Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 911 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 911 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botánica Venezuelica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Obstétrica e Ginecológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 0)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Odontológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Aletheia : Revista de Desarrollo Humano, Educativo y Social Contemporáneo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Alteridades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análisis Economico     Open Access  
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Anestesia Analgesia Reanimación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anestesia en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antipoda : Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Antropología Social y Cultural en Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Anuario de Letras : Lingüística y Filología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquichán     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Austral J. of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 0)
Biosalud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Mexicano de Derecho Comparado     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.532, CiteScore: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução : Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CERNE     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean J. of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
Cirujano General     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Cofin Habana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 0)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 1)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confines     Open Access  
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)

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Clinics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1807-5932 - ISSN (Online) 1980-5322
Published by SciELO Homepage  [911 journals]
  • Surgical Sympathectomy: Can it be useful in cardiology'

    •  
  • How should health systems prepare for the evolving COVID-19 pandemic'
           Reflections from the perspective of a Tertiary Cancer Center

    •  
  • The Importance of Scientific Publications in Times of Pandemic Crisis

    •  
  • Posturographic measures did not improve the predictive power to identify
           recurrent falls in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate if posturography can be considered a recurrent fall predictor in elderly individuals. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 124 subjects aged 60 to 88 years were evaluated and divided into two groups—the recurrent fallers (89) and single fallers (35) groups. Patients’ sociodemographic characteristics were assessed, and clinical testing was performed. The functional test assessment instruments used were timed up and go test (TUGT), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), five times sit-to-stand test, and Falls Efficacy Scale (to measure fear of falling). Static posturography was performed in a force platform in the following three different situations—eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC), and EO dual task. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the single and recurrent fallers groups regarding the fear of falling, the Geriatric Depression Scale score, the mean speed calculated from the total displacement of the center point of pressure (COP) in all directions with EO, and the root mean square of the displacement from the COP in the mediolateral axis with EC. Based on the hierarchical logistic regression model, none of the studied posturographic variables was capable of significantly increasing the power of differentiation between the recurrent and single fallers groups. Only TUGT with a cognitive distractor (p<0.05) and the BBS (p<0.01) presented with significant independent predictive power. CONCLUSION: TUGT with a cognitive distractor and the BBS were considered recurrent fall predictors in elderly fallers.
       
  • Effects of anastrozole on Ki-67 antigen expression in the vaginal
           epithelium of female rats in persistent estrus

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Aromatase inhibitors are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. However, in addition to the scarcity of studies, there are controversies about their effects on vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in rats, especially those in persistent estrus. METHODS: To investigate vaginal epithelial cell proliferation by Ki-67 antigen expression, persistent estrus was induced in 42 randomly selected rats. These rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I (control, n=21), which received 0.1 mL of propylene glycol (vehicle) daily, and group II (experimental, n=21), which received 0.5 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/day of anastrozole diluted with 0.1 mL of propylene glycol. RESULTS: Light microscopy showed a higher concentration of cells with brown Ki-67 stained nuclei in the control compared to the experimental group. The mean percentage of Ki-67 stained nuclei per 500 cells in the vaginal epithelium was 68.64±2.64 and 30.46±2.00 [mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)] in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p<0.003). CONCLUSION: This study showed that anastrozole, at the dose and treatment duration selected, significantly decreased cell proliferation in the vaginal mucosa of the rats in persistent estrus.
       
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a low-cost screening protocol for
           identifying children at risk for language disorders

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost screening test for identifying children at risk for language disorders with that of a specific language assessment. METHODS: The study was conducted during a polio vaccination campaign in basic health units in western São Paulo, Brazil. The parents/guardians of 1000 children aged between 0 and 5 years were asked to answer questions of a specific screening test. The instrument consisted of a uniform set of questions about the main milestones in language development (from 0 to 5 years of age) with scaled scores to assess responses. There were no exclusion criteria. After the screening test, the children were referred to a specific language assessment by ABFW, following a determined flow of referrals. The results obtained in the screening were compared to those obtained in the specific language assessment; then, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values were determined for the screening test. Children who failed the screening test also underwent an audiological evaluation. The statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were aged between 4 and 5 years (21.82%) and were male (51.6%). The sensitivity and specificity values were 82.5% and 98.93%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.907 (0.887-0.925), and the screening test showed 96% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The screening test showed high diagnostic efficiency in determining the risk of language disorders in children aged between 0 and 5 years.
       
  • Survival trends of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated at
           a cancer center in São Paulo, Brazil

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the overall survival (OS) and conditional survival (CS) in patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to determine their survival trends. METHODS: The study included all consecutive patients treated at the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center for oral or oropharyngeal SCC between 2001 and 2012. Data were obtained from the Hospital Cancer Registry. OS and CS were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method to evaluate the probability of survival with Cox predictor models. RESULTS: Data of 505 oral and 380 oropharyngeal SCC patients obtained in 2001-2006 and 2007-2012 were analyzed. Most of the oral SCC (59%) and oropharyngeal SCC (90%) patients had stages III-IV SCC. The 5-year OS for patients with oral SCC was 51.7%, with no significant difference between the first and second periods. The CS rates in 2007-2012 were 65% after the first year and 86% up to the fifth year. For oropharyngeal SCC, the 5-year OS rate was 45.0% in the first period. The survival rate increased to 49.1% from 2007 to 2012, with a reduction in the risk of death (HR=0.69;0.52-09.2). The CS estimates from 2007 to 2012 were 59% after the first year and 75% up to the fifth year. CONCLUSION: Survival across the two time periods remained stable for oral SCC but showed a significant increase for oropharyngeal SCC, possibly because of improvements in the patients’ response to radiotherapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and the use of more accurate diagnostic imaging approaches.
       
