Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology
[SJR: 0.604] [H-I: 13] [4 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1984-7033
Published by SciELO [724 journals]
- Combining ability of potato parents for tuber appearance and tuber yield
Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to estimate the combining ability between two groups of potato parents in early generations of selection. Twelve potato families, derived from two groups of parents crossed in a 4x3 partial diallel design, were evaluated, in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Additive effects of genes were predominant for the traits tuber shape uniformity, tuber pointiness, tuber curvature, general tuber appearance, tuber size uniformity, tuber number, total tuber yield, and average tuber weight. With regard to general combining ability, for all tuber appearance traits, the foreign parents ‘Pukara’ and ‘Asterix’, and the national parent ‘Eliza’ contributed with complementary favorable alleles. For tuber yield component traits, the foreign parent ‘Rioja’ and the national parent ‘Eliza’ were outstanding. The specific combining ability indicated ‘Pukara’/‘Eliza’ as the most promising cross for the development of superior genotypes for the traits general tuber appearance and tuber number.
- Field and laboratory assessments of sugarcane mutants selected in vitro
for resistance to imazapyr herbicide
Abstract: Abstract Seven imazapyr-tolerant mutant sugarcane plants, previously generated by in vitro mutagenesis, were studied. The imazapyr concentrations required to inhibit their acetolactate synthase (ALS basal activity) (IC50 as μmoles acetoin h-1 mg-1 protein) were 0.77 - 5.36 times greater than that of the N12 ‘parent’. The basal ALS activities of Mut1 and Mut6 were 1.4-fold higher than that of N12. When the mutants were sprayed with Arsenal® GEN 2 (312 and 624 g a.i. imazapyr ha-1), 2 months after field planting, and evaluated 9 months later, live stalk height and number were significantly lowest in Mut2, Mut3 and the control N12. No differences in sucrose, fibre and estimated yield were observed amongst lines in untreated plots. Mutant plants germinated and grew in soil treated with the herbicide (at the lethal dose of 1248 g a.i. ha-1). The Mut lines tested in this study offer improved options for weed control.
- New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean
Abstract: Abstract The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.
- Efficient and new method for Tectona grandis in vitro
Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a shoot regeneration protocol for Tectona grandis by examining the effects of pretreatments, regeneration culture medium, adventitious rooting, and acclimatization. The best organogenic potential was achieved when hypocotyls and cotyledonary segments from seedlings germinated on a medium containing TDZ, were cultured for four weeks on MS medium supplemented with BAP/GA3. With TDZ pretreatment during seed germination, up to 70% of the cotyledonary segments (0.5 TDZ pretreatment and 1.0 BAP + 0.5 GA3 during regeneration, mg L-1) and 60% of the hypocotyl explants (0.1 TDZ pretreatment and 1.0 BAP + 0.5 GA3 during regeneration, mg L-1) resulted in shoot regeneration. Finally, 65% of the regenerated shoots rooted, of which 60% were successfully acclimatized ex vitro. Our protocol increases regeneration efficiency for teak and it can serve as a platform for genetic transformation to improve this important tree species.
- Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of a tropical elite
Abstract: Abstract The efficiency of maize transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is influenced by various factors. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different concentrations of N6 salts (50% - half strength, and 100% - full strength) in the infection and cocultivation media on genetic transformation efficiency of the L3 tropical elite maize line. Immature embryos were transformed via A. tumefaciens harboring the binary vector pTF102 containing the genes uidA and BAR under control of the CaMV35S promoter. The efficiency of the transgenic events produced was 3% for full strength and 1.1% for half strength N6 salts. Although under a lower concentration of salts, GUS expression was stronger; under this concentration, regeneration was less efficient. Thus, the results showed that the presence of 100% N6 salts in the infection and cocultivation media favored genetic transformation of the L3 maize inbred line mediated by A. tumefaciens.
- Behavior of grape breeding lines with distinct resistance alleles to downy
mildew (Plasmopara viticola)
Abstract: Abstract Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is the main grapevine disease in humid regions. In the present investigation, marker-assisted selection (MAS) was used to develop grapevine lines homozygous in loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 for resistance against P. viticola. The experimental populations UFSC-2013-1 (n = 420) and UFSC-2013-2 (n = 237) were obtained by self-pollination of two full-sib plants, originated from a cross between two distinct breeding lines containing the downy mildew resistance loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 in heterozygosity. The two experimental populations were genotyped with four microsatellite markers flanking the two downy mildew resistance loci. Among 637 genotyped plants, 300 (48.2%) were homozygous for at least one resistance locus and 10 (1.57%) were homozygous for both Rpv1 and Rpv3 alleles. These 10 plants challenged with P. viticola inoculum showed a clearly enhanced level of resistance. These plants have a great potential as resistance donors in grapevine breeding.
