Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 911 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 911 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botánica Venezuelica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Obstétrica e Ginecológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 0)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Aletheia : Revista de Desarrollo Humano, Educativo y Social Contemporáneo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Alteridades     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análisis Economico     Open Access  
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Anestesia Analgesia Reanimación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anestesia en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antipoda : Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Antropología Social y Cultural en Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Anuario de Letras : Lingüística y Filología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquichán     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Austral J. of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 0)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Mexicano de Derecho Comparado     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.532, CiteScore: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução : Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CERNE     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean J. of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
Cirujano General     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Cofin Habana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 0)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 1)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confines     Open Access  
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)

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Clinics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1807-5932 - ISSN (Online) 1980-5322
Published by SciELO Homepage  [911 journals]
  • Are ophthalmologists being trained for Brazil’s social needs'

    •  
  • Enabling liver transplantation during the COVID-19 era: More than
           screening donors and recipients for SARS-CoV-2

    •  
  • Clinical study on treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis with intense
           pulsed light combined with 30% supramolecular salicylic acid

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the effects of intense pulsed light (IPL) combined with 30% supramolecular salicylic acid on facial seborrheic dermatitis. METHODS: A total of 45 patients with mild or moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were selected from our hospital between September 2018 and September 2019. The patients were divided into three groups consisting of 15 patients each. The first group was exposed to a combination of IPL and 30% supramolecular salicylic acid treatment, the second group was exposed to the IPL treatment alone, and the third group was exposed to the 30% supramolecular salicylic acid treatment alone. They were treated once every 4 weeks in three consecutive rounds. RESULTS: Facial lesions and symptoms were observed 4 and 12 weeks after the first treatment, and adverse reactions were recorded. The combination group showed significant improvement in symptoms 4 weeks after the first treatment, while the individual treatment groups showed no significant improvement. After three rounds of treatments, seborrheic dermatitis had significantly decreased in the three groups; the efficacy of the combined treatment group was significantly higher than that of the IPL group and the 30% supramolecular salicylic acid group. CONCLUSION: IPL combined with 30% supramolecular salicylic acid was effective in the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis and provided a quicker result with no adverse reactions.
       
  • Multiprofessional care promotes of quality of life in pregnant women with
           preeclampsia: a cross-sectional study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of life of hospitalized pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE), and compare with a group of healthy pregnant women (HP). METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted among 58 pregnant women; 28 of them had preeclampsia and 30 were healthy. The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire, which was divided into four aspects: physical, psychological, social, and environmental, was applied to each subject. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was observed regarding maternal age (PE 27.8±6.2 x HG 23.0±6.6, p<0.01) and gestational age (PE 224±28.1 x HG 253.8±43.7, p<0.01) in relation to the clinical and obstetric data. No significant difference was observed among groups in the physical (PE 57.7±18.9 x HG 65.7±16.6, p=0.19), psychological (PE 68.2±12.8 x HG 73.3±13.30, p=0.16), social (PE 72.0±15.8 x HG 71.7±18.7, p=0.78), or environmental (PE 61.1±11.9 x HG 59.3±15.9, p=0.88) aspects of the WHOQOL-Bref. CONCLUSIONS There was no difference in quality of life between the groups studied, a result possibly due to the fact that women with PE were hospitalized and received multiprofessional care.
       
  • Residual lesions in patients undergoing microsurgical clipping of cerebral
           aneurysms in a reference university hospital

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the incidence and epidemiological, angiographic, and surgical aspects associated with incomplete clipping of brain aneurysms in a cohort of patients undergoing microsurgical treatment. METHODS: The medical record data of patients who underwent microsurgery for cerebral aneurysm treatment and postoperative digital subtraction angiography, treated at the same teaching hospital between 2014 and 2019, were retrospectively analyzed. The studied variables involved epidemiological and clinical data, as well as neurological status and findings on neuroimaging. The time elapsed between hemorrhage and microsurgical treatment, data on the neurosurgical procedure employed for aneurysm occlusion, and factors associated with the treated aneurysm, specifically location and size, were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients were submitted to 139 neurosurgical procedures, in which 167 aneurysms were clipped. The overall rate of residual injury was 23%. Smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 1.372-8.300, p=0.008), lesion size >10 mm (OR: 5.136, CI95%: 2.240-11.779, p<0.001) and surgery duration >6 h (OR: 8.667, CI95%: 2.713-27.681, p<0.001) were found to significantly impact incomplete aneurysm occlusion in the univariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Incomplete microsurgical aneurysm occlusion is associated with aneurysm size, complexity, and current smoking status. Currently, there is no consensus on postoperative assessment of clipped aneurysms, hindering the correct assessment of treatment outcomes.
       
  • Prognostic significance of a normal karyotype in adult patients with
           BCR-ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the tyrosine kinase
           inhibitor era

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The occurrence of cryptic Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome translocation is rare in BCR-ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR-ABL1+ ALL) and is of unknown significance in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a series of adult patients receiving TKI-based therapy to evaluate the prognostic impact of the normal karyotype (NK) (n=22) in BCR-ABL1+ ALL by comparison with the isolated Ph+ karyotype (n=54). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics and complete remission rate between the two groups. Compared with the isolated Ph+ group, the NK/BCR-ABL1+ group had a higher relapse rate (55.0% versus 29.4%, p=0.044). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly shorter in the NK/BCR-ABL1+ group than in the isolated Ph+ group [median OS: 24.5 versus 48.6 (months), p=0.013; median DFS: 11.0 (months) versus undefined, p=0.008]. The five-year OS and DFS for patients with NK/BCR-ABL1+ were 19.2% and 14.5%, respectively; those for patients with isolated Ph+ were 49.5% and 55.7%, respectively. Thirty-four (44.7%) patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in this study. Among the patients who received allo-HSCT, the median OS and DFS in the NK/BCR-ABL+ group (n=9) were 35.5 and 27.5 months, respectively, while those in the isolated Ph+ group (n=25) were undefined. There was a trend of significant statistical difference in the OS between the two subgroups (p=0.066), but no significant difference in the DFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that NK was independently associated with worse OS and DFS in BCR-ABL1+ ALL patients [Hazard ratio (HR) 2.256 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.005-5.066), p=0.049; HR 2.711 (95% CI, 1.319-5.573), p=0.007]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the sub-classification of an NK could be applied in the prognostic assessments of BCR-ABL1+ ALL. In addition, allo-HSCT should be actively performed to improve prognosis in these patients.
       
  • Suicidal behaviors and sedentary lifestyles among adolescents: A
           cross-sectional epidemiological study in Latin American and Caribbean
           countries

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To verify the association between suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) and sedentary behaviors among adolescents from four Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in four countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bahamas, Curação, El Salvador, and Guatemala). The sample comprised 6,813 adolescents aged 11-18 years, of which, 3,559 were females. The three suicidal behaviors considered were ideation, planning, and attempts. Sedentary behavior was regarded as the time that adolescents spent sitting, excluding time at school. Crude and adjusted logistic regression were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was present in 10.7% of males and 22.7% of females. Suicidal planning was present in 8.6% of males and 16.3% of females. Suicidal attempt was present in 9.3% of males and 16.3% of females. Sedentary behavior was present in 39.6% of males and 45.7% of females. It was identified that male adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-1.80), whereas female adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.30-1.83), planning (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28-1.86), and attempts (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). CONCLUSION: Adolescents of both sexes who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behaviors were more likely to have some suicidal behaviors than those who spent less time in sedentary behaviors.
       
  • Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) captured in the forearm
           flexor muscles: a study of its feasibility and reference ranges

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the central tendency measures and variability of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) with regard to the latency and wave amplitude when potentials are captured from the flexor muscles of the forearm. METHODS: Ten adult volunteers with normal hearing underwent examination of their forearm flexor muscles (right and left sides; 20 samples in total) for VEMP acquisition. To this end, 200 tone burst stimuli at a 500 Hz frequency and 95 dBnHL intensity were promediated. RESULTS: No statistical differences were observed in VEMP responses acquired from the right and left forearm flexor muscles concerning P34 and N44 latencies (p=0.32 and 0.90, respectively). The mean latency obtained for the P34 wave component was 34.9 ms (±2.6), with a lower limit equal to 29.3 and an upper limit equal to 40.4 ms. The average latency of the N44 wave component was 43.6 ms (±2.1), with a lower limit of 39.1 ms and an upper limit of 48.1 ms. The results were consistent and had low variability, and showed an average asymmetry index of 15.4 (±10.7). These findings indicate that potentials may be investigated in different age groups and in specific clinical populations, such as pathologies that may alter the neuronal transmission of the inferior vestibular pathway, especially when a longer portion is observed. CONCLUSIONS: VEMP recording from forearm flexors is both feasible and stable, with latency reference ranges between 29.3 and 40.4 ms for P34, and 39.1 and 48.1 ms for N44.
       
  • Continuous suprascapular nerve block compared with single-shot
           interscalene brachial plexus block for pain control after arthroscopic
           rotator cuff repair

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We compared the analgesic efficacy of a continuous suprascapular nerve block (C-SSNB) and a single-shot interscalene brachial plexus block (S-ISNB) for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS: A total of 118 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were randomly allocated to the S-ISNB or C-SSNB groups. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Supplemental analgesic use was recorded as total equianalgesic fentanyl consumption. RESULTS: The C-SSNB group showed significantly higher VAS scores at 0−1 h and 1−2 h after the surgery than the S-ISNB group (4.9±2.2 versus 2.3±2.2; p<0.0001 and 4.8±2.1 versus 2.4±2.3; p<0.0001, respectively). The C-SSNB group showed significantly lower VAS scores at 6−12 h after the surgery than the S-ISNB group (4.1±1.8 versus. 5.0±2.5; p=0.031). The C-SSNB group required significantly higher doses of total equianalgesic fentanyl in the post-anesthesia care unit than the S-ISNB group (53.66±44.95 versus 5.93±18.25; p<0.0001). Total equianalgesic fentanyl in the ward and total equianalgesic fentanyl throughout the hospital period were similar between the groups (145.99±152.60 versus 206.13±178.79; p=0.052 and 199.72±165.50 versus 212.15±180.09; p=0.697, respectively) CONCLUSION: C-SSNB was more effective than S-ISNB at 6−12 h after the surgery for postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
       
  • Quality of life among total laryngectomized patients undergoing speech
           rehabilitation: correlation between several instruments

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate several instruments currently used for the assessment of the quality of life of patients who underwent total laryngectomy and speech rehabilitation. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted with 38 patients after total laryngectomy and speech therapy aiming to develop oesophageal speech. The patients were divided into the following two groups (19 participants each): speakers and non-speakers. The quality of life instruments used were as follows: visual analogue scale (VAS); Voice Handicap Index (VHI); Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL); Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Head & Neck (FACT-H&N); European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30); European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck (EORTC QLQ-H&N35); and University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL). RESULTS: The V-RQOL global health domain exhibited a strong correlation with the VHI. The EORTC QLQ-C30 exhibited a moderate to strong correlation with the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 functional domain in both groups. The EORTC QLQ-C30 functional domain exhibited a strong to moderate correlation with all other instruments in both groups. The UW-QOL exhibited a moderate to strong correlation with the VHI and EORTC QLQ-C30 in both groups. CONCLUSION: The EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and UW-QOL were the instruments that most correlated with the remaining instruments, indicating that any of the three can be used to assess the quality of life of the target population regardless of oesophageal voice development.
       
  • Long-term survival analysis after endoscopic stenting as a bridge to
           surgery for malignant colorectal obstruction: comparison with emergency
           diverting colostomy

    • Abstract: The use of colorectal self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) as bridge therapy for malignant colorectal obstruction was first reported more than 20 years ago. However, its use remains controversial. Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term survival of patients with potentially resectable malignant colorectal obstruction who had undergone colorectal SEMS placement and emergency surgery. Methods: This study was a retrospective analyses. Patients who received treatment between 2009 and 2017 were included. According to the eligibility criteria, 21 patients were included in the SEMS group and 67 patients were included in the surgical group.. Results: The majority of the patients in the SEMS group were female (57.1%), whereas the majority of those in the surgical group were male (53.7%). The median follow-up time was 60 months for both groups with the same interquartile range of 60 months. There was no difference in the overall survival rate (log rank p=0.873) and disease-free survival rate (log rank p=0.2821) in the five-year analysis. There was no difference in local recurrence rates (38.1% vs. 22.4%, p=0.14) or distant recurrence rates (33.3% vs. 50.7%, p=0.16) in the SEMS and the surgical groups. Technical and clinical success rates of endoscopic stenting were 95.3% and 85.7%, respectively. There were no immediate adverse events (AEs). Severe AEs included perforation (14.3%), silent perforation (4.7%), reobstruction (14.3%), and bleeding (14.3%). Mild AEs included pain (42.8%), tenesmus (9.5%), and incontinence (4.76%). The limitations of this study was retrospective and was conducted at a single center. Conclusions: No differences in disease-free and overall survival rates were observed in the five-year analysis of patients with resectable colorectal cancer who had undergone SEMS placement or colostomy for the treatment of malignant colorectal obstruction. Patients in the SEMS group had a higher rate of primary anastomosis and a lower rate of temporary colostomy than did those in the surgery group.
       
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, and symptoms of Restless Syndrome in patients with
           Graves’ disease: a cross-sectional survey

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent comorbid condition associated with distinct unrelated diseases. While the incidence of RLS has not been definitively confirmed, RLS-like symptoms have been reported in a section of Asian population who also had hyperthyroidism. The prevalence of RLS is generally low in Asian populations. Under these circumstances, we hypothesized that in a population where RLS is common, such as in Brazil, RLS could manifest as a comorbid ailment alongside Graves’ disease, a common hyperthyroid condition. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, 108 patients who presented with Graves' disease were analyzed for restless legs or associated symptoms. RESULTS: Twelve patients (11.1%) displayed symptoms of RLS prior to the incidence of Graves’ disease. These patients experienced worsening of the symptoms during their hyperthyroid state. Six patients (5.6%) developed RLS, consequent upon the incidence of Graves’ disease as per the consensus of the panel of the experts. Fifteen patients (13.9%) also presented with RLS-like symptoms without any discernible circadian feature of the syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that Graves’ disease might trigger restless legs-like symptoms, while the condition of hyperthyroidism could also be complicated by definite RLS.
       
  • COVID-19 and Liver Damage: Narrative Review and Proposed Clinical Protocol
           for Critically ill Pediatric Patients

    • Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 shares nearly 80% of its’ genomic sequence with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, both viruses known to cause respiratory symptoms and liver impairment. The emergence of pediatric cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIM-TS) has raised concerns over the issue of hepatic damage and liver enzyme elevation in the critically ill pediatric population with COVID-19. Some retrospective cohorts and case series have shown various degrees of ALT/AST elevation in SARS-CoV-2 infections. A limited number of liver histopathological studies are available that show focal hepatic periportal necrosis. This liver damage was associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pro-calcitonin. Proposed pathophysiological mechanisms include an uncontrolled exacerbated inflammatory response, drug-induced liver injury, direct viral infection and damage to cholangiocytes, hypoxic-ischemic lesions, and micro-thrombosis in the liver. Based on the physiopathological characteristics described, our group proposes a clinical protocol for the surveillance, evaluation, management, and follow-up of critically ill pediatric COVID-19 patients with liver damage.
       
  • Anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment can effectively improve the clinical
           remission rates of irritable bowel syndrome: a controlled clinical trial
           meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Here we used a meta-analysis of several clinical trials to determine whether anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has any positive effect on IBS patients. Here we compared the effective clinical remission rates between IBS patients treated with anti-H. pylori therapy and those who were not. This data would provide more clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of novel treatments and intervention points for IBS patients. Relevant studies were identified using keyword searches on various electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, and CBM. Keywords included “helicobacter pylori” and “irritable bowel syndrome” among others. The literature was screened using relatively strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and RevMan 5.3.5 and Stata 15.1 software were used for meta-analysis and to assess publication bias and sensitivity. A total of ten studies met all of the inclusion criteria; these included 655 IBS patients with H. pylori infection, of these, 385 patients were in the experimental group and 270 patients were in the control group. A random-effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CIs) and the combined OR was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.74-4.72), p<0.0001. These findings suggest that anti-H. pylori therapy can effectively improve the remission rates of H. pylori-positive IBS patients. H. pylori infection is known to correlate with the incidence of IBS. Anti-H. pylori treatment can effectively improve the clinical remission rates of IBS patients. Whether this means that IBS patients should be actively treated with anti-H. pylori compounds as a novel strategy to improve the remission rates needs to be evaluated in vivo.
       
  • Computing systems, telehealth, and personal data: what is up'

    • Abstract: Here we used a meta-analysis of several clinical trials to determine whether anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has any positive effect on IBS patients. Here we compared the effective clinical remission rates between IBS patients treated with anti-H. pylori therapy and those who were not. This data would provide more clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of novel treatments and intervention points for IBS patients. Relevant studies were identified using keyword searches on various electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, and CBM. Keywords included “helicobacter pylori” and “irritable bowel syndrome” among others. The literature was screened using relatively strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and RevMan 5.3.5 and Stata 15.1 software were used for meta-analysis and to assess publication bias and sensitivity. A total of ten studies met all of the inclusion criteria; these included 655 IBS patients with H. pylori infection, of these, 385 patients were in the experimental group and 270 patients were in the control group. A random-effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CIs) and the combined OR was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.74-4.72), p<0.0001. These findings suggest that anti-H. pylori therapy can effectively improve the remission rates of H. pylori-positive IBS patients. H. pylori infection is known to correlate with the incidence of IBS. Anti-H. pylori treatment can effectively improve the clinical remission rates of IBS patients. Whether this means that IBS patients should be actively treated with anti-H. pylori compounds as a novel strategy to improve the remission rates needs to be evaluated in vivo.
       
  • Agile response to the shortage of personal protective equipment during the
           COVID-19 crisis

    • Abstract: Here we used a meta-analysis of several clinical trials to determine whether anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has any positive effect on IBS patients. Here we compared the effective clinical remission rates between IBS patients treated with anti-H. pylori therapy and those who were not. This data would provide more clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of novel treatments and intervention points for IBS patients. Relevant studies were identified using keyword searches on various electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, and CBM. Keywords included “helicobacter pylori” and “irritable bowel syndrome” among others. The literature was screened using relatively strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and RevMan 5.3.5 and Stata 15.1 software were used for meta-analysis and to assess publication bias and sensitivity. A total of ten studies met all of the inclusion criteria; these included 655 IBS patients with H. pylori infection, of these, 385 patients were in the experimental group and 270 patients were in the control group. A random-effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CIs) and the combined OR was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.74-4.72), p<0.0001. These findings suggest that anti-H. pylori therapy can effectively improve the remission rates of H. pylori-positive IBS patients. H. pylori infection is known to correlate with the incidence of IBS. Anti-H. pylori treatment can effectively improve the clinical remission rates of IBS patients. Whether this means that IBS patients should be actively treated with anti-H. pylori compounds as a novel strategy to improve the remission rates needs to be evaluated in vivo.
       
  • Alcohol and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: do not pop the cork

    •  
  • A company doctor's role during the COVID-19 pandemic

    •  
  • Spotlight for healthy adolescents and adolescents with preexisting chronic
           diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

    •  
  • Medical care for spinal diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic

    •  
  • Why is SARS-CoV-2 infection milder among children'

    •  
  • Lung transplantation during the COVID-19 pandemic

    •  
  • COVID-19, Vascular Diseases, and Vascular Services

    •  
  • How Institutions Can Protect the Mental Health and Psychosocial Well-Being
           of Their Healthcare Workers in the Current COVID-19 Pandemic

    •  
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis: a rapid test is a must at the hospital
           bedside

    •  
  • Gynecology and women’s health care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Patient
           safety in surgery and prevention

    •  
  • Human Leukocyte Transcriptional Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection

    •  
  • Management of benign and suspicious breast lesions during the coronavirus
           disease pandemic: recommendations for triage and treatment

    •  
  • Overcoming barriers to providing comprehensive inpatient care during the
           COVID-19 pandemic

    •  
  • What You Gain and What You Lose in COVID-19: Perception of Medical
           Students on their Education

    •  
  • Management of patients with spinal cord injury during the coronavirus
           disease pandemic

    •  
  • Epidemiologic Surveillance in an academic hospital during the COVID-19
           pandemic in Sao Paulo, Brazil: the key role of epidemiologic engagement in
           operational processes

    •  
  • The COVID-19 pandemic: time for medical teachers and students to overcome
           grief

    •  
  • Use of telemedicine to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil

    •  
  • The influence of bitter-taste receptor (TAS2R) expression in
           pharmacological response to Chloroquine in obese patients with COVID-19

    •  
  • The interference of COVID-19 in the male reproductive system: Important
           questions and the future of assisted reproduction techniques

    •  
  • Renal involvement in patients with COVID-19

    •  
  • Profile of health professionals who completed a master’s, doctoral, or
           post-doctoral degree in one Brazilian pediatric program

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the personal and professional characteristics, and the physical, psychiatric/psychological, and professional issues that exist among master’s-, doctoral-, and post-doctoral-level health professionals. METHODS: A cross-sectional, online, self-reported survey of 452 postgraduates who completed master’s, doctoral, or post-doctoral degrees in one graduate program in pediatrics in São Paulo, Brazil, was conducted. RESULTS: The response rate was 47% (211/453). The majority of participants were women (78%) and physicians (74%), and the median age was 47 years (28-71). Master’s, doctoral, and post-doctoral degrees were reported by 73%, 53%, and 3%, respectively. High workload (>40 hours/week) occurred in 59%, and 45% earned ≥15 minimum wages/month. At least one participation in scientific meeting in the past year was reported by 91%, and 79% had published their research. Thirty-nine percent served as a member of a faculty of an institution of higher learning. The data were analyzed by two age groups: participants aged ≤48 years (group 1) and participants aged >48 years (group 2). The median rating of overall satisfaction with the profession in the past year [8 (0-10) vs. 9 (1-10), p=0.0113]; workload >40 hours/week (53% vs. 68%, p=0.034); and ≥15 minimum wages/month (37% vs. 56%, p=0.0083) were significantly lower in group 1. Further analysis by gender revealed that the median rating of overall satisfaction with the profession in the past year [8 (0-10) vs. 9 (3-10), p=0.0015], workload >40 hours/week (53% vs. 83%, p=0.0002), and ≥15 minimum wages/month (37% vs. 74%, p=0.0001) were significantly lower in women compared with men. The median rating of overall satisfaction with the mentorship supervision provided was significantly higher among the women 10 (5-10) vs. 10 (2-10), p=0.0324]. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of master’s-, doctoral-, and post-doctoral-level health professionals were women and physicians, and had published their thesis. Younger postgraduates and women reported low salaries, less likelihood of working >40 hours/week, and less overall satisfaction with their profession. Further longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to assess career trajectories after graduation.
       
