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Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 724 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 724 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 5)
ACIMED     Open Access  
Acta Agronómica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 2)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.32, h-index: 18)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 23)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.251, h-index: 6)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.319, h-index: 19)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 6)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.288, h-index: 10)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 15)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 15)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 4)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 15)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.114, h-index: 3)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.142, h-index: 8)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 4)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 1)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 23)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 42)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 18)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 3)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 8)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.997, h-index: 25)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 29)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 0)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 13)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 16)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 4)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 9)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, h-index: 19)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.307, h-index: 22)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 32)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.308, h-index: 19)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, h-index: 22)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.374, h-index: 38)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 3)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.377, h-index: 18)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access  
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.373, h-index: 18)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 10)
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.227, h-index: 5)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.231, h-index: 8)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 1)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 10)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.522, h-index: 20)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 31)
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.47, h-index: 34)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 35)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.424, h-index: 32)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.541, h-index: 70)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.39, h-index: 38)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 13)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 6)
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.466, h-index: 16)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.452, h-index: 32)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.184, h-index: 10)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.819, h-index: 123)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 4)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 5)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 8)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 55)
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access  
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.179, h-index: 4)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 11)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 15)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.49, h-index: 13)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.588, h-index: 30)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.322, h-index: 4)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.117, h-index: 7)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 13)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.444, h-index: 19)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 10)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 24)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 7)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 21)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.175, h-index: 8)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.15, h-index: 3)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.525, h-index: 36)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 12)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 4)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.104, h-index: 1)
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 1)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, h-index: 4)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 13)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 4)
Cuadernos.info     Open Access   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 2)
Cubo. A Mathematical J.     Open Access  
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (SJR: 0.429, h-index: 15)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DELTA : Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.142, h-index: 5)
Dementia & Neuropsychologia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 10)
Dental Press J. of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.214, h-index: 7)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Diálogo Andino - Revista de Historia, Geografía y Cultura Andina     Open Access  
Diánoia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dynamis : Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.134, h-index: 7)
e-J. of Portuguese History     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 2)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Economia Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.168, h-index: 6)
Economia e Sociedade     Open Access  
EconoQuantum     Open Access  
Educação & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.244, h-index: 12)
Educação e Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.171, h-index: 8)
Educação em Revista     Open Access  
Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Educación Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, h-index: 7)
Educación Médica Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 7)
Educación y Educadores     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educar em Revista     Open Access  
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros     Open Access  
Ene : Revista de Enfermería     Open Access  
Enfermería Global     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 2)
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engenharia Agrícola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.396, h-index: 18)
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Entomologia y Vectores     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, h-index: 8)
Estudios Constitucionales     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 5)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 1)
Estudios de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.144, h-index: 7)
Estudios de historia moderna y contemporánea de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 3)
Estudios Filologicos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, h-index: 3)
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios internacionales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios Pedagogicos (Valdivia)     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 7)
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Journal Cover Ciencias Psicológicas
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   ISSN (Print) 1688-4094 - ISSN (Online) 1688-4221
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [724 journals]
  • Aphid density and community composition differentially affect apterous
           aphid movement and plant virus transmission

    • Authors: SUZI B. CLAFLIN; ALISON G. POWER, JENNIFER S. THALER
      Abstract: 1. Although many vector-borne pathogens are transmitted by an array of vector species, most studies do not account for the potential effects of species interactions.2. By manipulating conspecific and heterospecific vector density in small experimental mesocosms, this study disentangled the impact of vector density and community composition on vector movement and plant virus transmission in the potato virus Y system.3. The following predictions were tested: (i) increasing aphid density will increase aphid movement and virus transmission; (ii) adding low-efficiency vectors and thereby decreasing the average transmission efficiency of the vector assemblage will decrease virus transmission; and (iii) aphid movement and the average vector transmission efficiency will mediate the effect of aphid density and community composition on virus transmission.4. It was found that initial density positively affected aphid movement, but had no effect on virus transmission, and that conspecific density was more important than heterospecific density. Conversely, community composition affected both aphid movement and virus transmission. These effects were driven by species identity, rather than species richness per se.5. The results of this study emphasise the importance of accounting for vector behaviour, and analysing it within the context of the wider vector assemblage.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T05:15:50.464344-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12381
       
  • Early exposure to predation risk carries over metamorphosis in two
           distantly related freshwater insects

    • Authors: LAIA FONTANA-BRIA; JESÚS SELFA, CARLES TUR, ENRIC FRAGO
      Abstract: 1. Predation and competition play a central role in ecological communities, and it is increasingly recognised that animals use early warning cues to reduce the impact of these antagonistic interactions.2. Strategies to avoid risk can occur during embryo development through plasticity in egg hatching time. This strategy, and its associated costs and carryover effects on adults are little understood in insects. In this study, these are explored in two distantly related freshwater insects: the damselfly Ischnura elegans and the mosquito Aedes albopictus.3. As predicted, damselfly eggs hatched earlier in response to larval predators cues, a treatment that also affected adult size. Risk cues did not affect mosquito egg hatching time, but they did affect larval development time in a sex-dependent manner.4. The results suggest that responses aimed at avoiding risks can be triggered during the egg stage, and although they can vary dramatically among species, they are likely to be widespread in insects. Early warning responses can be particularly important to understand the ecology of aquatic insects, some of them global vectors of human diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T05:15:36.755291-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12382
       
