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Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 745 journals)

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Showing 601 - 746 of 746 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Estudos Feministas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión     Open Access  
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de Tarapaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.125, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Geológica de América Central     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Gerencia y Políticas de Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Habanera de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Historia y Sociedad     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín     Open Access  
Revista Integra Educativa     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Bibliotecología     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Revista ION     Open Access  
Revista IUS     Open Access  
Revista Katálysis     Open Access  
Revista Lasallista de Investigación     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.339, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Bioética     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Económico     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Investigación en Matemática Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.171, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Medica de Chile     Open Access   (SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Médica del Hospital Nacional de Niños Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Médica Electrónica     Open Access  
Revista Médica La Paz     Open Access  
Revista Médico-Científica : Luz y Vida     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta     Open Access   (SJR: 0.405, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.596, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad     Open Access   (SJR: 0.421, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Mexicana de Economía y Finanzas     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access   (SJR: 0.203, CiteScore: 0)
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química     Open Access   (SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Mexicana de Micologí­a     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Sociologí­a     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Musical Chilena     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Odonto Ciência     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Opinión Jurídica     Open Access  
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Paulista de Pediatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Perspectivas     Open Access  
Revista Pilquen : Sección Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Portuguesa de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Portuguesa de Ortopedia e Traumatologia     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Portuguesa e Brasileira de Gestão     Open Access  
Revista Signos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Universitaria de Geografía     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Cardiologia     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
RGO : Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
RISTI : Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação     Open Access   (SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 1)
RLA : revista de linguistica teorica y aplicada     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Rodriguésia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.734, CiteScore: 2)
SA Orthopaedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Salud Colectiva     Open Access   (SJR: 0.22, CiteScore: 0)
Salud Mental     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Sanidad Militar     Open Access  
São Paulo em Perspectiva     Open Access  
Sao Paulo Medical J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Saúde Coletiva     Open Access  
Saúde e Sociedade     Open Access   (SJR: 0.384, CiteScore: 0)
Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Sba: Controle & Automação Sociedade Brasileira de Automatica     Open Access  
Scientia Agricola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 2)
Scientiae Studia     Open Access  
Secuencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Serviço Social & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexualidad, Salud y Sociedad (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Si Somos Americanos     Open Access  
Signos Filosóficos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Signos Historicos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Silva Lusitana     Open Access  
Sociedade & Natureza     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.127, CiteScore: 0)
Sociologia : Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Sociologias     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soldagem & Inspeção     Open Access   (SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
South African Dental J.     Open Access  
South African J. of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African J. of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, CiteScore: 1)
South African J. of Childhood Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Enology and Viticulture     Open Access   (SJR: 0.301, CiteScore: 1)
South African J. of Industrial Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
South African J. of Occupational Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
South African J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.162, CiteScore: 0)
South African Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Summa Phytopathologica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 0)
Superficies y vacio     Open Access  
Tecnología Química     Open Access  
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access   (SJR: 0.153, CiteScore: 0)
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Tempo     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Tempo Social     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Teología y Vida     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, CiteScore: 0)
Terapia Psicológica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.394, CiteScore: 1)
Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.273, CiteScore: 1)
The European J. of Psychiatry (edicion en español)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theologica Xaveriana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.14, CiteScore: 0)
Tinkazos     Open Access  
Tópicos del seminario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Toxicodependências     Open Access  
Trabalho, Educação e Saúde     Open Access  
Trabalhos em Linguistica Aplicada     Open Access  
Trans/Form/Ação - Revista de Filosofia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Transinformação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access   (SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Tydskrif vir Letterkunde     Open Access   (SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ultima Década     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas Philosophica     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access   (SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 1)
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Vaccimonitor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Varia Historia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Veritas : Revista de Filosofí­a y Teología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Vibrant : Virtual Brazilian Anthropology     Open Access  
Visión de futuro     Open Access  
Vniversitas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
West Indian Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Yesterday and Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zoologia (Curitiba)     Open Access  

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South African Journal of Childhood Education
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2223-7674 - ISSN (Online) 2223-7682
Published by SciELO Homepage  [745 journals]
  • Exploring the role of Malaguzzi's 'Hundred Languages of Children' in early
           childhood education

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the history of early childhood education (ECE), language is viewed as key in teaching and learning. Children in the ECE are mostly confined to verbal communication which, to a certain extent, restricts their imagination and inventive ability. Loris Malaguzzi, the founder of the Reggio Emilia educational philosophy, initiated the Hundred Languages of Children (HLC) as a pedagogical approach to enable children to interact and communicate. AIM: This study aims to explore the role of HLC through the experiences and views of the four ECE practitioners in the Gauteng province. Drawing on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, the author argues that ECE children possess different kinds of minds, and therefore they learn in different ways. SETTING: Two Early Childhood centres in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were selected for this study because they had adopted Malaguzzi's HLC approach to constructing concepts to help children structure knowledge and organise learning. METHODS: The author used one-on-one interviews to get ECE practitioners' experiences on using Malaguzzi's HLC. To corroborate the interviews' data, the author conducted classroom observations and document analysis. RESULTS: The participants viewed Malaguzzi's HLC as an enabler to meet the requirement of the two sets of curricula from the Department of Social Development (the National Curriculum Framework for children from 0 to 4 years) and from the Department of Basic Education (the Curriculum Assessment and Policy Statement for 5-year-old children. CONCLUSION: The findings show a paradigm shift, as children become active constructors of their own knowledge.
       
  • The experiences of early childhood development home visitors in the
           Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This article examines the development of early childhood development (ECD) home-visiting services in South Africa. AIM: To examine the factors that could support the success of home-visiting programmes as well as to explore the experiences of bachelor's-level home visitors rendering such services. SETTING: This study was conducted in the Eastern Cape, a highly impoverished area of South Africa. METHODS: It begins with a discussion of the emergence of home-visiting as a strategy for the delivery of ECD services in South Africa and a review of the literature on ECD home-visiting, particularly with highly vulnerable, impoverished families. Next a focus group conducted with a small sample of home visitors as part of a multi-faceted community assessment is described. The results are examined within the context of challenges facing this particular part of South Africa and the nation as a whole. RESULTS: Four themes emerged as most prominent: (1) encountering the effects of extreme family poverty, (2) identifying high rates and multiple aspects of child maltreatment, (3) encountering scarce resources in high-need areas and (4) finding rewards and maintaining a desire to continue serving challenging populations CONCLUSION: This study provides a unique window on the c.hallenges that ECD home visitors are likely to encounter when working with families living in extreme poverty, the resourcefulness that home visitors often demonstrate and the rewards to be found in this work.
       
  • Positive behaviour support in South African Foundation Phase
           classrooms: Teacher reflections

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The positive behaviour support (PBS) model is a model of response to address challenging behaviours of learners in schools that has proven to be effective in developed countries. Given its human rights and functional contextualism lens, the PBS model is particularly relevant to and of value within the South African context. AIM: Since learner challenging behaviours are a key contributory factor to learner exclusion in schools, an inclusive education module on the PBS model was developed and evaluated for its effectiveness in the South African context. SETTING: The study is set within an interpretivist paradigm and utilises a generic qualitative research design. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected through module evaluations - 11 focus group interviews with 144 candidates (4th-year in-service Limpopo teachers) followed by four classroom observations and interviews with the teachers from the classroom observations. RESULTS: The thematic analysis revealed that participants had developed new insights about ecosystemic challenges that impact behaviour and were critically reflexive about their changed practices resulting from their participation in the inclusive education PBS model. Participants valued PBS strategies as good and useful for excellence in teaching. This evidences a pocket of success in relation to the value of the PBS model. CONCLUSION: The professional development of pre-service teachers with the skills and knowledge of the PBS model for classroom practice is advocated for. Recommendations are made for further research.
       