  • Beneficial effect of fluid warming in elderly patients with bladder cancer
           undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol recommends prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the beneficial effect of maintaining normothermia after radical cystectomy has not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluid warming nursing in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy. METHODS: A total of 108 patients with bladder cancer scheduled to undergo DaVinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy were recruited and randomly divided into the control group (n=55), which received a warming blanket (43°C) during the intraoperative period and the warming group (n=53), in which all intraoperative fluids were administered via a fluid warmer (41°C). The surgical data, body temperature, coagulation function indexes, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the warming group had significantly less intraoperative transfusion (p=0.028) and shorter hospitalization days (p<0.05). During the entire intraoperative period (from 1 to 6h), body temperature was significantly higher in the warming group than in the control group. There were significant differences in preoperative fibrinogen level, white blood cell count, total bilirubin level, intraoperative lactose level, postoperative thrombin time (TT), and platelet count between the control and warming groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that TT was the only significant factor, suggesting that the warming group had a lower TT than the control group. CONCLUSION: Fluid warming nursing can effectively reduce transfusion requirement and hospitalization days, maintain intraoperative normothermia, and promote postoperative coagulation function in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy.
       
  • Mechanical evaluation of tibial fixation of the hamstring tendon in
           anterior cruciate ligament double-bundle reconstruction with and without
           interference screws

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare two postero-lateral bundle (PLB) tibial fixation techniques for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with double bundle: a technique without the use of an interference screw, preserving the native tibial insertion of the tendons of the gracilis and semitendineous muscles, and a technique with the use of an interference screw and without preserving the insertion of the tendons. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted in cadavers with a universal mechanical test machine. In total, 23 cadaver knees were randomized for tibial fixation of the PLB using the two techniques: Maintaining the tibial insertion of the tendons during reconstruction, without the use of an interference screw (group A, 11 cases); and fixating the graft with an interference screw, without maintaining the insertion of the tendons (group B, 12 cases). A continuous traction was performed (20 mm/min) in the same direction as the produced tunnel, and force (N), elongation (mm), rigidity (N/mm), and tension (N/mm2) were objectively determined in each group. RESULTS: Group A exhibited a maximum force (MF) of 315.4±124.7 N; maximum tension of 13.57±3.65 N/mm2; maximum elongation of 19.73±4.76 mm; force at the limit of proportionality (FLP) of 240.6±144.0 N; and an elongation at the limit of proportionality of 14.37±6.58 mm. Group B exhibited a MF of 195.7±71.8 N; maximum tension of 8.8±3.81 N/mm2; maximum elongation of 15.3±10.73 mm; FLP of 150.1±68.7 N; and an elongation at the limit of proportionality of 6.86±2.42 mm. When comparing the two groups, significant differences were observed in the variables of maximum force (p=0.016), maximum tension (p=0.019), maximum elongation (p=0.007), and elongation at the limit of proportionality (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The use of the native insertion of the semitendineous and gracilis tendons, without an additional fixation device, presented mechanical superiority over their fixation with interference screws.
       
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Lung Transplantation: Initial
           Experience at a Single Brazilian Center

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report initial experience from the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients who received lung transplantation. METHODS: Retrospective study of a single tertiary center in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, a national reference in lung transplantation, based on the prospective collection of data from electronic medical records. The period analyzed extended from January 2009 (beginning of the program) until December 2018. RESULTS: A total of 75 lung transplants were performed, with ECMO used in 8 (10.7%) cases. Of the patients, 4 (50%) were female. The mean age was 46.4±14.3 years. The causes of the end-stage lung disease that led to transplantation were pulmonary arterial hypertension in 3 (37.5%) patients, bronchiectasis in 2 (25%) patients, pulmonary fibrosis in 2 (25%) patients, and pulmonary emphysema in 1 (12.5%) patient. In our series, 7 (87.5%) cases were sequential bilateral transplantations. Prioritization was necessary in 4 (50%) patients, and in 1 patient, ECMO was used as a bridge to transplantation. The ECMO route was central in 4 (50%), peripheral venovenous in 2 (25%) and peripheral venoarterial in 2 (25%) patients. The mean length of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 14±7.5 days and of the hospital stay was 34.1±34.2 days. The mean ECMO duration was 9.3±6.6 days with a 50% decannulation rate. Three patients were discharged (37.5%). CONCLUSION: Lung transplantation requires complex treatment, and ECMO has allowed extending the indications for transplantation and provided adjuvant support in the clinical management of these patients.
       
  • Norm scores of cancelation and bisection tests for unilateral spatial
           neglect: data from a Brazilian population

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) results in a consistent and exaggerated spatial asymmetry in the processing of information about the body or space due to an acquired brain injury. There are several USN tests for clinical diagnosis, but none of them are validated in Brazil. The aim was to obtain normative values from a healthy sample in Brazil and to evaluate the effects of demographic variables on USN tests. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed with 150 neurologically healthy individuals. USN was evaluated using the line cancelation (LC), star cancelation (SC), and line bisection (LB) tests in the A3 (29.7 x 42.0 cm) sheet format. RESULTS: In LC, 143 participants had 0 omissions, and the occurrence of failure was significantly associated with aging (OR=1.1[1.02-1.2]; p=0.012). In SC, 145 participants had fewer than 1 omission, and the occurrence of failure was significantly associated with aging (OR=1.07[1.03-1.11]; p<0.001). In LB, deviations were the lowest for those with the highest level of education (r=0.20; p=0.015), and the deviation was 9.5 mm. CONCLUSION: The cutoff points presented in this study may be indicative of USN, but due to performance differences based on age, we suggest using different norm scores for different age groups. These norm scores can be used in the clinic immediately for USN diagnosis.
       
  • Posterior Capsule Opacification after Cataract Surgery in Children Over
           Five Years of Age with Square-edge Hydrophobic versus Hydrophilic Acrylic
           Intraocular Lenses: A Prospective Randomized Study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials in square-edged acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) on the development of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after pediatric cataract surgery. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to group 1 (hydrophobic acrylic square-edged IOLs; 13 eyes) or group 2 (hydrophilic acrylic square-edged IOLs; 13 eyes). The study evaluated PCO rates using Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) 2000 software at one, three, six and 12 months postoperatively. Postoperative measurements also included corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), neodymium:yttrium‐aluminum‐garnet (Nd:YAG) capsulotomy and postoperative complications other than PCO. RESULTS: Both groups had significant increases in PCO rates after one year. Comparison of the groups showed no significant differences in the EPCO scores at three (group 1, 0.007±0.016 vs group 2, 0.008±0.014; p=0.830), six (group 1, 0.062±0.103 vs group 2, 0.021±0.023; p=0.184), or twelve months postoperatively (group 1, 0.200±0.193 vs group 2, 0.192±0.138; p=0.902). We also found no significant group differences regarding the change (delta, Δ) in EPCO scores between three and six months (group 1, 0.055±0.09 vs group 2, 0.013±0.02; p=0.113) or between six and twelve months postoperatively (group 1, 0.139±0.14 vs group 2, 0.171±0.14; p=0.567). Twenty-three percent of patients required Nd:YAG capsulotomy at the twelve-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in PCO rates were found between hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic square-edged IOLs in children between five and twelve years of age at one year of follow-up.
       
  • Association between platelet count and the risk and progression of hand,
           foot, and mouth disease among children

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between platelet (PLT) count and the risk and progression of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: In total, 122 HFMD patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The differences between variables among the different subgroups were compared. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between various parameters and HFMD risk/progression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by detecting the trend of the association between PLT count quartiles and HFMD risk/progression. A generalized additive model was used to identify the nonlinear relationship between PLT count and HFMD risk/progression. The relationship between gender and PLT count as well as the risk/progression of HFMD was detected using a stratified logistic regression model. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in terms of age, male/female ratio, white blood cell (WBC) count, and PLT count between patients with stage I-II, III-IV HFMD and healthy controls. Moreover, the alanine aminotransferase and magnesium levels between patients with stage I-II and III-IV HFMD significantly differed. Moreover, a significant difference was noted in the male/female ratio among the different PLT groups. The group with a low PLT count had a lower risk of HFMD progression than the group with a high PLT count (Q4) (p=0.039). Lower age, male gender, and WBC count were found to be associated with HFMD risk. Meanwhile, PLT count was correlated to HFMD progression. The sensitivity analysis yielded a similar result using the minimally adjusted model (p for trend=0.037), and minimal changes were observed using the crude and fully adjusted model (p for trend=0.054; 0.090). A significant nonlinear relationship was observed between PLT count and HFMD progression after adjusting for age, gender, and WBC (p=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: PLT was independently associated with HFMD progression in a nonlinear manner.
       
  • Health literacy and depression in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in Taiwan, and depression is common among these patients. Moreover, a lack of health literacy may lead to depression. In this study, we explored the correlation between health literacy and depression in diabetic women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 152 women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from the outpatient clinic of a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan. The data were collected through medical records and a self-reported structured questionnaire, which included items on basic attributes, self-rated health status, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Diabetes (CHLSD). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistical analyses, bivariate correlation tests, and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-five valid questionnaires were obtained. Approximately 20% of the participants had a higher tendency toward depression as per their CES-D score, and the CHLSD results showed that 13.33% had poor health literacy. There was a negative correlation between health literacy and depressive tendencies after adjusting for self-rated health status, economic satisfaction status, employment status, and education level using multivariate linear regression analyses. For each 1-point rise in the CHLSD score, the CES-D score decreased by 0.17 points (z=−2.05, p=0.042). CONCLUSIONS: A negative correlation was identified between health literacy and depression. Self-rated health status, economic satisfaction, employment status, and higher education level are factors that also affect depressive tendency among diabetic women.
       
  • Clinical and laboratory parameters as predictors of long-term outcome
           according to the etiology of underlying chronic liver disease in patients
           who underwent liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment
           

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze clinical and laboratory parameters and their association with long-term outcomes in patients who underwent liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment, according to the etiology of the underlying chronic liver disease, in order to identify predictors of response to this therapeutic modality. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from a cohort of 134 patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment at a referral center in Brazil were retrospectively selected and compared according to the etiologic group of the underlying chronic liver disease. Events, defined as tumor recurrence or death from any cause, and event-free survival were also analyzed, and multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: The etiologies comprised hepatitis C and B virus infection, alcohol abuse, and cryptogenic disorder. Although liver transplantation was performed outside the Milan criteria in 33.3% of the subjects, according to pathologic examination of the explanted liver, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was low (<22) in most patients (70.6%) and recurrence was identified in only 10 (7.9%) patients. Events occurred in 37 patients (28.5%), and the median event-free survival was 75 months (range, 24-116 months). No difference among etiologic groups was found in the parameters analyzed, which were not independently associated with outcome. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory characteristics according to etiologic groups were not different, which might have led to comparable long-term outcomes among these patient groups and failure to identify predictors that could aid in better selection of subjects for liver transplantation in the management of this cancer.
       
  • Effects and mechanism of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth
           combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy in type 2 diabetic rats

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potentially ideal for type 2 diabetes treatment, owing to their multidirectional differentiation ability and immunomodulatory properties. Here we investigated whether the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in combination with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) could treat type 2 diabetic rats, and explored the underlying mechanism. METHODS: SD rats were used to generate a type 2 diabetes model, which received stem cell therapy, HBO therapy, or both together. Before and after treatment, body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin, blood lipid, pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6), and urinary proteins were measured and compared. After 6 weeks, rats were sacrificed and their organs were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunofluorescence staining for insulin and glucagon; apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed in islet cells. Structural changes in islets were observed under an electron microscope. Expression levels of Pdx1, Ngn3, and Pax4 mRNAs in the pancreas were assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: In comparison with diabetic mice, those treated with the combination or SHE therapy showed decreased blood glucose, insulin resistance, serum lipids, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased body weight and serum insulin. The morphology and structure of pancreatic islets improved, as evident from an increase in insulin-positive cells and a decrease in glucagon-positive cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining of islet cells revealed the decreased apoptosis index, while Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining showed increased proliferation index. Pancreatic expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and Pax4 was upregulated. CONCLUSION: SHED combined with HBO therapy was effective for treating type 2 diabetic rats. The underlying mechanism may involve SHED-mediated increase in the proliferation and trans-differentiation of islet β-cells and decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis of islets.
       
  • Gray Matter Atrophy in Parkinson’s Disease and the Parkinsonian Variant
           of Multiple System Atrophy: A Combined ROI- and Voxel-Based Morphometric
           Study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) are distinct neurodegenerative disorders that share similar clinical features of parkinsonism. The morphological alterations of these diseases have yet to be understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter atrophy in PD and MSA-P using regions of interest (ROI)-based measurements and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). METHODS: We studied 41 patients with PD, 20 patients with MSA-P, and 39 controls matched for age, sex, and handedness using an improved T1-weighted sequence that eased gray matter segmentation. The gray matter volumes were measured using ROI and VBM. RESULTS: ROI volumetric measurements showed significantly reduced bilateral putamen volumes in MSA-P patients compared with those in PD patients and controls (p<0.05), and the volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus were significantly reduced in both MSA-P and PD patients compared with those in the controls (p<0.05). VBM analysis revealed multifocal cortical and subcortical atrophy in both MSA-P and PD patients, and the volumes of the cerebellum and temporal lobes were remarkably reduced in MSA-P patients compared with the volumes in PD patients (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both PD and MSA-P are associated with gray matter atrophy, which mainly involves the bilateral putamen, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, and temporal lobes. ROI and VBM can be used to identify these morphological alterations, and VBM is more sensitive and repeatable and less time-consuming, which may have potential diagnostic value.
       
  • Approach to Endoscopic Procedures: A Routine Protocol from a Quaternary
           University Referral Center Exclusively for Coronavirus Disease 2019
           Patients

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The present coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has ushered in an unprecedented era of quality control that has necessitated advanced safety precautions and the need to ensure the adequate protection of healthcare professionals (HCPs). Endoscopy units, endoscopists, and other HCP may be at a significant risk for transmission of the virus. Given the immense burden on the healthcare system and surge in the number of patients with COVID-19, well-designed protocols and recommendations are needed. We aimed to systematically characterize our approach to endoscopic procedures in a quaternary university hospital setting and provide summary protocol recommendations. METHOD: This descriptive study details a COVID-19-specific protocol designed to minimize infection risks to patients and healthcare workers in the endoscopy unit. RESULTS: Our institution, located in São Paulo, Brazil, includes a 900-bed hospital, with a 200-bed-specific intensive care unit exclusively designed for patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. We highlighted recommendations for infection prevention and control during endoscopic procedures, including appropriate triage and screening, outpatient management and procedural recommendations, role and usage of personal protective equipment (PPE), and role and procedural logistics involving COVID-19-positive patients. We also detailed hospital protocols for reprocessing endoscopes and cleaning rooms and also provided recommendations to minimize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission. CONCLUSION: This COVID-19-specific administrative and clinical protocol can be replicated or adapted in multiple institutions and endoscopy units worldwide. Furthermore, the recommendations and summary protocol may improve patient and HCP safety in these trying times.
       
  • Use of strain ultrasound elastography versus fine-needle aspiration
           cytology for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules: a
           retrospective analysis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the risk stratification tool for thyroid nodules, and ultrasound elastography is not routinely used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The current study aimed to compare the diagnostic parameters of ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology, using surgical pathology as the reference standard. METHODS: In total, 205 patients with abnormal thyroid function test results underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on the basis of the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System classification and strain ultrasound elastography according to the ASTERIA criteria. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimens was performed according to the 2017 World Health Organization classification system. Moreover, a beneficial score analysis for each modality was conducted. RESULTS: Of 265 nodules, 212 measured ≥1 cm. The strain index value increased from benign to malignant nodules, and the presence of autoimmune thyroid diseases did not affect the results (p>0.05 for all categories). The sensitivities of histopathological examination, ultrasound elastography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology for detection of nodules measuring ≥1 cm were 1, 1, and 0.97, respectively. The working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was similar between strain ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology for highly and moderately suspicious nodules. However, for mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules, the working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was higher in strain ultrasound elastography than in fine-needle aspiration cytology. CONCLUSION: Strain ultrasound elastography for highly and moderately suspicious nodules facilitated the detection of mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules.
       
  • Effect of the location and size of thyroid nodules on the diagnostic
           performance of ultrasound elastography: A retrospective analysis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies are recommended for the detection of suspicious thyroid nodules. However, the best approach regarding suspicious ultrasound features for thyroid nodules is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of location and size of thyroid nodules on the diagnostic performance of strain ultrasound elastography. In addition, this study evaluated whether ultrasound elastography predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules. METHODS: Data regarding the size, depth, and distance from the carotid artery of nodules, the elasticity contrast index, and the nature of nodules were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the depth (p=0.092) and the distance from the carotid artery (p=0.061) between benign and suspicious nodules. Suspicious nodules were smaller than benign nodules (p<0.0001, q=23.84) and had a higher elasticity contrast index (p<0.0001, q=21.05). The depth of nodules and the size of the nodule were not associated with the correct value of the elasticity contrast index (p>0.05 for both). The diagnostic performance of ultrasound elastography was not affected by the distance of the nodules from the carotid artery if they were located ≥15 mm from the carotid artery (p=0.5960). However, if the suspicious nodules were located <15 mm from the carotid artery, the diagnostic accuracy was hampered (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The strain ultrasound elastography should be carefully evaluated when small thyroid nodules are located near the carotid artery.
       
  • Response to fatigue observed through magnetic resonance imaging on the
           quadriceps muscle in postmenopausal women

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Menopause marks the end of women’s reproductive period and can lead to sarcopenia and osteoporosis (OP), increasing the risk of falls and fractures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of normal and low bone mineral density (BMD) on muscular activity, observed through inflammatory edema when mapping using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the quadriceps muscle of postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 16 older women, who were divided into two groups: osteoporosis group (OG), older women with OP, and control group (CG), older women without OP. The groups were evaluated in terms of nuclear MRI exam before and after carrying out fatigue protocol exercises using an isokinetic dynamometer and squatting exercises. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed that in intragroup comparisons, for both groups, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the T2 signal of the nuclear MRI in the quadriceps muscle after carrying out exercises using both thighs. In the intergroup comparison, no statistically significant difference was observed between the OG and CG, pre- (p=0.343) and postexercise (p=0.874). CONCLUSION: The acute muscular activation of the quadriceps evaluated by T2 mapping on nuclear MRI equipment is equal in women with and without OP in the postmenopausal phase. BMD did not interfere with muscle response to exercise when muscle fatigue was reached.
       
  • Association between antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress among
           patients with a complete hydatidiform mole

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the potential relationship between oxidative stress, dietary intake, and serum levels of antioxidants in patients with a complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) compared with controls. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 140 women were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups: 43 patients with CHM, 33 women who had had an abortion, 32 healthy pregnant women, and 32 healthy non-pregnant women. All participants underwent blood sampling, assessment using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting (10-12 h). Vitamin levels (A, C, and E) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were assessed using an automated quantitative analysis system (Dimension®, Siemens). RESULTS: Although all groups showed sufficient serum vitamin A and E levels, the participants had inadequate dietary intake of these vitamins. Conversely, all groups had an insufficient serum level of vitamin C, despite adequate intake. The gamma-glutamyl transferase values did not differ significantly among the groups. However, elevated serum levels of this enzyme were observed in several patients. CONCLUSIONS: All groups exhibited high levels of oxidative stress, as evaluated by gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, and had inadequate intake of antioxidant vitamins. Therefore, the high exposure to oxidative stress found in our study, even in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women, may increase the incidence of CHM in this region.
       
  • Circulating MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Patients with Stable and
           Unstable Angina

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: High incidence and case fatality of unstable angina (UA) is, to a large extent, a consequence of the lack of highly sensitive and specific non-invasive markers. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely recommended as potential biomarkers for numerous diseases. In the present study, we characterized distinctive miRNA expression profiles in patients with stable angina (SA), UA, and normal coronary arteries (NCA), and identified promising candidates for UA diagnosis. METHODS: Serum was collected from patients with SA, UA, and NCA who visited the Department of Cardiovascular Diseases of the Meizhou People’s Hospital. Small RNA sequencing was carried out on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. miRNA expression in different groups of patients was profiled and then confirmed based on that in an independent set of patients. Functions of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using gene ontology classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. RESULTS: Our results indicated that circulating miRNA expression profiles differed between SA, UA, and NCA patients. A total of 36 and 161 miRNAs were dysregulated in SA and UA patients, respectively. miRNA expression was validated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that circulating miRNAs are potential biomarkers of UA.
       
  • Platelets can reflect the severity of Crohn's disease without the effect
           of anemia

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Anemia and changes in platelets (PLT) are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In our study, we aimed to verify whether PLT count can independently reflect the severity of IBD. METHODS: In our hospital, 137 Crohn’s Disease (CD), 69 Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 412 healthy controls were included to compare the differences in PLT count. In addition, the effect of anemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), age, CD activity index (CDAI) or Mayo on PLTs was also analyzed. If PLTs independently affected CD or UC, we used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to verify the diagnostic value and obtain the cut-off value of PLT. RESULTS: CD and UC patients had higher PLT than controls (p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively). In CD patients, the results showed that patients with anemia (P<0.01), Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) (p<0.001), CRP≥8 mg/L (p=0.046), and CDAI≥150 (p<0.001) had higher PLT, while in UC patients, those with anemia (p=0.018), CRP≥8 mg/L (p=0.045), and Mayo≥3 (p=0.029) had higher PLT. Univariate analysis showed that CDAI was positively correlated with PLT count (p<0.001), while hemoglobin (p=0.001) and age (p<0.001) were negatively correlated with PLT in CD. In UC patients, Mayo (p=0.001) and CRP (p<0.001) were positively correlated with PLT, while hemoglobin (p=0.002) was negatively correlated. Finally, by linear stepwise multivariate analysis, we clarified the positive relationship between PLT and CD (p<0.001) by eliminating the interference of hemoglobin, and determined the cut-off value of PLT as 298×109/L. For UC, we did not obtain similar results. CONCLUSIONS: PLT can be an indicator of disease severity in CD, while there is a lack of evidence regarding this finding in UC.
       
