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Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 703 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 703 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avances en Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.532, CiteScore: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos.info     Open Access   (SJR: 0.38, CiteScore: 0)
Cubo. A Mathematical J.     Open Access  
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 0)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DELTA : Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Dementia & Neuropsychologia     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Press J. of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 0)
Diálogo Andino - Revista de Historia, Geografía y Cultura Andina     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Diánoia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dynamis : Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
e-J. of Portuguese History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Economia Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Economia e Sociedade     Open Access  
EconoQuantum     Open Access  
Educação & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Educação e Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.163, CiteScore: 0)
Educação em Revista     Open Access  
Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Educación Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.236, CiteScore: 0)
Educación Médica Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Educación y Educadores     Open Access  
Educar em Revista     Open Access  
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Encuentros     Open Access  
Ene : Revista de Enfermería     Open Access  
Enfermería Global     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 0)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Engenharia Agrícola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 0)
Ensaio Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.254, CiteScore: 0)
Entomologia y Vectores     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.446, CiteScore: 1)
Estudios Constitucionales     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios de historia moderna y contemporánea de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios Filologicos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Clinics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1807-5932 - ISSN (Online) 1980-5322
Published by SciELO Homepage  [703 journals]
  • Clinical comparison between a percutaneous hydraulic pressure delivery
           system and balloon tamp system using high-viscosity cement for the
           treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) affect the elderly population, especially postmenopausal women. Percutaneous kyphoplasty is designed to treat painful vertebral compression fractures for which conservative therapy has been unsuccessful. High-viscosity cement can be injected by either a hydraulic pressure delivery system (HPDS) or a balloon tamp system (BTS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the safety and clinical outcomes of these two systems. METHODS: A random, multicenter, prospective study was performed. Clinical and radiological assessments were carried out, including assessments of general surgery information, visual analog scale, quality of life, cement leakage, and height and angle restoration. RESULTS: Using either the HPDS or BTS to inject high-viscosity cement effectively relieved pain and improved the patients’ quality of life immediately, and these effects lasted at least two years. The HPDS using high-viscosity cement reduced cost, surgery time, and radiation exposure and showed similar clinical results to those of the BTS. In addition, the leakage rate and the incidence of adjacent vertebral fractures after the HPDS treatment were reduced compared with those after treatment using the classic vertebroplasty devices. However, the BTS had better height and angle restoration abilities. CONCLUSIONS: The percutaneous HPDS with high-viscosity cement has similar clinical outcomes to those of traditional procedures in the treatment of vertebral fractures in the elderly. The HPDS with high-viscosity cement is better than the BTS in the treatment of mild and moderate OVCFs and could be an alternative method for the treatment of severe OVCFs.
       
  • Mandibular radiomorphometric assessment of bone mineral density in
           survivors of pediatric hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) childhood survivors of hematologic malignancies are prone to develop late osteopenia and osteoporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to quantitatively and qualitatively assess bone mineral density (BMD) in HSCT childhood survivors and to compare the effectiveness of both qualitative and quantitative assessment methods. METHODS: DESIGN BMD assessment using panoramic radiographs of childhood HSCT survivors aged 3.69-18.88 years using two radiomorphometric indexes. Case-control double-blinded comparison of panoramic radiographic images from childhood HSCT survivors and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Quantitative assessment was performed by measuring the cortical bone width bilaterally at the mental foramen level. Qualitative assessment was performed using the mandibular cortical index bilaterally on all panoramic images. RESULTS: Radiographs were taken 6.59-83.95 months after bone marrow transplantation [median±SD=25.92±24.9 months]. Fifty-two panoramic radiographic images were analyzed: 21 from HSCT survivors and 31 from healthy controls aged 3.69-25.1 years [mean±SD=11.89±5.28 years]. The mandibular cortical bone width was 17% smaller in childhood HSCT survivors than in healthy controls (case group: 2.420, control group: 3.307; p=0.00617). Qualitative analysis revealed an increased frequency of severe mandibular cortical erosion in childhood HSCT survivors, although no significant difference was observed (case group: 1.540, control group: 1.490; p=0.32). The interobserver agreement was 85% (Kappa index). CONCLUSIONS: HSCT childhood survivors exhibit quantitative and qualitative mandibular bone impairments. Further studies are needed to establish an association between mandibular cortical bone impairment and osteoporosis.
       
  • Pancreatic endosonographic findings and clinical correlation in Crohn's
           disease

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of pancreatic alterations in Crohn's disease using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and to correlate the number of alterations with current clinical data. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease (n=51) were examined using EUS, and 11 variables were analyzed. A control group consisted of patients with no history of pancreatic disease or Crohn's disease. Patients presenting with three or more alterations underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pancreatic function was determined using a fecal elastase assay. RESULTS: Two of the 51 patients (3.9%) presented with four EUS alterations, 3 (5.9%) presented with three, 11 (21.5%) presented with two, and 13 (25.5%) presented with one; in the control group, only 16% presented with one EUS alteration (p<0.001). Parenchymal abnormalities accounted for 39 of the EUS findings, and ductal abnormalities accounted for 11. Pancreatic lesions were not detected by MRI. Low fecal elastase levels were observed in 4 patients, none of whom presented with significant pancreatic alterations after undergoing EUS. Ileal involvement was predictive of the number of EUS alterations. CONCLUSION: A higher incidence of pancreatic abnormalities was found in patients with Crohn's disease than in individuals in the control group. The majority of these abnormalities are related to parenchymal alterations. In this group of patients, future studies should be conducted to determine whether such morphological abnormalities could evolve to induce exocrine or endocrine pancreatic insufficiency and, if so, identify the risk factors and determine which patients should undergo EUS.
       
  • Sexuality, depression and body image after breast reconstruction

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of breast reconstruction after mastectomy on sexual function, body image, and depression. METHODS: This cross-sectional, comparative, controlled study was conducted with 90 women between 18 and 65 years of age who had undergone either mastectomy alone (mastectomy group, n=30) or mastectomy combined with breast reconstruction (mastectomy-reconstruction group, n=30) at least one year prior to the study or who had no breast cancer (control group, n=30). Patients were assessed for sexual function, depression, and body image using the validated Brazilian-Portuguese versions of the Female Sexual Function Index, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination, respectively. RESULTS: The three groups were homogeneous for age, marital status, body mass index, and education level. The women in the mastectomy group reported significantly worse sexual function, greater depressive symptoms, and lower body image than those in the mastectomy-reconstruction and control groups. In the mastectomy group, the frequency of sexual dysfunction was significantly greater among patients without a marital partner and those with a higher level of education than among patients in the other two groups with the same characteristics. CONCLUSION: Patients who had undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy reported better sexual function and body image and fewer depressive symptoms than patients who had undergone mastectomy alone. Sexual dysfunction was associated with the absence of a marital partner and a higher level of education and was more frequent in the mastectomy group.
       