  • The three criteria for resistance by plant carrion-provisioning: insect
           entrapment and predator enrichment on Mimulus bolanderi

    • Authors: ERIC F. LOPRESTI; KATHERINE TOLL
      Abstract: 1. Many sticky plants provision mutualistic scavenging arthropod predators with carrion, which in turn protect the plant from insect herbivores. While insect entrapment is a common trait across plants, which plants attract these predators and may derive protection is still largely unknown.2. Three conditions were proposed that must be satisfied for observational data to suggest this defensive strategy: (i) the consistent presence of scavenging predators, (ii) positive correlation between predator numbers and carrion, and (iii) suitability of these predators for controlling known herbivores.3. As a case study, we examined the fire-following annual, Mimulus [Diplacus] bolanderi (Phyrmaceae), which is part of a well-studied radiation of California monkeyflowers. Many monkeyflowers entrap insects, though attraction to predators has not been quantified in this genus.4. A guild of scavenging arthropod predators on M. bolanderi (condition #1) was found, which correlated positively with carrion abundance (#2) and could consume the primary herbivore (#3), suggesting a carrion-mediated defensive strategy. Lastly, as M. bolanderi is variable in time and space, these interactions are facultative, and these predators are quick to adopt ephemeral carrion resources on novel host plants.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T08:40:28.900397-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12377
       
  • Faithful vertical transmission but ineffective horizontal transmission of
           bacterial endosymbionts during sexual reproduction of the black bean
           aphid, Aphis fabae

    • Authors: CHRISTOPH VORBURGER; GABRIELLE SIEGRIST, NICOLA RHYNER
      Abstract: 1. Insects are commonly infected with bacterial endosymbionts. In addition to the costs and benefits associated with harbouring these symbionts, their rates of vertical and horizontal transmission are important determinants of symbiont prevalence.2. Aphids are cyclical parthenogens and show virtually perfect maternal transmission of endosymbionts during asexual reproduction. Less clear is the role of the annual sexual generation, during which overwintering eggs are produced. Data from pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) suggest that maternal transmission failures and horizontal transmission via males may occur under sexual reproduction at least occasionally. No such data exist for other aphid species.3. In the present study, the rates of maternal and paternal transmission of facultative endosymbionts during sexual reproduction in the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) were examined. Crosses were performed between clones infected with Hamiltonella defensa, clones infected with Regiella insecticola and clones without facultative endosymbionts, and eggs were overwintered under three different conditions.4. Only one of 205 offspring from crosses testing for maternal transmission failed to inherit the symbiont present in the maternal clone, and in crosses testing for horizontal transmission, only one of 412 offspring acquired a facultative symbiont from the father.5. These results show that in A. fabae, maternal transmission of H. defensa and R. insecticola is extremely reliable also during sexual reproduction, indicating that maternal transmission failures are unlikely to exert a significant influence on frequencies of infection in the field. Paternal transmission of endosymbionts was exceedingly rare, suggesting that this route of horizontal transmission may be less important than hitherto assumed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T07:20:56.631628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12379
       
  • Long-distance dispersal of non-native pine bark beetles from host
           resources

    • Authors: KEVIN D. CHASE; DAVE KELLY, ANDREW M. LIEBHOLD, MARTIN K.-F. BADER, ECKEHARD G. BROCKERHOFF
      Abstract: 1. Dispersal and host detection are behaviours promoting the spread of invading populations in a landscape matrix. In fragmented landscapes, the spatial arrangement of habitat structure affects the dispersal success of organisms.2. The aim of the present study was to determine the long distance dispersal capabilities of two non-native pine bark beetles (Hylurgus ligniperda and Hylastes ater) in a modified and fragmented landscape with non-native pine trees. The role of pine density in relation to the abundance of dispersing beetles was also investigated.3. This study took place in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. A network of insect panel traps was installed in remote valleys at known distances from pine resources (plantations or windbreaks). Beetle abundance was compared with spatially weighted estimates of nearby pine plantations and pine windbreaks.4. Both beetles were found ≥25 km from the nearest host patch, indicating strong dispersal and host detection capabilities. Small pine patches appear to serve as stepping stones, promoting spread through the landscape. Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) abundance had a strong inverse association with pine plantations and windbreaks, whereas H. ater abundance was not correlated with distance to pine plantations but positively correlated with distance to pine windbreaks, probably reflecting differences in biology and niche preferences. Host availability and dispersed beetle abundance are the proposed limiting factors impeding the spread of these beetles.5. These mechanistic insights into the spread and persistence of H. ater and H. ligniperda in a fragmented landscape provide ecologists and land managers with a better understanding of factors leading to successful invasion events, particularly in relation to the importance of long-distance dispersal ability and the distribution and size of host patches.
      PubDate: 2016-12-26T02:15:35.703363-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12371
       
  • Between florivory and herbivory: inefficacy of decision-making by
           generalist floriphilic katydids