  • Salvage treatment for refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia: a
           10-year single-center experience

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The outcomes of refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in developing countries are underreported, even though the similar classic regimens are widely used. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective comparison of “MEC” (mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine) and “FLAG-IDA” (fludarabine, cytarabine, idarubicin, and filgrastim) in adults with first relapse or refractory AML. RESULTS: In total, 60 patients were included, of which 28 patients received MEC and 32 received FLAG-IDA. A complete response (CR) rate of 48.3% was observed. Of the included patients, 16 (27%) died before undergoing bone marrow assessment. No statiscally significant difference in CR rate was found between the two protocols (p=0.447). The median survival in the total cohort was 4 months, with a 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of 9.7%. In a multivariable model including age, fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) status, and stem-cell transplantation (SCT), only the last two indicators remained significant: FLT3-ITD mutation (hazard ratio [HR]=4.6, p<0.001) and SCT (HR=0.43, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: In our analysis, there were no significant differences between the chosen regimens. High rates of early toxicity were found, emphasizing the role of supportive care and judicious selection of patients who are eligible for intensive salvage therapy in this setting. The FLT3-ITD mutation and SCT remained significant factors for survival in our study, in line with the results of previous studies.
       
  • Real-world evidence of health outcomes and medication use 24 months after
           bariatric surgery in the public healthcare system in Brazil: a
           retrospective, single-center study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The number of bariatric procedures has significantly increased in Brazil, especially in the public Unified Health System. The present study describes health outcomes and medication use in obese patients treated in a major hospital that performs publicly funded surgery in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective, single center study was conducted to collect real-world evidence of health outcomes and medication use in 247 obese patients (female, 82.2%) who underwent open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Changes in weight and body mass index (BMI), presence of apnea, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and medication use (hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia) were assessed preoperatively and up to 24 months postoperatively. The mean cost of medications was calculated for the 12-month preoperative and 24-month postoperative periods. RESULTS: During the surgery, the mean age of patients was 43.42 years (standard deviation [SD], 10.9 years), and mean BMI was 46.7 kg/m2 (SD, 6.7 kg/m2). At 24 months, significant declines were noted in weight (mean, -37.6 kg), BMI (mean, -14.3 kg/m2); presence of T2D, hypertension, and apnea (-29.6%, -50.6%, and -20.9%, respectively); and number of patients using medications (-66.67% for diabetes, -41.86% for hypertension, and -55.26% for dyslipidemia). The mean cost of medications (total costs for all medications) decreased by >50% in 12-24 postoperative months compared to that in 12 preoperative months. CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass successfully reduced weight, BMI, and comorbidities and medication use and cost at 24 months in Brazilian patients treated in the public Unified Health System.
       
  • The role of maternal infection in preterm birth: evidence from the
           Brazilian Multicentre Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP)

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that infection or inflammation is a major contributor to early spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the development and causes of maternal infection associated with maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with sPTB. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case–control component, the Brazilian Multicentre Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP), conducted from April 2011 to July 2012 in 20 Brazilian referral obstetric hospitals. Women with preterm birth (PTB) and their neonates were enrolled. In this analysis, 2,682 women undergoing spontaneous preterm labor and premature pre-labor rupture of membranes were included. Two groups were identified based on self-reports or prenatal or hospital records: women with at least one infection factor and women without any maternal infection (vulvovaginitis, urinary tract infection, or dental infection). A bivariate analysis was performed to identify potential individual risk factors for PTB. The odds ratios (ORs) with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: The majority of women with sPTB fulfilled at least one criterion for the identification of maternal infection (65.9%), and more than half reported having urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Approximately 9.6% of women with PTB and maternal infection were classified as having periodontal infection only. Apart from the presence of a partner, which was more common among women with infectious diseases (p=0.026; OR, 1.28 [1.03-1.59]), other variables did not show any significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Maternal infection was highly prevalent in all cases of sPTBs, although it was not clearly associated with the type of PTB, gestational age, or any adverse neonatal outcomes.
       
  • Choledochal cysts in children: How to Diagnose and Operate on

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify the best mode for diagnosing and treating the patients with choledochal cysts. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with medical records of patients diagnosed with choledochal cysts from January 1994 to December 2017. In all cases, the diagnosis was based on ultrasound examination. All the patients underwent cyst resection and were divided in two groups: bile enteric anastomosis in the high portion of the common hepatic duct or in the dilated lower portion. RESULTS: Eighty-one cases were studied. The age of presentation was 4 y 2 mo ± 4 y 1 mo, and the age for the surgical treatment was 5 y 5 mo ± 4 y 6 mo. In 61 cases, US was the only image examination performed. There were 67 cases of Todani type I (82.7%), 13 cases of type IV (16.0%) and one case of type III (1.2%). Nine patients (29.0%) in the first period and 2 patients (4.0%) in the second period presented with postoperative complications (p=0.016). CONCLUSION: In patients with choledochal cysts, US is the only necessary diagnostic imaging. Performing the bile enteric anastomosis in the lower portion of the common hepatic duct is safer and has a lower risk of complications.
       