- An improved method for RNA extraction from common bean seeds and
validation of reference genes for qPCR
Abstract: Abstract An RNA extraction method with high integrity and purity as well as the selection of adequate reference genes are prerequisites for gene expression analysis. For common bean seeds, there is no well-defined protocol that can be used in a laboratory routine for gene expression analysis. In this study, an extraction protocol for RNA from common bean seeds, which produced material with good integrity for qPCR (RIN ≥ 6.5), was optimized. In addition, 10 reference genes were evaluated under qPCR standard conditions using different tissue samples of common beans. Gene stabilities were analyzed using the delta-CT method, Bestkeeper, NormFinder and geNorm approaches. The genes β-tubulin and T197 were ranked as the most stable among the sample sets evaluated with different tissue samples, while PvAct and Pv18S were the least stable. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating RNA isolation methods and reference gene selection for seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris.
- Meiotic analysis of interspecific hybrids between Capsicum frutescens and
Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to observe the genetic relationship between C. frutescens (UENF 1636) and C. chinense (UENF 1785) based on the meiotic behavior, on the meiotic index, and on pollen viability of their F1 hybrids. For meiotic analysis and meiotic index, flower buds were collected and fixed for 24 hours in ethanol: acetic acid (3:1), and then transferred to 70% ethanol, and stored in a freezer. Slides preparation for meiosis, meiotic index and pollen viability was carried out according to the laboratory’s protocol. Hybrid meiosis was regular, and 12 pairs of chromosomes were observed in diakinesis, as well as a few anomalies. The MI of 88.16%, as well as the pollen viability of 72.5%, were satisfactory. Given the results, it was confirmed the genetic proximity of these species, which are classified in the Capsicum annuum gene complex.
- Overcoming crossing barriers between jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and
castor bean (Ricinus communisL.)
Abstract: Abstract A limitation in improvement of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) has been the low genetic variation among the available germplasm. An alternative to create genetic variability and incorporate desirable traits is through wide crossing. Due to reproductive barriers, wide crossing in jatropha has had limited success. In this experiment, intergeneric hybridization between jatropha and castor bean (Ricinus communis) was performed. In both direct and reciprocal crosses, a few stigma-compatible pollen grains were found. The pollen tube grew normally and reached the style base within an hour after pollination, but the embryo aborted a few days later. This indicated that the hybridization barrier was post-fertilization and thus the ovules were excised, cultured in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 IAA, and subcultured every four weeks. Finally we obtained one intergeneric hybrid plant, which was vegetatively propagated for further study.
- Genetic gain of ‘Valenciana’ onion populations developed in the
Brazilian Semi-Arid region
Abstract: Abstract The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic improvement in the last recurrent selection cycles applied in two ‘Valenciana’ onion populations in Petrolina, PE. The experiments were carried out between October 2014 and January 2015, in Petrolina and Juazeiro, BA. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design, with 12 treatments and three replications. Analyses of variances were carried out separately for each population. The control population CNPH6400 was the comparison basis. Heritability and genetic gain were estimated for total (Prototal) and commercial (Procom) bulb yields. Significant differences were observed for Prototal and Procom in both populations and in both environments, except for the 25CA10 population, in Juazeiro. The highest Procom genetic gains were observed in Petrolina for 25CA10 and T811CR13 populations (510.5% and 522.1%, respectively), proving the efficiency of recurrent selection cycles. Genetic gains were nonlinear, and fluctuations may have occurred due to genetic drift.
- IPR 100 - Rustic dwarf Arabica coffee cultivar with resistance to
nematodes Meloidogyne paranaensis and M. incognita
Abstract: Abstract ‘IPR 100’ was derived from a crossing between “Catuaí” and a hybrid (“Catuaí” x BA-10 coffee). ‘IPR 100’ is a medium size dwarf cultivar with high rusticity, with late ripening cycle, and with resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis and to some M. incognita populations.
- BRSMG Rubelita: irrigated rice cultivar for lowlands in the state of Minas
Abstract: Abstract The lowland rice breeding program, developed in the state of Minas Gerais, has as basic objective to release new commercial cultivars. In this way, this program is making available a new cultivar named BRSMG Rubelita, which has as main characteristics: medium cycle, high tillering, lodging tolerance, diseases tolerance, high grain quality, and high grain yield.
- Cattleya forbesii x Cattleya bowringiana: a new hybrid
of Cattleya orchid
Abstract: Abstract The hybrid between Cattleya forbesii x Cattleya bowringiana shows flowers of lilac coloration, labellum with a light yellow center and striated with purple stripes of the same tone of other floral whorls. The plant flourished four years after seeding and produced, on average, six flowers.
- Rbio: A tool for biometric and statistical analysis using the R platform
Abstract: Abstract Rbio is a free software for data processing. It is compatible and integrated with the free R software, which is globally accepted for statistical analysis. Thus, Rbio takes advantage of all processing potential of the R software. However, this new software allows the user to perform all the analyses without knowing the programming in R language. Rbio is available in Portuguese; it can be downloaded from the Internet (http://www.biometria.ufv.br), and requires the Windows operating system. It has a set of sample files, making it easy to be used. Currently, it supplies the user with all scripts internally used to process the analyses. Rbio can perform descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, estimation of genetic parameters and means tests, multivariate analysis, nonparametric tests, regressions, correlations, biometrics, bioinformatics, and simulation.