    • Authors: MING KAI TAN; HUGH TIANG WAH TAN
      Abstract: 1. Florivory, which is less studied but as equally widespread as herbivory, can have effects on plant and floral trait adaptations, individual fitness, and community interactions. However, there are still knowledge gaps in our understanding of florivory, including the role of neural constraints and diet specialisation of florivores in floral resource utilisation.2. According to the neural constraint hypothesis, a generalist flower-visiting katydid is expected to have lower decision-making efficacy in feeding when subjected to the presence of both capitula and leaves, compared to the presence of either one of the two resources.3. In the present study, experiments using the katydid, Phaneroptera brevis, and the plant, whiteweed, Ageratum conyzoides, were carried out to examine the foraging behaviour of the katydid to test our hypothesis. The results confirmed the prediction of the neural constraint hypothesis.4. The decision-making efficacy was generally lowered when the katydid was presented with the choice for both the resource that is preferred (capitula) and less preferred (leaves). It was also shown that Phaneroptera brevis is floriphilic, as it prefers capitula to leaves.5. In conclusion, the first evidence of neural constraint in florivory is provided and suggests that more can be explored into the effects of neural constraints and diet specialisation in floral resource utilisation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T02:00:31.029579-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12369
       
  • The importance of canopy complexity in shaping seasonal spider and beetle
           assemblages in saltmarsh habitats

    • Authors: HILARY FORD; BEN EVANS, ROEL KLINK, MARTIN W. SKOV, ANGUS GARBUTT
      Abstract: 1. Habitat structure, including vegetation structural complexity, largely determines invertebrate assemblages in semi-natural grasslands. The importance of structural complexity to the saltmarsh invertebrate community, where the interplay between vegetation characteristics and tidal inundation is key, is less well known.2. It was hypothesised that canopy complexity would be a more important predictor of spider and beetle assemblages than simple vegetation attributes (e.g. height, community type) and environmental variables (e.g. elevation) alone, measured in two saltmarsh regions, south-east (Essex) and north-west (Morecambe Bay) U.K. Canopy complexity (number of non-vegetated ‘gaps’ in canopy ≥ 1 mm wide) was assessed using side-on photography. Over 1500 spiders and beetles were sampled via suction sampling, winter and summer combined.3. In summer, saltmarshes with abundant spider and beetle populations were characterised by high scores for canopy complexity often associated with tussocky grass or shrub cover. Simple vegetation attributes (plant cover, height) accounted for 26% of variation in spider abundance and 14% in spider diversity, rising to 46% and 41%, respectively, with the addition of canopy complexity score. Overwintering spider assemblages were associated with elevation and vegetation biomass. Summer beetle abundance, in particular the predatory and zoophagous group, and diversity were best explained by elevation and plant species richness.4. Summer canopy complexity was identified as a positive habitat feature for saltmarsh spider communities (ground-running hunters and sheet weavers) with significant ‘added value’ over more commonly measured attributes of vegetation structure.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T02:00:25.420939-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12373
       
  • Local climate mediates spatial and temporal variation in carabid beetle
           communities in three forests in Mount Odaesan, Korea

    • Authors: YONGHWAN PARK; JONGKUK KIM, TEAWOONG JANG, HEEMUN CHAE, YASUOKI TAKAMI
      Abstract: 1. Global environmental change can dramatically alter the composition of floral and faunal communities, and elucidating the mechanisms underlying this process is important for predicting its outcomes. Studies on global climate change have mostly focused on statistical summaries within wide spatial and temporal scales; less attention has been paid to variability in microclimates at narrower spatial and temporal scales.2. The microclimate is the suite of climatic conditions measured in a local area. Environmental variables at the microclimatic scale can be critical for the ecology of organisms inhabiting each area. The effect of spatial and temporal changes in the microclimate on the ecology of carabid beetle communities in three sites on Mount Odaesan, Korea was examined.3. Carabid beetle communities and quantified site-specific environmental factors from measurements of air temperature, air humidity, light intensity and soil temperature over 5 years (2010–2015) were surveyed.4. It was found that microclimatic variables and the patterns of temporal changes in carabid beetle communities differed between the three sites within the single mountain system. Microclimatic variables influencing temporal changes in beetle communities also differed between the sites. Therefore, it is suggested that variation in local microclimates affects spatial and temporal variation in carabid beetle communities at a local scale.5. The present results demonstrate the importance of regular surveys of communities at local scales. Such surveys are expected to reveal an additional fraction of variation in communities and underlying processes that have been overlooked in studies of global community patterns and change.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21T05:40:36.907619-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12370
       
  • Geographical variation in mandible morphologies specialised for
           collembolan predation depend on prey size in the ant Strumigenys lewisi

    • Authors: KYOHSUKE OHKAWARA; KAZUKI NAKAMURA, NATSUMI KADOKURA, TAKAAKI TERASHITA
      Abstract: 1. Ants in the genus Strumigenys are predator ants that feed on tiny soil arthropods. The mandibles are modified into high-speed traps to capture swift collembolan prey. The peculiar mandible morphologies of these ants have evolved depending on characteristics of the prey. Specifically, the evolution of mandible size and shape may be directly driven by prey size.2. In the present study, the intraspecific variation of the morphological traits of Strumigenys lewisi populations were observed in central Japan. The relationships between the morphological variations and the prey body size were analysed.3. In workers and queens, three morphological traits, head width, mandible length, and mandible width were significantly different among the multiple sites. Specifically, the mandible length was shorter in southwestern Japan than in other sampling locations. The ancova model revealed that the allometry of the mandible length to the head width was different among the sites.4. As predicted, the mandible length was positively correlated with the average body size of collembolans in the Entomobryidae family. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that the variation of the mandible length was affected by environmental factors represented as location information. However, the effect of collembolan body size was more effective at predicting mandible length. The study suggests that the geographical variation of mandible morphologies in S. lewisi has been selected by predator–prey interactions with collembolans.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T03:31:59.270584-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12374
       