  • Opioid-induced immunosuppression and carcinogenesis promotion theories
           create the newest trend in acute and chronic pain pharmacotherapy

    • Abstract: Opioids are the main group of pharmacological agents used during the perioperative period and provide a sedative and analgesic component. The observations of opioid consumption in West Europe indicate that this group of drugs is widely used in chronic noncancer pain therapy. Nearly 20 years ago, the first publications indicating that opioids, as an element of perioperative pharmacotherapy in oncologic patients, increase the risk of tumor recurrence and affect further prognosis were presented. The actual publications suggest that there are multifactorial, complex mechanisms underlying the immunological impact and carcinogenesis promotion of opioids and that the intensity varies depending on the type of opioid. There are also questions about the immunosuppressive effects among patients receiving opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain. The aim of the review article is to present information about the action of opioids on the immune system in carcinogenic settings and to define the clinical usefulness of this pharmacological phenomenon.
       
  • The beneficial effects of a water-based aerobic exercise session on the
           blood lipids of women with dyslipidemia are independent of their training
           status

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acute effects of a session of water-based aerobic exercise on the blood lipid levels of women with dyslipidemia and to compare these results according to their training status. METHOD: Fourteen premenopausal women with dyslipidemia, aged 40–50 years, participated in two water-based aerobic exercise sessions, the first when they were generally sedentary and the second after they were trained with a water-based aerobic training program for 12 weeks. Both experimental sessions were performed using the same protocol, lasted 45 min, and incorporated an interval method, alternating 3 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 and 2 min at an RPE of 9. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein lipase enzyme (LPL) were obtained through venous blood collection before and immediately after each session. A generalized estimating equation method and Bonferroni tests were conducted (with time and training status as factors) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: At enrollment, the mean age of the participants was 46.57 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.81−48.34). The statistical analyses showed a significant time effect for all variables (TC: p=0.008; TG: p=0.012; HDL: p<0.001; LPL: p<0.001) except for LDL (p=0.307). However, the training status effect was not significant for any variable (TC: p=0.527; TG: p=0.899; HDL: p=0.938; LDL: p=0.522; LPL: p=0.737). These results indicate that the TC and TG levels reduced and the HDL and LPL concentrations increased from pre- to post-session in similar magnitudes in both sedentary and trained women. CONCLUSIONS: A single water-based aerobic exercise session is sufficient and effective to beneficially modify the lipid profile of women with dyslipidemia, regardless of their training status.
       
  • Psychometric properties of Cognitive Instruments in Vascular Dementia and
           Alzheimer’s disease: a neuropsychological study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To describe elderly performance in the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and to discriminate its score by using types of errors as comparison among healthy controls, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, and vascular dementia (VD) patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 285 elderly individuals of both sexes, all over 60 years old and with more than 1 year of schooling. All participants were assessed through a detailed clinical history, laboratorial tests, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological tests including the BGT, the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). The BGT scores were not used to establish diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean BGT scores were 3.2 for healthy controls, 7.21 for AD, and 8.04 for VD with statistically significant differences observed between groups (p<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the main risk factors for the diagnostic groups. BGT’s scores significantly differentiated the healthy elderly from those with AD (p<0.0001) and VD (p<0.0001), with a higher area under the curve, respectively 0.958 and 0.982. BGT’s scores also showed that the AD group presented 12 types of errors. Types of errors evidenced in the execution of this test may be fundamental in clinical practice because it can offer differential diagnoses between senescence and senility. CONCLUSION: A cut-off point of 4 in the BGT indicated cognitive impairment. BGT thus provides satisfactory and useful psychometric data to investigate elderly individuals.
       
  • Evaluating the psychometric properties of the iconographical falls
           efficacy scale (ICON-FES)

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the construct and content validity of the Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES) in order to measure the fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The Icon-FES was applied to 333 older adults. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess internal consistency. Item response theory (IRT) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to evaluate the consistency of the questionnaire and whether it corresponded satisfactorily to the construct “concern about falling.” Concurrent validity with the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) and convergent validity with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) were also assessed. Receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The structural model of the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES showed some theoretical fragility. The final model of the new short version of the Icon-FES consisted of 13 items, yielding a theoretically satisfactory structural model. Validity analyses indicated that the 13-item Icon-FES had a moderate relationship with the SFT, a strong relationship with the FES-I, and good sensitivity and specificity for a history of falls. CONCLUSION: The 13-item Icon-FES has excellent psychometric properties for measuring fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults. It can be recommended as a screening tool for fear of falling for both research and clinical purposes.
       
