Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 911 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 911 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botánica Venezuelica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Obstétrica e Ginecológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 0)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Aletheia : Revista de Desarrollo Humano, Educativo y Social Contemporáneo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Alteridades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análisis Economico     Open Access  
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Anestesia Analgesia Reanimación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anestesia en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antipoda : Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Antropología Social y Cultural en Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Anuario de Letras : Lingüística y Filología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquichán     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Austral J. of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 0)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Mexicano de Derecho Comparado     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.532, CiteScore: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução : Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CERNE     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean J. of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
Cirujano General     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Cofin Habana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 0)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 1)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confines     Open Access  
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)

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Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.25
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1806-2636 - ISSN (Online) 1807-8672
Published by SciELO Homepage  [911 journals]
  • Economic feasibility of probiotic use in the diet of Nile tilapia,
           Oreochromis niloticus, during the reproductive period

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This work examines the economic advantages of probiotic use in the diet of Nile tilapia broodstock during the reproductive period. For this purpose, Bacillus subtilis was applied as a feed additive. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatment groups: the T0 control (without probiotic), the T1 continuous probiotic intake, and the T2 alternate probiotic intake at a dose of 0.50 g kg-1 of feed (1010 CFU g-1) with four replicates. For the reproduction assay, 118 females and 48 males of Nile tilapia (proportion 4 males:9 females. hapa-1) (weight 527.65 g ± 185.98 g and length 30.16 cm ± 3.57 cm) were distributed into 12 hapas (3.5 × 2.0 × 1.5 m). Reproductive variables (spawning female percentage, egg production, and fry production) were used to calculate the economic feasibility indexes (total cost of nutrition [TcN], gross revenue [GR], and total operational profit [ToP]). The results show increasing values for spawning female number, collected eggs, and surviving fry in the probiotic groups. We recommend continuous intake of probiotic (feed with addition of probiotic) at a dose of 0.5 g kg-1 of feed (1010 CFU g-1) during the breeding season of Nile tilapia, due to the suitable reproductive indexes and profitability.
       
  • Effects of in ovo injection of nano-selenium and nano-zinc oxide and high
           eggshell temperature during late incubation on antioxidant activity,
           thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones and some blood metabolites in broiler
           hatchlings

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of nano-selenium (Nano-Se) and nano-zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) and high eggshell temperature (EST) during late incubation on blood parameters of broiler hatchlings. A total of 750 fertile eggs, were weighed and randomly distributed among 5 treatment groups on each of 5 replicate tray levels. The injection was performed on 17 d of incubation. Treatments included of: 1) Eggs not injected and incubated at normal EST (control); 2) Eggs not injected and incubated at high EST; 3) Eggs injected NaCl solution and incubated at high EST (sham); 4) Eggs injected NaCl solution containing 40 µg Nano-Se and incubated at high EST; 5) Eggs injected NaCl solution containing 500 µg Nano-ZnO and incubated at high EST. EST of 37.8ºC (normal) or 38.9ºC (high) was applied from d 19 to 21 of incubation. In ovo injection of Nano-Se and Nano-ZnO significantly increased activity of GSH-Px and SOD and total protein, but decreased the levels of corticosterone, cortisol, T4 and T3 at high EST. Injection of Nano-Se and Nano-ZnO had a significant role in alleviating the negative effects of high temperature incubation and heat stress by increased antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative stress.
       
  • Effect of in-ovo feeding of iron nanoparticles and methionine hydroxy
           analogue on broilers chickens small intestinal characteristics

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The experiment was conducted with 644 Ross fertilized egg by 7 treatments 4 replicates and 23 eggs in each. Seven treatments included two control with and without injection, iron sulfate, iron sulfate nanoparticles, Alimet, Alimet + iron sulfate, Alimet + iron sulfate nanoparticles. After hatching 2 mg iron nanoparticles were applied as new treatment. The highest increased in the intestinal relative weight (p < 0.05) was observed by iron+Alimet in late feeding at day old of age. Also similar trend was found in cecum and duodenum length by iron control 2 and late feeding (18 hours’ after hatching). The highest cecum length was found among all treatments by in ovo injection of iron nanoparticles in early feeding at 21 days of age (p < 0.05). Significantly increased the duodenum length was found by iron sulfate in early feeding at 42 days of age (p < 0.05). In ovo injection of Alimet in late feeding was resulted in decrease jejunum crypt depth at 21 days of age (p < 0.05). The results of this study have shown that the highest jejunum villi width and surface area were recorded in dietary iron sulfate nanoparticles in late feeding at 21 and 42 days of age (p < 0.05).
       