  • Accelerating mathematics word problem-solving performance and efficacy
           with think-aloud strategies

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The previous body of research literature has reported several separate cognitive processes relevant in solving mathematics wps. Therefore, it is of the essence to seek for effective intervention and instruction for students in need for support in learning AIM: This article reports the outcome of an intervention targeted at mathematics word problem (wp) skills. SETTING: This study included three data collection points: (1) Premeasurements, (2) post-measurements and (3) follow-up measurements. Pre-measurements were performed in August, post-measurements immediately after the intervention period in October and follow-up measurements in December. METHODS: A programme, which included face-to-face support in mathematics wp strategies with the think-aloud protocol, was applied. The participants were 28 Finnish third-graders (14 training group students and 14 control students). Their mathematics wp skills were tested three times (pre-, post- and follow-up assessments). The groups were matched by gender, family type and the mathematics wp pre-measurement score level. The groups differed neither by literacy skills (i.e. technical reading, reading comprehension) nor by task orientation at baseline. RESULTS: Some acceleration of mathematics wp skills among the training group students was found but the growth dramatically declined as soon as the face-to-face support stopped. The results further showed improvement in the efficacy of correct answers or attempted mathematics wp items among training group students. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that training consisting of face-to-face support is crucial for accelerating mathematics wp strategies among students struggling with mathematics. Repeated, cyclic periods of support are suggested for sustained effect.
       
  • Data practices and inequality in South African early childhood development
           policy: Technocratic management versus social transformation

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In 1994, the African National Congress identified early childhood development as a potential strategy to redress the inequalities of apartheid, however, two and a half decades later, poverty still persists, and South Africa is one of the most unequal countries in the world. AIM: This article explores how policy texts based on and with the use of certain data practices establish 'truths' about childhoods and society, construct families and communities, and determine forms of provision to address inequality. SETTING: In 2015, the South African government published the National Integrated Early Childhood Policy (NIECDP) to continue to address poverty and inequality. Its implementation increasingly draws on data practices that measure and inform solutions. The use of data practices, while also providing needed information, prioritises solutions that proceed in technocratic ways instead of facilitating social change. METHODS: With a critical discourse analysis of policy texts and the introduction of alternatives, the analysis seeks to highlight the power and knowledge hierarchies that construct the policies of NIECDP. RESULTS: This article demonstrates how discourses and data practices prioritise 'the government of poverty' instead of helping to eliminate it and silence the voices of those living with poverty. This form of government through data also undermines the policy's potential to respond to the different life chances resulting from the diverse conditions in which young children live in South Africa. CONCLUSION: This article seeks to re-open a debate that the NIECDP successfully silenced, specifically who benefits, who speaks and who is silenced.
       
  • Formative assessment as 'formative pedagogy' in Grade 3 mathematics

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Formative assessment, as an integral component of teaching, has recently gained prominence in educational environments globally. Poor performances in mathematics by learners in early grades, and its negative effect on later learning, have been an ongoing concern in South African schools. Several former studies tend to generalise the pedagogical reasons for learners' underperformance in Foundation Phase teaching. AIM: This case study of selected Grade 3 teachers examined how the teachers integrated formative assessment into their pedagogy, with the purpose of gaining insight into teachers' understanding of the developmental aspects of learning in mathematics SETTING: This study was conducted at four schools in a selected district in the Gauteng Province. METHODS: Data were mainly collected through focus group interviews and observations of at least three classroom sessions for each teacher of mathematics, thereby gaining an overview of their formative assessment practices. RESULTS: This article reports on the two strongest themes to have emerged from the case study, which were teachers' tokenistic use of 'Assessment for Learning' strategies and teachers' awareness of learning processes and curriculum requirements. CONCLUSION: The study's main conclusion was that teachers are likely to practise formative assessment more intuitively if they had a sound knowledge of children's mathematical cognition and conceptual development. This study pointed out that formative assessment is a co-constructed activity involving the teacher, the learner and peers rather than a teacher-directed activity. The study recommends how continuous professional learning initiatives can design initiatives that integrate research-based knowledge of children's learning of early grades mathematics.
       
  • The practice of partnerships: A case study of the Disabled Children's
           Action Group, South Africa

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Children with disabilities stand to gain from an array of services and interventions to support their development. However, relationships between parents of children with disabilities and professionals can be fraught, with the potential that professionals undermine the role of parents and overlook their agency. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the nature of partnerships between parents of children with disabilities and professionals in the Early Childhood Development (ECD) sector, and the influences that shape partnerships within a particular context SETTING: This article documents the experiences of parents of children with disabilities from a national organisation, in respect of their partnerships with professionals. METHODS: The research was a qualitative case study of a national organisation of parents of disabled children, the Disabled Children's Action Group (DICAG), that has engaged in many different partnerships within different provinces of South Africa. Data generation techniques were document analysis and focus group discussion with staff and provincial branch members of the national DICAG office in Cape Town. RESULTS: The findings of the study provide a nuanced and contextually situated understanding of the complexity of parent-professional partnerships in the disability sector. A key issue that emerges is that to recognise and disrupt pervasive dominant discourses and their potential to weaken partnerships, professionals need to critically attune themselves to the situated experiences of those whom they seek to support. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that there is a need for a rights-based social justice agenda to underpin parent-professional relationships, to address the power dynamics and pervasive discourses that oppress the parent actors.
       
  • Profiles of public and private autism-specific schools in Gauteng

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite inclusive education (IE) policies and legislation being introduced in South Africa (SA), learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are still placed in autism-specific public and private schools. Limited data are available on who makes use of the two different types of schools. Results may provide information on the profiles and education of learners with ASD in Gauteng schools. AIM: A quantitative, cross-sectional, comparative research design was used to compare the profiles of autism-specific public with autism-specific private schools and learners in Gauteng Province SETTING: The research was conducted in two autism-specific public and two private schools. METHODS: Two survey questionnaires were used to collect data from four principals of two autism-specific public and two autism-specific private schools and 150 caregivers of learners attending the participating schools. RESULTS: Results showed that because of their size autism-specific public schools make a significant contribution to the education of learners with ASD in Gauteng, compared to autism-specific private schools. Autism-specific public schools offer more therapy services than the autism-specific private schools, despite lower fees than autism-specific private schools. Significantly more black learners attend autism-specific public schools than autism-specific private schools. Regardless of the differences in population groups across the participating schools, the mean age when caregivers became concerned about their child's development was similar across the two types of schools. Learners enrolled at the autism-specific private schools were diagnosed with ASD earlier than learners enrolled at the autism-specific public schools. Also, they commenced school earlier than the learners in the autism-specific public schools. Lastly, three of the four principals expressed a preference that learners with ASD be placed in autism-specific schools. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the need to raise awareness of ASD symptoms among parents with young children in all communities and to determine the barriers that hinder IE for learners with ASD in SA.
       
  • Providing remedial support to primary school learners within their zone of
           proximal development

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: One of the methods receiving the current attention in addressing poor performance and low learning achievements among lower primary school learners is through remedial teaching. The approach to provide remedial support was informed by Vygotsky's social development theory. AIM: The objective of this study was to support primary school learners who failed with ungraded symbols in their first school term to obtain better passing symbols at the end of Term 2 and Term 3 SETTING: An intervention was carried out in 2016 academic year to provide remedial support to learners who were enrolled at Catholic AIDS Action Tonateni Centre in Oshakati town, Namibia. METHODS: Quantitative approach and descriptive design methods were used in this study. The first school term results were used as a baseline. A total of 12 learners (five boys and seven girls) from Grades 1 to 7 were randomly selected to participate in the remedial class. Data collection instruments included learners' school reports, homework books, class exercise books and test books. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse descriptive statistics, namely, frequencies and percentages. RESULTS: Results showed that the participating learners obtained better passing symbols in the three identified subjects: Oshindonga first language, English second language and mathematics as depicted in their Term 2 and Term 3 school reports. CONCLUSION: Remedial support demonstrated that learners who performed with poor symbols at the end of their first school term could still obtain better passing symbols in the second and third term provided they are supported to improve in their areas of learning difficulties.
       