  • Clinical evaluation of a bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw
           augmented with polymethylmethacrylate: 128 osteoporotic patients with 42
           months of follow-up

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw augmented with polymethylmethacrylate in osteoporotic spinal surgery. METHODS: This study included 128 patients with osteoporosis (BMD T-score −3.2±1.9; range, −5.4 to -2.5) who underwent spinal decompression and instrumentation with a polymethylmethacrylate-augmented bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw. Postoperative Visual Analogue Scale scores and the Oswestry Disability Index were compared with preoperative values. Postoperative plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed immediately after surgery; at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; and annually thereafter. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 42.4±13.4 months (range, 23 to 71 months). A total of 418 polymethylmethacrylate-augmented bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws were used. Cement extravasations were detected in 27 bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws (6.46%), mainly in cases of vertebral fracture, without any clinical sequela. The postoperative low back and lower limb Visual Analogue Scale scores were significantly reduced compared with the preoperative scores (<0.01), and similar results were noted for the Oswestry Disability Index score (p<0.01). No significant screw migration was noted at the final follow-up relative to immediately after surgery (p<0.01). All cases achieved successful bone fusion, and no case required revision. No infection or blood clots occurred after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The polymethylmethacrylate-augmented bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw is safe and effective for use in osteoporotic patients who require spinal instrumentation.
       
  • Screening of Strongyloides infection using an ELISA test in
           transplant candidates

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Hyperinfection or disseminated strongyloidiasis has been frequently reported after transplants and is related to high mortality. This study aimed to screen for strongyloidiasis using serological diagnoses in transplant candidates. METHODS: An ELISA test was performed with filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis as a source of antigen. RESULTS: In the serum from transplant candidates, anti-Strongyloides IgG antibodies were detected in 35/150 (23.3%) samples by soluble fractions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 31/150 (20.7%) samples by soluble fractions in Tris-HCl, 27/150 (18.0%) samples by membrane fractions in PBS and 22/150 (14.7%) samples by membrane fractions in Tris-HCl. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest the ELISA test, ideally using soluble fractions of filariform larvae S. venezuelensis in PBS, as an additional strategy for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in transplant candidates.
       
  • Hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline enhance survival, reducing apoptosis
           and oxidative stress in a rat model of strangulated closed loop small
           bowel obstruction

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.
       
  • Transplants in Brazil: where are we'

    •  
  • Generating evidence and understanding the treatment of osteoarthritis in
           Brazil: a study through Delphi methodology

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide evidence for understanding how to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in our country. Therefore, it was necessary to match information and investigations related to the treatment of the disease from the three main types of specialists involved: physiatrists, orthopedists and rheumatologists. METHODS: The authors acted as a scientific advisory committee. From the initial discussions, a structured questionnaire was developed for use with a group of specialists on OA using the Delphi technique. The questionnaire was sent to 21 experts appointed by the authors, and the results obtained were critically analyzed and validated. RESULTS: The prevalence of OA was 33% in Brazil, corresponding to one-third of the individuals in the reference population, which included individuals over 25 years of age. Another significant finding was that most patients did not receive any form of treatment in the early stages of OA. CONCLUSION: The committee pointed to the need for early intervention and that the available medicinal resources can fulfil this important role, as is the case with SYSADOA treatments. Glucosamine-based medicinal products with or without chondroitin could also fulfill this need for early treatment. The other generated evidence and included investigations were then grouped together and are the subject of this publication.
       
  • Incidence and mortality of bone cancer among children, adolescents and
           young adults of Brazil

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Bone cancers occur frequently in children, adolescents, and young adults aging 15 to 29 years. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most frequent subtypes in this population. The aim of this study was to describe incidence and mortality trends of bone cancers among Brazilian children, adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Incidence information was obtained from 23 population-based cancer registries. Mortality data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality from 1979 to 2013. Specific and adjusted rates per million were analyzed according to gender, morphology and age at diagnosis. Median rates were used as a measure of central tendency. Joinpoint regression was applied to analyze trends. RESULTS: Median incidence rates were 5.74 and 11.25 cases per million in children and young adults respectively. Osteosarcoma in the 15-19 years aged group had the highest incidence rates. Stable incidence rates were observed among five registries in 0-14 year's age group. Four registries had a decreased incidence trend among adolescents and young adults. Median mortality rates were 1.22 and 5.07 deaths per million in children and young adults respectively. Increased mortality was observed on the North and Northeast regions. Decreased mortality trends were seen in the South (children) and Southeast (adolescents and young adults). CONCLUSION: Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma are the most incident bone cancers in all Brazilian regions. Bone cancers showed incidence and mortality patterns variation within the geographic regions and across age groups, although not significant. Despite limitations, it is crucial to monitor cancer epidemiology trends across geographic Brazilian regions.
       
  • Association of Surfactant-Associated Protein D Gene Polymorphisms with the
           Risk of COPD: a Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: The relationship between surfactant-associated protein D polymorphisms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk remains controversial. This article is the first to systematically evaluate this relationship. A comprehensive worldwide search was conducted for relevant literature on surfactant-associated protein D gene mutations and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk prediction. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. After four genetic models (the allele, additive, recessive, and dominant models) were identified, odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 659 individuals in the case group and 597 in the control group. In the Asian population, none of the four genetic models revealed any significant association between rs2243639 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In Caucasians, however, the recessive model exhibited significant risk associated with rs2243639. Furthermore, there was a significant association between rs721917 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population. In contrast, none of the four gene models revealed any significant risk associated with this gene in the Caucasian population. This meta-analysis suggests that rs2243639 is not related to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population but is related to this risk in the Caucasian population. Regarding rs721917, the T allele may increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population.
       
  • ERRATA: The effectiveness of current informative material in improving
           awareness and opinion of undergraduate students towards organ donation: a
           comparative, randomized survey study

    • Abstract: The relationship between surfactant-associated protein D polymorphisms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk remains controversial. This article is the first to systematically evaluate this relationship. A comprehensive worldwide search was conducted for relevant literature on surfactant-associated protein D gene mutations and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk prediction. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. After four genetic models (the allele, additive, recessive, and dominant models) were identified, odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 659 individuals in the case group and 597 in the control group. In the Asian population, none of the four genetic models revealed any significant association between rs2243639 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In Caucasians, however, the recessive model exhibited significant risk associated with rs2243639. Furthermore, there was a significant association between rs721917 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population. In contrast, none of the four gene models revealed any significant risk associated with this gene in the Caucasian population. This meta-analysis suggests that rs2243639 is not related to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population but is related to this risk in the Caucasian population. Regarding rs721917, the T allele may increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population.
       