  • Association between bile acid metabolism and bone mineral density in
           postmenopausal women

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have not shown any correlation between bile acid metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thus, the current study evaluated the association between bile acid levels as well as BMD and bone turnover marker levels in this group of women. METHODS: This single-center cross-sectional study included 150 postmenopausal Chinese women. According to BMD, the participants were divided into three groups: osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy control group. Serum bile acid, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and bone turnover biomarker levels were assessed. Moreover, the concentrations of parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], procollagen type I N-peptide (P1NP), and beta-CrossLaps of type I collagen containing cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide (β-CTX) were evaluated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were examined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The serum total bile acid levels in the osteoporosis and osteopenia groups (5.28±1.56 and 5.31±1.56 umol/L, respectively) were significantly lower than that in the healthy control group (6.33±2.04 umol/L; p=0.002 and 0.018, respectively). Serum bile acid level was positively associated with the BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. However, it negatively correlated with β-CTX concentration. Moreover, no correlation was observed between bile acid and P1NP levels, and the levels of the other biomarkers that were measured did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Serum bile acid was positively correlated with BMD and negatively correlated with bone turnover biomarkers reflecting bone absorption in postmenopausal women. Thus, bile acid may play an important role in bone metabolism.
       
  • Apoptosis-related gene expression can predict the response of ovarian
           cancer cell lines to treatment with recombinant human TRAIL alone or
           combined with cisplatin

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the sensitivity of ovarian cancer (OC) cell lines (TOV-21G and SKOV-3) to cisplatin and to the recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL), and to evaluate the expression profile of TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10C, TP53TG5, MDM2, BAX, BCL-2 and CASPASE-8 genes and their participation in the resistance/susceptibility mechanism of these tumor cell lines. METHODS: To determine the IC50 values associated with Cisplatin and rhTRAIL, inhibition of cell growth was observed using MTT assays in two human OC cell lines (SKOV-3 and TOV-21G). The analysis of gene expression was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: Both cell lines had different susceptibility profiles to the tested drugs. In the SKOV-3 cell line, the IC50 values for cisplatin and for rhTRAIL were 270.83 ug/mL and 196.5 ng/mL, respectively. The same concentrations were used for TOV-21G. Different gene expression profiles were observed in each tested cell line. CASPASE-8 and TNFRSF10B expression levels could predict the response of both the cell lines to rhTRAIL alone or the response to a combination of rhTRAIL and cisplatin. In addition, we observed a relationship between BCL-2 and BAX expression that may be helpful in estimating the proliferation rate of the OC cell lines. CONCLUSION: SKOV-3 and TOV-21G respond differently to cisplatin and rhTRAIL exposure, and expression of CASPASE-8 and TNFRSF10B are good predictors of responses to these treatments.
       
  • Intracoronary Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase Gene Therapy in
           Advanced Heart Failure Patients with reduced Ejection Fraction: A
           Prospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Heart failure is a progressive and debilitating disease. Intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy may improve the function of cardiac muscle cells. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy can improve outcomes and reduce the number of recurrent and terminal events in advanced heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: A total of 768 heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classification II to IV were included in this prospective cohort study. Patients either underwent intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy (CA group, n=384) or received oral placebo (PA group; n=384). Data regarding recurrent and terminal event(s), treatment-emergent adverse effects, and outcome measures were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: After a follow-up period of 18 months, intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy reduced the number of hospital admissions (p=0.001), ambulatory treatments (p=0.0004), and deaths (p=0.024). Additionally, intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy improved the left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.0001) and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score (p<0.0001). The number of recurrent and terminal events/patients were higher in the PA group than in the CA group after the follow-up period of 18 months (p=0.015). The effect of the intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy was independent of the confounding variables. No new arrhythmias were reported in the CA group. CONCLUSIONS: Intracoronary sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase gene therapy reduces the number of recurrent and terminal events and improves the clinical course of advanced heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.
       
  • Establishment and Evaluation of a Monkey Acute Cerebral Ischemia Model

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia seriously threatens human health and is characterized by high rates of incidence, disability and death. Developing an ideal animal model of cerebral ischemia that reflects the human clinical features is critical for pathological studies and clinical research. The goal of this study is to establish a local cerebral ischemia model in rhesus macaque, thereby providing an optimal animal model to study cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Eight healthy rhesus monkeys were selected for this study. CT scans were performed before the operation to exclude cerebral vascular and intracranial lesions. Under guidance and monitoring with digital subtraction angiography (DSA), a microcatheter was inserted into the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the femoral artery. Then, autologous white thrombi were introduced to block blood flow. Immediately following embolization, multisequence MRI was used to monitor cerebrovascular and brain parenchymal conditions. Twenty-four hours after embolization, 2 monkeys were sacrificed and subjected to perfusion, fixation and pathological examination. RESULTS: The cerebral ischemia model was established in 7 rhesus monkeys; one animal died during intubation. DSA and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) indicated the presence of an arterial occlusion. MRI showed acute local cerebral ischemia. HE staining revealed infarct lesions formed in the brain tissues, and thrombi were present in the cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: We established a rhesus macaque model of local cerebral ischemia by autologous thrombus placement. This model has important implications for basic and clinical research on cerebral ischemia. MRI and DSA can evaluate the models to ensure accuracy and effectiveness.
       