  • Evaluating a grief programme offered in primary schools: An
           Appreciative Inquiry

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Death and loss are inevitable, and life changes profoundly for those left behind. A General Household Survey by Statistics South Africa indicated that 94.2% of orphans aged 7-18 years were still attending school. With no parental and often familial support, learners often had to turn to their teachers for support. Vukuzakhe, a non-governmental organisation, saw the need for a grief programme in schools. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate how the school-based grief programme is perceived by different stakeholders (grieving children, educators and programme facilitators. SETTING: The grief programme is being implemented in four primary schools in Underberg and Himeville, rural KwaZulu-Natal, and this study will conduct an evaluation at all four sites. METHODS: Appreciative Inquiry, based on a four-dimensional cycle, was used to evaluate a grief programme offered in selected primary schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Three stakeholder groups (grief support programme facilitators [n = 4], grieving children [n = 6] and educators [n = 2]) from four schools were asked three open-ended questions to ascertain the programme's value RESULTS: Nine key themes were identified: healing, insight, relationships, growth, skills, support, enjoyment, collaboration and value of the programme. All stakeholders noted positive outcomes resulting from participation in the programme and held it in high regard. CONCLUSION: Improvements for its future development were suggested and recommendations made for its further implementation at schools throughout South Africa.
       
  • Children's self-regulation and coping strategies in a frustrated
           context in early education

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large body of earlier research has focused on studying children's self-regulation (SR) skills and frustration with different methods. However, considerably less attention has been given to hearing children's own voice. The current study sought to demonstrate children's own comprehension and highlight it as a valuable and unique tendency to fill the scientific gap in the research area. AIM: This research aimed to contribute the empirical understanding of how SR, as mental ability, supported children's coping strategies and comprehensions which they will possibly use in a hypothetical frustrated context in the Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) environment. SETTING: Self-regulation and strategies in a frustrating context were studied with mixed methods in a sample (n = 383) of 48-87-month-old children in Finland. Self-regulation was assessed by their own teachers with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied by interview where the children's open-ended descriptions provided the strategies told by themselves. METHODS: The study's was conducted by using mixed methods. Two independent instruments to measure SR and strategies for frustration were used. Self-regulation was assessed by teacher with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied via child interview. RESULTS: Good SR skills were related to persistent coping strategies and not giving up in a simulated situation. Weak SR skills related more with uncertain or withdrawal coping strategies, like giving up, or abandoning the situation. CONCLUSION: Self-regulation skills have an important role in guiding children with their use and narration of suitable coping strategies on overcoming the frustration effectively. The concrete strategies would allow teachers to work concretely with children in enhancing their SR skills and coping strategies further.
       
  • What mathematics knowledge for teaching is used by a Grade 2 teacher
           when teaching counting

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The study on which this article is based investigated the Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching (MKfT) that a well experienced Grade 2 teacher utilized when teaching counting AIM: In this paper we share excerpts from one of the lessons of this Grade 2 teacher, which we analyzed to illuminate the various domains of MKfT and their interconnectedness in the teaching of counting SETTING: The research was conducted in a former Model C school in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa METHOD: Using a case study methodology, 15 Grade 2 mathematics lessons were observed, video recorded and transcribed. Two formal interviews based on two selected video-recorded lessons were conducted to understand this teacher's practice. The data were analysed using Deborah Ball and colleagues' MKfT framework RESULTS: The study found that Foundation Phase mathematics teaching requires the knowledge and tactful employment of all six knowledge domains as described in the work of Ball and colleagues. The Knowledge of Content and Teaching (KCT) domain, was found to be essential in teaching counting in Grade 2. The other five domains supported and informed the KCT domain CONCLUSION: We suggest from the insights gained here that research examining the MKfT that competent teachers draw on in teaching Foundation Phase mathematics could assist in developing curricula for in-service and pre-service teacher education programs
       
  • Rational number understanding: The big picture, not the essence

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The learning of rational numbers is a complex and difficult process that begins in the early grades. This teaching often focuses on the mastery of essential knowledge, including particular skills (e.g. using fractions to describe part-whole diagrams) and interpretations (e.g. sharing), which often results in an incomplete and inflexible understanding of these numbers. AIM: This article proposes a holistic and relational perspective on rational number knowing and sense-making. SETTING: This possibility emerged through research into the learning of rational number concepts by Foundation Phase and Grade 4 children. METHODS: This research forms part of an ongoing, in-depth, exploratory research programme into the processes of learning rational numbers. Clinical interviews and classroom observations were the primary methods of data collection and an in-depth, constant comparative method of analysis was performed on the data. RESULTS: Thinking relevant to rational numbers was identified within four different perspectives through which children make sense of their interactions with the world, namely, social, instrumental, personal and symbolic sense-making. CONCLUSION: The learning of rational numbers may be usefully seen as arising from the interrelation of multiple aspects of knowing and doing that develop as children balance these different ways of sense-making.
       
  • 'They are visually impaired, not blind … teach them!': Grade R
           in-service teachers' knowledge of teaching pre-reading skills to visually
           impaired learners

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Teaching reading skills is the cornerstone of all learning; therefore, teachers' adherence to this mandate is important. However, it becomes complicated and challenging if the teacher has to teach pre-reading skills to Grade R learners with visual impairments. In light of this challenge, researchers have endeavoured to determine the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) that teachers should possess for the effective teaching of reading in classrooms with visually impaired learners. AIM: This article explores a small sample of in-service teachers' knowledge of using Braille to teach pre-reading skills to Grade R learners with visual impairments. SETTING: The study was conducted in a School for the Blind in Maseru, Lesotho, where three Grade R in-service teachers teaching learners with visual impairments were purposively sampled METHODS: This study is underpinned by Koehler and Mishra's theory of TPACK. An interpretivist, qualitative small-scale case study approach was employed, using semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. Document analysis was also used to corroborate findings. RESULTS: Findings reveal that although some of the participants possess a high level of technological knowledge, they tend to teach Braille as a 'stand-alone' skill and fail to integrate it with the teaching of other pre-reading skills to Grade R learners. CONCLUSION: In-service teachers showed limited knowledge of some of the essential skills for teaching pre-reading skills to Grade R learners who are visually impaired. The study calls for supportive in-service teacher education programmes that equip Grade R teachers of learners with visual impairments with the necessary skills to teach pre-reading skills.
       
  • Longitudinal influences of socio-economic status on visual-motor
           integration: The North-West Child Health, Integrated with Learning and
           Development study

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Visual motor integration plays an important role in academic skills of learners in the early school years and can have an impact on their overall academic performance. AIM: This study aimed to determine the influence of socio-economic status (SES) on changes in visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination over a period of three years SETTING: Four school districts in the North West province of South Africa were used. METHODS: Five hundred and seventy-three learners (282 boys, 291 girls) were randomly selected (representing different SES schools) and evaluated at baseline during 2010 when they were in Grade 1 (6.9 years ± 0.38), and again 2013 (9.9 years ± 0.42), as part of a longitudinal research study. The Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test 4th edition was used to evaluate the visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills at baseline and three years later. RESULTS: Baseline measurements were higher among high SES learners in all three skills. Although learners from high SES still outperformed the learners from low SES three years later, low SES learners showed statistically significant improvements over the three years in visual-motor integration (88.24 to 89.85, p = 0.041) and visual perception (89.69 to 90.04, p ≤ 0.001. CONCLUSION: Age-related development and improvement of the visual-motor integration skills were reported over the three-year period. However, more learners from the low SES still showed delays in these skills. Delays in the development of these skills could contribute to poorer academic and learning-related achievements.
       