  • Seasonality of salt foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    • Authors: RACHAEL E. BONOAN; TAYLOR M. TAI, MARLEN TAGLE RODRIGUEZ, LAINE FELLER, SALVATORE R. DADDARIO, REBECCA A. CZAJA, LUKE D. O'CONNOR, GEORGIANA BURRUSS, PHILIP T. STARKS
      Abstract: 1. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) prefer foraging at compound-rich, ‘dirty’, water sources over clean water sources. As a honey bee's main floral diet only contains trace amounts of micronutrients – likely not enough to sustain an entire colony – it was hypothesised that honey bees forage in dirty water for physiologically essential minerals that their floral diet, and thus the colony, may lack.2. While there are many studies regarding macronutrient requirements of honey bees, few investigate micronutrient needs. For this study, from 2013 to 2015, a series of preference assays were conducted in both summer and autumn.3. During all field seasons, honey bees exhibited a strong preference for sodium in comparison to deionised water. There was, however, a notable switch in preferences for other minerals between seasons.4. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium – three minerals most commonly found in pollen – were preferred in autumn when pollen was scarce, but were avoided in summer when pollen was abundant. Thus, as floral resources change in distribution and abundance, honey bees similarly change their water-foraging preferences.5. Our data suggest that, although they are generalists with relatively few gustatory receptor genes, honey bee foragers are fine-tuned to search for micronutrients. This ability likely helps the foragers in their search for a balanced diet for the colony as a whole.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14T02:15:27.00974-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12375
       
  • Community-wide impacts of early season herbivory on flower visitors on
           tall goldenrod

    • Authors: MITO IKEMOTO; TAKASHI Y. IDA, SHUNSUKE UTSUMI, TAKAYUKI OHGUSHI
      Abstract: 1. The flower visitor community consists not only of pollinators but also of non-pollinators, such as florivores, thieves and predators that attack flower visitors. Although there is increasing evidence that early-season foliar herbivory influences pollinator visitation through changes in floral traits, few studies have explored indirect effects of foliar herbivory on community structure of the flower visitors. We examined how early-season foliar herbivory influences the flower visitor community established in late season.2. We conducted an inoculation experiment using a lacebug (Corythucha marmorata), which is a predominantly herbivorous insect attacking leaves of tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima) in Japan.3. Flower abundance significantly decreased when damaged by the lacebug. The numbers of pollinators, florivores and thieves were positively correlated with flower abundance, whereas predators were not. In response to flower abundance, florivores decreased on damaged plants. On the other hand, thieves increased on damaged plants, and pollinators and predators did not differ between damaged and undamaged plants.4. When effects of flower abundance were excluded, foliar herbivory still influenced florivores negatively and thieves positively. This implies that factors besides flower abundance may have affected the numbers of florivores and thieves.5. Community composition of flower visitors on damaged plants significantly differed from undamaged plants, although overall abundance, taxonomic richness and taxonomic evenness were unaffected by foliar herbivory in the early season. It is important to recognise that only evaluating species diversity and overall abundance may fail to detect the significant consequence of early-season herbivory on the flower visitor community.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:05:22.657309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12372
       
  • Ecology shapes metabolic and life history scalings in termites

    • Authors: PEDRO A. C. L. PEQUENO; FABRICIO B. BACCARO, JORGE L. P. SOUZA, ELIZABETH FRANKLIN
      Abstract: 1. Metabolic rate (B) is a fundamental property of organisms, and scales with body mass (M) as B = αMβ. There has been much debate on whether scaling parameters should be viewed as constants or variables. However, there is increasing evidence that ecological differentiation can affect both α and β.2. In colonial organisms such as social insects, individual metabolism is integrated at the colony level. Theory and data suggest that whole-colony metabolism partly reflects individual-level metabolic and life-history scalings, but whether these have been affected by ecological diversification is little known.3. Here, this issue was addressed using termites. Data from the literature were assembled to assess the interspecific scalings of individual metabolic rate with individual mass, and of individual mass with colony mass. Concurrently, it was tested whether such scalings were affected by two key ecological traits: lifestyle and diet.4. Individual-level metabolic scaling was affected by diet, with β = 1.02 in wood feeders and 0.60 in soil feeders. However, there was no difference in α. Further, individual mass scaled to the 0.25 power with colony mass, but forager species had larger colonies and smaller individuals relative to wood-dwelling, sedentary ones, thus producing a grade shift.5. Our results show that ecological diversification has affected fundamental metabolic and life-history scalings in termites. Thus, theory on the energetics and evolution of colonial life should account for this variability.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T15:35:50.173924-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12362
       
  • Interspecific variation in neighbour–stranger discrimination in ants of
           the Neoponera apicalis complex

