water qualities. Our aims were to contribute to the knowledge of its population ecology and to compare the individuals from the two locations anatomically. Snails were searched at 6 sites, where physicochemical and hydraulic parameters were measured. Biological samples were also taken at two sites (S3 and S4) to study the population traits of S. cf quadrata (density, size structure, fecundity and sex ratio) and to assess the water quality through macroinvertebrates' biological indices (richness, diversity and IBPamp). Physicochemical and biological parameters allowed us classifying sites as "moderately polluted" (S3) and "heavily polluted" (S4). At S4, the population showed a lower density, larger individuals, higher fecundity and a scarce representation of young snails. The differences observed in the radula and mantle border of snails from the two geographical regions might be attributed to environmental differences. We conclude that this species is tolerant to a wide range of environmental variables which, along with its high fecundity and morphological plasticity, could allow this species to colonize neighbor streams.
  • Hepatic toxicity caused by PLGA-microspheres containing usnic acid from
           the lichen C ladonia substellata (AHTI) during pregnancy in Wistar rats

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the teratogenic and hepatotoxic potential of the usnic acid encapsulated into PLGA-microspheres. In total, 12 female Wistar rats in pregnancy were randomly distributed in the control group (n= 6) that received 1.0 mL of physiological solution and treatment group (n= 6) that received 25 mg/kg of encapsulated usnic acid by oral administration. All females were euthanized at day 20 of pregnancy and their fetuses were removed and analyzed. During the pregnancy was observed a reduction in weight gain. There was no difference in serum transaminases levels analyzed as well as any difference in liver weight in both groups. The histomorphometric analysis of the liver from the treatment group revealed an increase in number of hepatocytes and a decrease in nuclear area of these cells. Moreover, no alteration was observed in cell area of hepatocytes or number of Kupffer cells. The fetuses had an increase in total number of hepatocytes and a reduction in the amount of megakaryocytes. These results show the hepatotoxic potential of usnic acid during pregnancy. However, its toxicity can be minimized by encapsulation in microspheres.
  • Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian
           subtropical mangrove

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank) of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.
  • Reduction of the DNA damages, Hepatoprotective Effect and Antioxidant
           Potential of the Coconut Water, ascorbic and Caffeic Acids in Oxidative
           Stress Mediated by Ethanol

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0.18 µM), caffeic acid (1.1 µM), methyl caffeate (0.03 µM), quercetin (0.08 µM) and ferulic acid (0.02 µM) isomers. In the animals, the activity of the serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) was reduced to 1.8 I.U/L in the coconut water group, 3.6 I.U/L in the ascorbic acid group and 2.9 I.U/L in the caffeic acid groups, when compared with the ethanol group (5.1 I.U/L, p<0.05). Still in liver, the DNA analysis demonstrated a decrease of oxidized bases compared to ethanol group of 36.2% and 48.0% for pretreated and post treated coconut water group respectively, 42.5% for the caffeic acid group, and 34.5% for the ascorbic acid group. The ascorbic acid was efficient in inhibiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver by 16.5% in comparison with the ethanol group. These data indicate that the green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids have antioxidant, hepatoprotective and reduced DNA damage properties, thus decreasing the oxidative stress induced by ethanol metabolism.
  • Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and
           total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell). Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI) between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.
  • A new species of Tereancistrum (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the gills
           of three Leporinus species (Characiformes, Anostomidae) and a revised
           description of Tereancistrum parvus

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The present study describes Tereancistrum flabellum n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae) from the gills of the anostomid fishes Leporinus friderici, Leporinus amblyrhynchus and Leporinus elongatus from two freshwater ecosystems in the south east of Brazil. This new species is mainly characterized by the morphology of the copulatory complex (such as the MCO base formed by two fan-shaped structures, and accessory piece flattened, curved, rigid and channeled), a dorsal anchor with a well-developed superficial and inconspicuous deep root, and the shape of the accessory anchor sclerite with small spathulate termination. Tereancistrum flabellum n. sp. is the first record of a dactylogyrid from L. amblyrhynchus. The description of Tereancistrum parvus is also emended to correct and complement previous descriptions and the species is reported for the first time in Schizodon nasutus.
  • The preventive effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on locomotor and
           acetylcholinesterase activity in an animal model of schizophrenia induced
           by ketamine