  • Efficacy and safety of sitagliptin added to metformin and insulin compared
           with voglibose in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin compared with voglibose added to combined metformin and insulin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: In this 12-week prospective, randomized, parallel trial, 70 newly diagnosed T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9% and/or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥11.1 mmol/L were randomized (1:1) to receive sitagliptin 100 mg per day + metformin + insulin glargine or voglibose 0.2 mg three times daily + metformin + insulin glargine. Change in HbA1c at week 12 was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: The mean baseline HbA1c was 11.0% in the patients. The changes in HbA1c from baseline were -6.00% in the sitagliptin group and -3.58% in the voglibose group, and the between-group difference was -2.42% (95% CI -1.91 to -2.93, p=0.02). The differences in FPG and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and the change in body weight between groups from baseline were -2.95 mmol/L (p=0.04), 43.91 (p=0.01) and -2.23 kg (p=0.01), respectively. One patient (2.9%) in the sitagliptin group and three patients (8.6%) in the voglibose group exhibited hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Sitagliptin added to combined metformin and insulin therapy showed greater efficacy and good safety regarding hypoglycemia in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM compared with voglibose.
       
  • Swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in
           young diabetic rats under insulin therapy

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test whether swimming training benefits femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar rats (age: 40 days) were divided equally into the following six groups: control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary plus insulin and diabetic exercise plus insulin. Diabetes was induced with a unique intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Seven days after the injection and after 12 hours of fasting, the animals with blood glucose levels ≥300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, the animals in the exercise groups were subjected to progressive swimming training (final week: 90 min/day; 5 days/week; 5% load) for eight weeks. The animals in the insulin groups received a daily dose of insulin (2-4 U/day) for the same period. RESULTS: Severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced the structural properties of the femoral neck (trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and collagen fiber content). The femoral neck mechanical properties (maximum load and tenacity) were also impaired in the diabetic rats. Insulin therapy partially reversed the damage induced by diabetes on the structural properties of the bone and mitigated the reductions in the mechanical properties of the bone. The combination of therapies further increased the femoral neck trabecular bone volume (∼30%), trabecular thickness (∼24%), collagen type I (∼19%) and type III (∼13%) fiber contents, maximum load (∼25%) and tenacity (∼14%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in young rats with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes under insulin therapy.
       
  • The myofascial component of the pain in the painful shoulder of the
           hemiplegic patient

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Poststroke shoulder pain occurs very frequently and compromises function and quality of life. Because treatment depends on a multidisciplinary approach, it is desirable to optimize effectiveness. Myofascial pain syndrome is defined by the presence of trigger points that can also be found in spastic stroke patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of myofascial pain in the shoulder girdle muscles in patients with poststroke shoulder pain and to document the clinical and functional results obtained with specific treatment for this condition. METHODS: Spastic stroke hemiplegic patients undergoing rehabilitation at the Rehabilitation Center of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School of the University of São Paulo were evaluated regarding the intensity and characteristics of shoulder pain, previous therapeutic interventions, shoulder goniometry and the presence of trigger points. Patients underwent trigger point blockade by intramuscular infiltration of 1% lidocaine. The evaluation and treatment procedures were repeated in the subsequent 3 weeks as long as the pain intensity was greater than 5 on a visual analog scale (VAS). In the fourth week, the evaluation procedures were repeated. Patients who were in a multiprofessional rehabilitation program were instructed to continue the treatment, and the others received complementary therapeutic advice if necessary to initiate it. The evaluations were performed at 0, 1, and 3 weeks and after 4 months. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (13 men; age=67.8±10.2 years; right hemiparesis: 11) participated in the study, and there was a reduction in pain assessed by VAS from baseline (7.6±2.7) to the first week (5.8±3.6; p<0.05) through the end of the third week (5.2±3.5; p<0.05), but not at the end of four months (6.6±2.9; p=0.11). Good responders had significantly lower pain levels after the third week and presented with a larger range of motion for passive abduction by the end of 4 months. These results demonstrate that the myofascial component of pain should be considered in poststroke shoulder pain and that its treatment may be a pathway for the rapid and long-lasting relief of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Trigger point blockade with lidocaine can reduce pain perception in spastic hemiplegic shoulder in as much as 50% of stroke survivors for four months.
       
  • Prevalence of sarcopenia and its associated factors: the impact of muscle
           mass, gait speed, and handgrip strength reference values on reported
           frequencies

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is a common treatable geriatric condition. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associated factors in community-dwelling elderly living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to discuss the impact of different muscle mass, handgrip strength and gait speed cut-off values on the reported frequency of sarcopenia. METHODS: The health habits, functional capacity, and anthropometric measurements of 745 individuals aged ≥65 years from the Frailty in Brazilian Older People study were analyzed. The participants were classified into the following four groups: no sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Muscle mass, handgrip strength and gait speed cut-off thresholds tailored to the sample and those proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People were used to compare the prevalence rates of sarcopenia. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of the participants were female, 61.9% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 76.6 years. The prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 10.8% and 18% using the sample-tailored and European consensus cut-off values, respectively. Sarcopenia was associated with advanced age (OR: 37.2; CI95%12.35-112.48), Caucasian race (OR: 1.89; CI 95% 1.02-3.52), single marital status (OR:6; CI95% 2.2-16.39), low income (OR:3.64; CI 95% 1.58-8.39), and the presence of comorbidities (OR:3.26; CI 95%1.28-8.3). CONCLUSION: In this study, the estimated prevalence of sarcopenia was similar to that reported in most studies after the tailored handgrip strength and gait speed cut-off values were adopted. A higher prevalence was observed when the cut-off values suggested by the European consensus were used. This indicates that the prevalence of sarcopenia must be estimated using population-specific reference values.
       
  • Logistic regression analysis of clinical and computed tomography features
           of pulmonary abscesses and risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related
           empyema

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema by investigating the clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography imaging features of patients with pulmonary abscesses. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the chest computed tomography findings and clinical features of 101 cases of pulmonary abscess, including 25 cases with empyema (the experimental group) and 76 cases with no empyema (the control group). The potential risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema were compared between the groups by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The incidence of pulmonary abscess-related empyema was 24.8% (25/101). Univariate analysis showed that male gender, diabetes, pleuritic symptoms, white blood cells >10×109/L, albumin level <25 g/L, and positive sputum cultures were potential clinical-related risk factors and that an abscess >5 cm in diameter and transpulmonary fissure abscesses were potential computed tomography imaging-related risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that transpulmonary fissure abscesses (odds ratio=9.102, p=0.003), diabetes (odds ratio=9.066, p=0.003), an abscess >5 cm in diameter (odds ratio=8.998, p=0.002), and pleuritic symptoms (odds ratio=5.395, p=0.015) were independent risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema. CONCLUSIONS: Transpulmonary fissure abscesses, diabetes, giant pulmonary abscesses, and pleuritic symptoms increased the risk of empyema among patients with pulmonary abscesses.
       