  • Dietary supplementation of powdered and encapsulated probiotic: In vivo
           study on relative carcass, giblet weight and intestinal morphometry of
           local duck

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of either powdered or encapsulated probiotic on relative carcass, giblet weight and intestinal morphometry of local duck. One hundred twenty male day old duck (DOD) were distributed to 6 different dietary groups, included 2 probiotic forms of either powdered (T1) or encapsulated (T2) and 3 levels: 0% (L0), 0.2% (L1), 0.4% (L2). They were reared using pen cages for 42 days (6 weeks). Observed variables were relative carcass, giblet weight (gizzard, heart, liver) and intestinal morphometry (villus height, villus width, crypt depth). Data were analyzed by Nested of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed that there was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of the form of either powdered or encapsulated probiotic on relative carcass, giblet weight, and intestinal morphometry. However, increasing level of probiotic have significant effect (p < 0.05) on relative carcass, villus height, and villus width, but did not significantly affect giblet weight and crypt depth. In conclusion, supplementation of either powdered or encapsulated probiotic has similar result, but it is suggested to use 0.4% of encapsulated probiotic (4 kg ton-1 of feed) in local duck diet.
       
  • Natural and synthetic pigments in diet of Japanese quails

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate productive performance and egg quality of Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica) fed with synthetic and natural pigments. The treatments used were: 0.8% paprika extract (Capsicum annuum), 0.8% marigold flower extract, 4% paprika extract and 4% marigold flower extract and 0.045% synthetic pigment (Canthaxanthin) in feed. A total of 240 Japanese quails at 20 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and six replicates, with eight quails per experimental unit (30 experimental units). There was no difference (p > 0.05) for the evaluated parameters, except for yolk color which showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between the treatments used. The inclusion of 0.8% natural pigments in diet of Japanese quails can be used to substitute canthaxathin because it is effective on improving yolk color without affect performance and the quails egg quality.
       
  • Effect of probiotics and Yucca schidigera extract supplementation
           on broiler meat quality

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The current study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with probiotics and Yucca schidigera extract on physicochemical parameters, proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acid profile of broiler breast and thigh muscles. In total, 240 one-day old broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments groups: 1) Control (basal diet), 2) experimental (basal diet with two probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yucca schidigera extract). The results showed that the pH value was higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05). However, drip, cook and thaw losses were not influenced by dietary treatment (p > 0.05). A significant increase in protein, Fe, Zn, Na, P and a significant decrease in lipid, Cu and Cr contents was exhibited in experimental group relative to control group (p < 0.05). The proportion of stearic acid and saturated fatty acids was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, whereas linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in breast and thigh muscles of fed the experimental diet. We concluded that additive supplementation of the diet with probiotics and Yucca schidigera extract could improve meat quality.
       
  • Effect of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and soybean (Glycine max) oils in
           Egyptian lactating buffalo and cow diets on the milk and soft cheese
           quality

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Produce and compare soft cheese with potential benefits of human health from Egyptian buffalo's and cow's milk was studied. Eight Egyptian lactating buffalos and cows were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (CD), 2% flaxseed oil (DFO), 2% soybean oil (DSO), or 2% of their mixture (1:1, DFSO) according to a double 4 x 4 Latin Square design. Milk yield was similar between buffalo's diets but was higher in cows fed a DFO, DSO or DFSO resulting in 11.15, 8.21% or 8.97% increases compared with the control diet, respectively. Milk composition was not significantly affected in both buffalos and cows fed diets. The DFO, DSO or DFSO displayed decreased short-chain fatty acids, especially DSO and DFSO (3.73 and 3.33%, respectively) when compared to CD for buffalo milk (6.32%). The DSO and DFSO were more effective for increasing unsaturated fatty acids followed by the DFSO in buffalo's milk fat (42.31 and 41.90 %), whereas DFO and DFSO were more effective in cow's milk fat (39.67 and 39.84%), respectively. DFO, DSO or DFSO had no significant effect on the yield, composition and sensory properties of resultant soft cheese compared to the CD for both lactating cows and buffalos. During storage, a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids enhances protein proteolysis and antioxidant activity of soft cheese during storage compared to the CD especially for soft cheese produced from buffalo's milk.
       