  • Benzodiazepine use in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To report the prevalence and factors associated with the use of benzodiazepines in the general population and those with a mental health condition in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 5,037 individuals from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey data were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, designed to generate DSM-IV diagnoses. Additionally, participants were asked if they had taken any medication in the previous 12 months for the treatment of any mental health condition. RESULTS: The prevalence of benzodiazepine use ranged from 3.6% in the general population to 7.8% among subjects with a mental health condition. Benzodiazepine use was more prevalent in subjects that had been diagnosed with a mood disorder as opposed to an anxiety disorder (14.7% vs. 8.1%, respectively). Subjects that had been diagnosed with a panic disorder (33.7%) or bipolar I/II (23.3%) reported the highest use. Individuals aged ≥50 years (11.1%), those with two or more disorders (11.2%), those with moderate or severe disorders (10%), and those that used psychiatric services (29.8%) also reported higher use. CONCLUSION: These findings give an overview of the use of benzodiazepines in the general population, which will be useful in the public health domain. Benzodiazepine use was higher in those with a mental health condition, with people that had a mood disorder being the most vulnerable. Furthermore, females and the elderly had high benzodiazepine use, so careful management in these groups is required.
       
  • Morphometry and Frequency of the Pyramidalis Muscle in Adult Humans: A
           Pyramidalis Muscle’s Anatomical Analysis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To verify the pyramidalis muscle’s frequency (bilaterality, unilaterality, or absence) and morphometry (length of the medial border and width of its origin/base) in a sample of the Brazilian population and the anthropometric influence. METHODS: Dissection of 30 cadavers, up to 24h post-mortem. RESULTS: The pyramidalis muscle was present bilaterally and unilaterally in 83.33% and 3.33% of the cadavers, respectively, and absent in 13.33%. The muscles on the right and left sides were symmetrical in length but not in width; the pyramidalis muscles of men were longer, while those of the women were wider. We also found that there was greater variation in the dimensions (length and width) of the men’s muscles. Finally, in this sample of the Brazilian population, the pyramidalis muscle’s unilaterality was more prevalent than in other populations, and its complete absence was less prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: There were no cases of muscle duplication in one or both sides, as described in some studies. Despite all of its morphometric variation, the pyramidalis muscle maintained its triangular shape with longitudinal fibers in every case. Furthermore, no statistically significant correlation was noted between the muscles’ dimensions and person’s age, height, weight, or gender.
       
  • Thawing Rate Predicts Acute Pulmonary Vein Isolation after
           Second-Generation Cryoballoon Ablation

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether thawing rate could be a novel predictor of acute pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and explore the predictive value of thawing rate as a factor ensuring long-term PVI (vagus reflex). METHODS: A total of 151 patients who underwent cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) were enrolled in this retrospective study between January 2017 and June 2018. The thawing rate was calculated using the thawing phase of the cryoablation curve. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the predictive value of the thawing rate for acute PVI and vagus reflex. RESULTS: ROC curve analyses revealed that the interval thawing rate at 15°C (ITR15) was the most valuable predictor of PVI, with the highest area under curve (AUC) value of the ROC curve. The best cut-off value of ITR15 for PVI was ≤2.14°C/S and its sensitivity and specificity were 88.62% and 67.18%, respectively. In addition, the ITR15 of the successful PVI group after cryoballoon ablation was significantly slower than the failed PVI group. ITR15 was a predictor of vagus reflex and the occurrence of vagus reflex group had a slower ITR15 compared to the non-occurrence group. CONCLUSIONS: Thawing rate was a novel predictor of acute PVI and the ITR15 was the most valuable predictor of acute PVI. In addition, ITR15 was a predictive factor ensuring long-term PVI (vagus reflex). Our study showed that thawing rate may serve in the early identification of useless cryoballoon ablation.
       
  • Skipping breakfast and physical fitness among school-aged adolescents

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study explored the relationship between skipping breakfast and physical fitness in a group of school-aged adolescents in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study from the Chinese National Surveillance on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) survey in Ningbo, China, used a standardized questionnaire to assess the frequency of breakfast consumption. Physical fitness was measured through standing long jump, 50-m sprint, 1,000 (or 800)-m run, and vital capacity tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and physical fitness. RESULTS: Our study included a total of 1,849 school-aged adolescents (aged 15.53±1.80 years). Among boys, non-breakfast-skippers had good scores for 50-m sprints, 1,000-m run, and vital capacity tests when compared with breakfast skippers (all p<0.05). Among girls, non-breakfast-skippers had a good scores for the standing long jump test compared with breakfast skippers (p=0.003). The multiple linear regression model showed that not skipping breakfast was positively associated with vital capacity (β=-173.78, p=0.004) and inversely associated with 50-m sprint (β=-0.12, p=0.018) and 1,000-m run times (β=-8.08, p=0.001) in boys. CONCLUSION: The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that skipping breakfast might be associated with lower physical fitness in Chinese adolescents aged 13-18 years, especially boys. Breakfast consumption should be promoted among Chinese school-aged boys.
       
  • Influence of time between surgery and postoperative radiation therapy and
           total treatment time in locoregional control of patients with head and
           neck cancer: a single center experience

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the delay to initiate postoperative radiation therapy (RT) on locoregional control to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study that included patients submitted to surgery followed by adjuvant RT (with/without chemotherapy). The time interval between surgery and RT was dichotomized by the receiver operating characteristics curve method at 92 days. Other possible sources of heterogeneity with potential impact on locoregional control were explored by regressive analysis. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients were evaluated. The median time for locoregional recurrence (LRR) was 29.7 months. The relapse-free survival rates were 66.4% and 75.4% for patients who initiated RT more than and within 92 postoperative days (p=0.377), respectively. Doses lower than 60Gy were associated with worse rates of locoregional control (HR=6.523; 95%CI:2.266-18.777, p=0.001). Patients whose total treatment time (TTT) was longer than 150 days had LRR rate of 41.8%; no patient with TTT inferior to 150 days had relapses (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The interval between surgery and RT did not show influence on locoregional control rates. However, doses <60Gy and the total treatment time >150 days were associated with lower locoregional control rates.
       
  • Restrictive versus Liberal Fluid Therapy for Post-Cesarean Acute Kidney
           Injury in Severe Preeclampsia: a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether a restrictive compared to a liberal fluid therapy will increase postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe preeclampsia. METHODS: A total of 46 patients (mean age, 32 years; standard deviation, 6.8 years) with severe preeclampsia were randomized to liberal (1500 ml of lactated Ringer’s, n=23) or restrictive (250 ml of lactated Ringer’s, n=23) intravenous fluid regimen during cesarean section. The primary outcome was the development of a postoperative renal dysfunction defined by AKI Network stage ≥1. Serum cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were evaluated at postoperative days 1 and 2. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02214186. RESULTS: The rate of postoperative AKI was 43.5% in the liberal fluid group and 43.5% in the restrictive fluid group (p=1.0). Intraoperative urine output was higher in the liberal (116 ml/h, IQR 69-191) than in the restrictive fluid group (80 ml/h, IQR 37-110, p<0.05). In both groups, serum cystatin C did not change from postoperative day 1 compared to the preoperative period and significantly decreased on postoperative day 2 compared to postoperative day 1 (p<0.05). In the restrictive fluid group, NGAL levels increased on postoperative day 1 compared to the preoperative period (p<0.05) and decreased on postoperative day 2 compared to postoperative day 1 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Among patients with severe preeclampsia, a restrictive fluid regimen during cesarean section was not associated with increased postoperative AKI.
       
  • Evaluation of the accuracy of mammography, ultrasound and magnetic
           resonance imaging in suspect breast lesions

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: In breast cancer diagnosis, mammography (MMG), ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the imaging methods most used. There is a scarcity of comparative studies that evaluate the accuracy of these methods in the diagnosis of breast cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out through the review of electronic medical records of 32 female patients who underwent breast imaging examinations at a imaging diagnostic center in Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil. Patients who had these three imaging methods at the time of the evaluation of the same nodule were included. The nodule must have been classified as suspect by the BI-RADS® system in at least one of the methods. Data from each method were compared with the histopathological examination. Statistical analysis used the calculation of proportions in Excel 2010. RESULTS: MMG showed 56.2%, 87.5%, 81.8%, 66.7% and 71.8% of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy, respectively. USG had 75%, 18.8%, 48%, 42.8% and 46.9% of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy, respectively. In turn, MRI had 100%, 50%, 66.7%, 100% and 75% of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy, respectively. CONCLUSION: Thus, MRI and MMG were more accurate in evaluating suspicious breast lumps. MRI had a low specificity, mainly to high breast density, while MMG had also sensitivity limited due to high breast density and USG has been proven to be useful in these patients.
       
  • Cross-cultural validation of the FACE-Q Satisfaction with Facial
           Appearance Overall Scale (FACE-Q SFAOS) in Brazilian rhytidoplasty
           patients

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to culturally validate the FACE-Q - Satisfaction with Facial Appearance Overall Scale (Face-Q SFAOS) in a population of Brazilian rhytidoplasty patients. METHOD: Authorization for the translation and validation of the questionnaire was obtained from the FACE-Q SFAOS distribution rights holders. The FACE-Q SFAOS was translated and then back-translated. For cultural validation, a total of 57 women were selected 5 to 8 months after undergoing rhytidoplasty. Twenty of them participated in the cultural adaptation, 30 participated in the reproducibility analysis, and 57 participated in the construct validation. RESULTS: The analysis identified two factors (general appearance and face geometry) that exhibited excellent internal consistency. The total satisfaction score, which comprised nine items, also presented excellent internal consistency. Good reproducibility was found for Overall Appearance, Geometry and Total. There was a difference in the satisfaction means (total and factors) between procedure locations; patients undergoing frontal, upper eyelid and lower eyelid procedures were less satisfied than those who did not undergo such procedures. Satisfaction was higher with geometry than with overall face appearance. CONCLUSION: The FACE-Q SFAOS was adapted to the cultural context of Brazilian rhytidoplasty patients and was reproducible, and the scale exhibited face, content and construct validity.
       
  • Frailty prevalence and related factors in older adults from southern
           Brazil: A cross-sectional observational study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of frailty and the association of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical aspects, and functional capacity with the frailty status of community-dwelling older adults from Curitiba, Southern Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 1,716 participants aged ≥60 years. Frailty was assessed using the Fried phenotype indicators of weakness, exhaustion, low activity, slowness, and weight loss. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical aspects, and functional capacity and functionality were evaluated and compared between the sexes and the different frailty statuses (non-frail, prefrail, and frail). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify associations (p<0.05). RESULTS: A high prevalence of frailty (15.8%) and prefrailty (65.3%) were observed, and both were higher in female than in male individuals. The most predominant frailty criterion was weakness, followed by exhaustion. Compared with the non-frail elderly, the prefrail and frail elderly were older in age and presented more health problems, greater dependency for basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and reduced lower extremity strength performance and functional mobility. The highest proportion of illiterate individuals, individuals with 1-4 years of education, widowed individuals, polypharmacy, and possible cognition problems and diseases were seen in the frail elderly group. Moreover, the risk of being prefrail and frail was higher in those who were older and had more health problems, higher body mass index, and reduced lower extremity strength performance. Greater calf circumference and independence in activities of daily living were protective factors for prefrailty and frailty. Furthermore, lower functional mobility increased the chances of being frail. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of frailty was more pronounced in female than in male individuals, mainly because of a decline in force. Prefrailty was 4 times more prevalent than frailty, and the presence of health problems and reduced functional capacity increased the chances of being prefrail and frail.
       
  • Impact of microablative fractional radiofrequency on the vaginal health,
           microbiota, and cellularity of postmenopausal women

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of microablative fractional radiofrequency (MAFRF) in the non-hormonal treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. METHODS: We examined the cases of 55 postmenopausal women before and after treatment with regard to their vaginal health index (VHI), vaginal microbiota, vaginal pH, and cell maturation. Three applications of MAFRF were performed in the vagina/vaginal introitus. During the treatment, six vaginal smears were obtained and stained with the Papanicolaou stain for determining the degree of cell maturation and with Gram stain for classification of vaginal flora, as per the criteria of Spiegel and Amsel. For vaginal pH determination, pH indicator strips were applied against the vaginal wall. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows (version 17.0). Data were reported as mean±standard deviation. The differences were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimation equations with autoregressive correlation structure “1” and robust standard errors. RESULTS: The mean age was 59.8±4.2 years, and the mean time of menopause was 15.4±4.5 years. After treatment, there was an increase in the percentage of Lactobacillus spp. (p<0.001). Consequently, there was a progressive decrease in vaginal pH during the treatment (p<0.001). Regarding cell maturation, there was a decrease in the percentage of parabasal cells (p=0.001) and an increase in the rate of superficial cells (p<0.001). Additionally, there was an improvement in the VHI index. The mean VHI values before and after treatment were 13.2±5.6 and 22.5±3.7, respectively (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: MAFRF treatment is well tolerated and leads to improvement in the vaginal microenvironment.
       
  • Prevalence and factors associated with arterial hypertension in a
           Brazilian rural working population

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors in farmers in a rural region of Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 790 farmers who were residents of Espírito Santo, Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 35.8% (95%CI: 32.5-39.1%, n=283); however, it was higher in men (36.6%, n=151, p<0.001) and in those with excess weight (48.9%, n=197, p<0.001). Of the 283 hypertensive patients, 125 (44.2%) did not use antihypertensive drugs. In men, lower level of schooling (p=0.004), working in the field for fewer daily hours (p<0.001), and having greater abdominal adiposity (p=0.039) were associated with the presence of increased blood pressure. In women, age (p=0.002), lower schooling (p=0.021), and increased central adiposity (p=0.003) were independent predictors of blood pressure. CONCLUSION: The highest prevalence of hypertension was observed in men, with elevated blood pressure being strongly associated with social and economic factors. In women, the association with the classic factors (age, increase in abdominal adiposity, and low schooling) was stronger. In addition, most hypertensive patients are not adequately diagnosed or treated.
       
  • Effect of body mass index and rocuronium on serum tryptase concentration
           during volatile general anesthesia: an observational study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Female sex, body mass index (BMI), and neuromuscular blocking agents are risk factors of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rocuronium on serum tryptase concentrations during general anesthesia in overweight and obese women. METHODS: The study was conducted in two groups: Group I (n=66) underwent volatile anesthesia with rocuronium and group II (n=60) underwent volatile anesthesia without any muscle relaxant. Serum tryptase concentration (STC) measurements were performed at baseline (STC 0) and postoperatively (STC 1). ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04035707 RESULTS: The highest median value of STC 0 was seen in obese patients (3.44 μg L-1) and it was significantly higher than in overweight (p=0.01) and underweight patients (p=0.03). The maximum STC 0 was observed in overweight patients (20.4 μg L-1). In group I, STC 0 in obese patients presented the highest median value (4.49 μg L-1), and was significantly higher than in overweight patients (p=0.03), and had significantly higher STC 1 than patients with normal BMI (p=0.04). STC 0 and STC 1 in overweight and obese female patients did not differ significantly between groups. STC 1 did not correlate with rocuronium doses. In group I, BMI positively correlated with the duration of rocuronium infusion (rho=0.37) and STC 1 positively correlated with BMI (rho=0.32). CONCLUSION: Excess weight and obesity predispose to higher preoperative serum tryptase values. Postoperative STC is not linked to rocuronium doses. BMI is the main determinant factor of STC during combined volatile general anesthesia.
       
  • Survival prognosis of newborns from an intensive care unit through the
           SNAP-PE II risk score

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Although child mortality has declined significantly in recent decades, the reduction of neonatal mortality remains a major challenge as neonatal mortality represents 2/3 of the mortality rate in this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension II (SNAP-PE II) score for evaluating the survival prognosis of newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: The study design involved an observational cross-sectional retrospective collection, as well as a prospective component. The sample included all newborns admitted to the NICU validated by the SNAP-PE II tool from January 1 to December 31, 2014. RESULTS: A predominance of young mothers (25.4 years), underwent prenatal care (86.2%), however a considerable percentage (49.4%) of mothers received insufficient medical consultation (less than six consults during their pregnancy). A prevalence of male admissions (62.4%) were noted in the NICU. Premature (61.7%) and underweight (weight <2,500 grams) newborns were also prevalent. The SNAP-PE II score showed an association between the infants who were discharged from the neonatal unit and the non-survivors. An increased prevalence of low birth weight and hypothermia was noted in the group of non-survivors. The mean arterial pressure appears to be a significant risk factor in the newborn group that progressed to death. Hypothermia, mean arterial pressure, and birth weight were the most significant variables associated with death. CONCLUSION: The SNAP-PE II was a beneficial indicator of neonatal mortality. The prevention of prematurity and hypothermia by improving maternity care and newborn care can decisively influence neonatal mortality.
       
  • SELAdb: A database of exonic variants in a Brazilian population referred
           to a quaternary medical center in São Paulo

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: High-throughput sequencing of genomes, exomes, and disease-focused gene panels is becoming increasingly common for molecular diagnostics. However, identifying a single clinically relevant pathogenic variant among thousands of genetic polymorphisms is a challenging task. Publicly available genomic databases are useful resources to filter out common genetic variants present in the population and enable the identification of each disease-causing variant. Based on our experience applying these technologies at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, Brazil, we recognized that the Brazilian population is not adequately represented in widely available genomic databases. METHODS: Here, we took advantage of our 5-year experience as a high-throughput sequencing core facility focused on individuals with putative genetic disorders to build a genomic database that may serve as a more accurate reference for our patient population: SELAdb. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Currently, our database comprises a final cohort of 523 unrelated individuals, including patients or family members managed by different clinics of HCFMUSP. We compared SELAdb with other publicly available genomic databases and demonstrated that this population is very heterogeneous, largely resembling Latin American individuals of mixed origin, rather than individuals of pure European ancestry. Interestingly, exclusively through SELAdb, we identified a spectrum of known and potentially novel pathogenic variants in genes associated with highly penetrant Mendelian disorders, illustrating that pathogenic variants circulating in the Brazilian population that is treated in our clinics are underrepresented in other population databases. SELAdb is freely available for public consultation at: http://intranet.fm.usp.br/sela
       
  • microRNA-144 functions as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for
           retinoblastoma

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a highly malignant eye tumor with a low survival rate and a high metastatic rate. The current work was designed to investigate the potential roles of microRNA-144 (miR-144) in the diagnosis and prognosis of RB. METHODS: miR-144 expression levels in RB tissues and adjacent normal tissues, as well as serum samples from RB patients and healthy controls were measured. The association between miR-144 expression levels and clinical features were analyzed. Moreover, diagnostic and prognostic values of miR-144 in RB were verified by receiver operating characteristic analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival assays. RESULTS: The expression level of miR-144 was markedly decreased in tumor tissues of RB patients, and the expression level of miR-144 was positively associated with tumor size and metastasis in RB patients. Moreover, miR-144 can distinguish tumor tissues from normal tissues with high specificity and sensitivity, and RB patients with lower miR-144 expression have shorter overall and disease-free survival rates than those with higher miR-144 expression. Alternatively, miR-144 also decreased in the serum of RB patients in comparison with healthy subjects, and miR-144 expression levels in the tissue samples and serum were positively correlated. Furthermore, miR-144 levels in the serum of RB patients sensitively distinguished RB patients from healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: miR-144 expression was downregulated in serum and tissue samples of RB patients and may function as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for RB.
       
  • Concordance of Chest CT and Nucleic Acid Testing in Diagnosing Coronavirus
           Disease Outside its District of Origin (Wuhan, China)

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the concordance between CT and nucleic acid testing in diagnosing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outside its district of origin (Wuhan, China). METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients with COVID-19, confirmed by nucleic acid testing, were enrolled from two designated hospitals outside the district of disease origin. We collected clinical, laboratory, and CT data and assessed the concordance between CT manifestations and nucleic acid test results by comparing the percentage of patients with and without abnormal CT findings. Furthermore, using Chi-square tests, we analyzed the differences in CT manifestations between patients with and without an exposure history or symptoms. RESULTS: Multiple ground-glass opacities (GGOs), with or without consolidation, were observed on the initial CT scans of 19 patients (82.6%), whereas the remaining 4 (17.4%) showed no CT abnormalities, indicating that the initial chest CT findings were not entirely concordant with the nucleic acid test results in diagnosing COVID-19. Among the latter 4 patients, we observed multiple GGOs with and without consolidation in 2 patients on the follow-up chest CT scans taken on days 7 and 14 after admission, respectively. The remaining 2 patients showed no abnormalities on the follow-up CT scans. Furthermore, abnormal CT findings were found more frequently in patients who had been exposed to COVID-19 in its district of origin than in those who had not been exposed and in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with positive results on nucleic acid testing may or may not have the abnormal CT manifestations that are frequently found in symptomatic patients with a history of exposure to the district of COVID-19 origin.
       
  • Severe clinical spectrum with high mortality in pediatric patients with
           COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.
       