    • Authors: BORIS YAGOUND; MATHILDE CROWET, CHLOÉ LEROY, CHANTAL POTEAUX, NICOLAS CH ÂLINE
      Abstract: 1. The ecological success of social insects lies in their ability to prevent the exploitation of colony resources by competitors or parasites. Nestmate recognition is therefore of crucial importance in maintaining the integrity of the colony. Furthermore, inter-colony competitive relationships are often complex, as many species discriminate between neighbours and strangers, with reduced (the dear enemy phenomenon) or increased levels of aggression towards nearby colonies, depending on the species. In this context, between-species comparisons could be particularly helpful to investigate the proximate causes underlying this context-dependent phenomenon, but these are notoriously lacking.2. Here an attempt was made to circumvent this drawback by studying three closely related sympatric ant species with very similar life histories that belong to the Neoponera apicalis complex. The present study investigated how nestmate recognition and inter-colony competitive relationships were influenced by spatial, chemical and genetic distances between colonies.3. It was found that one species, N. apicalis morph 7, showed a clear dear enemy phenomenon with no influence of chemical and genetic distances, suggesting the existence of a learning process. In contrast, N. apicalis morph 4 and Neoponera verenae morph 1 failed to show any strong discrimination between close and distant non-nestmates.4. These results are discussed in the light of the observed interspecific variation in nesting preferences, possibly constraining the opportunities of familiarisation between nearby nests, and modulating the competition for resources between colonies.5. It is argued that this study further reinforces the relative threat level hypothesis as an ultimate explanation for neighbour–stranger discrimination processes.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04T04:22:54.063697-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12363
       
  • Coping with the cold: minimum temperatures and thermal tolerances dominate
           the ecology of mountain ants

    • Authors: TOM R. BISHOP; MARK P. ROBERTSON, BERNDT J. RENSBURG, CATHERINE L. PARR
      Abstract: 1. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are often cited as highly thermophilic and this has led to a range of studies investigating their thermal tolerances. It is unknown, however, if the geographic distribution of ant thermal tolerance conforms to the two major macropyhsiological rules that have been found in other taxa: Janzen's and Brett's rules. In addition, there is a paucity of data on how the lower thermal tolerances of ants are able to influence behaviour.2. These two knowledge gaps were addressed here by sampling ants across a 1500 m elevational gradient in southern Africa and estimating the upper (CTmax) and lower (CTmin) thermal tolerances of 31 and 28 species, respectively. Ant abundances and soil temperatures were also recorded across the gradient over 6 years.3. It was found that the average CTmin of the ants declined with elevation along with environmental temperatures. It was also found that the correlation between abundance and local temperature depended on the ant species' CTmin. The activity of species with a low CTmin was not constrained by temperature, whereas those with a high CTmin were limited by low temperatures.4. For the first time, evidence is provided here that the thermal tolerances of ants are consistent with two major macrophysiological rules: Brett's rule and Janzen's rule. A mechanistic link between physiology, behaviour and the environment is also shown, which highlights that the ability of ants to deal with the cold may be a key, but often overlooked, factor allowing multiple ant species to succeed within an environment.
      PubDate: 2016-11-04T04:22:37.377423-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12364
       
  • High rates of extra-pair paternity in a socially monogamous beetle with
           biparental care

    • Authors: JACQUELINE R. DILLARD
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: 1. Nest construction and paternity assurance are predicted to favour biparental care in insects. The horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus) is a socially monogamous beetle with biparental care that breeds in decaying logs. The genetic mating system of the horned passalus was investigated to determine if paternity assurance is likely to drive the evolution or maintenance of paternal care in this system. Parental time budgets were also examined to better understand the types and frequencies of behaviours performed by parents.2. Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed high levels of extra-pair paternity, with 54.8% of offspring sired by extra-pair males and 70% of nests containing extra-pair young.3. More heterozygous social males were cuckolded less than more homozygous social males. Extra-pair mating, however, seems unlikely to increase offspring genetic diversity as extra-pair offspring were not more heterozygous than within-pair offspring, and average brood heterozygosity did not increase with higher rates of extra-pair paternity.4. Behavioural observations demonstrated that parents spent on average 46.5% of their time processing the decaying wood resource for larval offspring. Because resource processing is a by-product of feeding and provides shareable benefits for all larvae in the brood, this form of paternal care could be favoured despite low paternity.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T01:06:35.87928-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12346
       
  • Male mate choice based on chemical cues in the cricket Acheta domesticus
           (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

    • Authors: BRAULIO A. ASSIS; CAROLYN TRIETSCH, MATTHIAS W. FOELLMER
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: 1. Males in many animal species exercise mate choice to maximise their reproductive success, assessing females by characteristics related to reproductive potential, such as mating status, body size, and age. The sensory modalities involved in mate choice are often not firmly demonstrated, but only inferred. This is especially true for chemical cues and signals.2. The present study tests whether males of the cricket Acheta domesticus are able to choose among females based only on chemosensory cues. In A. domesticus, as in many crickets, males call to attract females or roam the habitat silently to search for females. In three-way choice trials, males were presented with two filter papers that had been placed with females for 24 h prior to the trials and one blank control. Females were either mated or virgin and starved or well-fed. It was predicted that males would prefer virgin over mated females and those in good condition over starved ones.3. Males were more likely to contact filters that had been exposed to females. They spent more time examining filter papers from virgin females than those from mated ones, while the condition of the females had no effect.4. We conclude that males can detect chemical cues from females on substrate and distinguish virgin females from mated ones. Being able to assess sperm competition risk prior to mating or even before further pursuing a trail with chemical cues should confer a considerable benefit to males.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T02:16:32.610708-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12353
       
  • Dispersal differences of a pest and a protected Cerambyx species
           (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in oak open woodlands: a mark–recapture
           comparative study