  • The contribution of South African teachers to students' sense of belonging
           and mathematics achievement: Students' perspective from the 2015 Trends in
           International Mathematics and Science Study

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The role of teachers in nurturing students' sense of belonging cannot be over-emphasised. Students who do not feel accepted by their teachers are at risk of withdrawing from school life and feeling disaffected. This study contributes to theories on school belonging by investigating the contribution of teachers to students' sense of school belonging, the association of students' attitudes towards teachers, and their sense of school belonging with students' mathematics achievement AIM: To provide empirical evidence of how students' attitudes towards teachers contributed to their sense of school belonging, as well as their mathematics achievement SETTING: A representative sample of 10932 grade 5 students at 297 schools in South Africa completed a contextual questionnaire and a mathematics assessment during the 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS METHODS: The TIMSS 2015 data were used to develop indicators of students' attitudes towards teachers, sense of school belonging and home socio-economic status. Absenteeism and the extent of bullying were also considered. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed RESULTS: A high positive correlation between students' attitudes towards teachers and their sense of school belonging was found. Students' attitudes towards teachers and their sense of belonging contributed significantly to mathematics achievement CONCLUSION: The study confirms the crucial role that a sound student-teacher relationship plays in a healthy sense of school belonging and in terms of academic performance. The school environment should be managed in a manner that allows for mentoring relationships between students and teachers to be strengthened
       
  • Pre-service mathematics teachers' development process in using
           manipulatives in number operations

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Teaching using manipulatives is emphasised, especially in the early grades, to help learners conceptualise operations on whole numbers. Therefore, teachers' competencies in using manipulatives is the key in helping learners master these basic operation skills. AIM: Drawing from the literature on using manipulatives to improve learners' performance in mathematics, this study recounts foundation phase pre-service teachers' conception of using manipulatives to enhance their competencies and reasoning skills to model the solution in number operations. SETTING: Data presented here was collected from 31 participants. These pre-service teachers either passed mathematics or mathematical literacy with 40% at the grade 12 level. METHODS: Data was collected from participants' written work (e.g. classroom tasks, homework, tests and examinations) and during class discussions. Interviews were conducted with some students. We analysed their conception guided by the APOS theory, namely, Action-Process- Object-Schema. RESULTS: We observed improvement in the conception of using manipulatives among pre-service teachers. In the first semester, most students display action conception of using manipulatives to either represent or model a solution. However, in the second semester, most students either display process or object conception as explained in the genetic decomposition. We attributed the improvement to change of instruction in the second semester as we taught in accordance with the APOS theory. CONCLUSION: It is evident that there are a number of contributing factors to pre-service teachers' conception of mathematical concepts, and teacher educators need to pay particular attention to these to help pre-service teachers master the concepts they would teach at school.
       
  • A tool to enhance the planning of children's literature lessons for
           Setswana as Home Language

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Universities, specifically faculties of education, have the responsibility to ensure that student teachers are introduced to the complexities involved in planning conceptually sound, coherent and cohesive lessons OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine how prepared students teachers are to plan children's literature and develop a tool for use by teachers specializing in Setswana to support them when planning and preparing for children's literature lessons METHODS: A Qualitative case study design was chosen for this study RESULTS: The results of this study indicated that primary pre-service teachers in South Africa do not receive cohesive and coherent as well as intensive preparation in the planning of lessons focusing on children's literature. In addition, most primary pre-service teachers were not familiar with the titles, some genres and levelled questioning techniques used in planning children's literature lessons. The results indicated that student teachers studying at a distance and specialising in Setswana as a Home Language were experiencing difficulties relating to the literature planning and preparation CONCLUSION: Skillful planning, entails taking into account the knowledge and developmental level of learners, their specific social and cultural contexts, knowledge of subject matter and learning goals, as well as knowledge of teaching strategies and practices
       
  • Moving beyond league table standings: How measures of opportunity to learn
           can inform educational quality and policy directives'

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: South Africa's participation across a number of international large-scale assessment programmes provides continued evidence of poor student achievement across grades and phases. Despite discouraging achievement results, evidence of slow progress begins to emerge, yet systemic inequalities persist AIM: This article aims to unpack the possible value of large-scale assessment data in measuring equal educational opportunity as conceptualised by the opportunity to learn (OTL SETTING: While overall scores on international large-scale assessment in countries like South Africa are often driven by aptitude, student motivation and social class, OTL, as described in this article, should provide a more accurate reflection of the nature of performance and the kinds of opportunities afforded to students across an unequal sector to learn METHODS: A multiple linear regression was conducted using the South African PIRLS 2016 teacher and student questionnaire data and the PIRLS Literacy Grade 4 overall reading literacy performance score as the dependent variable RESULTS: While socio economic status makes a substantial contribution in the current model, the only predictor that was significant is the scale based on student reports on lessons about reading CONCLUSION: Through the use of multiple regression analysis, this article concludes that a more effective use of large-scale assessment data from an OTL perspective, specifically in developing contexts, is still problematic using teacher and student questionnaire data. Issues of social desirability and overly positive reporting make any claims about the teachers' role in providing opportunities to learn and exposure to the curriculum in the classroom difficult to gauge
       
  • The constructions of early childhood practitioners' literacy needs on an
           in-service Bachelor of Education course

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Academic literacy(ies) is a major determining qualifier for success in a university qualification. Academic literacy(ies), in this study, are seen as social practices or discourses that occur within specific academic disciplines. Students therefore needed to 'learn' the academic literacy(ies) discourse of the faculty. AIM: This study investigated the way lecturers and the course facilitators understood literacies and their students' literacy demands. SETTING: The early childhood practitioners were attempting to obtain a B.Ed degree on a piloted degree career path at a university. METHODS: Data were collected from individual and focus group interviews, one assessment task, and one assessment report from each respective course. Two lecturers and two course facilitators participated in the individual interviews, and three lecturers and three course facilitators participated in the focus group interviews. RESULTS: The study revealed that the course facilitators' and lecturers' understanding of literacies was not cognisant of literacy as a set of social practices, nor of the enormous changes students needed to make at the level of identity to progress in their academic careers. CONCLUSION: The findings from the study showed a disjuncture between the understanding of the meaning of academic literacies by course facilitators and lecturers. A focused and cohesive discussion on academic literacy needs to occur in order to facilitator the practitioners' progress.
       
  • Foundation phase science teacher identity: Exploring evolutionary module
           development to promote science teaching self-efficacy

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The South African national school curriculum for the foundation phase (6- to 9-year-olds) does not have a unique subject called 'science', but 'hidden' away in the subject 'life skills', one detects a great deal of science, but not all of it overtly presented. This presents a challenge to teachers who might be limited in their science content knowledge and lack understanding of the processes of science, both of which might contribute to low levels of science teaching self-efficacy AIM: This article explores an evolutionary module development process designed to promote science teaching self-efficacy SETTING: Pre-service foundation phase student teachers taking a single method module in science METHODS: The study is anchored within the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL). On completion of the module, student teachers complete anonymous module-evaluation questionnaires. An interpretive, qualitative approach is used to support discussion of the module's principles, content and delivery within the context of module development RESULTS: Data originate from two cohorts of student teachers (2011 and 2014). These data inform lecturers' decisions on the re-development of the module for the following year. The intervening years (2012-2013) saw the module being firmly anchored on three pillars, namely teacher identity, science teaching self-efficacy and the nature of science CONCLUSION: This article outlines the evolution of a pre-service foundation phase science module, from a science-content-only module (2006) through to a module whose underpinning principles and content attempt to address the hopes, fears and challenges faced by prospective foundation phase teachers
       
  • Effects of a 6 Brick Duplo Block guided play intervention on pre-literate
           learners' visual perception

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Literature reveals that guided play promotes the development of visuospatial abilities essential for learning to read, write and do mathematics. However, most of these findings have focused on older children who are already literate, and the tests and the instruments used were designed for children in Western contexts. AIM: As there is little data on the development of visuospatial abilities in pre-literate children in African contexts, this study set out to explore the effects of using a guided block play intervention on the development of these abilities in pre-literate children. SETTING: The study was carried out in two classrooms (one experimental and the other comparative) in each of two schools, one in South Africa and one in Kenya. METHODS: The study used a pre- and post-test, quasi-experimental, mixed-methods approach. The intervention and test used, namely, the Visual Perception Aspects Test, were designed and validated in African contexts. RESULTS: The data revealed that using the 6 Brick Duplo Block guided play approach statistically significantly accelerated the development of visuospatial abilities in pre-literate children in the experimental groups over those in the control groups (no intervention). The data also revealed that the greatest improvements were made among children who had few prior opportunities to engage in guided play using physical manipulatives. CONCLUSION: The overall findings of the study suggest that the development of aspects of visuospatial perception is accelerated when teachers use this approach to facilitate guided play. This finding has implications for promoting the development of reading, writing and numeracy skills in pre-literate children.
       
