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Showing 1 - 200 of 707 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avances en Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.532, CiteScore: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.38, CiteScore: 0)
Cubo. A Mathematical J.     Open Access  
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 0)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DELTA : Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Dementia & Neuropsychologia     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Press J. of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 0)
Diálogo Andino - Revista de Historia, Geografía y Cultura Andina     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Diánoia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dynamis : Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
e-J. of Portuguese History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Economia Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Economia e Sociedade     Open Access  
EconoQuantum     Open Access  
Educação & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Educação e Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.163, CiteScore: 0)
Educação em Revista     Open Access  
Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Educación Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.236, CiteScore: 0)
Educación Médica Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Educación y Educadores     Open Access  
Educar em Revista     Open Access  
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Encuentros     Open Access  
Ene : Revista de Enfermería     Open Access  
Enfermería Global     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 0)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Engenharia Agrícola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 0)
Ensaio Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.254, CiteScore: 0)
Entomologia y Vectores     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.446, CiteScore: 1)
Estudios Constitucionales     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios de historia moderna y contemporánea de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Estudios Filologicos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.431
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1679-9275 - ISSN (Online) 1807-8621
Published by SciELO Homepage  [707 journals]
  • How to write the discussion section of a scientific article

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The Discussion is the hardest section of a scientific article to write, as cognitive skills must be used to properly contextualize the findings of a study. In this article, we guide scientific writers, particularly unexperienced ones, on how to structure a Discussion section based on an article by Docherty and Smith (1999). According to these authors, a discussion should be prepared by organizing information in the following order: (a) statement of principal findings; (b) strengths and weaknesses of the study; (c) strengths and weaknesses in relation to other studies, discussing particularly any differences in results; (d) meaning of the study: possible mechanisms and implications; and (e) unanswered questions and future research. Each component of this sequence is discussed in detail with examples drawn from the literature.
  • Modeling the individual height and volume of two integrated
           crop-livestock-forest systems of Eucalyptus spp. in the Brazilian Savannah

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to model the individual height and volume of eucalyptus wood in two integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF1 and ICLF2) in Campo Grande, a city in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Classic nonlinear growth models were adjusted for height (Logistic, Gompertz, Richards, Weibull, Van Bertalanffy, Brody, Mitscherlich, and Chapman and Richards) and volume (Shumacher-hall nonlinear, Takata, Honner, Logistic, Gompertz, and Weibull) in two structural arrangements: ICLF1, with a spacing of 14 x 2 m and density of 357 trees ha-1, and ICLF2, with a spacing of 22 x 2 m and density of 227 trees ha-1. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) measurements were performed in 100% of trees, with measurements of the total height of some individuals and a rigorous scaling procedure in diameter classes. According to the calculated value of Student's t-test, there was no significant evidence that DBH and the average height of the trees were different between ICLF1 and ICLF2. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the Richards model was selected to estimate heights and the Takata model was selected to estimate the volume.
  • GenomicLand: Software for genome-wide association studies and genomic

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. GenomicLand is free software intended for prediction and genomic association studies based on the R software. This computational tool has an intuitive interface and supports large genomic databases, without requiring the user to use the command line. GenomicLand is available in English, can be downloaded from the Internet (, and requires the Windows or Linux operating system. The software includes statistical procedures based on mixed models, Bayesian inference, dimensionality reduction and artificial intelligence. Examples of data files that can be processed by GenomicLand are available. The examples are useful to learn about the operation of the modules and statistical procedures.
  • Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) applied to daily reference
           evapotranspiration modeling with limited weather data

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is very relevant for water resource management. The Penman-Monteith (PM) equation was proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as the standard method for estimation of ETo. However, this method requires various weather data, such as air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation and relative humidity, which are often unavailable. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and alternative equations, in their original and calibrated forms, to estimate daily ETo with limited weather data. Daily data from 2002 to 2016 from 8 Brazilian weather stations were used. ETo was estimated using empirical equations, PM equation with missing data and MARS. Four data availability scenarios were evaluated as follows: temperature only, temperature and solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity, and temperature and wind speed. The MARS models demonstrated superior performance in all scenarios. The models that used solar radiation showed the best performance, followed by those that used relative humidity and, finally, wind speed. The models based only on air temperature had the worst performance.
  • Quantitative impacts of different planting arrangements on the populations
           of natural enemies in soybean