  • Circulating Exosomal microRNAs as Biomarkers of Systemic Lupus
           Erythematosus

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Many studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) could be potential biomarkers for various diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical value of serum exosomal miRNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Serum exosomes were isolated from 38 patients with SLE and 18 healthy controls (HCs). The expression of miR-21, miR-146a and miR-155 within exosomes was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we evaluated the diagnostic value of exosomal miRNAs. RESULTS: Exosomal miR-21 and miR-155 were upregulated (p<0.01), whereas miR-146a expression (p<0.05) was downregulated in patients with SLE, compared to that in HCs. The expression of miR-21 (p<0.01) and miR-155 (p<0.05) was higher in SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) than in those without LN (non-LN). The analysis of ROC curves revealed that the expression of miR-21 and miR-155 showed a potential diagnostic value for LN. Furthermore, miR-21 (R=0.44, p<0.05) and miR-155 (R=0.33, p<0.05) were positively correlated with proteinuria. The expression of miR-21 was negatively associated with anti-SSA/Ro antibodies (R=−0.38, p<0.05), and that of miR-146a was negatively associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies (R=−0.39, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that exosomal miR-21 and miR-155 expression levels may serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of SLE and LN.
       
  • Cut-off point for high dysphonia risk in children based on the Child
           Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol: preliminary findings

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a cut-off point for high dysphonia risk in children using the Child Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol (DRSP-C). METHODS: Through a preliminary study, voice recordings of 59 children (4-12 years of age) were collected during an auditory-perceptual analysis using the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice protocol. Thirty of the patients had voice disorders (patient group), and 29 did not (control group). A risk score for dysphonia was then calculated, and data were compared between groups. The relationship between overall degrees of deviation and questionnaire scores was analysed. The questionnaire’s validity was verified from the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, and cut-off points were obtained based on diagnostic criteria for screening procedures. RESULTS: The DRSP-C score was found to be higher for the patient group, as was the partial score for vocal behaviour. No correlation was found between overall degrees of dysphonia and questionnaire scores. The area under the ROC curve was measured as 0.678, denoting limited diagnostic capacity. The cut-off point was set at 16.50. Thus, above this value, dysphonia risk is higher. CONCLUSION: A cut-off point for high dysphonia risk was calculated. The DRSP-C proved to be a promising tool for children’s clinical vocal and health promotion and should be used in conjunction with General Dysphonia Risk Screening.
       
  • Cost Modifications during the Early Years of the Use of the National
           Cardiovascular Data Registry for Quality Improvement

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Quality improvement (QI) initiatives based on data from international registries have been reported previously; however, there is a lack of information on the impact on the costs of medical care associated with the use of these tools. METHODS: Patients admitted due to myocardial infarction (MI), included in the ACTION Registry® and CathPCI Registry®, in a private Brazilian hospital (i.e., the reference hospital) were analyzed. The costs of care of these patients were compared to the costs of MI admissions in nine similar hospitals not included in the same QI program. Regression models were used to analyze the cost change over time between the two groups of hospitals. Readmission rates were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for the same variables as in the cost model. RESULTS: Overall, the annual medical cost inflation in Brazil was higher than the annual cost trend in the reference hospital during the period of analysis. Moreover, the annual in-hospital costs indicate that the reference hospital has a statistically significant 6% lower cost trend for patients with acute MI, compared to patients with the same diagnostic code in the comparison hospitals group, in an adjusted analysis (p-value=0.041). Using multivariable analysis, the readmission rates were also found to be significantly lower in the reference hospital than in the comparison hospitals, with an odds ratio of 0.68 (p-value=0.042). CONCLUSION: The use of the NCDR® as a benchmark to guide QI programs outside the United States was associated with the positive impact of bending the cost curve to below that of national medical inflation and the comparison hospitals’ costs, with a lower incidence of hospital readmission.
       
  • Association of bone mineral density with bone texture attributes extracted
           using routine magnetic resonance imaging

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) often fails to predict fragility fractures. Quantitative textural analysis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may potentially yield useful radiomic features to predict fractures. We aimed to investigate the correlation between BMD and texture attributes (TAs) extracted from MRI scans and the interobserver reproducibility of the analysis. METHODS: Forty-nine volunteers underwent lumbar spine 1.5-T MRI and DXA. Three-dimensional (3-D) gray-level co-occurrence matrices were measured from routine sagittal T2 fast spin-echo images using the IBEX software. Twenty-two TAs were extracted from 3-D segmented L3 vertebrae. The estimated concordance coefficient was calculated using linear regression analysis. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between BMD and the TAs. Interobserver reproducibility was assessed with the concordance coefficient described by Lin. RESULTS: The results revealed a fair-to-moderate significant correlation between BMD and 13 TAs (r=−0.20 to 0.39; p<0.05). Eight TAs (autocorrelation, energy, homogeneity 1, homogeneity 1.1, maximum probability, sum average, sum variance, and inverse difference normalized) negatively correlated with BMD (r=−0.20 to −0.38; p<0.05), whereas five TAs (dissimilarity, difference entropy, entropy, sum entropy, and information measure corr 1) positively correlated with BMD (r=0.29-0.39; p<0.05). The interobserver agreement was almost perfect for all significant TAs (95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.00; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Specific TAs could be reliably extracted from routine MRI and correlated with BMD. Our results encourage future evaluation of the potential usefulness of quantitative texture measurements from MRI scans for predicting fragility fractures.
       
  • Physical activity among women of low socioeconomic status living with HIV
           in two major cities of Brazil and Mozambique: A cross-sectional
           comparative study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) may reduce cardiovascular risk and preserve functional capacity of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, only limited research objectively measured PA in patients with low socioeconomic status (SES) in low-income countries, particularly in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. This study compared the PA assessed by accelerometers in women of low SES living with HIV under common antiretroviral therapy (cART) from two major cities in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, n=33; 40.1±6.1 years) and Mozambique (Maputo, n=50; 38.8±8.7 years). METHODS: Eligible women wore triaxial accelerometers during seven consecutive days, to estimate their habitual PA and daily energy expenditure. RESULTS: The proportion of participants with overweight/obesity was greater in Rio than Maputo (57% vs. 30%; p=0.021), as well as those classified as sedentary based on steps/day (45% vs. 22%; p=0.02). Sedentary time was prevalent (Median±IQD: Rio-1236±142 vs. Maputo-1192±135 min/day; p=0.15). Time spent in PA was short, but Brazilians exhibited lower amount of light (111±56 vs. 145±51 min/day; p<0.001) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (88±3 vs. 64±36 min/day; p=0.001) vs. Mozambicans. The proportion of patients performing 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA were 58% (Rio) and 82% (Maputo), respectively. Despite of this, estimated daily energy expenditure was equivalent in both groups (1976±579 vs. 1933±492 kcal; p=0.731). CONCLUSIONS: Women with low SES living with HIV in Maputo were more active vs. patients from Rio de Janeiro. Albeit sedentary behavior was prevalent, the proportion of patients complying with the minimum recommended PA for health was higher than values usually reported in developed countries.
       
  • Characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU
           in a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil - study protocol

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We designed a cohort study to describe characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in the largest public hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, as Latin America becomes the epicenter of the pandemic. METHODS: This is the protocol for a study being conducted at an academic hospital in Brazil with 300 adult ICU beds dedicated to COVID-19 patients. We will include adult patients admitted to the ICU with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. The main outcome is ICU survival at 28 days. Data will be collected prospectively and retrospectively by trained investigators from the hospital’s electronic medical records, using an electronic data capture tool. We will collect data on demographics, comorbidities, severity of disease, and laboratorial test results at admission. Information on the need for advanced life support and ventilator parameters will be collected during ICU stay. Patients will be followed up for 28 days in the ICU and 60 days in the hospital. We will plot Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate ICU and hospital survival and perform survival analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify the main risk factors for mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04378582. RESULTS: We expect to include a large sample of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU and to be able to provide data on admission characteristics, use of advanced life support, ICU survival at 28 days, and hospital survival at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide epidemiological data about critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Brazil, which could inform health policy and resource allocation in low- and middle-income countries.
       
  • Aprepitant plus palonosetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea
           and vomiting after breast cancer surgery: a double blind, randomized trial
           

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the addition of a fourth antiemetic intervention in patients at high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). METHODS: High-risk patients (Apfel score 3 or 4) scheduled for unilateral mastectomy were randomly allocated in one of two groups, oral aprepitant (oral aprepitant 80 mg, intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg, and palonosetron 0.075 mg) and oral placebo (oral placebo, intravenous dexamethasone 4 mg, and palonosetron 0.075 mg). Patients and caregivers were blinded to the group assignments. The primary efficacy endpoints included the incidence of nausea and vomiting, and the secondary endpoints included use of rescue antiemetics during a 48-hour postoperative period. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02431286. RESULTS: One hundred patients were enrolled in this study and 91 were analyzed, 48 in group A and 43 in group P. No patient presented with nausea or vomiting in the first 2 hours after surgery. From the 2nd to the 6th hour, the incidence of PONV was 8.33% in group A and 9.30% in group P. In the first 24 hours, the incidence of PONV was 27.08% in the group A and 20.93% in group P. From the 24th to the 48th hour, the incidence of PONV was 8.33% in group A and 13.95% in group P. There were no statistically significant differences in PONV between groups. CONCLUSION: The addition of aprepitant as a third antiemetic resulted in no significant reduction in the incidence of PONV in this population. However, the incidence of PONV was reduced in relation to the general population.
       
  • Patterns of recurrence and outcomes of glioblastoma multiforme treated
           with chemoradiation and adjuvant temozolomide

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the patterns of failure and prognostic factors in Brazilian patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). METHODS: Patients with diagnosed GBM post-resection received postoperative RT. TMZ was administered concurrently at 75 mg/m2/day for 28 consecutive days and adjuvant therapy at 150-200 mg/m2/day for 5 days every 28 days. Radiographic failure was defined as any new T1-enhancing lesion or biopsy-confirmed progressive enhancement inside of the radiation field. When possible, patients with recurrence were salvaged with metronomic TMZ, either in combination with a local treatment or alone (surgery or re-irradiation). Several prognostic factors were evaluated for overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify significant factors. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: This study included 50 patients. The median follow-up time was 21 months. The median RT dose was 60 Gy and all patients received concomitant TMZ. During follow-up, 41 (83.6%) failures were observed, including 34 (83%) in-field, 4 (9.7%) marginal, and 3 (7.3%) distant failures. Metronomic TMZ was used as salvage treatment in 22 (44%) cases and in combination with local treatment in 12 (24%) cases. The median OS and progression-free survival times for the entire cohort were 17 and 9 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, the following factors were significant for better OS: maximal surgical resection (p=0.03), Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS)>70 at diagnosis (p=0.01), metronomic TMZ treatment (p=0.038), recursive partitioning analysis class III (p=0.03), and time to failure >9 months (p=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, the following factors remained significant for better OS: metronomic TMZ (p=0.01) and time to failure >9 months (p=0.0001). CONCLUSION: The median OS of Brazilian patients with GBM treated with RT and TMZ was satisfactory. Although TMZ therapy has become the standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed GBM, the recurrence rate is extremely high. Metronomic TMZ as salvage treatment improved survival in these patients.
       
  • Application of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography combined with
           serum markers in Child-Pugh grading

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index are widely used to assess liver fibrosis. However, efficacies of these methods in the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ARFI elastography combined with either AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and Child-Pugh (CP) class for the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis. METHODS: The shear wave velocities of 104 patients with clinically confirmed CHB-related cirrhosis were determined using the ARFI; and clinical serum markers (e.g. ALT, AST, PLT) were used to calculate the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. Cirrhosis patients were scored according to their CP class. The ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index were compared with the CP class. The efficacy of each indicator in diagnosis was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the ARFI combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index, which is used to predict decompensated cirrhosis. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in gender and age among CP classes A, B, and C patients (p>0.05). The ARFI values and the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index of patients with CP classes A, B, and C were significantly different (p<0.05). With an increasing CP class, the ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 values increased. The correlation between the ARFI and the CP class was stronger than that between the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index and the CP class. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of decompensated cirrhosis using the ARFI was 0.841, which was higher than that for the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. According to the area under the curve results, no significant differences were found when the ARFI was combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and when the ARFI alone was used. CONCLUSIONS: The ARFI value has a strong correlation with the CP class. Therefore, ARFI elastography complements CP class in the assessment of the hepatic functional reserve in patients with CHB-related cirrhosis.
       
  • Accuracy of a portable breath meter test for the detection of halitosis in
           children and adolescents

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of the Breath-Alert™ portable breath meter (BA) for the detection of halitosis in children and adolescents, considering the organoleptic test (OT) as the gold standard in this assessment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 children (aged 6-12 years). OT was performed by three independent examiners on a single occasion, obtaining three scores of 0-5 points on the Rosenberg’s organoleptic scale. The median of the three evaluations for each child was used for analysis. BA was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions, with breath odor scored from 0-5 points. Scores ≥2 on both tests were considered indicative of halitosis. RESULTS: A total of 26 (17.3%) and 23 (15.3%) children were detected with halitosis on the OT and BA tests, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BA scores for the detection of halitosis were 80.76% and 98.38%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for BA were 91.3% and 96.06%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the present study involving children, who require fast, practical examinations, BA proved to be an auxiliary tool to OT for the detection of halitosis in the practice of pediatric dentistry, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity.
       
  • Comparative tomographic study of the iliac screw and the S2-alar-iliac
           screw in children

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The recent advancements in spine fixation aid in the treatment of complex spinal pathologies. Both the iliac screw (IS) and the S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screw provide adequate stability in the fixation of complex lumbosacral spine pathologies, leading to a significant increased rate of using these techniques in the daily practice of the spine surgeons. This study aims to analyze, describe, and compare the insertion and positioning parameters of the S2AI screw and IS techniques in children without spinal deformities. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted at a university hospital in 2018, with 25 computed tomography (CT) images selected continuously. Mann-Whitney-Shapiro-Wilk tests were performed. The reliability of the data was assessed using the intraclass correlation. The data were stratified by age group only for Pearson’s correlation analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 11.7 years (4.5 SD). The mean IS length was 106.63 mm (4.59 SD). The mean length of the S2AI screw was 104.13 mm (4.22 SD). The mean skin distance from the IS entry point was 28.13 mm (4.27 SD) and that for the S2AI screw was 39.96 mm (4.54 SD). CONCLUSIONS: Through CT, the S2AI screw trajectory was observed to have a greater bone thickness and skin distance than the IS. There was a linear correlation between age and screw length for both techniques. A similar relationship was observed between skin distance and age for the S2AI screw technique. In children, the S2AI screw technique presents advantages such as greater cutaneous coverage and implant thickness than the IS technique.
       
  • Ketamine ameliorates hypoxia-induced endothelial injury in human umbilical
           vein endothelial cells

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia leads to endothelial cell inflammation, apoptosis, and damage, which plays an important role in the complications associated with ischemic cardiovascular disease. As an oxidoreductase, p66Shc plays an important role in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis. Ketamine is widely used in clinics. This study was designed to assess the potential protective effect of ketamine against hypoxia-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, we explored the potential mechanism by which ketamine protected against hypoxia-induced endothelial injury. METHODS: The protective effects of ketamine against hypoxia-induced injury was assessed using cell viability and adhesion assays, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting. RESULTS: Our data showed that hypoxia reduced HUVEC viability, increased the adhesion between HUVECs and monocytes, and upregulated the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules at the protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, hypoxia increased ROS accumulation and upregulated p66Shc expression. Furthermore, hypoxia downregulated sirt1 expression in HUVECs. Alternatively, ketamine was shown to reverse the hypoxia-mediated reduction of cell viability and increase in the adhesion between HUVECs and monocytes, ameliorate hypoxia-induced ROS accumulation, and suppress p66Shc expression. Moreover, EX527, a sirt1 inhibitor, reversed the protective effects of ketamine against the hypoxia-mediated reduction of cell viability and increase in adhesion between HUVECs and monocytes. CONCLUSION: Ketamine reduces hypoxia-induced p66Shc expression and attenuates ROS accumulation via upregulating sirt1 in HUVECs, thus attenuating hypoxia-induced endothelial cell inflammation and apoptosis.
       
  • Unexpectedly High Prevalence of Low Alpha-Galactosidase A Enzyme Activity
           in Patients with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare disease associated with sphingolipid accumulation. Sphingolipids are components of plasma membranes that are important in podocyte function and accumulate in various glomerular diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Both FD and FSGS can cause podocyte damage and are classified as podocytopathies. In this respect, FD and FSGS share the same pathophysiologic pathways. Previous screening studies have shown that a significant proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) have unsuspected FD, and the prevalence of low alpha-galactosidase A (αGLA) enzyme activity in these patients is higher than that in the normal population. We aimed to compare αGLA enzyme activity in patients with biopsy-proven FSGS and ESRD receiving HD. METHODS: The records of 232 patients [62 FSGS (F/M: 33/29); 170 HD (M/F: 93/79)] were evaluated retrospectively. The screening was performed based on the αGLA enzyme activity on a dried blood spot, with the confirmation of plasma LysoGb3 levels, and the known GLA mutations were tested in patients with low enzyme activities. The two groups were compared using these parameters. RESULTS: The mean level of αGLA enzyme activity was found to be lower in FSGS patients than in the HD group (2.88±1.2 μmol/L/h versus 3.79±1.9 μmol/L/h, p<0.001). There was no significant relationship between the two groups with regard to the plasma LysoGb3 levels (2.2±1.22 ng/ml versus 1.7±0.66 ng/ml, p: 0.4). In the analysis of GLA mutations, a D313Y mutation [C(937G>T) in exon p] was found in one patient from the FSGS group. CONCLUSIONS: We found that αGAL activity in patients with FSGS is lower than that in patients undergoing HD. The low enzyme activity in patients with FSGS may be explained by considering the similar pathogenesis of FSGS and FD, which may also lead to sphingolipid deposition and podocyte injury.
       
  • Sepsis and cirrhosis in growing animals: description of a new experimental
           model and its pathological and immunological reliability

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: In cirrhotic children, infection events and sepsis are more frequent and more severe due to immune dysfunction. The objectives of the current study were therefore to develop an experimental model of infection and sepsis in cirrhotic weaning growing rats, by the use of bile duct ligation (BDL) and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Additionally, the correlation of the clinico-histopathological data and serial cytokine levels in septic cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic animals was studied. METHODS: Young Wistar rats of age 21 days and of weight between 70-90 g were divided into 12 groups according to the surgical procedure performed: sham (sacrificed after 2 or 4 weeks), BDL (sacrificed after 2 or 4 weeks), CLP (2- or 4-week old animals sacrificed after 12 or 24 hours), BDL+CLP (2- or 4-week old animals sacrificed after 12 hours). Histopathological studies and determination of serum levels of cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha, for studies of systemic infection, were performed. Murine sepsis scores (MSS) based on the clinical aspects just before euthanasia were also included. RESULTS: A transitory increase in IL-1, IL-10, and TNF-alpha levels was observed, with different patterns according to the groups. Two-hit groups tended to present with higher values of serum cytokines and histopathological scores than their septic non-cirrhotic counterparts. There was a correlation between mortality rate and MSS (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The model is feasible and may be utilized in studies on liver cirrhosis and infection in growing animals.
       
  • Diagnostic value of volumetric capnography in patients with chronic cough
           variant asthma

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the quantitative changes and diagnostic performance of volumetric capnography (VCap) parameters in patients with cough variant asthma. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 31 patients with cough variant asthma and 30 patients with chronic cough without asthma between November 2010 and March 2012. VCap measurements were recorded at baseline, during the five steps of the histamine challenge, and after bronchodilation with salbutamol. They were then compared between the baseline and histamine challenge, and between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for different VCap measurements. RESULTS: The slope of phase III (dc\dv3) and the ratio of phase III slope to phase II slope (SR23%) decreased from baseline upon challenge with 1.1 mg histamine in cough variant asthma patients but increased in patients with chronic cough without asthma. Additionally, the change upon challenge with 1.1 mg histamine in dc\dv3 from baseline (S6-S1dc\dv3) in cough variant asthma patients had the largest area under the curve (AUC) (0.814, 95% CI: 0.697-0.931; p<0.001). The AUC for change upon challenge with 1.1 mg histamine in SR23% from baseline was 0.755 (95%CI: 0.632-0.878; p<0.001). At a cutoff of 19.8, S6-S1 dc\dv3 had a sensitivity of 74.2% and specificity of 90.0% and at a cutoff of 40.7, S6-S1 SR23% had a sensitivity of 48.4% and specificity of 96.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with cough variant asthma exhibit distinct VCap responses for dead space parameters upon challenge with histamine in comparison to patients with chronic cough. VCap parameters like phase III slope and phase III/phase II slope ratio could be used to aid the diagnosis of cough variant asthma.
       
  • Real-World Molecular Testing and Treatment Patterns in Brazilian Patients
           with Newly Diagnosed Locally Advanced or Metastatic NSCLC

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the molecular testing and treatment patterns in a retrospective cohort of newly diagnosed treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This is an observational retrospective cohort study conducted across 10 cancer centers in Brazil. Treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were enrolled from January to December 2014. The following data were collected from the medical records of patients from diagnosis until the last record (death, loss to follow-up, or the end of the maximum follow-up period): demographics; medical history; smoking status; disease characteristics; previous treatments; and molecular testing patterns and results. The overall survival (OS) was also estimated. Results: A total of 391 patients from 8 different Brazilian states were included, with a median age of 64.1 years (23.7-98.7), with most patients being males (60.1%). The smoking status of 74.2% of patients was a ‘former’ or ‘current smoker’. Stage IV NSCLC at diagnosis was observed in 82.4% of patients, with 269 of them (68.8%) presenting adenocarcinoma (ADC). Among the stage IV ADC patients, 54.0% were referred for molecular testing. Among the patients with an available epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, 31 (24.0%) were EGFR-positive. The first-line treatment was a platinum-based chemotherapy for 98 patients (25.1%), while non-platinum-based regimens were used in 54 patients (13.8%). OS data were available for 370 patients, with a median OS of 10.8 months. Never smokers had a significantly higher median OS versus current or former smokers (14.6 versus 9.1 months; log-rank p=0.003). Among the patients for whom molecular testing data were available, those with EGFR-positive results had a longer median OS (34.6 versus 12.8 months; log-rank p=0.003). Conclusion: Our findings provide relevant information for prescribers and policy decision-makers by highlighting the unmet needs of patients and the importance of molecular testing in newly diagnosed locally advanced or metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. We also highlight the respective EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment when the result is positive and the areas in which further efforts are required to grant access to effective treatment.
       
  • Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in infants aged 1 to 24 months during
           a hearing health care service

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Assessing infants’ hearing is of utmost importance, as hearing at this phase is required for the development of oral language. Through hearing, human beings are capable of developing communication. The Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials are an indispensable test to diagnose deafness in infants. This study aimed to analyze the results of the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with risk factors for hearing loss. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in 123 infants aged 1 to 24 months at a hearing health care service. The Vivosonic Integrity V500 equipment, which enabled the child to be awake while the testing was carried out, was used in this study. The data were compared by gestational age and sex, according to the standards suggested in the equipment handbook. RESULTS: A significant difference was verified for age ranges 4 to 6 months, 13 to 15 months (waves I and V), and 7 to 9 months (wave V). The lower values in absolute wave latencies were comparable to data from the equipment handbook, justifying the need for standardization of the screening process. CONCLUSION: There are some differences between the standards in the equipment handbook and those observed in our study. These results will serve as a reference for the standardization of the equipment used in the hearing health care service.
       
  • Interaction between cognitive status, fear of falling, and balance in
           elderly persons

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cognitive function and its relationship with balance, history of falls, and fear of falling in the elderly. METHODS: We evaluated 250 elderly persons aged at least 60 years, who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire about the occurrence of falls in the last year. The cognitive function, balance, and fear of falling were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Falls Efficacy Scale (FES-I) scores, respectively. Participants were allocated into two groups based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, the Group with Possible Cognitive Decline (GPCD) and the group with no cognitive decline (GNCD). We performed Student's t-test and Pearson’s correlation for independent samples. RESULTS: The Group with Possible Cognitive Decline (GPCD) showed lower balance (p=0.003) and greater fear of falling (p=0.008) (BBS=50.98±4.68; FES-I=26.06±8.78) compared to the GNCD (BBS=52.53±3.047; FES-I=23.21±7.74). CONCLUSION: Elderly persons with cognitive decline have lower balance, greater fear of falling, and greater recurrence of falls.
       
  • The effect of regions-of-interest and elasticity modulus selection on
           differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes with shear wave
           elastography

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Imaging diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy has conventionally used ultrasonography. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a recent ultrasound technological advancement that has shown promise in the important medical problem of differentiating between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes based on quantitative measurements of elasticity modulus. However, widely varying elasticity modulus metrics and regions-of-interest (ROIs) were used in existing studies, leading to inconsistent findings and results that are hard to compare with each other. METHODS: Using a large dataset of 264 cervical lymph nodes from 200 patients, we designed a study comparing three elasticity modulus metrics (Emax, Emean, and standard deviation-SD) with three different ROIs to evaluate the effect of such selections. The metric values were compared between the benign and malignant node groups. The different ROI and metric selections were also compared through receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. RESULTS: For all ROIs, all metric values were significantly different between the two groups, indicting their diagnostic potential. This was confirmed by the ≥0.80 area under the curve (AUC) values achieved with these metrics. Different ROIs had no effect on Emax, whereas all ROIs achieved high performance at 0.88 AUC. For Emean, the smallest ROI focusing on the area of the highest elasticity achieved the best diagnostic performance. In contrast, the larger ROIs achieved higher performances for SD. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated the effect of elasticity modulus and ROI selection on the diagnostic performance of SWE on cervical lymphadenopathy. These new findings help guide relevant future studies and clinical applications of this important quantitative imaging modality.
       
  • Association between matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene polymorphism and
           breast cancer in Brazilian women

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between rs17576 (MMP-9) polymorphism and increased cancer risk in a Brazilian breast cancer cohort. METHODS: This study included 141 women (71 breast cancer patients and 70 controls without breast cancer) who donated 3 mL of their peripheral blood for genomic DNA extraction. This DNA was then genotyped using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The AG (rs17576) genotype was identified in 26 (18.43%) participants in the case group and in 22 (15.60%) participants in the control group (p=0.274), while the GG genotype was identified in ten (7.09%) participants in the case group and in one (0.70%) participant in the control group (p<0.003 - OR (95% CI) 13.13 (1.73, 593.08). No significant difference in the incidence rates was observed for AG or GG rs17576 genotypes in premenopausal women, p=0.813 and p=0.556, respectively. However, in postmenopausal women, the AG genotype was shown to occur in 14 (22.5%) participants in the case group and in 4 (6.45%) participants in the control (p<0.043), while GG genotype occurred in eight (12.90%) of the individuals in the case group and in none of the individuals in the control group (p<0.006). CONCLUSION: In this study, the MMP-9 rs17576 GG polymorphic variant was shown to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while the AG and GG genotypes were associated with increased cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
       
  • Association Between Work and Common Mental Disorders in School
           Adolescents: The ERICA Study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by continuing profound mental, physical, and social changes and entering into the labor market during this phase may have negative consequences on physical and mental health. Common mental disorders (CMD) are characterized as disorders of mental functions, including symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as various nonspecific and somatic complaints such as reduced ability to concentrate, tiredness, irritation, and forgetfulness. Despite its increasing prevalence, few studies have addressed CMD and its association with work, in adolescents. In the present study, we aimed to identify the main factors associated with CMD and evaluated its association with work, in school adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 12 to 17-year-old adolescent students using a self-administered questionnaire with questions related to work. CMD was verified using the General Health Questionnaire of 12 items. In total, 3424 adolescents were studied. RESULTS: The prevalence of CMD and work in the last year was 28.72% and 19.63%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, multivariate analysis showed associations of CMD with female gender (OR=2.72) and work (OR=1.70). CONCLUSION: In the present study, a high number of cases of CMD were observed among the studied adolescents. Female gender and work history in the last year were negatively and independently associated with the presence of CMD.
       
  • Pentraxin-2 is Associated with Renal Fibrosis in Patients Undergoing Renal
           Biopsy

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Progressive renal disease is characterized by histological changes in the kidney and fibrosis is a common outcome. Renal biopsy is the only diagnostic tool to evaluate these histopathological changes. Pentraxin-2 (PTX-2) is an anti-inflammatory constitutive plasma protein associated with the innate immune system. Recently, as a biomarker, the circulating level of PTX-2 is shown to be decreased in chronic fibrotic diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between renal fibrosis severity and serum PTX-2 levels in patients undergoing renal biopsy. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 45 patients and 16 healthy individuals (HIs). The severity of renal fibrosis was evaluated according to the Banff and Sethi scoring systems by the same pathologist. PTX-2 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with the demographical, clinical, biochemical, and histopathological data of the patients and HIs. RESULTS: PTX-2 levels were lower in the biopsy group than in the HI group (p=0.12). Patients with moderate renal fibrosis had significantly lower serum PTX-2 levels than those in patients with minimal and mild fibrosis (p=0.017 and p=0.010, respectively). PTX-2 concentrations were correlated with serum albumin (r=0.30, p=0.016), and were negatively correlated with serum creatinine levels (rho=-0.42, p=0.01) and body mass index (r=-0.32, p=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that PTX-2 levels are significantly lower in patients with renal fibrosis than HIs, and declining further in patients with severe fibrosis.
       
  • Optimization of HLA-B*27 ALLELE Genotyping by PCR-SSP

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: HLA-B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and its presence helps to confirm AS diagnosis. Due to the high HLA polymorphism and the differentiated contribution of alleles and molecules encoded by them, HLA-B*27 allele identification is relevant in the clinical follow-up, diagnosis, and treatment of this spondyloarthropathy. Inexpensive genotyping techniques with high specificity and sensitivity are of great interest in histocompatibility laboratories. This work aimed to optimize HLA-B*27 genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction Sequence-specific Primer (PCR-SSP), which is an accessible and inexpensive technique. METHODS: The PCR-SSP was standardized using 26 HLA-B*27 positive and 3 HLA-B*27 negative samples previously defined by Polymerase Chain Reaction Sequence-specific Oligonucleotide Probes (PCR-SSOP) (medium resolution, One Lambda®) and primers described by Duangchanchot et al. (2009). For validating the technique, 397 samples were genotyped using PCR-SSP as well as PCR-SSOP. RESULTS: The PCR-SSP technique was standardized for identifying the alleles HLA-B*27:02, HLA-B*27:CAFRW (05/13/16/17/28/37/38/39/42), HLA-B*27:CAFRZ (08/26/40), HLA-B*27:09 and HLA-B*27:12, which were found in 90 positive samples (22.67%). There was 100% agreement between the two techniques for heterozygous samples; however, two homozygous samples could not be detected by PCR-SSP. CONCLUSION: The HLA-B*27 genotyping using PCR-SSP, an easy-to-use, specific, and affordable technique, was optimized for heterozygous samples. This technique may contribute to AS diagnosis.
       
  • Ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis: revisiting screening of
           latent tuberculosis infection and its follow-up during anti-tumor necrosis
           factor therapy in an endemic area

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively evaluate the performance and distinctive pattern of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) screening and treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) under anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and determine the relevance of re-exposure and other risk factors for TB development. METHODS: A total of 135 and 83 patients with AS and PsA, respectively, were evaluated for LTBI treatment before receiving anti-TNF drugs via the tuberculin skin test (TST), chest radiography, and TB exposure history assessment. All subjects were evaluated for TB infection at 3-month intervals. RESULTS: The patients with AS were more often treated for LTBI than were those with PsA (42% versus 30%, p=0.043). The former also presented a higher frequency of TST positivity (93% versus 64%, p=0.002), although they had a lower frequency of exposure history (18% versus 52%, p=0.027) and previous TB (0.7% versus 6%, p=0.03). During follow-up [median, 5.8 years; interquartile range (1QR), 2.2-9.0 years], 11/218 (5%) patients developed active TB (AS, n=7; PsA, n=4). TB re-exposure was the main cause in seven patients (64%) after 12 months of therapy (median, 21.9 months; IQR, 14.2-42.8 months) and five LTBI-negative patients. TB was identified within the first year in four patients (36.3%) (median, 5.3 months; IQR, 1.2-8.8 months), two of whom were LTBI-positive. There was no difference in the TB-free survival according to the anti-TNF drug type/class; neither synthetic drug nor prednisone use was related to TB occurrence (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Known re-exposure is the most critical factor for incident TB cases in spondyloarthritis. There are also some distinct features in AS and PsA LTBI screening, considering the higher frequency of LTBI and TST positivities in patients with AS. Annual risk reassessment taking into consideration these peculiar features and including the TST should be recommended for patients in endemic countries.
       
  • Impact of Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation on
           Craniofacial Growth

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the craniofacial skeletal growth in pediatric hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors in comparison with age-sex matched-paired controls. METHODS: A case-controlled retrospective comparison of the craniofacial growth in 25 HSCT children and 25 matched-paired controls was conducted. Craniofacial growth was quantitatively assessed by linear and angular measurements in panoramic radiographic images using ImageJ¯. Stature growth and body weight were obtained through physical examination. Cancer diagnosis, myeloablative conditioning, and HSCT were retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Patients aged 12.2 years (±3.8; 16 male, 9 female). Radiographic images were obtained on an average of 2.43 (±2.0) years after HSCT. The main malignant diagnosis was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (56%), followed by acute myeloid leukemia (36%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (8%). Total body irradiation was associated with chemotherapy at 80%. Mean age at transplantation was 10 (±4.7) years. HSCT survivors showed reduced a vertical growth of the mandibular ramus (p=0.003). This persisted among individuals below 12 years of age (p=0.017). The HSCT group showed delayed dental eruption, though there was no statistically significant difference (p=0.3668). The HSCT group showed stature deficit, increased weight, and body mass index (Z-score stature: -0.28; Z-score weight: 0.38, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric HSCT has decreased vertical craniofacial growth compared to their matched controls. There might be an association between reduced craniofacial vertical growth and reduced estature growth. Further studies to quantitatively investigate the impact of different myeloablative regimens in craniofacial skeletal growth and development.
       
  • Multiprofessional care promotes of quality of life in pregnant women with
           preeclampsia: a cross-sectional study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of life of hospitalized pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE), and compare with a group of healthy pregnant women (HP). METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted among 58 pregnant women; 28 of them had preeclampsia and 30 were healthy. The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire, which was divided into four aspects: physical, psychological, social, and environmental, was applied to each subject. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was observed regarding maternal age (PE 27.8±6.2 x HG 23.0±6.6, p<0.01) and gestational age (PE 224±28.1 x HG 253.8±43.7, p<0.01) in relation to the clinical and obstetric data. No significant difference was observed among groups in the physical (PE 57.7±18.9 x HG 65.7±16.6, p=0.19), psychological (PE 68.2±12.8 x HG 73.3±13.30, p=0.16), social (PE 72.0±15.8 x HG 71.7±18.7, p=0.78), or environmental (PE 61.1±11.9 x HG 59.3±15.9, p=0.88) aspects of the WHOQOL-Bref. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in quality of life between the groups studied, a result possibly due to the fact that women with PE were hospitalized and received multiprofessional care.
       
  • Residual lesions in patients undergoing microsurgical clipping of cerebral
           aneurysms in a reference university hospital

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the incidence and epidemiological, angiographic, and surgical aspects associated with incomplete clipping of brain aneurysms in a cohort of patients undergoing microsurgical treatment. METHODS: The medical record data of patients who underwent microsurgery for cerebral aneurysm treatment and postoperative digital subtraction angiography, treated at the same teaching hospital between 2014 and 2019, were retrospectively analyzed. The studied variables involved epidemiological and clinical data, as well as neurological status and findings on neuroimaging. The time elapsed between hemorrhage and microsurgical treatment, data on the neurosurgical procedure employed for aneurysm occlusion, and factors associated with the treated aneurysm, specifically location and size, were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients were submitted to 139 neurosurgical procedures, in which 167 aneurysms were clipped. The overall rate of residual injury was 23%. Smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 1.372-8.300, p=0.008), lesion size >10 mm (OR: 5.136, CI95%: 2.240-11.779, p<0.001) and surgery duration >6 h (OR: 8.667, CI95%: 2.713-27.681, p<0.001) were found to significantly impact incomplete aneurysm occlusion in the univariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Incomplete microsurgical aneurysm occlusion is associated with aneurysm size, complexity, and current smoking status. Currently, there is no consensus on postoperative assessment of clipped aneurysms, hindering the correct assessment of treatment outcomes.
       
  • Suicidal behaviors and sedentary lifestyles among adolescents: A
           cross-sectional epidemiological study in Latin American and Caribbean
           countries

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To verify the association between suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) and sedentary behaviors among adolescents from four Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in four countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bahamas, Curação, El Salvador, and Guatemala). The sample comprised 6,813 adolescents aged 11-18 years, of which, 3,559 were females. The three suicidal behaviors considered were ideation, planning, and attempts. Sedentary behavior was regarded as the time that adolescents spent sitting, excluding time at school. Crude and adjusted logistic regression were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was present in 10.7% of males and 22.7% of females. Suicidal planning was present in 8.6% of males and 16.3% of females. Suicidal attempt was present in 9.3% of males and 16.3% of females. Sedentary behavior was present in 39.6% of males and 45.7% of females. It was identified that male adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-1.80), whereas female adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.30-1.83), planning (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28-1.86), and attempts (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). CONCLUSION: Adolescents of both sexes who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behaviors were more likely to have some suicidal behaviors than those who spent less time in sedentary behaviors.
       
  • Gastrointestinal Manifestations and Associated Health Outcomes of
           COVID-19: A Brazilian Experience From the Largest South American Public
           Hospital

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Brazil has rapidly developed the second-highest number of COVID-19 cases in the world. As such, proper symptom identification, including gastrointestinal manifestations, and relationship to health outcomes remains key. We aimed to assess the prevalence and impact of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with COVID-19 in a large quaternary referral center in South America. METHODS: This was a single-center cohort study in a COVID-19 specific hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Consecutive adult patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were included. Baseline patient history, presenting symptoms, laboratory results, and clinically relevant outcomes were recorded. Regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 and hospitalization outcomes. RESULTS: Four-hundred patients with COVID-19 were included. Of these, 33.25% of patients reported ≥1 gastrointestinal symptom. Diarrhea was the most common gastrointestinal symptom (17.25%). Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms had higher rates of concomitant constitutional symptoms, notably fatigue and myalgia (p<0.05). Gastrointestinal symptoms were also more prevalent among patients on chronic immunosuppressants, ACE/ARB medications, and patient with chronic kidney disease (p<0.05). Laboratory results, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, ICU length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, and in-hospital mortality did not differ based upon gastrointestinal symptoms (p>0.05). Regression analyses showed older age [OR 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06)], male gender [OR 1.94 (95% CI, 1.12-3.36)], and immunosuppression [OR 2.60 (95% CI, 1.20-5.63)], were associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: Based upon this Brazilian study, gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 are common but do not appear to impact clinically relevant hospitalization outcomes including the need for ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or mortality.
       
  • Moderate levels of physical fitness maintain telomere length in
           non-senescent T CD8+ cells of aged men

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Immunosenescence is an age-associated change characterized by a decreased immune response. Although physical activity has been described as fundamental for maintaining the quality of life, few studies have evaluated the effects of different levels of exercise on telomere length in aged populations. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of different levels of physical activity, classified by the Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) values, on the telomere length of memory Cluster of differentiation (CD) CD4+(CD45ROneg and CD45RO+), effector CD8+CD28neg, and CD8+CD28+ T cells in aged individuals. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy elderly men (aged 65-85 years) were included in this study. Their fitness level was classified according to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for VO2 max (mL/kg/min). Blood samples were obtained from all participants to analyze the percentage of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD28+, naïve, and subpopulations of memory T cells by using flow cytometry. Furthermore, using the Flow-FISH methodology, the CD4+CD45RO+, CD4+CD45ROneg, CD8+CD28+, and CD8+CD28negT cell telomere lengths were measured. RESULTS: There was a greater proportion of effector memory T CD4+ cells and longer telomeres in CD8+CD28+ T cells in the moderate physical fitness group than in the other groups. There was a higher proportion of terminally differentiated memory effector T cells in the low physical fitness group. CONCLUSION: A moderate physical activity may positively influence the telomere shortening of CD28+CD8+T cells. However, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the importance of this finding with regard to immune function responses in older men.
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on a daily-based outpatient treatment routine:
           experience of a radiotherapy department of a tertiary public/university
           hospital in Brazil

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To report the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient attendance at a radiotherapy department two months after the implementation of specific policies regarding the pandemic. METHODS: The proposed treatment schemes, favoring hypofractionated schedules, and COVID-19 management strategies regarding irradiation are presented. Attendance after two months of implementation of these policies was measured and compared with that during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: A 10% reduction in the number of treated patients and a 26% reduction in the number of sessions was observed. The main impact was a decrease in the treatment of benign diseases and gastrointestinal tumors, with a general increase in breast cancer treatments. Eighteen (1.7%) patients were confirmed as having COVID-19 during radiotherapy in April and May 2020, three of whom were hospitalized, and one patient died because of COVID-19. Among the 18 patients, 12 had their treatments interrupted for at least 15 days from symptom appearance. CONCLUSION: There was a decrease in the number of treated patients in our radiotherapy department, with a greater decrease in the total number of sessions. This indicated, overall, a smaller number of fractions/patients treated, despite our efforts to maintain the treatment routine. We had several patients who were infected with COVID-19 and one related death during treatment in the first few months of the pandemic in São Paulo Brazil.
       
  • Relationship between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Systemic Lupus
           Erythematosus: A Meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systematic autoimmune disease. Current methods of diagnosing SLE or evaluating its activity are complex and expensive. Numerous studies have suggested that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is closely correlated with the presence of SLE and its activity, suggesting that it may serve as a diagnostic and monitoring indicator for SLE. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to systematically assess the association between NLR and SLE. We performed a literature search until 12 April 2019 in the PubMed, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Cross-sectional studies comparing the NLR of SLE patients versus those of healthy controls, of active versus inactive SLE patients, and of SLE patients with versus without lupus nephritis were considered for inclusion. Mean intergroup NLR differences were estimated using standardized mean differences and their 95% confidence intervals. Study quality was assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality instrument for cross-sectional studies. Fourteen studies with 1,781 SLE patients and 1,330 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that the NLR was significantly higher in SLE patients than in healthy controls, in active SLE patients than in inactive SLE patients, and in SLE patients with lupus nephritis than in those without lupus nephritis. NLR may be an indicator for monitoring disease activity and reflecting renal involvement in SLE patients. Nevertheless, more high-quality studies are warranted to further validate our findings.
       
  • Neuropsychiatric Lupus Erythematosus: Future Directions and Challenges; a
           Systematic Review and Survey

    • Abstract: This study aimed to systematically review neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and establish a simplified diagnostic criterion for NPSLE. Publications from 1994 to 2018 in the database (Wanfang data (http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/index.html) and China National Knowledge Internet (http://www.cnki.net)) were included. In total, 284 original case reports and 24 unpublished cases were collected, and clinical parameters were analyzed. An attempt was made to develop a set of simplified diagnostic criteria for NPSLE based on cases described in the survey and literature; moreover, and pathophysiology and management guidelines were studied. The incidence rate of NPSLE was estimated to be 12.4% of SLE patients in China. A total of 408 NPSLE patients had 652 NP events, of which 91.2% affected the central nervous system and 8.8% affected the peripheral nervous system. Five signs (manifestations, disease activity, antibodies, thrombosis, and skin lesions) showed that negative and positive predictive values were more than 70%, included in the diagnostic criteria. The specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised diagnostic criteria were significantly higher than those of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria (χ2=13.642, 15.591, 65.010, p<0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for revised diagnostic criteria was 0.962 (standard error=0.015, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =0.933-0.990), while the AUC for the ACR criteria was 0.900 (standard error=0.024, 95% CI=0.853-0.946). The AUC for the revised diagnostic criteria was different from that for the ACR criteria (Z=2.19, p<0.05). Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to NPSLE is essential for the evaluation and design of effective interventions. The set of diagnostic criteria proposed here represents a simplified, reliable, and cost-effective approach used to diagnose NPSLE. The revised diagnostic criteria may improve the accuracy rate for diagnosing NPSLE compared to the ACR criteria.
       