  • Untargeted Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Versus Contrast-Enhanced Computed
           Tomography: A Differential Diagnostic Performance (DDP) Study for Kidney
           Lesions

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Histopathology is the ‘gold standard’ for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma but is limited by sample size. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can differentiate malignant and benign lesions, but the Chinese guidelines on the management of renal cell carcinoma do not include this method. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic parameters of contrast-enhanced ultrasound against those of contrast-enhanced computed tomography for detecting kidney lesions, with histopathology considered the reference standard. METHODS: Patients with suspected kidney lesions from prior grayscale ultrasonography and computed tomography were included in the analysis (n=191). The contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and histopathology data were collected and analyzed. A solid, enhanced mass was considered a malignant lesion, and an unenhanced mass or cyst was considered a benign lesion. The Bosniak criteria were used to characterize the lesions. RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography both detected that 151 patients had malignant tumors and 40 patients had benign tumors. No significant differences in the tumors and their subtypes were reported between contrast-enhanced ultrasound and histopathology (p=0.804). Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was detected through contrast-enhanced computed tomography (n=1), but no such finding was reported by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. A total of 35 cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma were reported through contrast-enhanced ultrasound while 32 were reported through histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound might be safe and as accurate as histopathology in diagnosing kidney lesions, especially renal cell carcinoma. Additionally, this study provides additional information over histopathology and has an excellent safety profile. Level of evidence: III.
       
  • Pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level as a prognostic biomarker for
           patients with lung cancer

    • Abstract: Many researchers have shown that pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels are closely correlated with the prognosis of patients with lung cancer (LC). In this study, we thus performed a meta-analysis to systematically assess the prognostic value of pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels in LC patients. A computerized systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was performed up to March 15, 2018. Studies with available data on the prognostic value of plasma fibrinogen in LC patients were eligible for inclusion. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the correlation between pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels and prognosis as well as clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 17 studies with 6,460 LC patients were included in this meta-analysis. A higher pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.39-1.77; p=0.001), disease-free survival (DFS) (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.33-1.76; p=0.003), and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR: 3.14; 95% CI: 2.15-4.59; p<0.001). Furthermore, our subgroup and sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the pooled HR for OS was robust and reliable. In addition, we also found that a higher fibrinogen level predicted advanced TNM stage (III-IV) (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.79-2.66; p<0.001) and a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.44-2.10; p=0.02). Our study suggested that higher pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels predict worse prognoses in LC patients.
       
  • Magnetic resonance angiography and transcranial Doppler ultrasound
           findings in patients with a clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar
           insufficiency

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). METHOD: From our outpatient neurotology clinic, we selected patients (using the criteria proposed by Grad and Baloh) with a clinical diagnosis of VBI. We excluded patients with any definite cause for vestibular symptoms, a noncontrolled metabolic disease or any contraindication to MRA or TCD. The patients in the study group were sex- and age-matched with subjects who did not have vestibular symptoms (control group). Our final group of patients included 24 patients (study, n=12; control, n=12). RESULTS: The MRA results did not demonstrate significant differences in the findings between our study and control groups. TCD demonstrated that the systolic pulse velocity of the right middle cerebral artery, end diastolic velocity of the basilar artery, pulsatility index (PI) of the left middle cerebral artery, PI of the right middle cerebral artery, and PI of the basilar artery were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group, suggesting abnormalities affecting the microcirculation of patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. CONCLUSION: MRA failed to reveal abnormalities in patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. The PI of the basilar artery, measured using TCD, demonstrated high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (91%) for detecting clinically diagnosed VBI.
       
  • Anesthesia upstream of the alcoholic lesion point alleviates the pain of
           alcohol neurolysis for intercostal neuralgia: a prospective randomized
           clinical trial

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Alcohol for intercostal neuralgia may induce severe injection pain. Although nerve block provided partial pain relief, alcohol might be diluted, and the curative effect decreased when the local anesthetic and alcohol were given at the same point. Therefore, we observed the modified method for intercostal neuralgia, a Two-point method, in which the local anesthetic and alcohol were given at different sites. METHOD: Thirty patients diagnosed with intercostal neuralgia were divided into 2 groups: Single-point group and Two-point group. In the Single-point group, alcohol and local anesthetic were injected at the same point, named the “lesion point”, which was the lower edge of ribs and 5 cm away from the midline of the spinous process. In the Two-point group, alcohol was injected at the lesion point, whereas the local anesthetic was administered at the “anesthesia point”, which was 3 cm away from the midline of spinous process. RESULTS: After alcohol injection, visual analog scale (VAS) in the Two-point group was lower than the Single-point group, and the satisfaction ratio of patients in the Two-point group was higher (p<0.05). The degree of numbness in the Two-point group was greater than the Single-point group at 1 month and 3 months after operation (p<0.05). However, the long-term effects did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Local anesthetic was given upstream of the point where alcohol was administered, was a feasible and safe method to relieve pain during the operation, and improved the satisfaction of the patients and curative effect.
       