  • Serum Levels of Infliximab and Anti-Infliximab Antibodies in Brazilian
           Patients with Crohn’s Disease

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative serum level of infliximab (IFX) as well as the detection of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATIs) in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHOD: Forty patients with CD under treatment at a tertiary center in southeastern Brazil were evaluated. Their use of infliximab was continuous and regular. We analyzed and compared the differences in the IFX and ATI levels between the patients with active CD (CDA) and those with CD in remission (CDR). RESULTS: There was no difference in the IFX level between the CDA and CDR groups (p>0.05). Eighty percent of all patients had IFX levels above the therapeutic concentration (6-10 μg/mL). Two (9%) of the 22 patients with active disease and four (22.2%) of the 18 patients in remission had undetectable levels of IFX. Four (66.6%) of the six patients with undetectable levels of IFX had positive ATI levels; three of these patients were in remission, and one had active disease. In addition, the other two patients with undetectable levels of IFX presented ATI levels close to positivity (2.7 and 2.8 AU/ml). None of the patients with therapeutic or supratherapeutic IFX levels had positive ATI levels. CONCLUSIONS: The undetectable levels of IFX correlated with the detection of ATIs, which was independent of disease activity. Immunogenicity was not the main factor for the loss of response to IFX in our study, and the majority of patients in both groups (CDA and CDR) had supratherapeutic levels of IFX.
       
  • Effects of a dietary supplement on inflammatory marker expression in
           middle-aged and elderly hypertensive patients

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the effects of diet on the inflammatory response in middle-aged and elderly people with hypertension. METHODS: Thirty overweight or obese patients with stage one hypertension (age range, 45-75 years) were allocated to either the intervention or control group (n=15 per group; age- and sex-matched). Patients in the intervention group consumed a food powder supplement (100 g) instead of a regular meal. The control group maintained their normal dietary habits. This study lasted for six weeks. Blood pressure, inflammatory marker levels, and energy intake were measured before and after the study. RESULTS: After 6 weeks, the diet composition of the intervention group changed significantly (p<0.05). The intake of proteins, dietary fibre, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat increased significantly (p<0.05), while the total energy intake trended towards an increase (p>0.05). In the control group, the total energy intake decreased significantly (p<0.05). The levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) decreased, and adiponectin increased significantly in the intervention group (p<0.05); however, no significant changes were observed in the inflammatory marker levels of the control group. In the intervention group, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p<0.05), and diastolic blood pressure also exhibited a decreasing trend. No significant change in blood pressure was observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: The consumption of a food powder supplement can improve diet composition, decrease blood pressure and reduce inflammation in middle-aged and elderly overweight or obese hypertensive patients. The food powder supplement may also have an anti-atherosclerotic effect in hypertensive patients.
       
  • Ultrasound of entheses in ankylosing spondylitis patients: The importance
           of the calcaneal and quadriceps entheses for differentiating patients from
           healthy individuals

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the ultrasonographic findings of entheses in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with those of healthy control individuals and to assess the ability of ultrasound (US) to identify aspects related to the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with AS and 30 healthy controls was performed. Clinical assessment included the use of a visual analog scale for pain, assessment of swelling of the enthesis, global assessments for patients and physician, use of a disease activity index, mobility and dysfunctional indices, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and clinical enthesitis index. US was performed for the following entheses by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists: brachial triceps, distal quadriceps, proximal and distal patellar tendons, calcaneal tendon, and plantar fascia; the total and subitems of the Madrid Sonographic Enthesitis Index were used for evaluations. RESULTS: Comparison between groups showed a statistically significant difference with worse scores in AS patients, with bone erosion of the calcaneal enthesis and bone erosion and thickening of the plantar fascia. The odds ratio for thickening of the plantar fascia in the AS group was 3.47, according to logistic regression analysis. The AS group also had worse scores regarding the presence of calcification in the quadriceps enthesis, with a fivefold increased risk. CONCLUSION: US analysis showed that only entheses of the foot and quadriceps were able to differentiate AS patients from healthy individuals.
       
  • Diagnostic value of pediatric blood culture bottles for acute
           postoperative endophthalmitis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using conventional culture methods (CM) and pediatric blood culture bottles (PBCBs) for vitreous sample culture of acute postoperative endophthalmitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital das Clinicas, HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BR, from January 2010 to December 2015, and it included 54 patients with clinically suspected acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Vitreous samples were obtained by vitreous tap or vitrectomy. Samples from January 2010 to December 2011 were cultivated in CM, whereas samples from January 2012 to December 2015 were inoculated in PBCBs. The measured outcome was the yield of positive cultures. RESULTS: Twenty cases were included in the CM group, and 34 cases were included in the PBCB group. The yield of positive cultures in PBCBs (64.7%) was significantly higher than that in conventional CM (35%, p=0.034). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus viridans were the two most commonly found agents. CONCLUSION: PBCBs can be used successfully in clinically suspected endophthalmitis. The method showed a higher yield of positive cultures than the conventional method. This technique appears to have several advantages over the traditional method: it saves time, as only one medium needs to be inoculated; transportation to a laboratory is easier than in the traditional method, and there is no need to maintain a supply of fresh agar media. The use of PBCBs may be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis and is especially suitable for office settings and remote clinics.
       
  • Development and evaluation of a training model for paracentetic suprapubic
           cystostomy and catheterization

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy is a technique that should be learned by all surgical trainees and residents. This study aimed to develop a self-made training model for paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy and placement of the suprapubic catheter and then to evaluate its effectiveness in training fourth-year medical students. METHODS: Medical students were divided into an experimental group receiving comprehensive training involving literature, video, and model use and a control group receiving all the same training protocols as the experimental group except without hands-on practice using the model. Each student’s performance was video-recorded, followed by subjective and objective evaluations by urology experts and statistical analysis. RESULTS: All students completed the surgical procedures successfully. The experimental group’s performance scores were significantly higher than those of the control group (median final performance scores of 91.0 vs. 86.8, respectively). Excellent scores were achieved by more students in the experimental group than in the control group (55% vs. 20%), and fewer poor scores were observed in the experimental group than in the control group (5% vs. 30%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on its cost-effectiveness, reusability, and training effectiveness, this paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy training model is able to achieve goals in teaching practice quickly and easily. Use of the model should be encouraged for training senior medical students and resident physicians who may be expected to perform emergent suprapubic catheter insertion at some time.
       
  • 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI directly visualized the pedunculopontine nucleus
           in Parkinson’s disease patients

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is considered a promising new target for neurostimulation in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with postural instability and gait disturbance that is refractory to other treatment modalities. However, the PPN is typically difficult to visualize with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at clinical field strengths, which greatly limits the PPN as a viable surgical target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Thus, the aim of this study is to directly visualize the PPN based on 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI. METHODS: Five PD patients were enrolled and scanned using the MP2RAGE sequence on a 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI scanner. Then, the MP2RAGE sequences were imported into a commercially available navigation system. The coordinates of the directly localized PPN poles were recorded in the navigation system relative to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the PPN presented intermediate signal intensity in the 7.0T ultrahigh-field MR images in comparison with the surrounding structure, such as the hypo-intensity of the periaqueductal gray and the hyperintensity of the neighboring white matter tracts, in PD patients. The mean coordinates for the rostral and caudal poles of PPN were 6.50 mm and 7.20 mm lateral, 1.58 mm and 2.21 mm posterior, and 8.89 mm and 13.83 mm relative to the posterior commissure. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide, for the first time, direct visualization of the PPN using the MP2RAGE sequence on a 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI, which may improve the accuracy of stereotactic targeting of the PPN and improve the outcomes in patients undergoing DBS.
       