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Studies have shown that schizophrenic patients seem to have nutritional deficiencies. Ascorbic acid (AA) has an important antioxidant effect and neuromodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AA on locomotor activity and the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ). Rats were supplemented with AA (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg), or water for 14 days (gavage). Between the 9th and 15th days, the animals received Ketamine (Ket) (25 mg/kg) or saline (i.p). After the last administration (30 min) rats were subjected to the behavioral test. Brain structures were dissected for biochemical analysis. There was a significant increase in the locomotor activity in Ket treated. AA prevented the hyperlocomotion induced by ket. Ket also showed an increase of AChE activity within the prefrontal cortex and striatum prevented by AA. Our data indicates an effect for AA in preventing alterations induced by Ket in an animal model of SZ, suggesting that it may be an adjuvant approach for the development of new therapeutic strategies within this psychiatric disorder.
  • Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from
           foods and clinical samples in Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Increasing antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella species has been a serious problem for public health worldwide. This study examines Salmonella spp. recovered from foods and clinical samples on serotype, antimicrobial resistance and PFGE genotypes. It identified 91 salmonellae, belonging to 31 different serotypes, from 36 isolates from food and 55 clinical samples. Salmonella Infantis (16.5%) and Salmonella Enteritidis (13.7%) are the most common among food isolates, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (29.0%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (16.0%) mainly causes human salmonellosis. Antimicrobial susceptibility data showed that 63.0% of the isolates were fully susceptible to 12 antibiotics tested. Nalidixic acid showed high resistance rates, 32.7% and 25.0% of the clinical isolates and food, respectively. Three main PFGE types: A (Salmonella Enteritidis), B (Salmonella Infantis) and C (Salmonella Schwarzengrund) comprised isolates recovered from foods and clinical samples. Our results indicate that the clonal groups were both causing diseases and food contamination, emphasizing the need to maintain a system of surveillance for foodborne disease.
  • Screening of melon genotypes for resistance to vegetable leafminer and
           your phenotypic correlations with colorimetry

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Melon is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. With short cycle in a system of phased planting, phytosanitary control is compromised, and a great volume of agricultural chemicals is used to control vegetable leafminer. Genetic control is an ideal alternative to avoid the damage caused by this insect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate Cucumis accessions in regard to resistance to leafminer and correlate the variables analyzed. Fifty-four accessions and four commercial hybrids of melon were tested. The study was divided into two experiments: with and with no choice. The following characteristics were evaluated: with choice, in field - subjective score based on the infestation and the number of mines per leaf; and with no choice, in cage - number of mines per leaf, chlorophyll content, and leaf colorimetry. The results showed variability among the accessions and some genotypes showed favorable results for resistance in both experiments. There was correlation between the two variables in the experiment in the field. The accessions CNPH 11-282, CNPH 06-1047, and CNPH 11-1077 are the most recommended for future breeding programs with aim on introgression of resistance to vegetable leafminer in melon.
  • Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of
           long-pepper under different light conditions

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
  • Pathogenic Vibrio species isolated from estuarine environments (Ceará,
           Brazil) - antimicrobial resistance and virulence potential profiles

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Detection of virulent strains associated with aquatic environment is a current concern for the management and control of human and animal health. Thus, Vibrio diversity was investigated in four estuaries from state of Ceará (Pacoti, Choró, Pirangi and Jaguaribe) followed by antimicrobial susceptibility to different antimicrobials used in aquaculture and detection of main virulence factors to human health. Isolation and identification were performed on TCBS agar (selective medium) and dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics, respectively. Nineteen strains of genus Vibrio were catalogued. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Choró River) and V. alginolyticus (Pacoti River) were the most abundant species in the four estuaries. All strains were submitted to disk diffusion technique (15 antimicrobials were tested). Resistance was found to: penicillin (82%), ampicillin (54%), cephalotin (7%), aztreonan (1%), gentamicin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone (0.5%). Five pathogenic strains were chosen to verification of virulence factors. Four estuaries showed a high abundance of species. High number of tested positive strains for virulence is concerning, since some of those strains are associated to human diseases, while others are known pathogens of aquatic organisms.
  • Diameter distribution in a Brazilian tropical dry forest domain:
           predictions for the stand and species