  • Ultrasound Versus Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for
           Subclinical Synovitis and Tenosynovitis: A Diagnostic Performance Study

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Radiographic manifestations of synovitis (e.g., erosions) can be observed only in the late stage of rheumatoid arthritis. Ultrasound is a noninvasive, cheap, and widely available technique that enables the evaluation of inflammatory changes in the peripheral joint. In the same way, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables qualitative and quantitative measurements. The objectives of the study were to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of ultrasound in detecting subclinical synovitis and tenosynovitis with those of contrast-enhanced MRI. METHODS: The ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and proximal interphalangeal joints (n=450) of 75 patients with a history of joint pain and morning stiffness between 6 weeks and 2 years were reviewed. The benefits score was evaluated for each modality. RESULTS: The ultrasonic findings showed inflammation in 346 (77%) joints, while contrast-enhanced MRI found signs of early rheumatoid arthritis in 372 (83%) joints. The sensitivities of ultrasound and contrast-enhanced MRI were 0.795 and 0.855, respectively, and the accuracies were 0.769 and 0.823, respectively. Contrast-enhanced MRI had a likelihood of 0-0.83 and ultrasound had a likelihood of 0-0.77 for detecting synovitis and tenosynovitis at one time. The two imaging modalities were equally competitive for detecting synovitis and tenosynovitis (p=0.055). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound could be as sensitive and specific as contrast-enhanced MRI for the diagnosis of subclinical synovitis and tenosynovitis.
       
  • Aberrant expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide and its correlation
           with prognosis in severe childhood pneumonia

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the prognosis of pediatric patients with severe pneumonia. METHODS: Children diagnosed with severe pneumonia (n=76) were stratified into the survival (n=58) and non-survival groups (n=18) according to their 28-day survival status and into the non-risk (n=51), risk (n=17) and high-risk (n=8) categories based on the pediatric critical illness score (PCIS). Demographic data and laboratory results were collected. Serum CGRP levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the cutoff score for high CGRP levels. RESULTS: Serum CGRP levels were significantly higher in the survival group than in the non-survival group and were significantly higher in the non-risk group than in the risk and high-risk groups. The ROC curve for the prognostic potential of CGRP yielded a significant area under the curve (AUC) value with considerable sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that CGRP downregulation might be a diagnostic marker that predicts the prognosis and survival of children with severe pneumonia.
       
  • Usefulness of aqueous and vitreous humor analysis in infectious uveitis

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.
       
  • Randomized trial of physiotherapy and hypertonic saline techniques for
           sputum induction in asthmatic children and adolescents

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the efficiency of physiotherapy techniques in sputum induction and in the evaluation of pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic children and adolescents. Although hypertonic saline (HS) is widely used for sputum induction (SI), specific techniques and maneuvers of physiotherapy (P) may facilitate the collection of mucus in some asthmatic children and adolescents. METHODS: A randomized crossover study was performed in patients with well-controlled asthma, and 90 sputum samples were collected. Children and adolescents were assessed using spirometry and randomized at entry into one of three sputum induction techniques: (i) 3% hypertonic saline – HS technique; (ii) physiotherapy (oscillatory positive expiratory pressure, forced expiration, and acceleration of expiratory flow) – P technique; and (iii) hypertonic saline + physiotherapy – HSP technique. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03136042. RESULTS: The total cells (mL) and the percentage (%) of differential inflammatory cells were similar in all techniques. The sputum weight (g) in the HSP technique was significantly higher than that in the HS technique. In all techniques, the percentage of viable cells was >50%, and there was no difference between the HS and P techniques. Moreover, sputum induction did not cause any alterations in the pulmonary function of patients. CONCLUSION: The physiotherapy sputum collection technique was effective in obtaining viable cells from mucus samples and yielded the same amount of sputum as the gold standard technique (hypertonic saline). In addition, the physiotherapy maneuvers were both safe and useful for sputum induction in asthmatic children and adolescents with well-controlled asthma.
       
  • Prevalence of non-obstructive dysphagia in patients with heartburn and
           regurgitation

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Heartburn and regurgitation are the most common gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, and dysphagia could be a possible symptom. This investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive dysphagia in patients with heartburn and regurgitation. METHODS: A total of 147 patients (age, 20-70 years; women, 72%) complaining of heartburn and regurgitation, without esophageal stricture, previous esophageal surgery, or other diseases, were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients had esophagitis. The Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) was employed to screen for dysphagia; EAT-10 is composed of 10 items, and the patients rate each item from 0 to 4 (0, no problems; 4, most severe symptom). Results of the 147 patients were compared with those of 417 healthy volunteers (women, 62%; control group) aged 20-68 years. RESULTS: In the control group, only two (0.5%) had an EAT-10 score ≥5, which was chosen as the threshold to define dysphagia. EAT-10 scores ≥5 were found in 71 (48.3%) patients and in 55% of the patients with esophagitis and 47% of the patients without esophagitis. This finding indicates a relatively higher prevalence of perceived dysphagia in patients with heartburn and regurgitation and in patients with esophagitis. We also found a positive correlation between EAT-10 scores and the severity of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms based on the Velanovich scale. CONCLUSION: In patients with heartburn and regurgitation symptoms, the prevalence of dysphagia was at least 48%, and has a positive correlation with the overall symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux.
       