  • Evaluation of the use of blood in surgeries as a tool to change patterns
           for requesting blood product reserves

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Thirty to sixty percent of prepared blood products are not transfused. Blood reserves for surgeries lead to many unused blood products, which increases hospital costs. The aim of this study is to identify the request and use profiles of blood products for elective surgeries in different surgical specialties, the influence of surgery time and demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on the number of red blood cells (RBCs) used and to calculate the rate of transfused patients (RTP) and cross-matched and transfused (C/T) RBCs. METHODS: Observational and prospective studies. Sociodemographic, clinical and quantitative data on the request and use of blood products were collected. The influence of the data on the use of RBCs was examined by binary logistic regression. Chi-square, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized to compare the data among the specialties. RESULTS: In total, 822 procedures were included. Most of the requested blood products were not used, even 24 hours postoperatively. Of the 2,483 RBC units, 314 were transfused, leaving 87.6% unused; however, cardiac, digestive tract, vascular, gynecologic, urologic and thoracic surgery procedures transfused 50%, 25%, 16.5%, 11%, 9.5% and 8.1% of requested RBCs, respectively. The factors that influenced the transfusions were age, time of surgery and cardiac surgeries. The RTP was >10% in 22 surgical types and <1% in 24 surgical types, and 88% of samples presented a C/T ratio >2.5. CONCLUSION: The RTP and C/T ratios can guide RBC requests in the preoperative period. Knowing the standard of use of blood products and developing protocols enables the optimization of reserves, reduction of costs and improvement of care.
       
  • Osteosarcoma of the jaw – experience at the Medical University Vienna
           and comparative study with international tumor registries

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Osteosarcoma of the jaw (OSAJ) is fundamentally different in clinical practice from its peripheral counterparts. Studies are difficult to conduct due to low incidence rates. The primary aim of this study was to provide for the first time a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the treatment concepts and outcome data of OSAJ patients treated at the University Hospital Vienna and to compare these with two recently published studies on OSAJ. The clinical study was accompanied by a biomarker study investigating the prognostic relevance of melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) in OSAJ specimens. METHOD: Eighteen patients were included, and their outcomes were compared to published data. Immunohistochemistry was performed with mouse monoclonal antibodies against MAGE-A. Survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meyer method. The log-rank test was used to analyze potential prognostic parameters. Fisher’s exact test was performed to define the significant differences between the survival rates of the current study and the DOESAK registry. RESULTS: Disease-specific survival was 93.8% after five and 56.3% after ten years. The development of metastases (p=0.033) or relapse (p=0.037) was associated with worsened outcomes in our group as well as in the comparative group. Despite the different treatment concepts of the study groups, survival rates were comparable. MAGE-A failed to show prognostic relevance for OSAJ patients. CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainties about the optimal treatment strategies of OSAJ patients will currently remain. Thus, prospective studies of OSAJ are needed but are only feasible in a multicenter study setting, conducted over a prolonged time period.
       
  • The effectiveness of current informative material in improving awareness
           and opinion of undergraduate students towards organ donation: a
           comparative, randomized survey study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Despite the contribution of awareness campaigns to the rise of organ donation rates in Brazil, younger folks are subject to few awareness actions. Records on the effect of informative campaigns at improving opinion and knowledge of undergraduates about organ donation are scarce. This study aimed to assess the effect of informative material about organ donation on changes in the trend of answers to a questionnaire compared to the answers of a control group. METHODS: Two randomized groups were compared, receiving the same standardized questionnaire. One group was supplied informative material on the subject, while the other was not. The questionnaire was sent to undergraduate students from two Brazilian universities. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, Chi-square test and multinomial regression tests. Adopted significance was 5%. RESULTS: There were 739 responses to the questionnaire. Mean age was 22 years, with a majority of women. Six of 14 questions displayed a change in the answer pattern of the experimental group compared to controls (p<0.05). Opinion on organ donation had changes in 2 of 7 analyzed questions (p<0.05). Knowledge on the subject had a shift in answer patterns in 4 of 7 questions. Regression demonstrated 3 items that were not influenced by respondents’ age. CONCLUSION: There is controversy regarding the benefit of exposure to informative material. Negative changes were noted in the trust in transplantation as a safe treatment. Positive results regarding technical knowledge were obtained. Better results may be obtained by designing informative material tailored towards the student’s specific concerns.
       
  • Basilar invagination associated with chiari malformation type I: A
           literature review

    • Abstract: Basilar invagination (BI) and Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) are very important anomalies that introduce instability and compression in the occipitocervical transition region and have complex clinical characteristics. These anomalies vary according to the affected structures. The present study revises current knowledge regarding the anatomy, anatomo-physiology, clinical manifestations, and radiological findings of these entities and the associated surgical treatment approaches. A bibliographic survey was performed through a search in the Medline, PubMed, SciELO, Science and LILACS databases. When associated, these craniovertebral malformations result in neurological deficits due to neural parenchyma compression; however, the presence of microtraumas due to repetitive lesions caused by the bulb and cervical marrow instability has been highlighted as a determinant dysfunction. Surgical treatment is controversial and has many technical variations. Surgery is also challenging due to the complex anatomical characteristics and biomechanics of this region. Nevertheless, advances have been achieved in our understanding of related mechanisms, and compression and atlantoaxial instability are considered key elements when selecting the surgical approach.
       
  • The effectiveness and safety of parathyroid hormone in fracture healing: A
           meta-analysis

    • Abstract: The very large economic and social burdens of fracture-related complications make rapid fracture healing a major public health goal. The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in treating osteoporosis is generally accepted, but the effect of PTH on fracture healing is controversial. This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of PTH in fracture healing. The EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to April 26, 2018. The primary randomized clinical trials comparing PTH treatment for fracture healing with placebo or no treatment were identified. We did not gain additional information by contacting the authors of the primary studies. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and evaluated study quality. This meta-analysis was executed to determine the odds ratio, mean difference, standardized mean difference, and 95% confidence intervals with random-effects models. In total, 8 randomized trials including 524 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in fracture healing time, pain relief and function improvement. There were no significant differences in the fracture healing rate or adverse events, including light-headedness, hypercalcemia, nausea, sweating and headache, except for slight bruising at the injection site. We determined that the effectiveness and safety of PTH in fracture healing is reasonably well established and credible.
       
  • Comments: Influence of the prone position on a stretcher for pregnant
           women on maternal and fetal hemodynamic parameters and comfort in
           pregnancy

    • Abstract: The very large economic and social burdens of fracture-related complications make rapid fracture healing a major public health goal. The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in treating osteoporosis is generally accepted, but the effect of PTH on fracture healing is controversial. This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of PTH in fracture healing. The EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to April 26, 2018. The primary randomized clinical trials comparing PTH treatment for fracture healing with placebo or no treatment were identified. We did not gain additional information by contacting the authors of the primary studies. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and evaluated study quality. This meta-analysis was executed to determine the odds ratio, mean difference, standardized mean difference, and 95% confidence intervals with random-effects models. In total, 8 randomized trials including 524 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in fracture healing time, pain relief and function improvement. There were no significant differences in the fracture healing rate or adverse events, including light-headedness, hypercalcemia, nausea, sweating and headache, except for slight bruising at the injection site. We determined that the effectiveness and safety of PTH in fracture healing is reasonably well established and credible.
       