  • Plasma fatty acid profile in dairy cows associated with the inclusion of
           annatto in their diet

    • Abstract: ABASTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the plasma lipid profile and plasma fatty acids of dairy cows receiving diets supplemented with annatto. A total of 32 Holstein cows (550 kg), distributed in a completely randomized design, were allocated to individual stalls and submitted to following treatments: C0 = no annatto; C4 = inclusion of annatto at 4 g kg-1 dry matter (DM) of diet (0.07 g bixin kg-1 diet); C5 = inclusion of annatto at 5 g kg-1 DM of diet (0.09 g bixin kg-1 diet); and C7 = inclusion of annatto at 7 g kg-1 DM of diet (0.12 g bixin kg-1 diet). Blood samples were collected via epigastric vein puncture, centrifuged, and frozen for subsequent analysis. The results indicate that the inclusion (p > 0.05) of annatto does not decrease the total cholesterol or low and high density lipoproteins. However, it impacts the profile of fatty acids, evidenced by the reduction (p < 0.05) in levels of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids viz, myristic acid and palmitic acid. It also causes an increase in the levels of arachidonic acid, rumenic acid, linoleic acid, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, bixin included in the diets of dairy cows induces changes in the plasma fatty acid profile.
       
  • Sugarcane with Elephant grass replacing sugarcane with urea in the diet of
           crossbred dairy cows1

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate the partial substitution of sugarcane treated with urea by elephant grass in the feeding of crossbred cows in lactation. Eight crossbred cows (Holstein x Gyr) were used, with 474 kg of body weight (standard deviation = 46.15 kg) and 8.15 kg of milk per day. The animals were housed in individual stalls, distributed in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, and the treatments were: sugar cane; sugar cane corrected with 0.5% of urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1); 75% of sugar cane + 25% of elephant grass and 50% of sugarcane + 50% of elephant grass, based on natural matter. In addition to the treatments, it was provided water and mineral salt ad libitum and 3 kg of concentrate supplement (24% crude protein), based on corn meal and soybean meal, supplied in two portions during the morning and afternoon milking. There was a treatment effect on the intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, except for non-fibrous carbohydrate intake, and there was no effect on milk production and composition. It can be concluded that the substitution of sugarcane by elephantgrass (25 and 50%) increases the intake and decreases the digestibility of DM and OM, without affecting milk production, when the cows are supplemented with 3 kg of concentrate, containing 24% of protein per day.
       
  • Exploratory data inference for detecting mastitis in dairy cattle

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to employ the principal component technique to physiological data and environmental thermohygrometric variables correlated with detection of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. A total of 24 lactating Girolando cows with different clinical conditions were selected (healthy, and with clinical or subclinical mastitis). The following physiological variables were recorded: udder surface temperature, ST (°C); eyeball temperature, ET (°C); rectum temperature, RT (°C); respiratory frequency, RF (mov. min-1). Thermohygrometric variables included air temperature, AirT (°C), and relative humidity, RU (%). ST was determined by means of thermal images, with four images per animal, on these quarters: front left side (FL), front right side (FR), rear right side (RR) and rear left side (RL), totaling 96 images. Exploratory data analysis was run through multivariate statistical technique with the employment of principal components, comprehending nine variables: ST on the FL, FR, RL and RR quarters; ET, RT; RF, AirT and RU. The representative quarters of the animals with clinical and subclinical mastitis showed udder temperatures 8.55 and 2.46° C higher than those of healthy animals, respectively. The ETs of the animals with subclinical and clinical mastitis were, respectively, 7.9 and 8.0% higher than those of healthy animals. Rectum temperatures were 2.9% (subclinical mastitis) and 5.5% (clinical mastitis) higher compared to those of healthy animals. Respiratory frequencies were 40.3% (subclinical mastitis) and 61.6% (clinical mastitis) higher compared to those of healthy animals. The first component explained 91% of the total variance for the variables analyzed. The principal component technique allowed verifying the variables correlated with the animals' clinical condition and the degree of dependence between the study variables.
       