  • Prior exercise training and experimental myocardial infarction: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Exercising prior to experimental infarction may have beneficial effects on the heart. The objective of this study was to analyze studies on animals that had exercised prior to myocardial infarction and to examine any benefits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were consulted. We analyzed articles published between January 1978 and November 2018. From a total of 858 articles, 13 manuscripts were selected in this review. When animals exercised before experimental infarction, there was a reduction in mortality, a reduction in infarct size, improvements in cardiac function, and a better molecular balance between genes and proteins that exhibit cardiac protective effects. Analyzing heart weight/body weight, we observed the following results - Mean difference 95% CI - -0.02 [-0.61,0.57]. Meta-analysis of the infarct size (% of the left ventricle) revealed a statistically significant decrease in the size of the infarction in animals that exercised before myocardial infarction, in comparison with the sedentary animals -5.05 [-7.68, -2.40]. Analysis of the ejection fraction, measured by echo (%), revealed that animals that exercised before myocardial infarction exhibited higher and statistically significant measures, compared with sedentary animals 8.77 [3.87,13.66]. We conclude that exercise performed prior to experimental myocardial infarction confers cardiac benefits to animals.
       
  • The mitochondrial calcium uniporter: a new therapeutic target for
           Parkinson’s disease-related cardiac dysfunctions'

    •  
  • Physical and functional aspects of persons with multiple sclerosis
           practicing Tai-Geiko: randomized trial

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to verify the influence of Tai-Geiko on the physical and functional aspects of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This was a parallel-group, randomized trial with two arms. People with MS were allocated to an experimental group (EG) (n=10) and control group (CG) (n=09). The participants received multidisciplinary care supervised by a physiotherapist in the Tai-Geiko exercise. Participants underwent the assessments after the intervention. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS-maximum score of 6.0), strength test (kgf) using a dynamometer, Timed Up and Go mobility test (TUG), and stabilometric balance test (Platform EMG system®) were evaluated. Demographic data were recorded, including age, sex, comorbidities, lifestyle and classification of MS. Clinical Trials (ReBeC): RBR-4sty47. RESULTS: The EG group improved in 12 variables, and the CG improved in 3 variables. The following values were obtained for pre/postintervention, respectively: EG: lumbar force (38/52 kgf), TUG (11/9 s), locomotion velocity (519/393 ms); double task two (53/39 s); platform stabilometric trajectory: traversed get up (39/26 s) and sit (45/29 s); anteroposterior (AP) amplitude rise (11/8 cm) and sit (12.40/9.94 cm) and anteroposterior frequency rise (1.00/1.56 Hz) and sit (0.8/1.25 Hz) (p<0.05); CG: right-hand grip force (26/29 kgf); TUG (9.8 /8.7 s) and AP (11.84 /9.53 cm) stabilometric amplitude at the sitting moment (p<0.05), (3.2/5.99 Hz, p=0.01) and sit (3.47/5.01 Hz, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Tai-Geiko practice can be suggested as complementary exercise in the rehabilitation of persons with MS.
       
  • Local treatment of colostomy prolapse with the MESH STRIP technique: A
           novel and highly efficient day hospital technique

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Stoma prolapse is an intussusception of the bowel through a mature stoma. It can be caused by increased intra-abdominal pressure, excessively mobile bowel mesentery and/or a large opening in the abdominal wall at the time of stoma formation. It occurs predominantly in loop stomas, and correction methods include conservative modalities, such as local reduction to the prolapsed bowel, or surgical treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with the treatment of colostomy prolapse using a novel mesh strip technique. METHODS: Between February 2009 and March 2018, ten consecutive male patients underwent correction of colostomy prolapse under local anesthesia by peristomal placement of a polypropylene mesh strip. Operation time, short- and long-term complications, and recurrence rates were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: No postoperative complications, morbidity or mortality were observed. The median length of the prolapse ranged from 6-20 cm, and the median operative time was 30 minutes. The median duration of follow-up was 25 months (range, 12-89 months). No relapse, mesh strip extrusion, local infection or granuloma formation were found. CONCLUSION: A simple, fast, and low-cost operation under local anesthesia using a mesh strip is a valuable option to treat colostomy prolapse.
       
  • Lung Cavities in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a unique form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that arises from obstruction of the pulmonary vessels by recanalized thromboembolic material. CTEPH has a wide range of radiologic presentations. Commonly, it presents as main pulmonary artery enlargement, peripheral vascular obstructions, bronchial artery dilations, and mosaic attenuation patterns. Nevertheless, other uncommon presentations have been described, such as lung cavities. These lesions may be solely related to chronic lung parenchyma ischemia but may also be a consequence of concomitant chronic infectious conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different etiologies that cause lung cavities in CTEPH patients. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of the medical records of CTEPH patients in a single reference PH center that contained or mentioned lung cavities was conducted between 2013 and 2016. RESULTS: Seven CTEPH patients with lung cavities were identified. The cavities had different sizes, locations, and wall thicknesses. In two patients, the cavities were attributed to pulmonary infarction; in 5 patients, an infectious etiology was identified. CONCLUSION: Despite the possibility of being solely associated with chronic lung parenchyma ischemia, most cases of lung cavities in CTEPH patients were associated with chronic granulomatous diseases, reinforcing the need for active investigation of infectious agents in this setting.
       
  • Validity Evidence of an Epidemiological Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Screening
           Questionnaire for Older Adults

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to identify evidence of validity of a self-reported Oropharyngeal Dysphagia screening questionnaire for older adults based on test content, response processes, internal structure, relations to other variables, and reliability. METHOD: This is a nonrandomized, cross-sectional study employing the concepts and principles of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Data were collected from 644 community-dwelling older adults (both genders, age: ≥60 years) who agreed to participate in some steps of the validation process. Statistical methods obtained the content representation of the construct, internal structure validation, discriminant and convergent evidence, and reliability, using a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The screening tool was re-specified in nine questions that provided the best fit and robust reliability, with proper discriminant and convergent evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The screening questionnaire presented valid and reliable results to identify oropharyngeal dysphagia symptoms in older adults, highlighting the importance of the validation process based on the standards to construct an epidemiological instrument.
       