  • Authors’ Reply – Comments: Influence of the prone position on a
           stretcher for pregnant women on maternal and fetal hemodynamic parameters
           and comfort in pregnancy

    • Abstract: The very large economic and social burdens of fracture-related complications make rapid fracture healing a major public health goal. The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in treating osteoporosis is generally accepted, but the effect of PTH on fracture healing is controversial. This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of PTH in fracture healing. The EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to April 26, 2018. The primary randomized clinical trials comparing PTH treatment for fracture healing with placebo or no treatment were identified. We did not gain additional information by contacting the authors of the primary studies. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and evaluated study quality. This meta-analysis was executed to determine the odds ratio, mean difference, standardized mean difference, and 95% confidence intervals with random-effects models. In total, 8 randomized trials including 524 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in fracture healing time, pain relief and function improvement. There were no significant differences in the fracture healing rate or adverse events, including light-headedness, hypercalcemia, nausea, sweating and headache, except for slight bruising at the injection site. We determined that the effectiveness and safety of PTH in fracture healing is reasonably well established and credible.
       
  • CBS promoter hypermethylation increases the risk of hypertension
           and stroke

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Cystathionine β-synthase is a major enzyme in the metabolism of plasma homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is positively associated with hypertension and stroke. The present study was performed to examine the possible effects of Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation on the development of hypertension and stroke. METHODS: Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR, we determined the Cystathionine β-synthase methylation levels in 218 healthy individuals and 132 and 243 age- and gender-matched stroke and hypertensive patients, respectively. The relative changes in Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation were analyzed using the 2–ΔΔCt method. The percent of the methylated reference of Cystathionine β-synthase was used to represent the Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation levels. RESULTS: In this study, the Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation levels of hypertensive and stroke participants were both higher than that of the healthy individuals (median percentages of the methylated reference were 50.61%, 38.05% and 30.53%, respectively, all p<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that Cystathionine β-synthase promoter hypermethylation increased the risk of hypertension [odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI)=1.035 (1.025–1.045)] and stroke [OR (95% CI)=1.015 (1.003–1.028)]. The area under the curve of Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation was 0.844 (95% CI: 0.796–0.892) in male patients with hypertension and 0.722 (95% CI: 0.653–0.799) in male patients with stroke. CONCLUSION: Cystathionine β-synthase promoter hypermethylation increases the risk of hypertension and stroke, especially in male patients.
       
  • Epidemiology and outcomes of anal abscess in patients on chronic dialysis:
           a 14-year retrospective study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We conducted this retrospective study to elucidate the clinical presentation and outcomes of anal abscess in chronic dialysis patients. METHODS: We performed a chart review of patients who were hospitalized for anal abscess from Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2015. A total of 3,074 episodes of anal abscess were identified. Of these, 43 chronic dialysis patients with first-time anal abscess were enrolled. Patients were divided into a surgical group and a nonsurgical group according to the treatment received during hospitalization. The baseline characteristics, clinical findings, treatments and outcomes were obtained and analyzed. The endpoints of this study were in-hospital mortality, one-year mortality and one-year recurrence. RESULTS: Of the 43 patients, 27 (62.7%) received surgical treatment, and 16 (37.2%) received antibiotic treatment alone. There was no significant difference in age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, comorbidities, or dialysis characteristics between the two groups. Perianal abscess was the most common type of anal abscess, and 39.5% of patients experienced fistula formation. Most patients had mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora. Our data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in hospital stay, one-year survival or recurrence rate between the surgical group and nonsurgical group. However, there was a trend toward better in-hospital survival in patients who received surgical treatment (p=0.082). CONCLUSION: In chronic dialysis patients with anal abscess, there was no statistically significant difference in clinical presentation and outcomes between the surgical and nonsurgical groups, although the surgical group had a trend of better in-hospital survival.
       
  • Work ability and productivity in patients with diabetic foot

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess work ability and productivity in patients with diabetic foot. METHODS: This investigation was a cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 117 individuals were selected from March to June 2014 and allocated to group A (patients without diabetes, n=43), group B (diabetes patients without foot ulcers, n=43), or group C (patients with diabetic foot, n=31). Two validated instruments, the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire General Health v2.0 (WPAI-GH), were used to assess work ability and productivity. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex; however, patients in group C had a lower education level than the other participants (p=0.006). The median WLQ scores for groups A, B, and C were 0.0121, 0.0146, and 0.0852, respectively (p<0.0001). The WPAI-GH scores revealed a mean productivity loss of 20% for groups A and B and 100% for group C (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetic foot showed decreased work ability and productivity.
       
  • Use of technological tools to evaluate handwriting production of the
           alphabet and pseudocharacters by Brazilian students

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize and compare the handwriting performance of Brazilian students from the 3rd to the 5th grade level of elementary school I with a computerized instrument that allowed the real performance to be observed during the execution of the handwriting. METHODS: Ninety-five students, aged 8 years to 11 years and 11 months, were assigned the production tasks of handwriting letters and pseudocharacters to assess the variables of latency, letter duration production and movement fluency. The stimulus presentation and the analysis of the movements were analyzed by Ductus software. RESULTS: In relation to the writing duration, latency and fluency of the alphabet letters, there was a diminution of values from the 3rd to 5th grade. For the comparison between alphabet and pseudocharacter latency, the results indicated a difference between the alphabet letter and its corresponding pseudocharacter, with greater latency for the pseudocharacter. This finding suggests that a motor sequence has not been established, so it cannot be assumed that the production of the alphabet letters was automatic. CONCLUSION: The results of this study make it possible to verify the interaction failures between the central and peripheral processes, with progression between the 3rd and 5th grade. It also highlights the influence of the lack of systematized teaching of the tracing of letters for Brazilian students since proficiency in calligraphy is critically linked to academic performance. These findings provide a great contribution to Brazilian educational psychology and reflect both educational and clinical practices.
       
  • Morse taper performance: A finite element analysis study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the magnitude and distribution of stresses generated on implants, abutments and first molar metal-ceramic crowns using finite element analysis. METHODS: Preliminary three-dimensional models were created using the computer-aided design software SolidWorks. Stress and strain values were observed for two distinct virtual models: model 1 - Morse taper and solid abutment; model 2 - Morse taper and abutment with screw. A load (250 N) was applied to a single point of the occlusal surface at 15° to the implant long axis. Von Mises stresses were recorded for both groups at four main points: 1) abutment-retaining screws; 2) abutment neck; 3) cervical bone area; 4) implant neck. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Model 1 showed a higher stress value (1477.5 MPa) at the abutment-retaining screw area than the stresses found in model 2 (1091.1 MPa for the same area). The cervical bone strain values did not exceed 105 µm for either model.
       