  • Accountability of school stakeholders in ensuring orphaned children's
           school attendance

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, there appears to have been more interest than ever in the education of orphaned children, especially in terms of their school attendance. Although some studies have reported on the efforts of caregivers, teachers, government, Non-Governmental Organisations and others in providing the educational needs of orphaned learners, little is known about accountability in terms of their school attendance. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of school stakeholders on managing the school attendance of orphaned learners. SETTING: This research study was conducted in three primary schools with large numbers of orphaned children and high rates of absenteeism in a district in the Limpopo province, South Africa METHODS: A qualitative approach was adopted, using semi-structured interviews to collect data from nine participants who were identified through purposive sampling. The participants were class teachers, life orientation teachers and teachers responsible for orphaned learners. RESULTS: The findings reflect that there is a lack of material resources and emotional support, physical and sexual abuse, little moral responsibility, few family values and inadequate use of resources provided by government and Non-governmental organizations to support the education of orphaned children. CONCLUSION: In this article, the researchers argue that the provision of material resources and emotional needs alone do not fully address the problem of the school absenteeism of orphaned learners and suggest a combined accountability of, and consequential measures for, school stakeholders in ensuring the school attendance of orphaned children.
       
  • The development of scientific reasoning of preschool children:
           Micro-analysis of mind-material-body integration

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This article argues that the emergence of scientific reasoning in the preschool years could be augmented by caregivers and preschool teachers through nurturing 'Habits of Mind' (HOM) and 'Habits of Body' (HOB) of young children. This type of mind-material-body integration is proposed from an epistemological position that comprises a Hybrid (morphinuum) of theories about early learning and human development. AIM: The aim of this article is to present an exemplar of the capacity of one preschooler to show emergence and integration of two HOM, namely conjecturing and reasoning with invariance, in tandem with the Habit of Body (HOB), namely hand-eye coordination that can lay the foundation for scientific reasoning in the early years. SETTING: The study referred to in this article is an exemplar (case study) taken from a larger, 18-month educational design research intervention, the 'Little African Scientists Project'. That study investigated the emergent scientific HOM and HOB through a multimodal material approach to pedagogy at preschool level (Grade RR to R). METHODS: A three-layered digital video analysis was utilised to interpret the data pertaining to a specific interaction of one child, who was manipulating magnets during one of the many free-play activities that formed part of the larger project. RESULTS: Several specific HOM and HOB were evident in the one child who was engaged in an activity in which he was moving magnets. Two HOM that emerged were those of making and testing conjectures and reasoning with invariance, while the HOB that emerged was a close alignment of hand movement and eye coordination. CONCLUSION: This type of close observation and micro-analysis could be utilised for studies of more children in similar settings.
       
  • The disempowerment of early childhood practitioners in impoverished and
           marginalised communities

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Quality early childhood programmes have proven to be highly cost-effective in reversing the detrimental consequences of poverty on children's development. However, these programmes can only influence developmental outcomes of poor children if their needs are considered AIM: The purpose of this article was to inquire into the experiences of two early childhood development (ECD) practitioners working and living in impoverished and marginalised predominantly white communities where the involvement of volunteers from charity organisations was prominent. The researchers argued that the practitioners' experiences regarding their work should inform the kind of complementary volunteer aid and support sought for SETTING: The research sites were two informal predominantly white settlements where unemployed residents lived in makeshift housing METHODS: A narrative inquiry, nested in the social constructivist paradigm, was employed to explore the experiences of two practitioners. Data were collected from narrative interviews, observations, documents, photographs and artefacts RESULTS: Both participants knew well that the needs of the children in their care differed significantly from those of their more affluent peers and believed that training would equip them better for their task. Although both centres (and communities) benefitted from volunteer support, this well-intended aid was often misguided as the volunteers were not qualified educators and did not understand the context CONCLUSION: The volunteers did not empower the practitioners to use their insight and experience to deliver a quality programme fit for context. Instead, they left the practitioners with a sense of disempowerment by dictating the programmes and practices to be followed in the respective ECD centres, even though they were not qualified to do so
       
  • Towards quality early childhood development for refugee children: An
           exploratory study of a Grade R class in a Durban child care centre

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: As populations of refugee children increase globally, strategies for providing quality and relevant educational experiences for this group of children has become a priority. This is because research suggests that refugee children tend to experience higher school dropout rates due to, among other factors, poverty, lack of shelter and inadequate nutrition. AIM: This article reports on an exploratory study of Grade R teachers' interactions with refugee children in a child care centre in Durban and the ways in which these might contribute to the children's readiness for Grade 1 in mainstream schools. SETTING: The study was located in a Grade R class in a Durban refugee child care centre catering for children from neighbouring African countries. METHODS: The study adopted a qualitative ethnographic approach involving classroom and playground observations, as well as informal open-ended interviews with the Grade R teacher and her assistant RESULTS: The findings suggest that several factors, including a high teacher-learner ratio (1:48), poor classroom management and pedagogical practices, inadequate and inappropriate resources and a lack of professional development opportunities for teachers influenced the nature of interactions between the refugee children and their teachers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have negative implications for the children's readiness for Grade 1 and beyond. The findings suggest that unless the provision of early childhood development and education (ECDE) in this centre is significantly improved, for example, by addressing the factors identified in the study, the refugee children in the facility will continue to be poorly prepared for mainstream schooling
       
  • Foundation phase learners' view of learning support and self-esteem

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Learning support in South Africa is a phenomenon where learners who experience barriers to learning are withdrawn from the mainstream class and receive support in their home language and mathematics. A need for learning support surfaced when emphasis was placed on inclusivity in mainstream schools. The efficacy of this withdrawal on self-esteem has however not been investigated. AIM: This study sought to investigate the learners' experiences of withdrawal for learning support and the relationship with their self-esteem. SETTING: A primary school in the Western Cape. METHODS: This qualitative design aimed to determine the perspective of the learners. Purposive sampling was used to identify five learners who received learning support. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to analyse data gleaned from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), which had been adapted into an informal interview schedule. RESULTS: Participants in this study did not report negative experiences of learning support. Learners identified that issues of negative self-esteem were unrelated to learning support, but were attributed to school culture, mainstream teachers' attitudes, family relationships, peer comparisons and social competencies. CONCLUSION: Participants reported that learning support rarely caused negative self-esteem, but rather heightened confidence in their academic abilities regardless of their need for learning support, holding social factors responsible for their negative self-esteem. The implications of these findings allude to the fact that withdrawal for learning support continues regardless of popular beliefs reported to the contrary. Schools should however monitor these learners in order to determine individual differences and needs.
       
  • Mind the gaps: Professional perspectives of technology-based teaching and
           learning in the Foundation Phase

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: As technology today is pervasive, this study seeks to examine how technological changes influence Foundation Phase learners, specifically the impact of technology on teaching and learning. AIM: This study establishes professional perspectives of technology-based teaching and learning (TBTL) in the Foundation Phase from the vantage point of two district officials from the Gauteng Department of Education. SETTING: This study was set in a chosen district in the Gauteng province because the environment was identified as data rich, which implies that the participants were able to share information based on the large number of Foundation Phase schools that they service. METHODS: Qualitative case study methods such as interviews, opinion pieces and field notes from district officials servicing Foundation Phase schools were examined through the theoretical lens of the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge model. RESULTS: The data gathered proved worthwhile in presenting the perspectives of TBTL in the Foundation Phase from one district in South Africa with regard to the benefits, barriers and gaps thereof. CONCLUSION: Implications for technological infrastructure, a Foundation Phase TBTL policy framework, teacher preparation training and in-service training, and support in finding appropriate content were given.
       