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Natural biological control is an important alternative for the control of insect pests using natural enemies that occur naturally in agroecosystems. The potential of these insects can increase when they are adequately managed. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the populations of natural enemies in soybean cultivars with different growth habits planted in different arrangements. The experiment consisted of eight treatments: four planting arrangements and two soybean cultivars, with four replicates. The populations of natural enemies were evaluated from the vegetative stage V3 to crop harvest using a shaking-cloth. A population survey of the beneficial arthropods present on the soil surface was performed in the reproductive stages R2 and R3 with the installation of modified pitfall traps. The main natural enemies that occurred in the culture were Class Arachnida, Order Heteroptera, Order Hymenoptera, Order Coleoptera and Order Dermaptera. The populations of the natural enemies assessed using the shaking-cloth did not show significant differences. However, in the evaluations with the modified pitfall traps in the reproductive stage R3 in the crossed arrangement, the populations of the Coleoptera and Dermaptera orders were higher in the determinate cultivar than in the indeterminate cultivar.
  • Canonical correlations among grapevine agronomic and processing

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Canonical correlation analysis allows conclusions to be drawn about the occurrence and magnitude of associations between two groups of characteristics. This study estimated the magnitude of association and interdependence between two trait groups of clones of two varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes. The study was based on the mean data of eight characteristics from two experiments to test the performance of these clones: the first experiment provided data from seven clones of Cabernet Sauvignon, which evaluated in the northern San Joaquin Valley, California, United States, and the second data set was from six clones of the Chardonnay variety, which were evaluated in the Napa Valley, California, United States. The canonical correlations among the two varieties were significant, indicating that the two groups of characteristics were related or not independent. The quality and quantity of the raw material required for fine-wine production were inversely proportional and specific to each variety. For Cabernet Sauvignon, the high number of berries per bunch and high number of bunches per plant resulted in fruits with a high °Brix level and increased pH. For Chardonnay, the increase in the bunch weight and number of berries decreased the fruit pH.
  • Silicon and methyl jasmonate in the vegetative development and genetic
           stability of rice

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Given the high demand for food worldwide, options for maximizing food production with minimum environmental impact are needed. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon (Si) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in the vegetative development and genetic stability of rice plants, BRSMG Caravera cultivar. The treatments used were T1 - Control group (without Si and MeJA); T2 - Tween foliar; and T3 - Si drench, T4 - MeJA foliar, and T5 - Si drench + MeJA foliar. The use of Si or Si + MeJA promoted an increase in the height, relative chlorophyll index (RCI), and fresh and dry masses, in addition to a greater Si accumulation in the plants. However, there was no difference in the quantity of DNA or in the coefficient of variation (CV) among the treatments, proving the use of silicon separately or in combination with methyl jasmonate contributed to the vegetative development and did not affect the genetic stability of the plants.
  • Physiological and biochemical changes during desiccation tolerance loss in
           millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) seeds

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes related to desiccation tolerance loss in millet seeds. The studied points of the germination process were determined according to the seed imbibition curve of the millet hybrid ADRF6010: control (0h), 3h of imbibition, 1 and 3 mm radicle. The seeds were dried on silica gel for 72h at 20°C, followed by pre-humidification at 25°C for 24h. Seed physiological quality was evaluated by electrical conductivity and a germination test, and seed vigor was evaluated with a first germination count and a germination speed index. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test at a 5% probability. The enzymatic systems of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and α-amylase, as well as the expression of heat-resistant proteins were evaluated. Enzymatic activity was quantified with the ImageJ® software. Millet seeds lost desiccation tolerance when the radicle reached 1 mm in length. According to enzymatic standards, peroxidase and α-amylase activity, as well as heat-resistant protein activity, were related to desiccation tolerance loss in millet seeds.
  • Can an increase in nitrogen rate mitigate damages caused by uneven spatial
           distribution of maize plants at the sowing row'