  • Physicochemical characterization of by-products from beef cattle slaughter
           and economic feasibility of commercialization

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim was to evaluate the proximate food composition, cholesterol content, coloring and economic aspects of the main nutrients present in by-products from the slaughter of cattle. The samples were collected from 14 organs, with four repetitions each, of which we conducted the analyses of moisture, crude protein, mineral matter, cholesterol and fat content. The color was measured through the coordinates L*, a*, b*. The differences between the groups of red and white viscera were evaluated by contrasts analysis. Subsequently, the data were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, which was complemented by the principal component technique. In the analysis of contrast between red and white viscera, the results showed that the components with the highest content of total fat does not necessarily have the highest content of cholesterol and vice-versa. For minerals, the red viscera presented higher content than white viscera and, in order to analyze the protein composition, there was less variability for red viscera in relation to white viscera. In the color analysis, the values for the color readings indicated uniformity between the external and internal readings, except for the tongue. On mean, the proximate composition values for the offals are similar to the values for beef, especially regarding the red viscera.
       
  • Meat quality of suckling goat raised in differents feeding systems

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three breeding systems on the organoleptic quality and the physico-chemical composition of kids goat meat. Were used thirty newborn baby goats of 3.35 kg ± 0.65 kg crossed Parda Alpina x Undefined Race (SPRD) submitted to three breeding systems: Traditional system-TS; Intensive Feeding System without Concentrate- IS and Intensive Feeding System with Concentrate- IS+C. When the goats reached 12 kg, the animals were slaughtered and chemical and physical analyzes were performed in the evaluation of the meat and sensorial. The experimental design was completely randomized, submitted to analysis of variance and compared by the Tukey test and Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsh at 5%. All analyzed variables were also submitted to Pearson correlation. The meat of the goats submitted to IS+C and IS presented higher intramuscular fat content and better flavor and aroma scores. A of Goats that used concentrated ration (TS and IS+C) showed a more intense red color in the meat than the animals that did not receive concentrate in their diets, besides presenting higher lipid contents in their composition, better scores for these two organoleptic characteristics. The chemical composition of goat meat in both breeding systems indicates that it is low in fat and high in moisture and therefore classified as very tender and juicy. The meat obtained from the IS+C, in general, presented better attributes than the others, believing it in the markets of meat of high quality.
       
  • Quality of brown-shelled eggs marketed in different commercial
           establishments

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study aimed at evaluating the internal and external quality of brown-shelled eggs commercialized in the municipality of Parintins-AM. A total of 540 eggs were evaluated and distributed in a completely randomized design, which consisted of three treatments and six replications of 30 eggs each. The treatments were: eggs sold in supermarkets; in grocery stores; and eggs sold directly at the farm. The age of the eggs from supermarkets and grocery stores was unknown, however, the eggs bought at the farm were marketed as being from the day of laying. The collected data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% probability. There were no differences (p > 0.05) of treatments in the percentage of dirty eggs, however, grocery and farm eggs presented higher (p < 0.05) crack percentage. The eggs at the farm presented higher incidence (p < 0.05) of internal stains of blood. The weight of the egg and albumen presented no differences (p > 0.05). However, the albumen percentage of the farm eggs was higher than the other treatments (p < 0.05). The percentages for yolk and eggshell weight from the farm eggs were lower than the supermarket and grocery eggs (p < 0.05). For the variables albumen height, Haugh unit, albumen index, yolk and albumen pH, the best results were observed for the farm eggs, however, regarding these variables, eggs sold in supermarkets and grocery stores did not differ from each other. The brown shell eggs sold in the city of Parintins/AM have high rates of external defects, and the eggs bought directly from the farm presented better internal quality, when compared to eggs sold in different establishments.
       
  • Genetic analysis of reproductive characteristics in Iran-Black sheep

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters and trends for reproduction traits using data collected at the breeding station of Iran-Black sheep during 1980 to 2004. The traits included in the analyses were litter size at birth (LSB) and weaning (LSW) and litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB) and weaned (LMWLW) as basic traits, and total litter weight at birth (TLWB) and weaning (TLWW) as composite traits. Direct heritability estimates for LSB, TLWB, LMWLB, LSW, TLWW and LMWLW were 0.11, 0.07, 0.33, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.11, respectively. The permanent environmental effects had significant impact on all traits and ranged from 0.05 to 0.16. Effect of service sire was highly significant (p < 0.01) for all traits except LMWLW. Estimates of genetic correlations ranged from -0.76 (LSB-LMWLB) to 0.98 (LSB-LSW). Phenotypic and environmental correlations were generally lower than those of genetic correlations. Environmental correlations ranged from -0.55 (LSW-LMWLW) to 0.99 (LSB-LSW). Also, the estimated correlation for the effect of service sire ranged from -0.77 (LMWLB-TLWW) to 0.96 (LSB-LSW and LSB-TLWW). The results suggest that selection based on TLWB could be more effective than the other traits to enhance reproductive performance in Iran-Black ewes.
       