    • Authors: LUIS M. TORRES-VILA; FRANCISCO J. MENDIOLA-DIAZ, ÁLVARO SÁNCHEZ-GONZÁLEZ
      Pages: 18 - 32
      Abstract: 1. Cerambyx welensii (Cw) and Cerambyx cerdo (Cc) are two large saproxylic beetles living on Quercus trees in the Western Palearctic whose current pest and legal status differs markedly. Cw is an emerging pest involved in oak decline while Cc is an internationally protected species.2. Acquiring knowledge of the ecology, demography and behaviour of Cw and Cc in forests harbouring mixed populations is a demanding task to optimise their management or protection. Here, we report the results of a mark–recapture study on the flight behaviour and dispersal potential of both species in holm oak open woodlands.3. Average flights, dispersal rates and diffusion models were remarkably similar in Cw and Cc, reflecting a low-dispersal tendency and sedentary behaviour. However, a subset of adults in both species exhibited a huge propensity to disperse and flew more than 1 km. An aggregated distribution of dispersal distances suggested that a behavioural polymorphism might underlie the flight pattern.4. Adults moved preferentially in those spatial directions with neighbouring trees, while prevailing winds did not significantly affect dispersal patterns. The main interspecific differences were as follows: (i) Cc performed longer crosswind flights than Cw on windy days; (ii) Cc tended to fly farther than Cw at low temperatures; and (iii) adult feeding improved dispersal but only in small Cw females. Moon phase did not affect flight activity.5. The results are discussed in an effort to interpret how these ecological and behavioural differences might shape the life history of both congeneric species when they live in sympatry in dehesa woodlands.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T01:21:11.745787-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12355
       
  • Choosy mothers pick challenging plants: maternal preference and larval
           performance of a specialist herbivore are not linked

    • Authors: MONICA HUFNAGEL; ANTHONY L. SCHILMILLER, JARED ALI, ZSOFIA SZENDREI
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: 1. Maternal preference is a dynamic process and interactions between preference and performance are fundamental for understanding evolutionary ecology and host association in insect–plant interactions. In the present study, the hypothesis of preference–performance was tested by offering solanaceous specialist Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae and adult females four plant congeners that ranged in suitability.2. Larval feeding, development, oviposition, plant glycoalkaloids, and headspace volatiles in the four plant species were analysed to examine the extent of variation, which might explain performance–preference differences.3. It was found that larval performance was mismatched with adult oviposition preferences. Adults laid more eggs on Solanum immite Dunal plants, which were poor hosts for larval development, feeding, and survival, compared to the other three Solanum species.4. Chemical plant defenses, in general, did not correlate with performance or preference, but some plant volatiles may have played a role in resolving female choice. Glycoalkaloids such as solanine and chaconine were detected in similar amounts in preferred and non-preferred hosts, but there was significantly more limonene in the headspace of S. immite than in S. tuberosum L.5. The present findings suggest that we must consider the risk-spreading hypothesis in cases where preference and performance are not positively correlated, particularly in specialist herbivores that can feed on a diversity of congener plants and may attempt to expand their exploits to other solanaceae species.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T02:20:50.904935-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12350
       
  • Evolution of host acceptance and its reversibility in a seed beetle

    • Authors: FRANK J. MESSINA; ZACHARIAH GOMPERT
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: 1. Adapting to a low-quality plant may require modification of an insect's digestive physiology, oviposition behaviour, or other host-use traits. If colonising a marginal host entails a cost, a decay in adaptation would be expected after selection is relaxed, i.e. if populations on a novel host are reverted to their high-quality ancestral host.2. Replicate lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) rapidly adapted to lentil seeds; larval survival rose from approximately 1 to ≥ 90%, and oviposition on lentil increased more than two-fold. This study compared egg-laying behaviour in lines that either remained on lentil or were reverted to the ancestral host, mung bean, for 22–62 generations.3. Consistent with the trade-off hypothesis, females from two reverted sublines showed decreased oviposition on lentil (estimated as lifetime fecundity), but host acceptance in a third subline was unchanged. In a short-term assay, acceptance of lentil by newly emerged females was lower in each reverted subline than in the corresponding non-reverted one. Because effective population sizes (determined from genome resequencing) were large throughout the experiment, this decline in host acceptance is unlikely to be explained solely by genetic drift.4. Variation among replicates in the magnitude of the reversion effect was also observed in a previous study of larval survival. However, the pattern of variation for survival was not congruent with the pattern of variation for host acceptance in this study. Thus, genes mediating improved performance on lentil appear to be largely independent of those responsible for increased oviposition.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T04:30:28.326419-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12352
       
  • A trans-national monarch butterfly population model and implications for
           regional conservation priorities