  • Permanent education as an inalienable responsibility of health councils:
           the current scenario in the Unified Health System

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To verify whether health councils in Brazil carry out permanent education activities for municipal, state and federal district councilors. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study with secondary data collection in the Health Council Monitoring System (Sistema de Acompanhamento dos Conselhos de Saúde - Siacs) from May to August 2017. The Siacs is publicly accessible and available on the internet. It provides data from thousands of health councils throughout Brazil. Analysis and interpretation of the data were based on the literature and the enacted legislation, particularly Resolution 453/2012 and the National Policy of Permanent Education for Social Control in the Unified Health System (Política Nacional de Educação Permanente para o Controle Social no Sistema Único de Saúde). RESULTS: Despite the fact that Resolution 453/2012 establishes the deliberation, elaboration, support and promotion of permanent education for social control as functions of the councils (in accordance with the guidelines of the National Policy of Permanent Education), approximately 40% of councils do not carry out permanent education. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to strengthen the role of health councils in the elaboration of educational initiatives across the national territory. This includes the allocation of financial resources to increase access to and participation in these initiatives, which would strengthen social control in the Unified Health System. This study emphasizes that the discussion of permanent education is not given sufficient attention in the agendas and routines of health councils. This compromises the effectiveness of councils’ monitoring and deliberation of public health policy.
       
  • Transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus parasacral stimulation in
           the treatment of overactive bladder in elderly people: a triple-blinded
           randomized controlled trial

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (TTNS) and transcutaneous parasacral stimulation on the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in elderly people and to compare the final results between groups. METHODS: Fifty female volunteers, mean age 68.62 (±5.9) years, were randomly allocated into two groups: those receiving TTNS (G1, N=25) and those receiving transcutaneous parasacral stimulation (G2, N=25). The primary outcome was the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ-OAB) score, and secondary outcomes were the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - short form (ICIQ-SF) score and 3-day bladder diary measurements. Volunteers were assessed before and after the treatment. Clinical Trials (ReBeC): RBR-9Q7J7Y. RESULTS: Both groups’ symptoms improved as measured by the ICIQ-OAB (G1 = <0.001; G2 = <0.001) and ICIQ-SF (G1 = <0.001; G2 = <0.001). In the 3-day bladder diary assessments after treatment, G1 showed a reduced number of nocturia (p<0.001), urgency (p<0.001) and urge urinary incontinence episodes (p<0.001), whereas G2 showed only a reduced number of nocturia episodes (p<0.001). No difference between groups was found. CONCLUSION: Both of the proposed treatments were effective in the improvement of OAB symptoms, but TTNS showed a reduction in a greater number of symptoms as measured by the 3-day bladder diary. No differences were found between groups.
       
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus-related environmental factors and the gut
           microbiota: emerging evidence and challenges

    • Abstract: The gut microbiota is a group of over 38 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota that plays an important role in the regulation of human metabolism through its symbiotic relationship with the host. Changes in the gut microbial ecosystem are associated with increased susceptibility to metabolic disease in humans. However, the composition of the gut microbiota in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases is not well understood. This article reviews the relationship between environmental factors and the gut microbiota in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Finally, we discuss the goal of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus by modifying the gut microbiota and the challenges that remain in this area.
       
  • Mobility impact and methods of diaphragm monitoring in patients with
           chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    • Abstract: The objectives of the study were to identify the factors that limit diaphragmatic mobility and evaluate the therapeutic results of the monitoring methods previously used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS databases were used. A gray literature search was conducted with Google scholar. PRISMA was used, and the bias risk analysis adapted from the Cochrane Handbook for clinical trials and, for other studies, the Downs and Black checklist were used. Twenty-five articles were included in the qualitative synthesis analysis on physiotherapeutic techniques and diaphragmatic mobility. Eight clinical trials indicated satisfactory domains, and on the Downs and Black scale, 17 cohort studies were evaluated to have an acceptable score. Different conditions must be observed; for example, for postoperative assessments the supine position is suggested to be the most appropriate position to verify diaphragm excursion, although it has been shown to be associated with difficulty of restriction and matching in samples. Therefore, we identified the need for contemporary adjustments and strategies that used imaging instruments, preferably in the dorsal position. Therapeutic evidence on the association between the instrumental method and diaphragmatic mobility can be controversial. The ultrasound measurements indicated some relevance for different analyses, for pulmonary hyperinflation as well as diaphragm thickness and mobilization, in COPD patients. In particular, the study suggests that the ultrasound technique with B-mode for analysis and M-mode for diaphragmatic excursion be used with a 2 - 5 MHz with the patient in the supine position. However, the methods used to monitor diaphragm excursion should be adapted to the conditions of the patients, and additional investigations of their characteristics should be performed. More selective inclusion criteria and better matching in the samples are very important. In addition, more narrow age, sex and weight categories are important, especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
       
 
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