  • COVID-19 Diagnostic and Management Protocol for Pediatric Patients

    • Abstract: This review aims to verify the main epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory-related, and therapeutic aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill pediatric patients. An extensive review of the medical literature on COVID-19 was performed, mainly focusing on the critical care of pediatric patients, considering expert opinions and recent reports related to this new disease. Experts from a large Brazilian public university analyzed all recently published material to produce a report aiming to standardize the care of critically ill children and adolescents. The report emphasizes on the clinical presentations of the disease and ventilatory support in pediatric patients with COVID-19. It establishes a flowchart to guide health practitioners on triaging critical cases. COVID-19 is essentially an unknown clinical condition for the majority of pediatric intensive care professionals. Guidelines developed by experts can help all practitioners standardize their attitudes and improve the treatment of COVID-19.
       
  • Management of inflammatory bowel disease patients in the COVID-19 pandemic
           era: a Brazilian tertiary referral center guidance

    • Abstract: The world is fighting the COVID-19 outbreak and health workers, including inflammatory bowel diseases specialists, have been challenged to address the specific clinical issues of their patients. We hereby summarize the current literature in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic era that support the rearrangement of our IBD unit and the clinical advice provided to our patients.
       
  • Susceptibility of the Elderly to SARS-CoV-2 Infection: ACE-2
           Overexpression, Shedding, and Antibody-dependent Enhancement (ADE)

    • Abstract: The world is currently facing a serious SARS-CoV-2 infection pandemic. </mac_aq>This virus is a new isolate of coronavirus, and the current infection crisis has surpassed the SARS and MERS epidemics</mac_aq> that occurred in 2002 and 2013, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 has currently infected more than 142,000 people, causing </mac_aq>5,000 deaths and spreading across more than 130 </mac_aq>countries worldwide. The spreading capacity of the virus clearly demonstrates the potential threat </mac_aq>of respiratory viruses to human health, thereby reiterating to the governments around the world that preventive </mac_aq>health policies and scientific research are pivotal to overcoming the crisis. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes flu-like symptoms in most cases. However, approximately 15% of the patients need hospitalization, and 5% require assisted ventilation, depending on the cohorts studied. What is intriguing, however, is the higher susceptibility of the elderly, especially individuals who are older than 60 years of age, and have comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. In fact, the death rate in this group may be up to 10-12%. Interestingly, children are somehow less susceptible and are not considered as a risk group. Therefore, in this review, we discuss some possible molecular and cellular mechanisms by virtue of which the elderly subjects may be more susceptible to severe COVID-19. Toward this, we raise two main </mac_aq>points, i) increased ACE-2 expression in pulmonary and heart tissues in users of chronic angiotensin 1 </mac_aq>receptor (AT1R) blockers; and ii) antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) after previous exposure to other circulating coronaviruses. We believe that these points are pivotal for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, and must be carefully addressed by physicians and scientists in the field.
       
  • Surgical Practice in the Current COVID-19 Pandemic: A Rapid Systematic
           Review

    • Abstract: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak </mac_aq>started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and evolved into a global problem in a short period. The pandemic has led to many social and health-care challenges. In this context, surgery is an area that is facing the need for many adaptations. In this systematic literature review, we analyzed different perspectives concerning this situation, aiming to provide recommendations that could guide surgeons and </mac_aq>entities toward screening, elective and emergency surgeries, decision making, and operating room management. A computerized search in PubMed, Scopus, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) for relevant literature up to April 4, 2020, was performed. Articles were included if they were related to surgery dynamics in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 281 articles found in our initial search and 15 articles from alternative sources, 39 were included in our review after a systematic evaluation. Concerning preoperative testing </mac_aq>for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, 29 (74.4%) articles recommended some kind of </mac_aq>screening. Another major suggestion was postponing all (or at least selected) elective operations (29 articles, </mac_aq>74.4%). Several additional recommendations with respect to surgical practice or surgical staff were also assessed and discussed, such as performing laparoscopic surgeries and avoiding the use of electrocauterization. On the basis of the current literature, we concluded that any surgery that can be delayed should be postponed. COVID-19 screening is strongly recommended for all surgical cases. Moreover, surgical staff should be reduced to the essential members and provided with institutional psychological support.
       
  • Expert recommendations for the care of newborns of mothers with COVID-19

    • Abstract: This article presents expert recommendations for assisting newborn children of mothers with suspected or diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 </mac_aq>(COVID-19). The consensus was developed by five experts with an average of 20 years of experience in neonatal intensive care working at a reference university hospital in Brazil for the care of pregnant women and newborns with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Despite the lack of scientific evidence regarding the potential for viral transmission to their fetus in pregnant mothers diagnosed with or suspected of COVID-19, it is important to elaborate the lines of care by specialists from hospitals caring for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases to guide multidisciplinary teams and families diagnosed with the disease or involved in the care of pregnant women and newborns in this context. Multidisciplinary teams must be attentive to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 so that decision-making is oriented and assertive for the management of the mother and newborn in both the hospital setting and at hospital discharge.
       
  • 17β-Estradiol, a potential ally to alleviate SARS-CoV-2 infection

    • Abstract: Considering that female sexual hormones may modulate the inflammatory response and also exhibit direct effects on the cells of the immune system, herein, we intend to discuss the sex differences and the role of estradiol in modulating the lung and systemic inflammatory response, focusing on its possible application as a treatment modality for SARS-CoV-2 patients. COVID-19 patients develop severe hypoxemia early in the course of the disease, which is silent most of the time. Small fibrinous thrombi in pulmonary arterioles and a tumefaction of endothelial were observed in the autopsies of fatal COVID-19 cases. Studies showed that the viral infection induces a vascular process in the lung, which included vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction. Further, the proportions of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes were strongly reduced in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estradiol is connected with CD4+ T cell numbers and increases T-reg cell populations, affecting immune responses to infection. It is known that estradiol exerts a protective effect on endothelial function, activating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) via endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Estrogen attenuates the vasoconstrictor response to various stimuli and induces vasodilation in the pulmonary vasculature during stress situations like hypoxia. It exerts a variety of rapid actions, which are initiated after its coupling with membrane receptors, which in turn, may positively modulate vascular responses in pulmonary disease and help to maintain microvascular flow. Direct and indirect mechanisms underlying the effects of estradiol were investigated, and the results point to a possible protective effect of estradiol against COVID-19, indicating that it may be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic element for the treatment of patients affected by the novel coronavirus.
       
  • COVID-19 and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: How to manage it'

    • Abstract: Pediatric gastroenterologists, family members, and caregivers of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are on alert; they are all focused on implementing prophylactic measures to prevent infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, evaluating the risks in each patient, guiding them in their treatment, and keeping IBD in remission. To face the current issues of the coronavirus disease pandemic, we have developed a synthesis of the main recommendations of the literature directed at pediatric gastroenterologists in control of patients with pediatric IBD and adapted to the national reality.
       
  • COVID-19 in solid organ transplantation patients: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapidly progresses to severe acute respiratory syndrome. This review aimed at collating available data on COVID-19 infection in solid organ transplantation (SOT) patients. We performed a systematic review of SOT patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The MEDLINE and PubMed databases were electronically searched and updated until April 20, 2020. The MeSH terms used were “COVID-19” AND “Transplant.” Thirty-nine COVID-19 cases were reported among SOT patients. The median interval for developing SARS-CoV-2 infection was 4 years since transplantation, and the fatality rate was 25.64% (10/39). Sixteen cases were described in liver transplant (LT) patients, and the median interval since transplantation was 5 years. The fatality rate among LT patients was 37.5% (6/16), with death occurring more than 3 years after LT. The youngest patient who died was 59 years old; there were no deaths among children. Twenty-three cases were described in kidney transplant (KT) patients. The median interval since transplantation was 4 years, and the fatality rate was 17.4% (4/23). The youngest patient who died was 71 years old. Among all transplant patients, COVID-19 had the highest fatality rate in patients older than 60 years : LT, 62.5% vs 12.5% (p=0.006); KT 44.44% vs 0 (p=0.039); and SOT, 52.94% vs 4.54% (p=0.001). This study presents a novel description of COVID-19 in abdominal SOT recipients. Furthermore, we alert medical professionals to the higher fatality risk in patients older than 60 years. (PROSPERO, registration number=CRD42020181299)
       
  • Adrenal Insufficiency and Glucocorticoid Use During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic challenge. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 is characterized by a severe cytokine storm. Patients undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency (AI) represent a highly vulnerable group that could develop severe complications due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we highlight the strategies to avoid an adrenal crisis in patients with AI and COVID-19. Adrenal crisis is a medical emergency and an important cause of death. Once patients with AI present symptoms of COVID-19, the dose of GC replacement therapy should be immediately doubled. In the presence of any emergency warning signs or inability to administer oral GC doses, we recommend that patients should immediately seek Emergency services to evaluate COVID-19 symptoms and receive 100 mg hydrocortisone by intravenous injection, followed by 50 mg hydrocortisone intravenously every 6 h or 200 mg/day by continuous intravenous infusion.
       
  • Physiotherapy Care of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) -
           A Brazilian Experience

    • Abstract: Some patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) present with severe acute respiratory syndrome, which causes multiple organ dysfunction, besides dysfunction of the respiratory system, that requires invasive procedures. On the basis of the opinions of front-line experts and a review of the relevant literature on several topics, we proposed clinical practice recommendations on the following aspects for physiotherapists facing challenges in treating patients and containing virus spread: 1. personal protective equipment, 2. conventional chest physiotherapy, 3. exercise and early mobilization, 4. oxygen therapy, 5. nebulizer treatment, 6. non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen, 7. endotracheal intubation, 8. protective mechanical ventilation, 9. management of mechanical ventilation in severe and refractory cases of hypoxemia, 10. prone positioning, 11. cuff pressure, 12. tube and nasotracheal suction, 13. humidifier use for ventilated patients, 14. methods of weaning ventilated patients and extubation, and 15. equipment and hand hygiene. These recommendations can serve as clinical practice guidelines for physiotherapists. This article details the development of guidelines on these aspects for physiotherapy of patients with COVID-19.
       
  • Imaging findings in COVID-19 pneumonia

    • Abstract: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan city and was declared a pandemic in March 2020. Although the virus is not restricted to the lung parenchyma, the use of chest imaging in COVID-19 can be especially useful for patients with moderate to severe symptoms or comorbidities. This article aimed to demonstrate the chest imaging findings of COVID-19 on different modalities: chest radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography. In addition, it intended to review recommendations on imaging assessment of COVID-19 and to discuss the use of a structured chest computed tomography report. Chest radiography, despite being a low-cost and easily available method, has low sensitivity for screening patients. It can be useful in monitoring hospitalized patients, especially for the evaluation of complications such as pneumothorax and pleural effusion. Chest computed tomography, despite being highly sensitive, has a low specificity, and hence cannot replace the reference diagnostic test (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). To facilitate the confection and reduce the variability of radiological reports, some standardizations with structured reports have been proposed. Among the available classifications, it is possible to divide the radiological findings into typical, indeterminate, atypical, and negative findings. The structured report can also contain an estimate of the extent of lung involvement (e.g., more or less than 50% of the lung parenchyma). Pulmonary ultrasonography can also be an auxiliary method, especially for monitoring hospitalized patients in intensive care units, where transfer to a tomography scanner is difficult.
       
  • Lung Cancer and the COVID-19 pandemic: Recommendations from the Brazilian
           Thoracic Oncology Group

    • Abstract: New cases of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continue to rise worldwide following the declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The current pandemic has completely altered the workflow of health services worldwide. However, even during this critical period, patients with other diseases, like cancer, need to be properly treated. A few reports have shown that mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 is higher in elderly patients and those with other active comorbidities, including cancer. Patients with lung cancer are at risk of pulmonary complications from COVID-19, and as such, the risk/benefit ratio of local and systemic anticancer treatment has to be considered. For each patient, several factors, including age, comorbidities, and immunosuppression, as well as the number of hospital visits for treatment, can influence this risk. The number of cases is rising exponentially in Brazil, and it is important to consider the local characteristics when approaching the pandemic. In this regard, the Brazilian Thoracic Oncology Group has developed recommendations to guide decisions in lung cancer treatment during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Due to the scarcity of relevant data, discussions based on disease stage, evaluation of surgical treatment, radiotherapy techniques, systemic therapy, follow-up, and supportive care were carried out, and specific suggestions issued. All recommendations seek to reduce contagion risk by decreasing the number of medical visits and hospitalization, and in the case of immunosuppression, by adapting treatment schemes when possible. This statement should be adjusted according to the reality of each service, and can be revised as new data become available.
       
  • Recommendations for head and neck surgical procedures during the COVID-19
           pandemic

    • Abstract: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread exponentially worldwide. In Brazil, the number of infected people diagnosed has been increasing and, as in other countries, it has been associated with a high risk of contamination in healthcare teams. For healthcare professionals, the full use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is mandatory, such as wearing surgical or filtering facepiece class 2 (FFP2) masks, waterproof aprons, gloves, and goggles, in addition to training in care processes. A reduction in the number of face-to-face visits and non-essential elective procedures is also recommended. However, surgery should not be postponed in the case of the most essential elective indications (mostly associated with head and neck cancers). As malignant tumors of the head and neck are clinically time sensitive, neither consultations for these tumors nor their treatment should be postponed. Postponing surgical treatment can result in a change in the disease stage and alter an individual's chance of survival. In this situation, planning of all treatments must begin with the request for, in addition to routine examinations, a nasal swab polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 and chest computed tomography. Only if the results of these tests are positive or if fever or other symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 are present should the surgical procedure be postponed until the patient completely recovers. This is mandatory not only because of the risk of contamination of the surgical team but also because of the increased risk of postoperative complications and high risk of death. During this pandemic, the most effective safety measures are social distancing for the general public and the adequate availability and use of PPE in the healthcare field. The treatment of other chronic diseases, such as cancer, should be continued, as the damming of cases of these diseases will have a deleterious effect on the public healthcare system.
       
  • Laparoscopic surgery and coronavirus disease: What do we know now'

    • Abstract: Questions regarding the transmissibility of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unanswered. It is known that the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) occurs predominantly through droplets and contact. However, aerosols can be generated in some situations, such as orotracheal intubation, ventilation, and the use of electric or ultrasonic scalpels, and can therefore potentially contaminate the care team if adequate protection is not used. It is therefore necessary to assess issues of transmissibility of COVID-19 during surgery in infected patients. This review gathers the recent research pertaining to this topic. A search of the literature was performed using the PubMed and UpToDate databases with the search terms “surgery” and “covid-2019,” in addition to other MeSH variants of these terms. We do not have consistent evidence on the exposure of healthcare professionals assisting patients with COVID-19 undergoing laparoscopy or the impact of such exposure. In view of the evidence obtained and drawing parallels with other infectious and contagious diseases, medical personnel must wear complete protective attire for proper protection against the generated aerosol. Further studies are required to assess the impact of such surgeries on healthcare professionals conducing or assisting with these procedures.
       
  • Diagnostic Characteristics of Serological-Based COVID-19 Testing: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Serologic testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) promises to assist in assessing exposure to and confirming the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to provide a roadmap for reopening countries worldwide. Considering this, a proper understanding of serologic-based diagnostic testing characteristics is critical. The aim of this study was to perform a structured systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic characteristics of serological-based COVID-19 testing. Electronic searches were performed using Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Full-text observational studies that reported IgG or IgM diagnostic yield and used nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) of respiratory tract specimens, as a the reference standard in English language were included. A bivariate model was used to compute pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio (LR), diagnostic odds ratio (OR), and summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five studies (n=1,166 individual tests) met inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for IgG was 81% [(95% CI, 61-92);I2=95.28], 97% [(95% CI, 78-100);I2=97.80], and 93% (95% CI, 91-95), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for IgM antibodies was 80% [(95% CI, 57-92);I2=94.63], 96% [(95% CI, 81-99);I2=92.96] and 95% (95% CI, 92-96). This meta-analysis demonstrates suboptimal sensitivity and specificity of serologic-based diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 and suggests that antibody testing alone, in its current form, is unlikely to be an adequate solution to the difficulties posed by COVID-19 and in guiding future policy decisions regarding social distancing and reopening of the economy worldwide.
       
  • Outcomes after rotator cuff repair in the elderly as assessed by the
           American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score

    • Abstract: Rotator cuff tears are common among the elderly, and studies on the outcomes after rotator cuff repair in the elderly are limited. We carried out this meta-analysis with systematic literature search, aiming to clarify the outcomes after rotator cuff repair in the elderly as assessed by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score. We conducted a literature search through October 2019 in PubMed and EMBASE databases and performed meta-analysis to calculate the summary mean difference comparing the post- and pre-operation ASES scores under both fixed-effect and random-effect models. Among 4978 studies identified through literature search, four studies (two in the United States, one in France, and one in Republic of Korea) were eligible for the meta-analysis, including 282 patients who were aged over 70 years. These studies had low heterogeneity as measured by Cochran’s Q test (p=0.88) and I2 statistic (0%). The ASES scores on average increased by 39.7 (95% confidence interval 28.3-51.1, p<0.001) after rotator cuff repair, in both fixed-effect and random-effect models. No substantial publication bias was indicated. Our findings suggest improved outcomes after rotator cuff repair in the elderly population as measured by the ASES score, and such improvements have been consistent in previous studies.
       
  • Palliative radiotherapy for gastric cancer: Is there a dose relationship
           between bleeding response and radiotherapy'

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a relationship between bleeding response and radiotherapy dose to palliate patients with local recurrence or progression of gastric cancer (GC). To this end, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that evaluated the bleeding response in patients with GC with local recurrence or progression. A meta-regression analysis between biological effective dose (BED) and bleeding response was performed, as was subgroup analysis to evaluate the outcome by BED level and radiotherapy (RT) technique. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Ten non-comparative retrospective studies and one prospective study were included. In general, RT was effective at controlling tumor bleeding, and the bleeding response rate was 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.81). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated a linear correlation between BED Gy 10 and bleeding response (p=0<0001). Studies using conformational RT had a significant bleeding response rate compared to those using 2D (0.79; 95%CI, 0.74-0.84 vs 0.65; 95%CI, 0.56-0.75; p=0.021). In terms of the BED level, a significant difference in BR was identified on comparing BED Gy10 ≥40 (0.79; 95%CI, 0.7-0.8), BED Gy10 30-39 (0.79, 95%CI, 0.71-0.86), and BED Gy10 <30 (0.64; 95%CI, 0.5-0.7; p=0.0001). The mean survival time was 3.31 months (95%CI, 2.73-3.9) months, and the responders had a significantly longer survival (longer by 2.5 months) compared to the non-responders (95%CI, 1.7-3.3; p<0.0001). Palliative RT is effective at controlling bleeding due to local recurrence/progression from GC. Our findings reveal a relationship between BR and BED. BED <30 Gy 10 should not be recommended, and 3DRT should be indicated instead in order to improve the result.
       
  • Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration combined
           with either endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration or
           endoscopic ultrasound using the EBUS scope-guided fine-needle aspiration
           for diagnosing and staging mediastinal diseases: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis

    • Abstract: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the available evidence base on endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) combined with either endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound using the EBUS scope-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) for diagnosing and staging mediastinal diseases. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched to identify suitable studies up to June 30, 2019. Two investigators independently reviewed articles and extracted relevant data. Data were pooled using random effect models to calculate diagnostic indices that included sensitivity and specificity. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to summarize the overall test performance. Data pooled from up to 16 eligible studies (including 10 studies of 963 patients about EBUS-TBNA with EUS-FNA and six studies of 815 patients with EUS-B-FNA) indicated that combining EBUS-TBNA with EUS-FNA was associated with slightly better diagnostic accuracy than combining it with EUS-B-FNA, in terms of sensitivity (0.87, 95%CI 0.83 to 0.90 vs. 0.84, 95%CI 0.80 to 0.88), specificity (1.00, 95%CI 0.99 to 1.00 vs. 0.96, 95%CI 0.93 to 0.97), diagnostic odds ratio (413.39, 95%CI 179.99 to 949.48 vs. 256.38, 95%CI 45.48 to 1445.32), and area under the SROC curve (0.99, 95%CI 0.97 to 1.00 vs. 0.97, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.00). The current evidence suggests that the combination of EBUS-TBNA with either EUS-FNA or EUS-B-FNA provides relatively high accuracy for diagnosing mediastinal diseases. The combination with EUS-FNA may be slightly better.
       
  • Serum interleukin-6 level is correlated with the disease activity of
           systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in systemic autoimmunity and pathologic inflammation. Numerous studies have explored serum IL-6 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their correlation with disease activity. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the correlation between the serum IL-6 levels and SLE activity. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were thoroughly searched for relevant studies up to September 2019. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to describe the differences between serum IL-6 levels in SLE patients and healthy controls and between those in active SLE patients and inactive SLE patients. The correlation between the serum IL-6 levels and disease activity was evaluated using Fisher’s z values. A total of 24 studies involving 1817 SLE patients and 874 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients than in the healthy controls (pooled SMD: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.21-3.03, Active SLE patients had higher serum IL-6 levels than inactive SLE patients (pooled SMD: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.21-3.03). Furthermore, the pooled Fisher’s z values (pooled Fisher’s z=0.36, 95% CI: 0.26-0.46, p<0.01) showed that there was a positive correlation between the serum IL-6 levels and SLE activity. This study suggested that serum IL-6 levels were higher in patients with SLE than in healthy controls, and they were positively correlated with disease activity when Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index>4 was defined as active SLE. More homogeneous studies with large sample sizes are warranted to confirm our findings due to several limitations in our meta-analysis.
       
  • Ultrasonography Echotexture as a surrogate for Sialadenitis secondary to
           131I Radioiodine Therapy for differentiated Thyroid Cancer: a review and
           metaanalysis

    • Abstract: To systematically review and analyze the medical literature to assess ultrasonography echotexture changes in thyroid cancer patients for the detection of chronic sialadenitis caused by radioiodine therapy. Methods: Sources were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and LILACS through November 2018. All studies that assessed ultrasonographic features before 131I administration and at 12 months after 131I administration were selected. After data extraction, statistical analysis was performed by using Stata software. Results: From a total of 435 studies, 4 studies involving 665 patients were considered eligible, and echotexture heterogeneity was found with a significant difference. Conclusions: Ultrasound echotexture may detect chronic sialadenitis secondary to salivary radioiodine therapy.
       