    • Authors: KAREN OBERHAUSER; RUSCENA WIEDERHOLT, JAY E. DIFFENDORFER, DARIUS SEMMENS, LESLIE RIES, WAYNE E. THOGMARTIN, LAURA LOPEZ-HOFFMAN, BRICE SEMMENS
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: 1. The monarch has undergone considerable population declines over the past decade, and the governments of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have agreed to work together to conserve the species.2. Given limited resources, understanding where to focus conservation action is key for widespread species like monarchs. To support planning for continental-scale monarch habitat restoration, we address the question of where restoration efforts are likely to have the largest impacts on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus Linn.) population growth rates.3. We present a spatially explicit demographic model simulating the multi-generational annual cycle of the eastern monarch population, and use the model to examine management scenarios, some of which focus on particular regions of North America.4. Improving the monarch habitat in the north central or southern parts of the monarch range yields a slightly greater increase in the population growth rate than restoration in other regions. However, combining restoration efforts across multiple regions yields population growth rates above 1 with smaller simulated improvements in habitat per region than single-region strategies.5. Synthesis and applications: These findings suggest that conservation investment in projects across the full monarch range will be more effective than focusing on one or a few regions, and will require international cooperation across many land use categories.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T08:05:22.313574-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12351
       
  • Aphid-tending ants on introduced fennel: can resources derived from
           non-native plants alter the trophic position of higher-order
           consumers'

    • Authors: CAUSE HANNA; IDA NAUGHTON, CHRISTINA BOSER, DAVID A. HOLWAY
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: 1. Although plant invasions often reduce insect abundance and diversity, non-native plants that support phytophagous insects can subsidise higher trophic levels via elevated herbivore abundance.2. Here ant–aphid interactions on non-native fennel on Santa Cruz Island, California are examined. Fennel hosts abundant, honeydew-producing fennel aphids. The patchiness of fennel and the relative lack of honeydew-producing insects on other plants at our study sites suggest that assimilation of fennel-derived honeydew would increase the abundance and decrease the trophic position of the omnivorous, aphid-tending Argentine ant.3. To assess the strength of the ant–aphid interaction, a comparison of ant abundance on and adjacent to fennel prior to and 3 weeks after experimental aphid removal was performed. Compared with control plants with aphids, ants declined in abundance on and around fennel plants following aphid removal. At the habitat scale, pitfall traps in fennel-dominated habitats captured more ants than in fennel-free scrub habitats.4. To determine if assimilation of aphid-produced honeydew reduces the ant's trophic position, variation in δ15N values among ants, plants and other arthropods was analysed. Unexpectedly, δ15N values for ants in fennel-dominated habitats were higher than those of arthropod predators from the same sites and also higher than those of ants from fennel-free habitats.5. Our results illustrate how introduced plants that support phytophagous insects appear to transfer energy to higher trophic levels via elevated herbivore abundance. Although assimilation of fennel-derived honeydew did not appear to reduce consumer trophic position, spatial variation in alternative food resources might obscure contributions from honeydew.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T02:50:58.626857-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12359
       
  • Parthenogenesis did not consistently evolve in insular populations of
           Ischnura hastata (Odonata, Coenagrionidae)

    • Authors: M. OLALLA LORENZO-CARBALLA; CHRISTOPHER HASSALL, ANDREA C. ENCALADA, IAGO SANMARTÍN-VILLAR, YUSDIEL TORRES-CAMBAS, ADOLFO CORDERO-RIVERA
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: 1. The evolutionary advantages that have driven the evolution of sex are still very much debated, and a number of benefits of parthenogenesis over sexual reproduction have been proposed. In particular, parthenogenetic individuals are thought to exhibit higher probabilities of establishment following arrival in new, isolated habitats such as islands.2. One notable example of parthenogenesis occurring in islands is the damselfly Ischnura hastata, an American species that has colonised the Azores archipelago, where the populations consist only of females. This is the only known example of parthenogenesis within the insect order Odonata.3. Here, two island populations of I. hastata were studied, one in the Galapagos and one in Cuba, to test whether island colonisation is consistently associated with parthenogenesis in this species. Field capture–mark–recapture studies and laboratory rearing of field-collected eggs were undertaken in both areas.4. Sex ratios in the field were found to be heavily female-biased among mature individuals; however, fertility rates of field-collected eggs were high, and the sex ratios in the laboratory did not differ from 1 : 1. Data from laboratory rearing showed that shorter larval development times and shorter adult life spans in males result in protandry, which might explain the skewed sex ratios in the field.5. These findings are consistent with sex differences in key demographic parameters which could predispose I. hastata to parthenogenesis. However, the Azores population of I. hastata remains the only documented case of asexual reproduction in this insect group.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03T01:20:40.073134-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12360
       
  • Are behavioural responses to predation cues linked across life cycle
           stages'

    • Authors: MATEUS R. ANDRADE; DANIEL ALBENY-SIMÕES, JENNIFER A. BREAUX, STEVEN A. JULIANO, ERALDO LIMA
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: 1. Prey organisms can perceive cues to predation hazard and adopt low-risk behaviours to increase survival. Animals with complex life cycles, such as insects, can exhibit such anti-predatory behaviours in multiple life stages.2. Cues to predation risk may induce ovipositing females to choose habitats with low predation risk. Cues to predation risk may also induce larvae to adopt facultative behaviours that reduce risk of predation.3. One hypothesis postulates that anti-predation behaviours across adult and larval stages may be negatively associated because selection for effective anti-predator behaviour in one stage leads to reduced selection for avoidance of predators in other stages. An alternative hypothesis suggests that selection by predation favours multi-component defences, with both avoidance of oviposition and facultative adoption of low-risk behaviours by larvae.4. Laboratory and field experiments were used to determine whether defensive responses of adult and larval mosquitoes are positively or negatively associated. The study tested effects of waterborne cues from predatory Toxorhynchites theobaldi on oviposition choices and larval behaviours of three of its common prey: Culex mollis, Limatus durhamii and Aedes albopictus.5. Culex mollis shows strong anti-predator responses in both life stages, consistent with the hypothesis of a multi-component behavioural defence. The other two species showed no detectable responses to waterborne predator cues in either adult or larval stages. Larvae of these unresponsive species were significantly more vulnerable to this predator than was C. mollis.6. For these mosquitoes, species appear either to have been selected for multi-component defences against predation or to act in ways that could be called predator-naïve.
      PubDate: 2016-11-16T03:06:51.535641-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12358
       