  • Urea and Tannin in multiple supplements: Ingestive behavior of grazing
           beef cattle

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of urea and tannin in multiple supplements on ingestive behavior of cattle in pasture. The experiment was taken in the Cattle Nutrition pasture of the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in 4 x 4 Latin square design with a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (with and without urea and with and without tannin). Four Nellore bulls were used, with average weight of 470 kg and an average age of 20 months, randomly divided in: Supplement without urea and without tannin, Supplement without urea and with tannin, supplement with urea and without tannin, and supplement with urea and with tannin. The level of supplementation used was 1% of body weight during the dry period of the year. The experiment lasted 80 days in total, divided into four periods of 20 days each and every where, the 14 first days were intended for the adaptation of animals to the add-in and the 6 days left to collect samples. Bulls were visually observed for two days during 12 consecutive hours, morning and evening shifts recital. The variables studied were: grazing time, idle time, time of rumination, length of stay in the trough and length of stay at a watering hole.The inclusion of urea to cattle supplement in grazing reduced the grazing time and increased time spent in the trough. The addition of tannin did not influence ingestive behavior.
       
  • Ploidy influences on metabolic substrate deposition of rainbow trout

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Triploid fish are usually sterile. Thus, the energy and nutrients intended for sexual maturation may be available to enhance flesh quality and physical growth. The present study aimed to investigate differences in the metabolic substrates, lipids and proteins, between storage tissues from diploid and triploid female rainbow trout. Monthly, metabolic substrates were quantified in liver, muscle, and ovaries, which were collected during the first reproductive cycle. In general, it was possible to identify a seasonal and similar deposition of metabolites in different tissues of 2n and 3n females, mainly at early stages of gonadal maturation. However, from the stages 5-6, the ovaries showed great differences between ploidies, with higher concentration of lipids and protein in 2n females. This result reflects the incorporation of vitellogenin in oocytes, which is a process that does not occur in 3n females. It was possible to observe seasonal hepato-somatic index changes in 2n females, with higher values observed in the post-ovulatory stage, and the triploid animals showed lower values compared to 2n, with no seasonal difference. Viscero-somatic index can reflect the mobilization of substrates, with higher values found for 2n females in stage 5-6, which is the period of active mobilization of tissue substrates.
       
  • Forage sources in diets for dairy goats

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of sorghum silage, Buffel grass hay and forage palm fodder in the diet of dairy goats by means of performance tests and economic viability of different roughage sources. Eight Anglo-Nubian goats, multiparous, weighing around 40.13 ± 2.76 kg of live weight were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, consisting of four periods of 21 days, distributed in two Latin squares (4x4). The treatments represented by diets with different volumetric sources: SSCF: (sorghum silage+ forage palm+ concentrate); BHCF: (Buffel grass hay + cactus forage+ concentrate); SS: (sorghum silage+ concentrate) and BH: (Buffel grass hay + concentrate). Nutritional intake, digestibility, feed behavior, milk production and chemical composition and economic analysis were evaluated. Animals fed the BHCF diet had higher nutrient intakes and consequently were more productive in fat, protein, lactose, fat free solids and total solids. The BHCF diet led to a higher gross income in Brazilian currency. The safety margin of the SSCF diet presented the highest percentage, with 43.06%, and the BHCF diet, the lowest percentage, of 14.89. The association of forage palm with sorghum silage and Buffel grass hay can be used as a bulky source in lactating goat diets.
       