  • Profile of factors influencing academic motivation among grade 6 and 7
           learners at a state school

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Academic achievement is influenced by a system of internal and external stimuli. Internal stimuli include interest, willingness and academic motivation. In South Africa, efforts to improve the quality of education have mostly focused on the provision of physical resources rather than emotional resources. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the profile of four factors, namely, teacher style, role models, home environment and peer influence that can influence the academic motivation of grade 6 and 7 learners. SETTING: A parallel-medium primary state school in an urban part of Bloemfontein, Free State. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study. Data were collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed by the learners. The questions captured demographic data and measured the four categories of factors. RESULTS: Overall, 115 out of 202 learners participated (response rate 56.9%). Almost all learners felt that their teachers encouraged them to do their best (96.5%), but 61.3% felt they could not confide in their teachers with personal problems. Most learners had a role model (93.8%), and 70.9% expressed that the role model's hard work was the reason for their admiration. Most learners felt that they were surrounded by supportive people (83.0%) and had a good study environment at home (80.5%). The majority of learners had a group of friends with whom they felt they belong (90.3%), and they could confide in their best friends with personal problems (61.6%). CONCLUSION: Teacher style, peers and home environment scored high as important factors for academic motivation.
       
  • A modified analytical framework for describing m-learning (as applied to
           early grade Mathematics)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: There has been little Southern African research attention on the potentials of m-learning to support quality mathematics learning for young children and their caring adults. This article argues that m-learning research has shifted from claims of being promising to claims of effect in educational settings of both classrooms and homes. This is particularly the case in mathematics, where there is increasing evidence of positive (although modest) improvement in learning outcomes. AIM: This article modifies an analytical framework for initial descriptions of m-learning interventions. Comparison between interventions in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) context is then possible. SETTING: Three large-scale m-learning interventions focused on early grade mathematics in the SADC countries. METHODS: Targeting the early grades and building on an existing framework for describing m-learning interventions, three large-scale m-learning interventions from within the SADC were purposively selected. The three interventions exemplify a possible way to describe the learning theory and pedagogical emphasis underlying the design of their mathematics programmes. RESULTS: The cases themselves contribute to understanding the m-learning landscape and approaches to early grade mathematics in the SADC in more detail. CONCLUSION: A modified analytical framework is offered as a means of describing m-learning in ways that attend to children's and caregivers' use of mobile devices, as well as the underlying learning theories.
       
  • Learning through play in Grade R classrooms: Measuring practitioners'
           confidence, knowledge and practice

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This article reports on the evaluation of a professional development programme for underqualified Grade R practitioners, many of whom work under challenging conditions. AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the practitioners' confidence, knowledge and practice of play. SETTING: The programme involved a 5-week training programme for 1000 Grade R practitioners across three Eastern Cape districts. METHODS: The study included three data sources: (1) self-reported shifts in confidence and practice solicited through closed Likert-type questions, (2) responses to open-ended questions on knowledge of play and (3) lesson observations of case study practitioners, using a lesson observation protocol to distil quantitative shifts in the practice of case study practitioners (n = 10), compared with control practitioners (n = 4 RESULTS: The evaluation found positive shifts in practitioners' self-reporting on their confidence and knowledge of play. However, evidence of their knowledge of play was mixed. Practitioners offered very general conceptions of play, with specific attention on the expected 'form' of play. The use of materials for play, and changed classroom practice from whole class to small groups, were most strongly evident. Because it was short course of 5 weeks, lesson observations of case study practitioners were less positive, with no significant difference between treatment and control lesson observations. CONCLUSION: The study opens a window into the implementation of the 5-week professional development programme and the instrumentation used to reflect on practitioners' confidence, knowledge and practice of play. The discussion reflects critically on improving the instrumentation in future for measuring shifts in practitioner confidence, knowledge and practice of play.
       
  • A socially inclusive teaching strategy for fourth grade English (second)
           language learners in a South African school

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Learners from predominantly less priviledged South African schools encounter English as a language of teaching and learning for the first time in Grade 4. The transition from the use of home language to second language, namely English first additional language, is complexly related to the learners' inability to read text meaningfully. This complexity is traceable to the reading materials, actual teaching practices and learners' cultural underpinnings. Learners' inability to read text meaningfully impacts negatively their academic performance in general. AIM: This article demonstrates how a socially inclusive teaching strategy is used to enhance the teaching of reading in a second additional language to Grade 4 learners. SETTING: A one-teacher public school situated on a remote private property with bad access roads. Learners from neighbouring farms walked long distances to school. The teacher's administrative work and workshops often clashed with teaching and learning that received very limited support. METHODS: The principles of the free attitude interview technique and critical discourse analysis were used to generate and analyse the data. Socially inclusive teaching strategy that is participatory action research-oriented and underpinned by critical emancipatory research principles guided the study. RESULTS: The use of socially inclusive teaching strategy helped improve reading of English text significantly. CONCLUSION: Socially inclusive teaching strategy can help improve learning and teaching support materials, teacher support and learning.
       
  • How a professional development programme changes early grades teachers'
           literacy pedagogy

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Research on teacher professional learning which supports teaching of reading and writing at the foundation phase (FP) is limited in developing countries, including South Africa AIM: This article examines the ways in which three Foundation Phase teachers changed their practice during 18 months of learning from a formal university programme, the Advanced Certificate in Teaching (ACT). SETTING: The ACT was offered by the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. METHODS: The principles of teaching English as a First Additional Language (EFAL) were used as an instrument for describing change in practice. Using nine principles of teaching EFAL, derived from the ACT literacy learning guide as indicators, six video-recorded lessons (per teacher) were analysed and corroborated with interviews and field notes. RESULTS: The findings indicate a shift in teachers' practice in diverse ways. Two of the three teachers completed the programme having developed a deeper understanding of the natural approaches of acquiring EFAL according to Krashen's model. However, the third teacher did not change her practice. CONCLUSION: We argue that the findings support the research claim that teacher learning is influenced not only by the nature of the professional development activity but also by teachers' personal motivation to learn, and the school context in which they teach.
       
  • Music instruction and reading performance: Conceptual transfer in
           learning and development

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This article reported on the developmental consequences of music instruction in Foundation Phase level of South African school context, specifically in relation to learners' learning and acquisition of early reading abilities. Against the background of the recent upsurge in research interest on the subject of conceptual and skills transfer among primary school learners in South Africa, the article uses contemporary advances in theory to interrogate empirical research on the benefits of music instruction for successful acquisition of reading abilities. AIM: The study aimed to interrogate the question - and resuscitate debate about - how conceptual skills in one subject discipline could transfer to benefit the learning and development of related conceptual skills in a different but related subject discipline. SETTING: The setting for the research was a boys-only public primary school located in a middle-class suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Document analysis and observation of reading activities and the performance records of Foundation Phase learners was carried out by the first author, and the performance of a group that was part of the school's music instruction programme was compared with that of a group that was not part of that programme. RESULTS: The results suggested that participation in school music instruction might benefit primary school learners' development of early reading abilities. CONCLUSION: This is especially so when instructional activities are purposefully structured to benefit cognate conceptual skills, with crucial implications for policy development and the organisation of subject matter content knowledge in primary schooling in contemporary South Africa.
       