  • Host genotype–endosymbiont associations and their relationship with
           aphid parasitism at the field level

    • Authors: FRANCISCA ZEPEDA-PAULO; CINTHYA VILLEGAS, BLAS LAVANDERO
      Pages: 86 - 95
      Abstract: 1. The relationship between endosymbionts and insects represent complex eco-evolutionary interactions. Vertically transmitted endosymbionts can be a source of evolutionary novelty by conferring ecologically important traits to their insect hosts, such as protection against natural enemies. Host–endosymbiont associations could constitute an adaptive complex (holobiont) on which selective pressures present in the environment can act, being transferred to the next generation.2. Although several laboratory-based studies have confirmed host genotype × symbiont interactions, few studies have been directed at those associations in the natural populations and their ability to protect themselves from parasitism pressure at the field level.3. A field-based approach to study the aphid genotype–endosymbiont associations and its relationship with the total parasitism in the grain aphid Sitobion avenae was conducted. From the field study, experiments were carried out to study the defensive effect of the two most common facultative endosymbionts (Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella defensa) present in S. avenae against one of the most important parasitoid species, Aphidius ervi.4. Evidence is presented here of a high specificity of the aphid clone–endosymbiont associations in the field; however, the field and experimental results here do not support a relationship between the aphid clone–endosymbiont associations and a proxy of total parasitism in S. avenae. These findings highlight the importance of particular host clone–endosymbiont couplings as a key factor in gaining an understanding of the coevolutionary dynamics of endosymbionts in nature and their effect on the invasive potential of pest insects.
      PubDate: 2016-11-15T06:59:27.594776-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12361
       
  • Behavioural notes on the Neotropical parasocial spider wasp Ageniella
           (Lissagenia) flavipennis (Banks) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae), with host
           association

    • Authors: EDUARDO F. DOS SANTOS; CECILIA WAICHERT, CRISTIANE PRADO SCOTT DOS SANTOS
      Pages: 96 - 99
      Abstract: 1. Ageniella is a species-rich group of spider wasps restricted to the New World. Knowledge regarding the behaviour of this genus is based mainly on the Nearctic species, which have been reported to nest solitarily in the soil. This study reports for the first time the nesting behaviour, with host association of Ageniella (Lissagenia) flavipennis Banks.2. Behavioural aspects on the nesting of A. flavipennis were observed from a study of six nests found in an Atlantic Forest conservation area in São Paulo State, Brazil. Host specimens were collected from a nest, as well as while being carried by an A. flavipennis individual.3. The present study reports the A. flavipennis females cohabiting or nesting solitarily in mud nests, indicating that this spider wasp shows some lower level of parasociality. In addition, the spider Enoploctenus cyclothorax (Bertkau) was reported for the first time as host. As has been observed for other Ageniellini, females of A. flavipennis amputate the host's legs and transport the spider to the nest, flying or walking forward.4. Communal behaviour has been reported for species of different genera of Pompilidae, such as Macromeris Lepeletier, Paragenia Bingham and Auplopus Spinola. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that the Lissagenia species are more closely related to the other Ageniellini genera than to the other Ageniella species. The present information on nesting and prey could contribute towards a more conclusive phylogenetic position of Lissagenia.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:45:28.496436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12356
       
  • Relative contributions of environmental and maternal factors to
           trans-generational immune priming in T. castaneum

    • Authors: MEGAN KENNEDY; ANDREA L. GRAHAM, ANN T. TATE
      Pages: 100 - 104
      Abstract: 1. Trans-generational immune priming is a phenomenon in insects in which the offspring of mothers previously challenged with a focal microbe exhibit a survival advantage when challenged with that microbe.2. Maternal egg provisioning with immune factors such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is widely believed to contribute to the primed phenotype. However, other ‘socially mediated’ environmental factors secreted or excreted by the mother and others in the community, such as the gut microbiota or pheromones, may also affect offspring immune phenotype.3. The relative contributions of maternal egg provisioning and socially mediated environmental factors to the primed larval phenotype were assessed by performing a cross-fostering survival experiment with Tribolium castaneum, in which the eggs of primed or naïve mothers were sterilised, treated with the frass of primed or naïve beetles, and challenged as larvae with the maternal pathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis.4. Larvae from primed mothers showed greater survival than unprimed larvae, regardless of frass treatment; maternal treatment therefore showed a substantially greater contribution to larval priming than frass treatment.5. Planned contrast tests to quantify the contributions of maternal and environmental matching revealed that maternal treatment mattered more for larvae exposed to primed, rather than unprimed, frass. This suggests that the effects of maternal egg provisioning may be exacerbated or mitigated by environmental factors.6. Thus, although maternal egg provisioning plays a predominant role in producing the primed phenotype, environmental matching may matter for priming in some contexts.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T00:45:48.108862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/een.12357
       
 
 
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