  • Potential and restrictions of Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) L. P.
           Queiroz as native forage in the Brazilian semi-arid region

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Poincianella pyramidalis (catingueira) is a endemic plant of the Caatinga, selected by animals grazing on native pasture. With the aim of evaluating characteristics indicative of its nutritional quality, 10 plants were selected and identified, sampled at five different ages, were used to determine dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), mineral matter (MM), DM degradability (Deg DM), NDF degradability (Deg NDF) and in situ and in vitro leaf-tissue degradability. Phytochemical prospection was performed, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance applied to detect the presence of secondary compounds. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey’s test at 5%, and correlation analysis was carried out on the variables for leaf maturity in days. The levels of CP, NDF and Deg NDF showed a negative correlation with the increases in leaf age. Leaf-tissue degradation was restricted due to a physical barrier developed in the leaf fragments, which can be attributed to plant defence mechanisms. The in situ degradability of the cell wall components decreased with the increase in leaf age. The high levels of tannins and lignin, and the strong presence of flavonoids, should be considered for their anti-nutritional and pharmacological potential.
       
  • Dietary vegetable oils inclusion on the performance, hormonal levels and
           hsp 70 gene expression in broilers under heat stress

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unsaturated and saturated oils on the performance, hormonal levels and hsp gene expression in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. 300 one-day male broiler chicks were assigned to 4 treatments (Diets containing palm, corn, linseed or olive oils) with 5 replicates. At day 28 of age, 2 chickens were removed from each replicate, then blood samples and liver tissue samples were collected for analyses. Feeding linseed and olive oil reduced feed conversion ratio compared to corn and palm oils. The lowest level of insulin was for chickens fed linseed oil and corn oil. The highest level of corticosterone was found in chickens fed palm oil and the lowest level was for those received linseed oil. Chickens received linseed and corn oils had the highest levels of T3 and T4 and those fed palm and olive oils had the lowest levels. The highest HSP 70 gene expression was for chickens fed diet containing olive and linseed oils and the lowest one was for those fed corn and palm oils. It was concluded that olive oil and linseed oil could improve performance and heat tolerance of chickens under heat stress.
       
  • Digestible lysine requirement for European laying quail

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The experiment was carried out to evaluate the productive performance of European quails (Coturnix coturnix) in the production phase, fed with diets containing different levels of digestible lysine. A total of 175 female quails, aged 65 days, were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates per treatment. The animals were housed in 25 metal cages, and each cage represented an experimental parcel, with seven birds per parcel. The birds were fed the experimental rations containing 1.177, 1.217, 1.317, 1.417, and 1.517% digestible lysine. The parameters evaluated were: laying rate, mass of eggs produced, feed intake in the period, lysine intake, feed conversion per dozen and per mass. Significant differences were observed for posture rate with quadratic behavior, which indicated higher production for the level of 1.23% of digestible lysine. There was an increasing linear behavior for the feed and lysine intake, and for conversion feed per dozen and by mass, we observed quadratic behaviors. This indicates better feed conversion index when the optimal inclusion level was 1.33% and 1.404% of digestible lysine in the diet, respectively. The requirement of digestible lysine in diets for European quails is 1.404%, which corresponds to a daily intake of 421.20 milligrams of digestible lysine.
       
  • Effect of dietary fat level and source on performance and immune system
           response of turkeys

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of different levels and sources of fats in diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response of turkeys during four periods (0-21, 22 to 42, 43 to 63 and 64 to 70 days of age). A completely randomized design with five treatments, six replicates and eight B.U.T.6 turkey chickens per replicate was used. Treatments included: Control diet, diet containing 2.5% of soybean oil, diet containing 2.5% fat supplement, diet containing 5% soybean oil, diet containing 5% fat supplement. The results showed that using 5% of soybean oil increased average daily gain of turkeys (89.04 g) throughout the experimental period (0-70 days) compared with the control group (81.11 g; p < 0.05). Treatments containing 2.5 and 5% soybean oil improved feed conversion ratio compared to control group (p < 0.05). Soybean oil at the levels of 2.5 and 5% was led to higher spleen and bursa percentages compared to other treatments, respectively (p < 0.05). The level and source of dietary fat had not significant effect on antibody titer against Newcastle virus vaccine on 42 and 70 days of age (p > 0.05). It can be concluded that supplementing diet with 5% soybean oil improved the performance of turkeys.
       