  • Distribution of additive relation word problems in South African early
           grade Mathematics workbooks

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Workbooks were introduced by the South African Department of Basic Education (DBE) in 2011. Although the workbooks were designed as supplementary materials, in some schools they are used as the sole teaching text. Therefore, an analysis of the content coverage of the workbooks is warranted. This article provides such an analysis in terms of additive relation word problems AIM: This article aims firstly to expound on the existing literature to propose a comprehensive additive relation word problem typology and secondly to analyse the prevalence of particular word problem types in the foundation phase Mathematics workbooks SETTING: This research was conducted in South Africa, focusing on additive relation word problems in foundation phase Mathematics workbooks METHODS: A comprehensive typology of additive relation word problem types was developed based on typologies used in previous studies. All the additive relation word problems in the 2017 Grades 1-3 foundation phase Mathematics workbooks were categorised according to this typology RESULTS: In total there were 61 single-step additive relation word problems with numerical answers across the three grades. This is a small number in comparison to other countries. There was also an uneven distribution of problem types, with more problems in the easier subcategories and fewer or no problems in the more difficult subcategories CONCLUSION: This article provides evidence for the need to revise the word problems in the DBE workbooks. It also provides a theoretical framework to use in the revision of the workbooks and in any supplementary teaching material developed for teachers
       
  • Phonological awareness and reading in Northern Sotho - Understanding the
           contribution of phonemes and syllables in Grade 3 reading attainment

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The role of phonological awareness (PA) in successful reading attainment in Northern Sotho has received some attention. However, the importance of developing an awareness to the different phonological grain sizes that underlie decoding (i.e. to different dimensions of PA) has not been established in this language AIM: This study assessed different levels of PA in Northern Sotho learners in order to determine the relationship between phoneme awareness, syllable awareness and reading SETTING: The research was conducted in Atteridgeville, a suburb in Tshwane. The participants were Grade 3 learners who spoke Northern Sotho as home language, and who received their literacy instruction in Northern Sotho in the foundation phase METHOD: The research was cross-sectional, with a correlational component. Phoneme awareness was assessed via a phoneme identification and elision task, whereas syllable awareness was assessed with a syllable elision task RESULTS: Statistical analyses revealed that Northern Sotho learners are significantly better at identifying syllables than phonemes, but that phoneme awareness predicts reading outcomes more accurately CONCLUSION: This study suggests that phoneme awareness does not necessarily develop early or automatically in languages with a simple syllable structure and a transparent orthography and evaluates this finding against the predictions of the Psycholinguistic Grain Size Theory. The importance of explicitly teaching phoneme-grapheme correspondences to Northern Sotho learners is highlighted
       
  • Countering linguistic imperialism with stories in the languages of Africa:
           The African Storybook initiative as a model for enabling in and out of
           school literacies

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In South Africa, and in many other African countries, official language-in-education policy supports the use of learners' primary language(s) in early schooling. In reality, texts in the language(s) of the former colonial power are dominant, with high-interest texts in languages familiar to young learners in short supply or non-existent. Where government education departments have begun to address this shortage, it is mainly by producing graded readers in the 'standard' variety of a language AIM: The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate how quality texts can be provided in a wide range of African languages to stimulate children's interest in reading, across the African continent and beyond SETTING: The African Storybook (ASb) initiative of the South African Institute of Distance Education (Saide) aims to provide illustrated texts in local languages and language varieties that enable children to read for pleasure and for learning. This is done through a publishing model that makes these texts available, cost-effectively, as needed, by teachers, librarians and caregivers METHODS: Internal reports, external evaluations, two interviews with the initiative's co-ordinator and a review of selected texts on the ASb website provided data for analysis RESULTS: The analysis enabled reflection on the challenges faced and the successes achieved, identification of factors that have enabled many of the challenges to be addressed and finally consideration of what the initiative offers as a model for supporting literacy development in local languages CONCLUSION: While the paper tells a story that includes elements of a cautionary tale, it is primarily a story that offers inspiration and guidance to other organisations already involved in, or wishing to embark on, the important project of providing texts for young readers in a wide range of languages
       
  • Early reading skills related to Grade 1 English Second Language literacy
           in rural South African schools

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many South African children attend African language medium of instruction (MOI) schools, learn English as an additional language and switch to English MOI three years later. There is still much to be researched about how a child's first and second language literacy develops over time in South Africa. AIM: This study aims to outline the first and second language skills at the start of Grade 1, which are associated with English Second Language literacy at the end of Grade 1 through the use of a longitudinal design. SETTING: Data was collected from 80 predominantly rural no-fee isiZulu and Siswati MOI schools in Mpumalanga. METHODS: A total of 1347 learners were randomly selected from these schools and were individually assessed on various first language (isiZulu or Siswati) and English skills at the start and end of Grade 1 RESULTS: The data show that learners begin school with varying first and second language oral language proficiency levels, and most learners are pre-literate. Decoding skills improved over the year, but 45.7% and 35% of learners were still unable to read a first language or English word correctly in 1 min. CONCLUSION: The data confirm the importance of first language phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge for later word-reading abilities in isiZulu, Siswati and English, as well as their importance for English spelling. The study highlights the importance of the systematic development of English oral proficiency during the Foundation Phase especially for rural children who are not exposed to English in their communities.
       
  • From 'sheep' to 'amphibian': English vocabulary teaching strategies in
           South African township schools

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: South African learners have performed consistently poorly in reading assessments. This paper addresses two key components in improving reading literacy: vocabulary development and teacher knowledge and skills required for quality vocabulary instruction. AIM: This small-scale exploratory study reports on the English vocabulary teaching strategies of eight Grade 3 teachers in South African township schools serving poor communities and their implementation of these strategies in practice. SETTING: The Western Cape teachers taught English Home Language (HL) learners. The Eastern Cape teachers taught Xhosa HL and English First Additional Language (FAL) learners. METHODS: Teacher interviews and classroom observations. RESULTS: The teachers used a range of basic vocabulary teaching strategies that complied with evidence-based vocabulary teaching strategies identified in the literature. However, most of the strategies employed did not reach an advanced level of active learning in which students were challenged and took ownership of their own vocabulary learning. Results showed that especially the English FAL teachers relied heavily on their L1 for vocabulary instruction. CONCLUSION: Grade 3 teachers in South African schools that serve poor communities are capable of providing rich print exposure in their classrooms showing that schools can, to a certain extent, play a compensatory role for the limited literacy opportunities in homes of children from low socio-economic backgrounds. However, in order for the learners to develop a more durable, rich vocabulary their teachers would need to engage in more interactive and in-depth instruction. Implications for policy are discussed.
       
  • A comparison of the early reading strategies of isiXhosa and Setswana
           first language learners

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large amount of evidence highlights the obvious inequalities in literacy results of South African learners. Despite this, a sound understanding of how learners approach the task of reading in the African languages is lacking. AIM: This article examines the role of the syllable, phoneme and morpheme in reading in transparent, agglutinating languages. The focus is on whether differences in the orthographies of isiXhosa and Setswana influence reading strategies through a comparative study of the interaction between metalinguistic skills and orthography. SETTING: Data was collected from Grade 3 first-language and Grade 4 Setswana home-language learners attending no fee schools in the Eastern Cape and North West Province respectively. METHODS: Learners were tested on four linguistic tasks: an open-ended decomposition task, a phonological awareness task, a morphological awareness task and an oral reading fluency task. These tasks were administered to determine the grain size unit which learners use in connected-text reading. RESULTS: The results indicated that syllables were the dominant grain size in both isiXhosa and Setswana, with the use of morphemes as secondary grains in isiXhosa. These results are reflected in the scores of the metalinguistic tasks. CONCLUSION: This research contributes to an understanding of how linguistic and orthographic features of African languages need to be taken into consideration in understanding literacy development.
       