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Currently, there is a lack of studies on the correct utilization of continuous distributions for dry tropical forests. Therefore, this work aims to investigate the diameter structure of a brazilian tropical dry forest and to select suitable continuous distributions by means of statistic tools for the stand and the main species. Two subsets were randomly selected from 40 plots. Diameter at base height was obtained. The following functions were tested: log-normal; gamma; Weibull 2P and Burr. The best fits were selected by Akaike's information validation criterion. Overall, the diameter distribution of the dry tropical forest was better described by negative exponential curves and positive skewness. The forest studied showed diameter distributions with decreasing probability for larger trees. This behavior was observed for both the main species and the stand. The generalization of the function fitted for the main species show that the development of individual models is needed. The Burr function showed good flexibility to describe the diameter structure of the stand and the behavior of Mimosa ophthalmocentra and Bauhinia cheilantha species. For Poincianella bracteosa, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodum urundeuva better fitting was obtained with the log-normal function.

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT To increase the availability to consumers and add more value to persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), which is a very perishable and seasonal fruit and in order to identify which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of juice and jelly, as well as understand what the consumer profile is for these products, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different persimmon cultivars (Rama Forte, Mel, Guiombo and Taubaté) grown in subtropical regions of Brazil on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting juice and jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use. The different studied persimmon cultivars had different physical and physicochemical characteristics which resulted in juices and jellies with different physicochemical, rheological and sensory characteristics. Based on sensory acceptance and productivity/adaptability of persimmon crop in Brazil, the most suitable persimmon cultivars for processing are Rama Forte and Guiombo. In this study it was found that the consumer prefers a more acidic persimmon juice and a less firm or softer, less sweet, clearer and more intense yellow color persimmon jelly.

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg) were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow) and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow). Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg) were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.
  • Sugars levels of four sugarcane genotypes in different stem portions
           during the maturation phase

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Maturation is a characteristic of sugarcane plant (Saccharum spp.) and even when grown under the same soil and climate conditions the varieties differ on the maturation curve. Thus, studies that allow establishing maturation curves of different sugarcane genotypes in the local soil and climate may indicate the proper harvesting period to ensure better quality of the raw material. This study aimed to analyze the levels of soluble sugars during the maturation phase and assess the technological and productivity indexes of four irrigated sugarcane genotypes in the region of Rio Largo, Alagoas. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks in a 4 x 2 x 5 factorial: four genotypes (RB92579, RB98710, RB99395 and RB961003), two stem portions (internodes 1-4 and internodes 5-8) and five seasons (82, 49, 25, 13 and 3 days before harvesting), each treatment with three replications. Internodes 1-4 showed the highest levels of reducing sugars, while the largest accumulation of sucrose and total soluble solids occurred in internodes 5-8. RB99395 genotype showed more stability in the sugar levels during sugarcane maturation, which can indicate early maturation and high agricultural yield.
  • A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in
           juvenile pirarucu

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas) ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g) were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank). Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein) by feeders (2 per tank), adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48%) and locomotor (72.49%) activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.
  • Cytogenotoxicity of rice crop water after application of the tricyclazole