  • Specific characteristics of the medical history of swallowing before and
           after application of botulinum toxin in patients with cervical dystonia

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare signs and symptoms of dysphagia in individuals with cervical dystonia (CD) before and after application of botulinum toxin (BTX). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 20 patients diagnosed with CD with indications for BTX application. We selected 18 patients who met the study inclusion criteria. All individuals were patients from the Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Federal University of São Paulo. BTX was applied in the cervical region at the necessary dose for each individual. To identify signs/complaints of changes in swallowing, we used a specific questionnaire that was completed by patients and/or their companions on the day of BTX injection and repeated 10 to 15 days after BTX injection. RESULTS: Among the 18 study subjects, 15 (83.3%) showed primary and three (16.7%) showed secondary cervical dystonia. The most frequent dystonic movements were rotation (18), tilt (5), forward shift (3), backward shift (7), shoulder elevation (12), shoulder depression (2), and cervical tremor (6). The main complaints reported before BTX application were voice changes in 10 (55.6%), need for adjustment of eating position in 10 (55.6%), coughing and/or choking while eating in nine (50%), and increased eating time in nine (50%) individuals. The main complaints reported after BTX application were coughing and/or choking while eating in 11 (61.1%), voice changes in nine (50%), sensation of food stuck in the throat in eight (44%), and increased eating time in eight (44%) individuals. CONCLUSION: The administration of a swallowing-specific questionnaire to individuals with CD before and after BTX application enabled the identification of possible dysphagia symptoms prior to drug treatment resulting from CD, which are often subsequently interpreted as side effects of the drug treatment. Thus, dysphagia can be managed, and aspiration symptoms can be prevented.
       
  • Metabolomics applied to maternal and perinatal health: a review of new
           frontiers with a translation potential

    • Abstract: The prediction or early diagnosis of maternal complications is challenging mostly because the main conditions, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and gestational diabetes mellitus, are complex syndromes with multiple underlying mechanisms related to their occurrence. Limited advances in maternal and perinatal health in recent decades with respect to preventing these disorders have led to new approaches, and “omics” sciences have emerged as a potential field to be explored. Metabolomics is the study of a set of metabolites in a given sample and can represent the metabolic functioning of a cell, tissue or organism. Metabolomics has some advantages over genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, as metabolites are the final result of the interactions of genes, RNAs and proteins. Considering the recent “boom” in metabolomic studies and their importance in the research agenda, we here review the topic, explaining the rationale and theory of the metabolomic approach in different areas of maternal and perinatal health research for clinical practitioners. We also demonstrate the main exploratory studies of these maternal complications, commenting on their promising findings. The potential translational application of metabolomic studies, especially for the identification of predictive biomarkers, is supported by the current findings, although they require external validation in larger datasets and with alternative methodologies.
       
  • A Brazilian university hospital position regarding transplantation
           criteria for HIV-positive patients according to the current literature

    • Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was considered a contraindication for solid organ transplantation (SOT) in the past. However, HIV management has improved since highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available in 1996, and the long-term survival of patients living with HIV has led many transplant programs to reevaluate their policies regarding the exclusion of patients with HIV infection. Based on the available data in the medical literature and the cumulative experience of transplantation in HIV-positive patients at our hospital, the aim of the present article is to outline the criteria for transplantation in HIV-positive patients as recommended by the Immunocompromised Host Committee of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo.
       
  • Is the effect of melatonin on vascular endothelial growth factor
           receptor-2 associated with angiogenesis in the rat ovary'

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors play important roles in angiogenesis. Melatonin plays an important role in gonadal development; thus, its effect on the reproductive system is evident. We investigated the influence of melatonin on the expression of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), as well as on changes in oxidative stress markers and follicle numbers in rat ovaries. METHODS For this purpose, 45 Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: Group 1, control; Group 2, vehicle; and Group 3, melatonin. Rats in Group 3 were treated with melatonin at 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days. The effects of melatonin on the expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were established by immunohistochemistry analysis. The effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzyme activities were demonstrated by spectrophotometric analysis. RESULTS Based on immunohistochemistry analysis, VEGFR2 was predominantly localized to theca cells in the ovary. Our data indicate that melatonin treatment can significantly increase VEGF and VEGFR1 expression in the ovary ( p <0.05). Additionally, the number of degenerated follicles significantly decreased with melatonin treatment ( p <0.05). Melatonin administration also led to significant increases in antioxidant enzyme levels in the ovary. CONCLUSION Melatonin treatment exerts protective effects on follicles against increased lipid peroxidation through modulating tissue antioxidant enzyme levels. These effects may be related to angiogenesis and antioxidant activities.
       
  • Comparing the effects of vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction
           supplementation and α-tocopherol supplementation on gene expression in
           healthy older adults

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the differential gene expression resulting from tocotrienol-rich fraction and α-tocopherol supplementation in healthy older adults. METHODS A total of 71 eligible subjects aged 50 to 55 years from Gombak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo (n=23), α-tocopherol (n=24) or tocotrienol-rich fraction (n=24). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months of supplementation for microarray analysis. RESULTS The number of genes altered by α-tocopherol was higher after 6 months (1,410) than after 3 months (273) of supplementation. α-Tocopherol altered the expression of more genes in males (952) than in females (731). Similarly, tocotrienol-rich fraction modulated the expression of more genes after 6 months (1,084) than after 3 months (596) and affected more genes in males (899) than in females (781). α-Tocopherol supplementation modulated pathways involving the response to stress and stimuli, the immune response, the response to hypoxia and bacteria, the metabolism of toxins and xenobiotics, mitosis, and synaptic transmission as well as activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase and complement pathways after 6 months. However, tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation affected pathways such as the signal transduction, apoptosis, nuclear factor kappa B kinase, cascade extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2, immune response, response to drug, cell adhesion, multicellular organismal development and G protein signaling pathways. CONCLUSION Supplementation with either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction affected the immune and drug response and the cell adhesion and signal transduction pathways but modulated other pathways differently after 6 months of supplementation, with sex-specific responses.
       
  • Very low-calorie diet in candidates for bariatric surgery: change in body
           composition during rapid weight loss

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the body composition of morbidly obese patients induced by a very low-calorie diet. METHODS: We evaluated 120 patients selected from a university hospital. Body composition was assessed before and after the diet provided during hospitalization, and changes in weight, body mass index, and neck, waist and hip circumferences were analyzed. Bioimpedance was used to obtain body fat and fat-free mass values. The data were categorized by gender, age, body mass index and diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: The patients consumed the diet for 8 days. They presented a 5% weight loss (without significant difference among groups), which represented an 85% reduction in body fat. All changes in body circumference were statistically significant. There was greater weight loss and a greater reduction of body fat in men, but the elderly showed a significantly higher percentage of weight loss and greater reductions in body fat and fat-free mass. Greater reductions in body fat and fat-free mass were also observed in superobese patients. The changes in the diabetic participants did not differ significantly from those of the non-diabetic participants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a VLCD before bariatric surgery led to a loss of weight at the expense of body fat over a short period, with no significant differences in the alteration of body composition according to gender, age, body mass index and diabetes status.
       