  • Barriers and bridges between mother tongue and English as a second
           language in young children

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Social and economic aspirations held by parents can reflect a desire for their children to learn English as a second language. Bilingual education has the potential for empowering traditionally disadvantaged groups, particularly through competence in English, a language that positions identity with power, privilege and status, thus being a political and an economic issue. AIM: The aim was to look critically at the language development of young second-language learners within their social context SETTING: An early childhood centre in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: Methodologically, a qualitative praxeological framework was used. Parent partnership in sustaining the mother tongue was sought and explored in focus group interviews, using an action-reflection cycle to understand the dilemma of young second-language learners in South Africa. Ways of overcoming language barriers using the strengths of the child were explored using persona dolls. These methods helped to develop sustained, shared thinking between children, their parents and the researcher. RESULTS: Young children found their own means of engaging in meaning-making processes both at home and at school. The issue of linguicism was tackled by encouraging parental participation in sustaining the mother tongue while children learned English as a second language CONCLUSION: As long as English means access to improved economic opportunities, there will be a bias against those whose home language is not English. The dilemma of the young English language learner remains an issue of equity, access and redress for past injustices.
       
  • From active joining to child-led participation: A new approach to examine
           participation in teaching practice

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The new core curriculum for basic education in Finland emphasises the interrelation between learners' participation and multidisciplinary learning. Each learner must be provided with an opportunity to join at least one multidisciplinary learning module each year. Hence, student teachers also implement a multidisciplinary learning module as part of their teaching practice at the University of Helsinki AIM: In this article, I describe how two multidisciplinary learning modules were implemented by four third-year student teachers in a teacher training school and how they were educated to analyse the different forms of participation in their teaching. SETTING: The research question of this article is as follows: How do different teaching practices used in multidisciplinary learning modules support learners' participation' METHODS: The data of this study consist of two documentation forms: two semi-structured group interviews and a field note diary RESULTS: The results showed that most of the practices used in multidisciplinary learning modules supported an active joining form of participation and a collaborative form of participation. In the multidisciplinary learning modules, a child-oriented form of participation was supported through practices that related to creating artistic learning outcomes; however, no practices supported a child-led form of participation CONCLUSION: In this study, the student teachers learned to analyse the different forms of participation in their teaching. Nevertheless, more data about the workability of the mentoring method in other contexts are needed.
       
  • Vulnerable masculinities: Implications of gender socialisation in three
           rural Swazi primary schools

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This article draws on social constructionism to explore vulnerable boys' constructions of gender within three primary schools in Swaziland. OBJECTIVES: It seeks to understand the ways in which vulnerable boys make meaning of masculinities and the implications of these on their social and academic well-being in schools. METHOD: The study adopted a qualitative narrative inquiry methodology, utilising individual and focus group semi-structured interviews and a participatory photovoice technique as its methods of data generation. The participants comprised 15 purposively selected vulnerable boys - orphaned boys, those from child-headed households and from poor socio-economic backgrounds, aged between 11 and 16 years. RESULTS: The findings denote that vulnerable boys constructed their masculinities through heterosexuality where the normative discourse was that they provide for girls in heterosexual relationships. The vulnerable boys' socio-economic status rendered them unable to fulfil these obligations. Failure to fulfil the provider role predisposed vulnerable boys to ridicule and humiliation. However, some vulnerable boys adopted caring attitudes as they constructed alternative masculinities. CONCLUSION: The study recommends the need to affirm and promote alternative masculinities as a strategy for enhancing gender-inclusive and equitable schooling experiences for vulnerable boys.
       
  • Home as a primary space: Exploring out-of-school literacy practices in
           early childhood education in a township in South Africa

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early childhood education is essential in bridging home and school literacy practices; however, recognising the home as a literacy space remains a challenge to educators in South African schools. AIM: The aim of this article was to explore children's literacy practices, often through play, and the potential implications this might hold for their future careers as readers and writers. The article conceptualises home as the primary domain where literacy develops SETTING: The study was conducted in a multilingual township in South Africa. METHODS: We engage with key theories in sociocultural studies and new literacy studies, as well as key ideas from young children's learning experiences with family members and peers during play. Methodologically, we undertook a case study in which we conducted interviews with parents, guardians and educators, as well as conducting home observations of the children's literacy practices. RESULTS: We confirmed that children's out-of-school practices have the potential to support literacy development in school, and we concluded that children interact with multiple discourses during their everyday practices and play. CONCLUSION: Although there is a general lack of knowledge and understanding of these discourses by educators, these interactions have the potential to enhance schooled literacies.
       
  • Multiplicative reasoning: An intervention's impact on Foundation Phase
           learners' understanding

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Given the context of low attainment in primary mathematics in South Africa, improving learners' understanding of multiplicative reasoning is important as it underpins much of later mathematics. AIM: Within a broader research programme aiming to improve Foundation Phase (Grades 1-3, 7-9-year-olds) learners' mathematical performance, the aim of the particular research reported on here was to improve learners' understanding of and attainment in multiplicative reasoning when solving context-based problems. SETTING: The research was conducted in a suburban school serving a predominantly historically disadvantaged learner population, and involved teachers and learners from three classes in each of Grades 1-3. METHODS: A 4-week intervention piloted the use of context-based problems and array images to encourage learners to model (through pictures and diagrams) the problem situations, with the models produced used both to support problem solving and to support understanding of the multiplicative structures of the contexts. RESULTS: Cleaning the data to include those learners participating at all three data points - pre-, post- and delayed post-test - provided findings based on 233 matched learners. These findings show that, on average, Grade 1 learners had a mean score average increase of 22 percentage points between the pre-test and the delayed post-test, with Grades 2 and 3 having mean increases of 10 and 9 percentage points, respectively. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate that young learners can be helped to better understand and improve their attainment in multiplicative reasoning, and suggest the usefulness of trialling the intervention model more broadly across schools.
       
  • Early learning experiences, school entry skills and later mathematics
           achievement in South Africa

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The acquired skill set prior to school entry has emerged as an important issue in research and policy internationally. Much evidence exists advocating the importance of early numeracy and literacy skills in later academic achievement and economic outcomes of students. AIM: The goal of this study was to determine the association between parents' reports of engagement in pre-Grade 1 learning activities and school entry skills, and mathematics achievement in Grade 5. SETTING: This study was based on empirical evidence using South African data from the 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. METHODS: These relationships were investigated by using stepwise multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: It was found that parent reports of engagement in pre-Grade 1 activities and acquired school entry skills are positively associated with student achievement at the Grade 5 level. This held even when taking other contextual home factors into account: socio-economic status and the frequency of speaking the language of the test at home. CONCLUSION: The role of the home is important in preparing children for school and has an impact on their later achievement. The home context should therefore be a key consideration in enhancing the South African education system. Parent reports are a good indicator of engagement in early learning activities and acquired numeracy and literacy skills prior to school entry.
       
  • Reflective self-study for an integrated learning approach to early
           childhood mathematics teacher education

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: This article gives an account of what I learned through the process of a self-study research project. Self-study teacher research allows teacher educators and teachers to improve their learning, plan new pedagogies and impact students' learning AIM: The aim of this self-study research was to improve my own practice in early childhood mathematics teacher education through interaction and collaboration with others, such as colleagues and students. SETTING: As a South African university-based teacher educator, I piloted an integrated learning approach (ILA) in the teaching and learning of early childhood mathematics in a selected undergraduate programme. METHODS: I began by tracking my personal development in mathematics education and in so doing was able to recognise my personal learning of mathematics as a child growing up in an African township context. I then worked with a class of 38 student teachers to create collages and concept maps to explore their understandings and experiences of ILA. RESULTS: Through this project, I discovered that colleagues in the role of critical friends provided essential feedback on my work in progress. I also learned that student teachers need to be equipped with knowledge and hands-on experience of how integration can take place in teaching and learning early childhood mathematics. I realised that it was essential to constantly reflect on my own personal history and my professional practice to explore new ways of teaching mathematics. CONCLUSION: Teacher educators may consider engaging in self-study research that includes art-based self-study methods to reflect on their practices and see how they change for the benefit of their students and ultimately for the benefit of the learners.
       
 
 
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