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Tricyclazole is currently one of the fungicides recommended for the treatment of diseases in irrigated rice. However, there is relatively little information on its cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of rice crop water after apllication of the tricyclazole fungicide through the Allium cepa L. test. The rice crop water samplings were collected before and 1, 15 and 30 days after application of the fungicide in rice plant shoots. The Allium cepa roots were placed in contact with the rice crop water to check for possible chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic index of the bioindicators meristematic cells. The data obtained by the Allium cepa test indicates that the application of the tricyclazole fungicide leads to an increase in the genotoxic activity in the rice crop water, through the appearance of chromosomal abnormalities, without, however, causing significant effects on the mitotic index. The major chromosomal alterations observed were anaphasic and telophasic bridges and laggard chromosomes.
  • Vitamin E and organic selenium for broilers from 22 to 42 days old:
           performance and carcass traits

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and selenium on performance, viability, productive efficiency, and yields of carcass, major cuts, and organs of broilers from 22 to 42 days submitted to cyclic-heat stress. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of selenium (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin E (300, 400, and 500 mg/kg), plus a control treatment. Animals were submitted to a natural condition of high cyclic temperature. Organic selenium levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg associated with 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg of vitamin E were tested. The level of vitamin E did not affect the performance or production efficiency of broilers in the period from 22 to 33 days and 22 to 42 days. However, the selenium inclusion level of 0.3 mg/kg improved the viability in both phases. The yields of carcass, major cuts, intestine, and heart were not influenced by the levels of selenium and vitamin E, whereas abdominal fat for the selenium level 0.1 mg/kg decreased linearly with the inclusion in vitamin E.
  • Soil-vegetation relationships and community structure in a
           "terra-firme"-white-sand vegetation gradient in Viruá National Park,
           northern Amazon, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The vegetation of the Campinaranas types and Forest differed in biomass and species density. Ten species, endemic to Brazil, were particularly well-represented. PC and CCA indicated a clear distinction between the studied plots, based on measured soil variables, especially base sum and clay, which were the most differentiating properties between Campinarana and Forest; For the separation of the Campinarana types, the main distinguishing variable was organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Higher similarity of Campinaranas was associated to a monodominant species and the lower similarity of Forest was related to the high occurrence of locally rare species.
  • Evaluation of methods for the quantification of ether extract contents in
           forage and cattle feces

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the estimates of ether extract (EE) contents obtained by the Randall method and by the high-temperature method of the American Oil Chemist's Society (AOCS; Am 5-04) in forages (n = 20) and cattle feces (n = 15). The EE contents were quantified by using the Randall extraction or AOCS method and XT4 filter bags or cartridges made of qualitative filter paper (80 g/m²) as containers for the samples. It was also evaluated the loss of particles, and concentration of residual chlorophyll after extraction and the recovery of protein and minerals in the material subjected to extraction. Significant interaction was observed between extraction method and material for EE contents. The EE estimates using the AOCS method were higher, mainly in forages. No loss of particles was observed with different containers. The chlorophyll contents in the residues of cattle feces were not affected by the extraction method; however, residual chlorophyll was lower using the AOCS method in forages. There was complete recovery of the protein and ash after extraction. The results suggest that AOCS method produces higher estimates of EE contents in forages and cattle feces, possibly by providing greater extraction of non-fatty EE.
  • Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu
           (Piaractus mesopotamicus)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.
  • Thermodynamic bounds for existence of normal shock in compressible fluid
           flow in pipes

    • Abstract: Abstract The present paper is concerned with the thermodynamic theory of the normal shock in compressible fluid flow in pipes, in the lights of the pioneering works of Lord Rayleigh and G. Fanno. The theory of normal shock in pipes is currently presented in terms of the Rayleigh and Fanno curves, which are shown to cross each other in two points, one corresponding to a subsonic flow and the other corresponding to a supersonic flow. It is proposed in this paper a novel differential identity, which relates the energy flux density, the linear momentum flux density, and the entropy, for constant mass flow density. The identity so obtained is used to establish a theorem, which shows that Rayleigh and Fanno curves become tangent to each other at a single sonic point. At the sonic point the entropy reaches a maximum, either as a function of the pressure and the energy density flux or as a function of the pressure and the linear momentum density flux. A Second Law analysis is also presented, which is fully independent of the Second Law analysis based on the Rankine-Hugoniot adiabatic carried out by Landau and Lifshitz (1959).
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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