  • Online learning and COVID-19: a meta-synthesis analysis

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Reproducibility of a nylon fishing line as a screening test for diabetic
           foot ulceration risk

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Do we have enough evidence to use chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine as a
           public health panacea for COVID-19'

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • I am having trouble keeping up with virtual teaching activities:
           Reflections in the COVID-19 era

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Social media: friend or foe in the COVID-19 pandemic'

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Technological Innovation in Outpatient Assistance for Chronic Liver
           Disease and Liver Transplant Patients During the Coronavirus Disease
           Outbreak: A Method to Minimize Transmission

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • COVID-19 Pandemic as a Driver for Spreading Virtual Care Globally: The
           Future Starts Now

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive autopsies: A protocol for the study
           of pulmonary and systemic involvement of COVID-19

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Low incidence of COVID-19 in children and adolescent post-liver transplant
           at a Latin American reference center

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Sensitivity of the Wondfo One Step COVID-19 test using serum samples

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Thoracic surgery in a hospital dedicated to treating COVID-19: challenges
           and solutions

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Preliminary results of a clinical study to evaluate the performance and
           safety of swallowing in critical patients with COVID-19

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Transforming operating rooms into intensive care units and the versatility
           of the physician anesthesiologist during the COVID-19 crisis

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Teledentistry support in COVID-19 oral care

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Electroconvulsive therapy practice during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Breath tests for gastrointestinal diseases - will it be safe to conduct
           breath tests after the COVID-19 pandemic'

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Double-edged sword: Granulocyte colony stimulating factors in cancer
           patients during the COVID-19 era

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Hypothermia treatment reduced cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated
           inflammation in ischemic stroke and improved outcomes in ischemic stroke
           patients

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Trained innate immunity, COVID-19 therapeutic dilemma, and fake science

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • COVID-19 and risk management in a tissue bank

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Virtual visits to inpatients by their loved ones during COVID-19

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • A multidisciplinary approach to prevent and treat pressure sores in proned
           COVID-19 patients at a quaternary university hospital

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Bioethical principles and values during pandemics

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Cancer pain treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: institutional
           recommendations

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Parathyroid surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: Time to think about the
           “New Normal”

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Contributions of residents from multiple specializations in managing the
           COVID-19 pandemic in the largest public hospital Brazil

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Ulcer pressure prevention and opportunity for innovation during the
           COVID-19 crisis

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • SARS-CoV-2. Long Distance Airborne Transmission and its Public Health
           Implications

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • ERRATA

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Erratum for: Transforming operating rooms into intensive care units and
           the versatility of the physician anesthesiologist during the COVID-19
           crisis

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Erratum for: Salvage treatment for refractory or relapsed acute myeloid
           leukemia: a 10-year single-center experience

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Erratum for: Cross-cultural validation of the FACE-Q Satisfaction with
           Facial Appearance Overall Scale (FACE-Q SFAOS) in Brazilian rhytidoplasty
           patients

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Erratum for: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle
           aspiration combined with either endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle
           aspiration or endoscopic ultrasound using the EBUS scope-guided
           fine-needle aspiration for diagnosing and staging mediastinal diseases: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a quick shift from presential to e-learning processes. Unlike planned e-learning programs, medical schools have had to quickly deliver the entire medical curriculum using remote strategies. This study aimed to perform a meta-synthesis of previous pandemic situations and describe the experience of the São Paulo University School of Medicine. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC, using the following keywords: (“SARS” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “severe acute respiratory syndrome” OR “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” OR “middle east respiratory syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV” OR “Mers” OR “Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome*” OR “MERS-CoV*” OR “coronavirus” OR “Coronavirus Infections” OR “coronavirus*” OR “COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“online education” OR “Education, Distance” OR “e-learning” OR “course online” OR “flipped classroom”) AND (“lockdown” OR “social distance” OR “quarantine”). The endpoints were the online platforms used for online learning, the model of class, recorded versus online interaction, duration of online lectures, and students' and teachers' perceptions of online learning. We retrieved 38 records; only seven articles studied online education methods related to the pandemic and social distancing rules. The most frequently used online platform was Zoom®. The studies examined both synchronous and asynchronous approaches. There was no evidence regarding duration and students’ and teachers' attitude. This study suggests that the online learning shift was feasible; however, because of the nature of the education shift (pandemic), future studies must further analyze the educational structure.
       
  • Surgical Sympathectomy: Can it be useful in cardiology'

    •  
  • How should health systems prepare for the evolving COVID-19 pandemic'
           Reflections from the perspective of a Tertiary Cancer Center

    •  
  • The Importance of Scientific Publications in Times of Pandemic Crisis

    •  
  • Posturographic measures did not improve the predictive power to identify
           recurrent falls in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate if posturography can be considered a recurrent fall predictor in elderly individuals. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 124 subjects aged 60 to 88 years were evaluated and divided into two groups—the recurrent fallers (89) and single fallers (35) groups. Patients’ sociodemographic characteristics were assessed, and clinical testing was performed. The functional test assessment instruments used were timed up and go test (TUGT), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), five times sit-to-stand test, and Falls Efficacy Scale (to measure fear of falling). Static posturography was performed in a force platform in the following three different situations—eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC), and EO dual task. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the single and recurrent fallers groups regarding the fear of falling, the Geriatric Depression Scale score, the mean speed calculated from the total displacement of the center point of pressure (COP) in all directions with EO, and the root mean square of the displacement from the COP in the mediolateral axis with EC. Based on the hierarchical logistic regression model, none of the studied posturographic variables was capable of significantly increasing the power of differentiation between the recurrent and single fallers groups. Only TUGT with a cognitive distractor (p<0.05) and the BBS (p<0.01) presented with significant independent predictive power. CONCLUSION: TUGT with a cognitive distractor and the BBS were considered recurrent fall predictors in elderly fallers.
       
  • Effects of anastrozole on Ki-67 antigen expression in the vaginal
           epithelium of female rats in persistent estrus

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Aromatase inhibitors are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. However, in addition to the scarcity of studies, there are controversies about their effects on vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in rats, especially those in persistent estrus. METHODS: To investigate vaginal epithelial cell proliferation by Ki-67 antigen expression, persistent estrus was induced in 42 randomly selected rats. These rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I (control, n=21), which received 0.1 mL of propylene glycol (vehicle) daily, and group II (experimental, n=21), which received 0.5 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/day of anastrozole diluted with 0.1 mL of propylene glycol. RESULTS: Light microscopy showed a higher concentration of cells with brown Ki-67 stained nuclei in the control compared to the experimental group. The mean percentage of Ki-67 stained nuclei per 500 cells in the vaginal epithelium was 68.64±2.64 and 30.46±2.00 [mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)] in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p<0.003). CONCLUSION: This study showed that anastrozole, at the dose and treatment duration selected, significantly decreased cell proliferation in the vaginal mucosa of the rats in persistent estrus.
       
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a low-cost screening protocol for
           identifying children at risk for language disorders

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost screening test for identifying children at risk for language disorders with that of a specific language assessment. METHODS: The study was conducted during a polio vaccination campaign in basic health units in western São Paulo, Brazil. The parents/guardians of 1000 children aged between 0 and 5 years were asked to answer questions of a specific screening test. The instrument consisted of a uniform set of questions about the main milestones in language development (from 0 to 5 years of age) with scaled scores to assess responses. There were no exclusion criteria. After the screening test, the children were referred to a specific language assessment by ABFW, following a determined flow of referrals. The results obtained in the screening were compared to those obtained in the specific language assessment; then, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values were determined for the screening test. Children who failed the screening test also underwent an audiological evaluation. The statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were aged between 4 and 5 years (21.82%) and were male (51.6%). The sensitivity and specificity values were 82.5% and 98.93%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.907 (0.887-0.925), and the screening test showed 96% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The screening test showed high diagnostic efficiency in determining the risk of language disorders in children aged between 0 and 5 years.
       
  • Survival trends of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated at
           a cancer center in São Paulo, Brazil

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the overall survival (OS) and conditional survival (CS) in patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to determine their survival trends. METHODS: The study included all consecutive patients treated at the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center for oral or oropharyngeal SCC between 2001 and 2012. Data were obtained from the Hospital Cancer Registry. OS and CS were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method to evaluate the probability of survival with Cox predictor models. RESULTS: Data of 505 oral and 380 oropharyngeal SCC patients obtained in 2001-2006 and 2007-2012 were analyzed. Most of the oral SCC (59%) and oropharyngeal SCC (90%) patients had stages III-IV SCC. The 5-year OS for patients with oral SCC was 51.7%, with no significant difference between the first and second periods. The CS rates in 2007-2012 were 65% after the first year and 86% up to the fifth year. For oropharyngeal SCC, the 5-year OS rate was 45.0% in the first period. The survival rate increased to 49.1% from 2007 to 2012, with a reduction in the risk of death (HR=0.69;0.52-09.2). The CS estimates from 2007 to 2012 were 59% after the first year and 75% up to the fifth year. CONCLUSION: Survival across the two time periods remained stable for oral SCC but showed a significant increase for oropharyngeal SCC, possibly because of improvements in the patients’ response to radiotherapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and the use of more accurate diagnostic imaging approaches.
       
  • Salvage treatment for refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia: a
           10-year single-center experience

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The outcomes of refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in developing countries are underreported, even though the similar classic regimens are widely used. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective comparison of “MEC” (mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine) and “FLAG-IDA” (fludarabine, cytarabine, idarubicin, and filgrastim) in adults with first relapse or refractory AML. RESULTS: In total, 60 patients were included, of which 28 patients received MEC and 32 received FLAG-IDA. A complete response (CR) rate of 48.3% was observed. Of the included patients, 16 (27%) died before undergoing bone marrow assessment. No statiscally significant difference in CR rate was found between the two protocols (p=0.447). The median survival in the total cohort was 4 months, with a 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of 9.7%. In a multivariable model including age, fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) status, and stem-cell transplantation (SCT), only the last two indicators remained significant: FLT3-ITD mutation (hazard ratio [HR]=4.6, p<0.001) and SCT (HR=0.43, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: In our analysis, there were no significant differences between the chosen regimens. High rates of early toxicity were found, emphasizing the role of supportive care and judicious selection of patients who are eligible for intensive salvage therapy in this setting. The FLT3-ITD mutation and SCT remained significant factors for survival in our study, in line with the results of previous studies.
       
  • Real-world evidence of health outcomes and medication use 24 months after
           bariatric surgery in the public healthcare system in Brazil: a
           retrospective, single-center study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The number of bariatric procedures has significantly increased in Brazil, especially in the public Unified Health System. The present study describes health outcomes and medication use in obese patients treated in a major hospital that performs publicly funded surgery in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective, single center study was conducted to collect real-world evidence of health outcomes and medication use in 247 obese patients (female, 82.2%) who underwent open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Changes in weight and body mass index (BMI), presence of apnea, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and medication use (hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia) were assessed preoperatively and up to 24 months postoperatively. The mean cost of medications was calculated for the 12-month preoperative and 24-month postoperative periods. RESULTS: During the surgery, the mean age of patients was 43.42 years (standard deviation [SD], 10.9 years), and mean BMI was 46.7 kg/m2 (SD, 6.7 kg/m2). At 24 months, significant declines were noted in weight (mean, -37.6 kg), BMI (mean, -14.3 kg/m2); presence of T2D, hypertension, and apnea (-29.6%, -50.6%, and -20.9%, respectively); and number of patients using medications (-66.67% for diabetes, -41.86% for hypertension, and -55.26% for dyslipidemia). The mean cost of medications (total costs for all medications) decreased by >50% in 12-24 postoperative months compared to that in 12 preoperative months. CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass successfully reduced weight, BMI, and comorbidities and medication use and cost at 24 months in Brazilian patients treated in the public Unified Health System.
       
  • The role of maternal infection in preterm birth: evidence from the
           Brazilian Multicentre Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP)

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that infection or inflammation is a major contributor to early spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the development and causes of maternal infection associated with maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with sPTB. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case–control component, the Brazilian Multicentre Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP), conducted from April 2011 to July 2012 in 20 Brazilian referral obstetric hospitals. Women with preterm birth (PTB) and their neonates were enrolled. In this analysis, 2,682 women undergoing spontaneous preterm labor and premature pre-labor rupture of membranes were included. Two groups were identified based on self-reports or prenatal or hospital records: women with at least one infection factor and women without any maternal infection (vulvovaginitis, urinary tract infection, or dental infection). A bivariate analysis was performed to identify potential individual risk factors for PTB. The odds ratios (ORs) with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: The majority of women with sPTB fulfilled at least one criterion for the identification of maternal infection (65.9%), and more than half reported having urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Approximately 9.6% of women with PTB and maternal infection were classified as having periodontal infection only. Apart from the presence of a partner, which was more common among women with infectious diseases (p=0.026; OR, 1.28 [1.03-1.59]), other variables did not show any significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Maternal infection was highly prevalent in all cases of sPTBs, although it was not clearly associated with the type of PTB, gestational age, or any adverse neonatal outcomes.
       
  • Choledochal cysts in children: How to Diagnose and Operate on

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify the best mode for diagnosing and treating the patients with choledochal cysts. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with medical records of patients diagnosed with choledochal cysts from January 1994 to December 2017. In all cases, the diagnosis was based on ultrasound examination. All the patients underwent cyst resection and were divided in two groups: bile enteric anastomosis in the high portion of the common hepatic duct or in the dilated lower portion. RESULTS: Eighty-one cases were studied. The age of presentation was 4 y 2 mo ± 4 y 1 mo, and the age for the surgical treatment was 5 y 5 mo ± 4 y 6 mo. In 61 cases, US was the only image examination performed. There were 67 cases of Todani type I (82.7%), 13 cases of type IV (16.0%) and one case of type III (1.2%). Nine patients (29.0%) in the first period and 2 patients (4.0%) in the second period presented with postoperative complications (p=0.016). CONCLUSION: In patients with choledochal cysts, US is the only necessary diagnostic imaging. Performing the bile enteric anastomosis in the lower portion of the common hepatic duct is safer and has a lower risk of complications.
       
  • Opioid-induced immunosuppression and carcinogenesis promotion theories
           create the newest trend in acute and chronic pain pharmacotherapy

    • Abstract: Opioids are the main group of pharmacological agents used during the perioperative period and provide a sedative and analgesic component. The observations of opioid consumption in West Europe indicate that this group of drugs is widely used in chronic noncancer pain therapy. Nearly 20 years ago, the first publications indicating that opioids, as an element of perioperative pharmacotherapy in oncologic patients, increase the risk of tumor recurrence and affect further prognosis were presented. The actual publications suggest that there are multifactorial, complex mechanisms underlying the immunological impact and carcinogenesis promotion of opioids and that the intensity varies depending on the type of opioid. There are also questions about the immunosuppressive effects among patients receiving opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain. The aim of the review article is to present information about the action of opioids on the immune system in carcinogenic settings and to define the clinical usefulness of this pharmacological phenomenon.
       
  • The beneficial effects of a water-based aerobic exercise session on the
           blood lipids of women with dyslipidemia are independent of their training
           status

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acute effects of a session of water-based aerobic exercise on the blood lipid levels of women with dyslipidemia and to compare these results according to their training status. METHOD: Fourteen premenopausal women with dyslipidemia, aged 40–50 years, participated in two water-based aerobic exercise sessions, the first when they were generally sedentary and the second after they were trained with a water-based aerobic training program for 12 weeks. Both experimental sessions were performed using the same protocol, lasted 45 min, and incorporated an interval method, alternating 3 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 and 2 min at an RPE of 9. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein lipase enzyme (LPL) were obtained through venous blood collection before and immediately after each session. A generalized estimating equation method and Bonferroni tests were conducted (with time and training status as factors) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: At enrollment, the mean age of the participants was 46.57 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.81−48.34). The statistical analyses showed a significant time effect for all variables (TC: p=0.008; TG: p=0.012; HDL: p<0.001; LPL: p<0.001) except for LDL (p=0.307). However, the training status effect was not significant for any variable (TC: p=0.527; TG: p=0.899; HDL: p=0.938; LDL: p=0.522; LPL: p=0.737). These results indicate that the TC and TG levels reduced and the HDL and LPL concentrations increased from pre- to post-session in similar magnitudes in both sedentary and trained women. CONCLUSIONS: A single water-based aerobic exercise session is sufficient and effective to beneficially modify the lipid profile of women with dyslipidemia, regardless of their training status.
       
  • Psychometric properties of Cognitive Instruments in Vascular Dementia and
           Alzheimer’s disease: a neuropsychological study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To describe elderly performance in the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and to discriminate its score by using types of errors as comparison among healthy controls, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, and vascular dementia (VD) patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 285 elderly individuals of both sexes, all over 60 years old and with more than 1 year of schooling. All participants were assessed through a detailed clinical history, laboratorial tests, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological tests including the BGT, the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). The BGT scores were not used to establish diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean BGT scores were 3.2 for healthy controls, 7.21 for AD, and 8.04 for VD with statistically significant differences observed between groups (p<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the main risk factors for the diagnostic groups. BGT’s scores significantly differentiated the healthy elderly from those with AD (p<0.0001) and VD (p<0.0001), with a higher area under the curve, respectively 0.958 and 0.982. BGT’s scores also showed that the AD group presented 12 types of errors. Types of errors evidenced in the execution of this test may be fundamental in clinical practice because it can offer differential diagnoses between senescence and senility. CONCLUSION: A cut-off point of 4 in the BGT indicated cognitive impairment. BGT thus provides satisfactory and useful psychometric data to investigate elderly individuals.
       
  • Evaluating the psychometric properties of the iconographical falls
           efficacy scale (ICON-FES)

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the construct and content validity of the Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES) in order to measure the fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The Icon-FES was applied to 333 older adults. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess internal consistency. Item response theory (IRT) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to evaluate the consistency of the questionnaire and whether it corresponded satisfactorily to the construct “concern about falling.” Concurrent validity with the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) and convergent validity with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) were also assessed. Receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The structural model of the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES showed some theoretical fragility. The final model of the new short version of the Icon-FES consisted of 13 items, yielding a theoretically satisfactory structural model. Validity analyses indicated that the 13-item Icon-FES had a moderate relationship with the SFT, a strong relationship with the FES-I, and good sensitivity and specificity for a history of falls. CONCLUSION: The 13-item Icon-FES has excellent psychometric properties for measuring fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults. It can be recommended as a screening tool for fear of falling for both research and clinical purposes.
       
  • Association between bile acid metabolism and bone mineral density in
           postmenopausal women

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have not shown any correlation between bile acid metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thus, the current study evaluated the association between bile acid levels as well as BMD and bone turnover marker levels in this group of women. METHODS: This single-center cross-sectional study included 150 postmenopausal Chinese women. According to BMD, the participants were divided into three groups: osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy control group. Serum bile acid, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and bone turnover biomarker levels were assessed. Moreover, the concentrations of parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], procollagen type I N-peptide (P1NP), and beta-CrossLaps of type I collagen containing cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide (β-CTX) were evaluated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were examined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The serum total bile acid levels in the osteoporosis and osteopenia groups (5.28±1.56 and 5.31±1.56 umol/L, respectively) were significantly lower than that in the healthy control group (6.33±2.04 umol/L; p=0.002 and 0.018, respectively). Serum bile acid level was positively associated with the BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. However, it negatively correlated with β-CTX concentration. Moreover, no correlation was observed between bile acid and P1NP levels, and the levels of the other biomarkers that were measured did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Serum bile acid was positively correlated with BMD and negatively correlated with bone turnover biomarkers reflecting bone absorption in postmenopausal women. Thus, bile acid may play an important role in bone metabolism.
       
  • Apoptosis-related gene expression can predict the response of ovarian
           cancer cell lines to treatment with recombinant human TRAIL alone or
           combined with cisplatin

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the sensitivity of ovarian cancer (OC) cell lines (TOV-21G and SKOV-3) to cisplatin and to the recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL), and to evaluate the expression profile of TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10C, TP53TG5, MDM2, BAX, BCL-2 and CASPASE-8 genes and their participation in the resistance/susceptibility mechanism of these tumor cell lines. METHODS: To determine the IC50 values associated with Cisplatin and rhTRAIL, inhibition of cell growth was observed using MTT assays in two human OC cell lines (SKOV-3 and TOV-21G). The analysis of gene expression was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: Both cell lines had different susceptibility profiles to the tested drugs. In the SKOV-3 cell line, the IC50 values for cisplatin and for rhTRAIL were 270.83 ug/mL and 196.5 ng/mL, respectively. The same concentrations were used for TOV-21G. Different gene expression profiles were observed in each tested cell line. CASPASE-8 and TNFRSF10B expression levels could predict the response of both the cell lines to rhTRAIL alone or the response to a combination of rhTRAIL and cisplatin. In addition, we observed a relationship between BCL-2 and BAX expression that may be helpful in estimating the proliferation rate of the OC cell lines. CONCLUSION: SKOV-3 and TOV-21G respond differently to cisplatin and rhTRAIL exposure, and expression of CASPASE-8 and TNFRSF10B are good predictors of responses to these treatments.
       
  • Intracoronary Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase Gene Therapy in
           Advanced Heart Failure Patients with reduced Ejection Fraction: A
           Prospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Heart failure is a progressive and debilitating disease. Intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy may improve the function of cardiac muscle cells. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy can improve outcomes and reduce the number of recurrent and terminal events in advanced heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: A total of 768 heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classification II to IV were included in this prospective cohort study. Patients either underwent intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy (CA group, n=384) or received oral placebo (PA group; n=384). Data regarding recurrent and terminal event(s), treatment-emergent adverse effects, and outcome measures were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: After a follow-up period of 18 months, intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy reduced the number of hospital admissions (p=0.001), ambulatory treatments (p=0.0004), and deaths (p=0.024). Additionally, intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy improved the left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.0001) and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score (p<0.0001). The number of recurrent and terminal events/patients were higher in the PA group than in the CA group after the follow-up period of 18 months (p=0.015). The effect of the intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy was independent of the confounding variables. No new arrhythmias were reported in the CA group. CONCLUSIONS: Intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy reduces the number of recurrent and terminal events and improves the clinical course of advanced heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.
       