  • Evaluation of yeast culture and direct-fed microbial on gut histology and
           serum components of broilers challenged with suboptimal diets under heat
           stress

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The use of antibiotics in feed for growth promotion has been restricted in many countries, thus it is of interest to investigate potential alternatives for enhancing growth performance in birds. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the concurrent use of prebiotic and probiotic on gut histology and some blood chemicals of broiler chickens during heat stress. A total of 144 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 treatments. The first treatment was a diluted diet including rice bran without probiotic or prebiotic. The other treatments were fed the diluted diets with a prebiotic (treatment 2) and concurrent use of that prebiotic along with a probiotic (treatment 3). Results showed that villus height was not influenced by feed additives. However, crypt depth significantly increased by feed additives in particular with combination of prebiotic and probiotic. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth significantly decreased in treatments fed prebiotic alone or prebiotic and probiotic together. This finding is indicating the fact that non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in high inclusion rate of rice bran caused to villus height erosion. It could be concluded that prebiotic and probiotic caused an increasing of enterocyte proliferation in the crypt of Liberkhun.
       
  • Effect of different levels of supplementary alpha-amylase in finishing
           broilers

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alpha-amylase supplementation on performance and carcass and cuts yield in broilers during finishing phase (21 to 42 days). A completely randomized experimental design with six treatments and eight replications was used: Positive Control (PC): no enzyme; Negative control (NC): without enzyme formulated with 6.34% less energy (- 6.34% ME); NC1: with 250 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase; NC2: with 500 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase; NC3: with 750 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase; NC4: with 1000 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase. Significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were reported with the inclusion of alpha-amylase. The NC treatment with inclusion of amylase provided improvement values of weight gain, feed conversion and feed intake, but do not was similarly in comparison to those obtained in broilers fed a diet that completely met the requirements during this phase. There was no dietary influence on carcass parameters. The use of alpha-amylase was effective in improving performance in broilers fed a diet of 200 kcal kg-1 of reduced metabolizable energy.
       
  • The effect of feeding inorganic and organic selenium sources on the
           hematological blood parameters, reproduction and health of dairy cows in
           the transition period

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four types of diets containing different forms of selenium on the hematological blood parameters, reproduction and health of dairy cattle during the transition period. Twenty-four close-up dry cows with a mean of 259 ± 1days of pregnancy and expected 21 ± 1days prior to parturition were selected. The cows were fed four diets: 1) basal diet without selenium supplementation (C); 2) basal diet plus 0.5ppm selenium in the form of sodium selenite (Se-S) 3) basal diet plus 0.5ppm selenium in the form of selenium yeast (Se-Y); 4) basal diet plus 0.5ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine (Se-M). Blood samples for measuring hematological blood parameters (including lymphocyte, red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDWc) were taken at 21 and 10 days before delivery, delivery date, 10 and 21 days after delivery. There was no significant difference in hematological parameters before and after delivery in experimental and control groups. However, in the prepartum period, MCH tended to increase significantly in selenium methionine treatment (p<0.05). Reproductive parameters (including distance to first estrus, insemination indexes and number of open days) and health parameters (including rectum temperature and vaginal content score) have been improved by selenium organic supplements. The results of this experiment showed that feeding organic selenium supplementation in multiparous dairy cow’s diet may improve their health and reproduction.
       
  • Feeding behavior of goat kids fed diets containing peach palm meal

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim in this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of goat kids fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing corn (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % on a dry matter basis). Thirty crossbred Boer kids, with 90 days old and initial body weight of 16.7 ± 3.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates. Diets were daily supplied ad libitum to allow 10-20 % leftovers. Three collections were performed every 28 days. Diets were isoenergetics and isonitrogenous, composed of corn, soybean meal, peach palm meal, mineral supplement and Tifton 85 hay, with roughage: concentrate ratio of 30:70. There was a linear reduction in the intakes of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) with a respective decrease of 35.7 % and 58.8 % comparing the diet with 85 % replacement and the control diet. The rumination and chewing times increased in diets with peach palm meal. The feeding and rumination rates decreased with reducing intakes of DM and NDF. The peach palm meal affects the feeding behavior and decreases the feed intake in response to palatability, fat and fiber composition, and it is recommended until 10 % replacing corn.
       
  • Morphofunctional characteristics of working mules in mountain areas of the
           Colombian Central Andes

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The application of morphofunctional measurements allows the selection of suitable animals to perform working activities and ensure that animal maximum capacities are not exceeded. Mules are commonly used by small farmers for agricultural work in mountain areas where the access is extremely difficult. We aimed to estimate the functionality indexes of working mules in mountain areas of the Colombian Central Andes. A total of 94 adult mules were evaluated for withers height, thoracic perimeter, body length, neck length, and body weight, which were used to determine the body index (BI), proportionality index (PI), and load carriage index (LCI). Descriptive statistics, analysis of correlations, and principal component analysis were performed. Males presented higher morphometric measurements than females. There was a negative correlation between BI with PI and LCI. The principal component analysis was able to merge characteristics in two components explaining 81.78% of the variance in the indexes. These results demonstrated that working mules in the studied area have morphometric characteristics that define them as mesolinear animals with a low frame and broad chest, and these characteristics can function as a guide to identify desirable conformation indices for working mules, determining values of adequate load, respecting animal welfare.
       