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in men with multiple
           sclerosis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and interrelationship between lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in men with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 41 men (mean age 41.1±9.9 years) with MS from February 2011 to March 2013, who were invited to participate irrespective of the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms or sexual dysfunction. Neurological impairment was assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale; lower urinary tract symptoms were evaluated with the International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire, and sexual dysfunction was evaluated with the International Index of Erectile Function. All patients underwent transabdominal urinary tract sonography and urine culture. RESULTS: The mean disease duration was 10.5±7.3 years. Neurological evaluation showed a median Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3 [2-6]. The median International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire score was 17 [10-25]. The median International Index of Erectile Function score was 29 [15-46]. Twenty-nine patients (74.4%) had sexual dysfunction as defined by an International Index of Erectile Function score <45. Voiding dysfunction and sexual dysfunction increased with the degree of neurological impairment (r=0.02 [0.02 to 0.36] p=0.03 and r=-0.41 [-0.65 to -0.11] p=0.008, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction also displayed a significant correlation (r=-0.31 [-0.56 to -0.01] p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Most male patients with MS have lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction. The severity of the neurological disease is a predictive factor for the occurrence of voiding and sexual dysfunctions.
       
  • Is there any association between osteoporotic vertebral fracture and
           vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit-1 polymorphism in Turkish
           society' A pilot study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: In this study, the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and 9041 Guanine/Adenine and 3673 Guanine/Adenine polymorphisms related to the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit-1 (VKORC1) gene in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was investigated. METHOD: DNA was isolated from blood samples collected from 150 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Genotyping of the two polymorphic regions (9041 Guanine/Adenine and 3673 Guanine/Adenine) in VKORC1 was performed using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence of radiographic fractures among the 150 patients was ascertained by using the Genant method. RESULT: At least one fracture was detected in 98 patients, and no fracture was observed in 52 patients on radiological images. We found no association between the 9041 Guanine/Adenine (p=0.283) and 3673 Guanine/Adenine (p=0.232) polymorphisms of the VKORC1 gene and the development of secondary postosteoporotic fractures in our study. CONCLUSION: There was no relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fracture and VKORC1 gene polymorphism in a postmenopausal Turkish population.
       
  • Evaluation of Alternative Halo Ring Positions in Children Using Tomography

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The halo ring can be applied in children, through skeletal traction or a halo vest device, to treat many cervical spine pathologies, including traumatic injuries and pathologies related to deformities. However, the procedure is associated with various complications, such as infection, pin loosening, and respiratory and neurological problems. Although widely studied in adults, the best pin insertion site in children and the correlations of pin insertion sites with outcomes and complications have not been completely elucidated. This study aimed to determine alternative pin placement sites based on a morphological analysis of the infant skull by computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: An analytical-descriptive study was performed using 50 CT scans from children. The Wilcoxon and Friedman tests were used. RESULTS: A linear and directly proportional relation was found between cranial thickness and patient age. The average thicknesses of the anterior points across all ages analyzed ranged from 4.16 mm to 4.98 mm. The thicknesses of the posterior points varied from 3.94 mm to 4.27 mm. Within each age range, points 1 cm above the standard insertion sites had thicknesses similar to those of the standard sites, and points 2 cm above the standard insertion sites had thicknesses greater than those of the standard sites. CONCLUSIONS: The cranial thickness at all points increases linearly with age. Points 1 and 2 cm above the standard insertion sites are viable alternatives for the placement of halo pins. Preoperative CT can aid in choosing the best positioning sites for pins in the skull.
       
  • Caloric test and video head impulse test sensitivity as vestibular
           impairment predictors before cochlear implant surgery

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Currently, cochlear implant procedures are becoming increasingly broad and have greatly expanded. Bilateral cochlear implants and cochlear implants are more frequently applied in children. Our hypothesis is that the video head impulse test may be more sensitive than the caloric test in detecting abnormal vestibular function before cochlear implant surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the video head impulse test and caloric test results of patients selected for cochlear implant procedures before surgery. METHODS: The patients selected for cochlear implant surgery were submitted to a bithermal caloric test and video head impulse test. RESULTS: By comparing angular slow phase velocity values below 5° in the bithermal caloric test (hypofunction) and video head impulse test with a gain lower than 0.8, we identified 37 (64.9%) patients with vestibular hypofunction or canal paresis and 21 (36.8%) patients with abnormal video head impulse test gain before the cochlear implant procedure. Of the 37 patients with caloric test vestibular hypofunction, 20 (54%) patients exhibited an abnormal gain in the video head impulse test. CONCLUSION: The caloric test is more sensitive than the video head impulse test (Fisher’s exact test, p=0.0002) in detecting the impaired ear before cochlear implant delivery. The proportion of caloric test/video head impulse test positive identification of abnormal vestibular function or caloric test/video head impulse test sensitivity was 1.8:1.
       
  • Research progress in ultrasound use for the diagnosis and treatment of
           cerebrovascular diseases

    • Abstract: Cerebrovascular diseases pose a serious threat to human survival and quality of life and represent a major cause of human death and disability. Recently, the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases has increased yearly. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases are of great importance to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. With the rapid development of medical ultrasound, the clinical relationship between ultrasound imaging technology and the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases has become increasingly close. Ultrasound techniques such as transcranial acoustic angiography, doppler energy imaging, three-dimensional craniocerebral imaging and ultrasound thrombolysis are novel and valuable techniques in the study of cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we introduce some of the new ultrasound techniques from both published studies and ongoing trials that have been confirmed to be convenient and effective methods. However, additional evidence from future studies will be required before some of these techniques can be widely applied or recommended as alternatives.
       
  • ICESP, a research hub within a total cancer care center

    •  
  • Imaging in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: diagnosis and mimics

    • Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that usually has a progressive course and is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. The main symptoms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, including progressive dyspnea and dry cough, are often nonspecific. Chest high-resolution computed tomography is the primary modality used in the initial assessment of patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and may have considerable influence on subsequent management decisions. The main role of computed tomography is to distinguish chronic fibrosing lung diseases with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern from those presenting with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, suggesting an alternative diagnosis when possible. A usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on chest tomography is characterized by the presence subpleural and basal predominance, reticular abnormality honeycombing with or without traction bronchiectasis, and the absence of features suggestive of an alternative diagnosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be diagnosed according to clinical and radiological criteria in approximately 66.6% of cases. Confirmation of an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis is challenging, requiring the exclusion of pulmonary fibroses with known causes, such as asbestosis, connective tissue diseases, drug exposure, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and other forms of idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis. The histopathological hallmark of usual interstitial pneumonia is a heterogeneous appearance, characterized by areas of fibrosis with scarring and honeycombing alternating with areas of less affected or normal parenchyma. The aim of this article was to review the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and of diseases that might mimic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis presentation.
       
 
 
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