  • Establishment and Evaluation of a Monkey Acute Cerebral Ischemia Model

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia seriously threatens human health and is characterized by high rates of incidence, disability and death. Developing an ideal animal model of cerebral ischemia that reflects the human clinical features is critical for pathological studies and clinical research. The goal of this study is to establish a local cerebral ischemia model in rhesus macaque, thereby providing an optimal animal model to study cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Eight healthy rhesus monkeys were selected for this study. CT scans were performed before the operation to exclude cerebral vascular and intracranial lesions. Under guidance and monitoring with digital subtraction angiography (DSA), a microcatheter was inserted into the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the femoral artery. Then, autologous white thrombi were introduced to block blood flow. Immediately following embolization, multisequence MRI was used to monitor cerebrovascular and brain parenchymal conditions. Twenty-four hours after embolization, 2 monkeys were sacrificed and subjected to perfusion, fixation and pathological examination. RESULTS: The cerebral ischemia model was established in 7 rhesus monkeys; one animal died during intubation. DSA and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) indicated the presence of an arterial occlusion. MRI showed acute local cerebral ischemia. HE staining revealed infarct lesions formed in the brain tissues, and thrombi were present in the cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: We established a rhesus macaque model of local cerebral ischemia by autologous thrombus placement. This model has important implications for basic and clinical research on cerebral ischemia. MRI and DSA can evaluate the models to ensure accuracy and effectiveness.
       
  • Untargeted Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Versus Contrast-Enhanced Computed
           Tomography: A Differential Diagnostic Performance (DDP) Study for Kidney
           Lesions

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Histopathology is the ‘gold standard’ for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma but is limited by sample size. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can differentiate malignant and benign lesions, but the Chinese guidelines on the management of renal cell carcinoma do not include this method. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic parameters of contrast-enhanced ultrasound against those of contrast-enhanced computed tomography for detecting kidney lesions, with histopathology considered the reference standard. METHODS: Patients with suspected kidney lesions from prior grayscale ultrasonography and computed tomography were included in the analysis (n=191). The contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and histopathology data were collected and analyzed. A solid, enhanced mass was considered a malignant lesion, and an unenhanced mass or cyst was considered a benign lesion. The Bosniak criteria were used to characterize the lesions. RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography both detected that 151 patients had malignant tumors and 40 patients had benign tumors. No significant differences in the tumors and their subtypes were reported between contrast-enhanced ultrasound and histopathology (p=0.804). Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was detected through contrast-enhanced computed tomography (n=1), but no such finding was reported by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. A total of 35 cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma were reported through contrast-enhanced ultrasound while 32 were reported through histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound might be safe and as accurate as histopathology in diagnosing kidney lesions, especially renal cell carcinoma. Additionally, this study provides additional information over histopathology and has an excellent safety profile. Level of evidence: III.
       
  • Pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level as a prognostic biomarker for
           patients with lung cancer

    • Abstract: Many researchers have shown that pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels are closely correlated with the prognosis of patients with lung cancer (LC). In this study, we thus performed a meta-analysis to systematically assess the prognostic value of pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels in LC patients. A computerized systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was performed up to March 15, 2018. Studies with available data on the prognostic value of plasma fibrinogen in LC patients were eligible for inclusion. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the correlation between pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels and prognosis as well as clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 17 studies with 6,460 LC patients were included in this meta-analysis. A higher pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.39-1.77; p=0.001), disease-free survival (DFS) (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.33-1.76; p=0.003), and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR: 3.14; 95% CI: 2.15-4.59; p<0.001). Furthermore, our subgroup and sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the pooled HR for OS was robust and reliable. In addition, we also found that a higher fibrinogen level predicted advanced TNM stage (III-IV) (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.79-2.66; p<0.001) and a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.44-2.10; p=0.02). Our study suggested that higher pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels predict worse prognoses in LC patients.
       
  • Magnetic resonance angiography and transcranial Doppler ultrasound
           findings in patients with a clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar
           insufficiency

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). METHOD: From our outpatient neurotology clinic, we selected patients (using the criteria proposed by Grad and Baloh) with a clinical diagnosis of VBI. We excluded patients with any definite cause for vestibular symptoms, a noncontrolled metabolic disease or any contraindication to MRA or TCD. The patients in the study group were sex- and age-matched with subjects who did not have vestibular symptoms (control group). Our final group of patients included 24 patients (study, n=12; control, n=12). RESULTS: The MRA results did not demonstrate significant differences in the findings between our study and control groups. TCD demonstrated that the systolic pulse velocity of the right middle cerebral artery, end diastolic velocity of the basilar artery, pulsatility index (PI) of the left middle cerebral artery, PI of the right middle cerebral artery, and PI of the basilar artery were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group, suggesting abnormalities affecting the microcirculation of patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. CONCLUSION: MRA failed to reveal abnormalities in patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. The PI of the basilar artery, measured using TCD, demonstrated high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (91%) for detecting clinically diagnosed VBI.
       
  • Anesthesia upstream of the alcoholic lesion point alleviates the pain of
           alcohol neurolysis for intercostal neuralgia: a prospective randomized
           clinical trial

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Alcohol for intercostal neuralgia may induce severe injection pain. Although nerve block provided partial pain relief, alcohol might be diluted, and the curative effect decreased when the local anesthetic and alcohol were given at the same point. Therefore, we observed the modified method for intercostal neuralgia, a Two-point method, in which the local anesthetic and alcohol were given at different sites. METHOD: Thirty patients diagnosed with intercostal neuralgia were divided into 2 groups: Single-point group and Two-point group. In the Single-point group, alcohol and local anesthetic were injected at the same point, named the “lesion point”, which was the lower edge of ribs and 5 cm away from the midline of the spinous process. In the Two-point group, alcohol was injected at the lesion point, whereas the local anesthetic was administered at the “anesthesia point”, which was 3 cm away from the midline of spinous process. RESULTS: After alcohol injection, visual analog scale (VAS) in the Two-point group was lower than the Single-point group, and the satisfaction ratio of patients in the Two-point group was higher (p<0.05). The degree of numbness in the Two-point group was greater than the Single-point group at 1 month and 3 months after operation (p<0.05). However, the long-term effects did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Local anesthetic was given upstream of the point where alcohol was administered, was a feasible and safe method to relieve pain during the operation, and improved the satisfaction of the patients and curative effect.
       
  • Ultrasound Versus Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for
           Subclinical Synovitis and Tenosynovitis: A Diagnostic Performance Study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Radiographic manifestations of synovitis (e.g., erosions) can be observed only in the late stage of rheumatoid arthritis. Ultrasound is a noninvasive, cheap, and widely available technique that enables the evaluation of inflammatory changes in the peripheral joint. In the same way, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables qualitative and quantitative measurements. The objectives of the study were to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of ultrasound in detecting subclinical synovitis and tenosynovitis with those of contrast-enhanced MRI. METHODS: The ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and proximal interphalangeal joints (n=450) of 75 patients with a history of joint pain and morning stiffness between 6 weeks and 2 years were reviewed. The benefits score was evaluated for each modality. RESULTS: The ultrasonic findings showed inflammation in 346 (77%) joints, while contrast-enhanced MRI found signs of early rheumatoid arthritis in 372 (83%) joints. The sensitivities of ultrasound and contrast-enhanced MRI were 0.795 and 0.855, respectively, and the accuracies were 0.769 and 0.823, respectively. Contrast-enhanced MRI had a likelihood of 0-0.83 and ultrasound had a likelihood of 0-0.77 for detecting synovitis and tenosynovitis at one time. The two imaging modalities were equally competitive for detecting synovitis and tenosynovitis (p=0.055). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound could be as sensitive and specific as contrast-enhanced MRI for the diagnosis of subclinical synovitis and tenosynovitis.
       
  • Aberrant expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide and its correlation
           with prognosis in severe childhood pneumonia

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the prognosis of pediatric patients with severe pneumonia. METHODS: Children diagnosed with severe pneumonia (n=76) were stratified into the survival (n=58) and non-survival groups (n=18) according to their 28-day survival status and into the non-risk (n=51), risk (n=17) and high-risk (n=8) categories based on the pediatric critical illness score (PCIS). Demographic data and laboratory results were collected. Serum CGRP levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the cutoff score for high CGRP levels. RESULTS: Serum CGRP levels were significantly higher in the survival group than in the non-survival group and were significantly higher in the non-risk group than in the risk and high-risk groups. The ROC curve for the prognostic potential of CGRP yielded a significant area under the curve (AUC) value with considerable sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that CGRP downregulation might be a diagnostic marker that predicts the prognosis and survival of children with severe pneumonia.
       
  • Usefulness of aqueous and vitreous humor analysis in infectious uveitis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.
       
  • Randomized trial of physiotherapy and hypertonic saline techniques for
           sputum induction in asthmatic children and adolescents

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the efficiency of physiotherapy techniques in sputum induction and in the evaluation of pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic children and adolescents. Although hypertonic saline (HS) is widely used for sputum induction (SI), specific techniques and maneuvers of physiotherapy (P) may facilitate the collection of mucus in some asthmatic children and adolescents. METHODS: A randomized crossover study was performed in patients with well-controlled asthma, and 90 sputum samples were collected. Children and adolescents were assessed using spirometry and randomized at entry into one of three sputum induction techniques: (i) 3% hypertonic saline – HS technique; (ii) physiotherapy (oscillatory positive expiratory pressure, forced expiration, and acceleration of expiratory flow) – P technique; and (iii) hypertonic saline + physiotherapy – HSP technique. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03136042. RESULTS: The total cells (mL) and the percentage (%) of differential inflammatory cells were similar in all techniques. The sputum weight (g) in the HSP technique was significantly higher than that in the HS technique. In all techniques, the percentage of viable cells was >50%, and there was no difference between the HS and P techniques. Moreover, sputum induction did not cause any alterations in the pulmonary function of patients. CONCLUSION: The physiotherapy sputum collection technique was effective in obtaining viable cells from mucus samples and yielded the same amount of sputum as the gold standard technique (hypertonic saline). In addition, the physiotherapy maneuvers were both safe and useful for sputum induction in asthmatic children and adolescents with well-controlled asthma.
       
  • Prevalence of non-obstructive dysphagia in patients with heartburn and
           regurgitation

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Heartburn and regurgitation are the most common gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, and dysphagia could be a possible symptom. This investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive dysphagia in patients with heartburn and regurgitation. METHODS: A total of 147 patients (age, 20-70 years; women, 72%) complaining of heartburn and regurgitation, without esophageal stricture, previous esophageal surgery, or other diseases, were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients had esophagitis. The Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) was employed to screen for dysphagia; EAT-10 is composed of 10 items, and the patients rate each item from 0 to 4 (0, no problems; 4, most severe symptom). Results of the 147 patients were compared with those of 417 healthy volunteers (women, 62%; control group) aged 20-68 years. RESULTS: In the control group, only two (0.5%) had an EAT-10 score ≥5, which was chosen as the threshold to define dysphagia. EAT-10 scores ≥5 were found in 71 (48.3%) patients and in 55% of the patients with esophagitis and 47% of the patients without esophagitis. This finding indicates a relatively higher prevalence of perceived dysphagia in patients with heartburn and regurgitation and in patients with esophagitis. We also found a positive correlation between EAT-10 scores and the severity of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms based on the Velanovich scale. CONCLUSION: In patients with heartburn and regurgitation symptoms, the prevalence of dysphagia was at least 48%, and has a positive correlation with the overall symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux.
       
  • Prior exercise training and experimental myocardial infarction: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Exercising prior to experimental infarction may have beneficial effects on the heart. The objective of this study was to analyze studies on animals that had exercised prior to myocardial infarction and to examine any benefits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were consulted. We analyzed articles published between January 1978 and November 2018. From a total of 858 articles, 13 manuscripts were selected in this review. When animals exercised before experimental infarction, there was a reduction in mortality, a reduction in infarct size, improvements in cardiac function, and a better molecular balance between genes and proteins that exhibit cardiac protective effects. Analyzing heart weight/body weight, we observed the following results - Mean difference 95% CI - -0.02 [-0.61,0.57]. Meta-analysis of the infarct size (% of the left ventricle) revealed a statistically significant decrease in the size of the infarction in animals that exercised before myocardial infarction, in comparison with the sedentary animals -5.05 [-7.68, -2.40]. Analysis of the ejection fraction, measured by echo (%), revealed that animals that exercised before myocardial infarction exhibited higher and statistically significant measures, compared with sedentary animals 8.77 [3.87,13.66]. We conclude that exercise performed prior to experimental myocardial infarction confers cardiac benefits to animals.
       
  • The mitochondrial calcium uniporter: a new therapeutic target for
           Parkinson’s disease-related cardiac dysfunctions'

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  • Physical and functional aspects of persons with multiple sclerosis
           practicing Tai-Geiko: randomized trial

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to verify the influence of Tai-Geiko on the physical and functional aspects of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This was a parallel-group, randomized trial with two arms. People with MS were allocated to an experimental group (EG) (n=10) and control group (CG) (n=09). The participants received multidisciplinary care supervised by a physiotherapist in the Tai-Geiko exercise. Participants underwent the assessments after the intervention. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS-maximum score of 6.0), strength test (kgf) using a dynamometer, Timed Up and Go mobility test (TUG), and stabilometric balance test (Platform EMG system®) were evaluated. Demographic data were recorded, including age, sex, comorbidities, lifestyle and classification of MS. Clinical Trials (ReBeC): RBR-4sty47. RESULTS: The EG group improved in 12 variables, and the CG improved in 3 variables. The following values were obtained for pre/postintervention, respectively: EG: lumbar force (38/52 kgf), TUG (11/9 s), locomotion velocity (519/393 ms); double task two (53/39 s); platform stabilometric trajectory: traversed get up (39/26 s) and sit (45/29 s); anteroposterior (AP) amplitude rise (11/8 cm) and sit (12.40/9.94 cm) and anteroposterior frequency rise (1.00/1.56 Hz) and sit (0.8/1.25 Hz) (p<0.05); CG: right-hand grip force (26/29 kgf); TUG (9.8 /8.7 s) and AP (11.84 /9.53 cm) stabilometric amplitude at the sitting moment (p<0.05), (3.2/5.99 Hz, p=0.01) and sit (3.47/5.01 Hz, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Tai-Geiko practice can be suggested as complementary exercise in the rehabilitation of persons with MS.
       
  • Local treatment of colostomy prolapse with the MESH STRIP technique: A
           novel and highly efficient day hospital technique

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Stoma prolapse is an intussusception of the bowel through a mature stoma. It can be caused by increased intra-abdominal pressure, excessively mobile bowel mesentery and/or a large opening in the abdominal wall at the time of stoma formation. It occurs predominantly in loop stomas, and correction methods include conservative modalities, such as local reduction to the prolapsed bowel, or surgical treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with the treatment of colostomy prolapse using a novel mesh strip technique. METHODS: Between February 2009 and March 2018, ten consecutive male patients underwent correction of colostomy prolapse under local anesthesia by peristomal placement of a polypropylene mesh strip. Operation time, short- and long-term complications, and recurrence rates were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: No postoperative complications, morbidity or mortality were observed. The median length of the prolapse ranged from 6-20 cm, and the median operative time was 30 minutes. The median duration of follow-up was 25 months (range, 12-89 months). No relapse, mesh strip extrusion, local infection or granuloma formation were found. CONCLUSION: A simple, fast, and low-cost operation under local anesthesia using a mesh strip is a valuable option to treat colostomy prolapse.
       
  • Lung Cavities in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a unique form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that arises from obstruction of the pulmonary vessels by recanalized thromboembolic material. CTEPH has a wide range of radiologic presentations. Commonly, it presents as main pulmonary artery enlargement, peripheral vascular obstructions, bronchial artery dilations, and mosaic attenuation patterns. Nevertheless, other uncommon presentations have been described, such as lung cavities. These lesions may be solely related to chronic lung parenchyma ischemia but may also be a consequence of concomitant chronic infectious conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different etiologies that cause lung cavities in CTEPH patients. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of the medical records of CTEPH patients in a single reference PH center that contained or mentioned lung cavities was conducted between 2013 and 2016. RESULTS: Seven CTEPH patients with lung cavities were identified. The cavities had different sizes, locations, and wall thicknesses. In two patients, the cavities were attributed to pulmonary infarction; in 5 patients, an infectious etiology was identified. CONCLUSION: Despite the possibility of being solely associated with chronic lung parenchyma ischemia, most cases of lung cavities in CTEPH patients were associated with chronic granulomatous diseases, reinforcing the need for active investigation of infectious agents in this setting.
       
  • Validity Evidence of an Epidemiological Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Screening
           Questionnaire for Older Adults

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to identify evidence of validity of a self-reported Oropharyngeal Dysphagia screening questionnaire for older adults based on test content, response processes, internal structure, relations to other variables, and reliability. METHOD: This is a nonrandomized, cross-sectional study employing the concepts and principles of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Data were collected from 644 community-dwelling older adults (both genders, age: ≥60 years) who agreed to participate in some steps of the validation process. Statistical methods obtained the content representation of the construct, internal structure validation, discriminant and convergent evidence, and reliability, using a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The screening tool was re-specified in nine questions that provided the best fit and robust reliability, with proper discriminant and convergent evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The screening questionnaire presented valid and reliable results to identify oropharyngeal dysphagia symptoms in older adults, highlighting the importance of the validation process based on the standards to construct an epidemiological instrument.
       
  • Permanent education as an inalienable responsibility of health councils:
           the current scenario in the Unified Health System

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To verify whether health councils in Brazil carry out permanent education activities for municipal, state and federal district councilors. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study with secondary data collection in the Health Council Monitoring System (Sistema de Acompanhamento dos Conselhos de Saúde - Siacs) from May to August 2017. The Siacs is publicly accessible and available on the internet. It provides data from thousands of health councils throughout Brazil. Analysis and interpretation of the data were based on the literature and the enacted legislation, particularly Resolution 453/2012 and the National Policy of Permanent Education for Social Control in the Unified Health System (Política Nacional de Educação Permanente para o Controle Social no Sistema Único de Saúde). RESULTS: Despite the fact that Resolution 453/2012 establishes the deliberation, elaboration, support and promotion of permanent education for social control as functions of the councils (in accordance with the guidelines of the National Policy of Permanent Education), approximately 40% of councils do not carry out permanent education. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to strengthen the role of health councils in the elaboration of educational initiatives across the national territory. This includes the allocation of financial resources to increase access to and participation in these initiatives, which would strengthen social control in the Unified Health System. This study emphasizes that the discussion of permanent education is not given sufficient attention in the agendas and routines of health councils. This compromises the effectiveness of councils’ monitoring and deliberation of public health policy.
       
  • Transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus parasacral stimulation in
           the treatment of overactive bladder in elderly people: a triple-blinded
           randomized controlled trial

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (TTNS) and transcutaneous parasacral stimulation on the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in elderly people and to compare the final results between groups. METHODS: Fifty female volunteers, mean age 68.62 (±5.9) years, were randomly allocated into two groups: those receiving TTNS (G1, N=25) and those receiving transcutaneous parasacral stimulation (G2, N=25). The primary outcome was the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ-OAB) score, and secondary outcomes were the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - short form (ICIQ-SF) score and 3-day bladder diary measurements. Volunteers were assessed before and after the treatment. Clinical Trials (ReBeC): RBR-9Q7J7Y. RESULTS: Both groups’ symptoms improved as measured by the ICIQ-OAB (G1 = <0.001; G2 = <0.001) and ICIQ-SF (G1 = <0.001; G2 = <0.001). In the 3-day bladder diary assessments after treatment, G1 showed a reduced number of nocturia (p<0.001), urgency (p<0.001) and urge urinary incontinence episodes (p<0.001), whereas G2 showed only a reduced number of nocturia episodes (p<0.001). No difference between groups was found. CONCLUSION: Both of the proposed treatments were effective in the improvement of OAB symptoms, but TTNS showed a reduction in a greater number of symptoms as measured by the 3-day bladder diary. No differences were found between groups.
       
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus-related environmental factors and the gut
           microbiota: emerging evidence and challenges

    • Abstract: The gut microbiota is a group of over 38 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota that plays an important role in the regulation of human metabolism through its symbiotic relationship with the host. Changes in the gut microbial ecosystem are associated with increased susceptibility to metabolic disease in humans. However, the composition of the gut microbiota in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases is not well understood. This article reviews the relationship between environmental factors and the gut microbiota in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Finally, we discuss the goal of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus by modifying the gut microbiota and the challenges that remain in this area.
       
  • Mobility impact and methods of diaphragm monitoring in patients with
           chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    • Abstract: The objectives of the study were to identify the factors that limit diaphragmatic mobility and evaluate the therapeutic results of the monitoring methods previously used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS databases were used. A gray literature search was conducted with Google scholar. PRISMA was used, and the bias risk analysis adapted from the Cochrane Handbook for clinical trials and, for other studies, the Downs and Black checklist were used. Twenty-five articles were included in the qualitative synthesis analysis on physiotherapeutic techniques and diaphragmatic mobility. Eight clinical trials indicated satisfactory domains, and on the Downs and Black scale, 17 cohort studies were evaluated to have an acceptable score. Different conditions must be observed; for example, for postoperative assessments the supine position is suggested to be the most appropriate position to verify diaphragm excursion, although it has been shown to be associated with difficulty of restriction and matching in samples. Therefore, we identified the need for contemporary adjustments and strategies that used imaging instruments, preferably in the dorsal position. Therapeutic evidence on the association between the instrumental method and diaphragmatic mobility can be controversial. The ultrasound measurements indicated some relevance for different analyses, for pulmonary hyperinflation as well as diaphragm thickness and mobilization, in COPD patients. In particular, the study suggests that the ultrasound technique with B-mode for analysis and M-mode for diaphragmatic excursion be used with a 2 - 5 MHz with the patient in the supine position. However, the methods used to monitor diaphragm excursion should be adapted to the conditions of the patients, and additional investigations of their characteristics should be performed. More selective inclusion criteria and better matching in the samples are very important. In addition, more narrow age, sex and weight categories are important, especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
       
 
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