  • Meat quality of Maremmana young bulls

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Maremmana is a local Italian breed reared in southern Tuscany and northern Latium. Twenty-two young bulls were reared in pasture system with concentrate supply (PSCS), whereas 20 young bulls were reared in feedlot intensive system (IS) in order test differences between meat typologies. The bulls were slaughtered at 18 months old. The performances at slaughtering were similar between finishing systems. IS bull meat has shown higher cooking loss than PSCS bull meat (p < 0.001), higher moisture content (p < 0.01), and fat (p < 0.001), and lower crude protein (p < 0.001). The SFA, MUFA and PUFA percentage were similar between meat typologies; whereas if considered in mg per 100 gr of muscle MUFA and SFA content was higher in PSCS meat (p < 0.05). Among the Healthy Indices, C18:2/C18:3 was higher in IS System (14.08 vs. 9.77; p < 0.001); the results of the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) of fatty acids composition showed that PSCS meat was characterized by MUFA and SFA, while IS meat was identified by C18:2/C18:3, and ω6/ ω3.
       
  • Relationship between milk production system and milk traits and somatic
           cell counts in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes: a multivariate analysis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the monthly milk production and quality of buffaloes from two milk production systems in the Brazilian northeast using the multivariate analysis: principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 2,506 individual milk recordings were performed in two production systems, containing information on milk production (kg day-1), fat, protein, lactose and total solids counts and somatic cell count (SCC). There were positive correlations between the fat content and the contents of total solids (TS) and protein, and of TS and protein. From the PCA, two main components (PC1 and PC2) were identified, explaining 67.71% of the total variation. The fat, protein, lactose and ST level, represented by PC1, explain 46.18% of the total variance, and were an indicator of milk nutritional quality. The CP2, composed of milk production, SCC and production systems, explains 21.53% of the total variance, and was indicative of herd health. PCA results may be useful in dairy buffalo breeding programs, and a reduced number of variables are necessary to assess the nutritional quality of milk and herd health.
       
  • Bees biodiversity, forage behavior and fruit production in gherkin crop
           (Cucumis anguria L.)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objectives were to evaluate the biodiversity of bees, forage behavior and their effect on fruit production in the gherkin crop (Cucumis anguria L.) in the campus of the University Center Moura Lacerda in two years. The frequency and type of collection of the insects in the flowers was observed by counting from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., in the first 10 minutes of each time, for three distinct days in each year. The percentage of fruiting was quantified in 25 female flowers covered with nylon compared to the 25 female flowers uncovered in the two years. The flowers were visited by the Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera and the native bees Plebeia sp., Exomalopsis sp. and Melissodes sp., and the Africanized honey bees presented higher frequency and constancy with a higher number of visits in the male flowers compared to the female ones and these visits occurred between 8:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. Without the visitation of the bees there was no fruit production, and both the Africanized honey bee and the native ones when collecting nectar and pollen, visited both female and male flowers, carrying pollen in their body, being considered important pollinators of this culture.
       
  • Effect of LCORL gene polymorphism on body size traits in horse
           populations

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine polymorphism of LCORL gene in horse breeds and its association with body size. PCR-RFLP technique was performed using AluI for genotyping of 306 horses. Results showed that C is the rare allele in Iranian Breeds, because these horses have been used since ancient times as a courier and for war and archery, hence selection has done to benefit of spiky horses with medium body that need less food and are tireless. While, for foreign breeds; frequency of C allele was high that can be concluded these breeds used in fields, forests, and mines. A UPGMA dendrogram based on the Nei's standard genetic distance among studied breeds showed separate clusters for Iranian native and exotic breeds. Statistical association analysis of three observed genotypes with body size showed that there is an association between this polymorphism and body size criteria (p < 0.01). Overall, it can be concluded that studied mutation in LCORL gene can be used as candidate marker for improving body weight in horse.
       
 
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