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. An uneven distribution of maize plants at the sowing row can decrease grain yield. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of an increasing nitrogen rate on maize agronomic performance under different variation coefficients of plant spatial distributions at the sowing row. The experiment was conducted in Lages, Santa Catarina State, South Brazil. Three variation coefficients (VC) of plant spatial distribution (0, 50, and 100%) were tested. At the 0 level, seeds were evenly distributed 17 cm from each other. In the other treatments with uneven spatial distributions, the distances between two neighbouring seeds ranged from 2 to 54 cm. Four nitrogen side-dress rates (0, 125, 250, and 375 kg N ha-1) were evaluated. The increase in VC of plant spatial distribution decreased the leaf area and the relative chlorophyll content of the index leaf at silking, regardless of the nitrogen rate. When the variation coefficient of seed placement was enhanced from 0 to 100%, such behaviour contributed to a decrease in the number of kernels per ear and the grain yield. Therefore, increasing the amount of N was not an efficient strategy for preventing yield losses caused by irregular plant spatial distribution at the sowing row.
  • Methods for overcoming dormancy and seed storage of Enterolobium

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The production of forest species that present seedlings with exogenous dormancy is limited by low germination rates, which can be overcome by rupturing or weakening the tegument. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of low-cost methods of overcoming dormancy and determine the effect of storage on the seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum. Four storage periods were used, freshly collected seeds (0), stored for 6, 12 and 18 months, and four methods were applied, mechanical scarification and immersion in water (EI), mechanical scarification (ES), immersion in water (IM) and control (TE). We obtained the percentage values of seedling emergence (EP) and the mean emergence time (TME). Conductivity and moisture were obtained as indicators of the physical and physiological quality of seeds, respectively. Variations in moisture content and electrical conductivity during storage did not have effect on the percentage of germination. EI treatment was more efficient for overcoming dormancy than the ES was, regardless of storage time. IM and TE treatments did not lead to germination. EI was the most efficient treatment for decreasing the TME. The results indicate that alternative and low-cost methods are efficient at overcoming exogenous dormancy and thus can be used to optimize the process of seedling production.
  • Growth and photosynthetic parameters of saccharine sorghum plants
           subjected to salinity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Plants are often exposed to abiotic stresses such as salinity, which represents a barrier to the cultivation of agricultural species mainly in arid and semi-arid regions. This study evaluated the development of four saccharine sorghum genotypes for tolerance to different salinity levels under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a randomized complete block arranged in a 5 × 4 factorial scheme, which corresponded to five levels of irrigation water salinity [electrical conductivities of 0.5 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 dS m-1] and four saccharine sorghum genotypes (CSF 11, CSF 15, P 76 and P 298), with five replicates. The plants were evaluated for dry mass production, leaf area, height, stalk diameter, leaf gas exchange and relative chlorophyll content. The growth and leaf gas exchange measurements of the saccharine sorghum plants were significantly affected by salinity stress. Among the genotypes, CSF 11 and CSF 15 exhibited smaller reductions in growth, whereas P 298 showed the greatest reduction. These findings show that genotype CSF 11 can be classified as the most tolerant to salt stress, and genotype P 298 is the most sensitive.
  • X-ray microtomography in comparison to radiographic analysis of
           mechanically damaged maize seeds and its effect on seed germination

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Among the most relevant aspects of seed production, mechanical damage may affect seed germination and reduce health and vigor. This study introduces a noninvasive high-resolution imaging procedure for evaluating the mechanical damage to maize seeds and the effects on seed germination. Seeds with different levels of mechanical damage were evaluated using a benchtop micro-computed tomography system (micro-CT) and digital X-ray equipment. The two-dimensional transaxial, coronal and sagittal micro-CT sections were used to inspect the seed anatomy and the mechanical injuries in the internal seed tissue. Germination tests were performed using paper towel rolls (25°C for 7 days) in which the seedling length was evaluated on a daily basis, and the seedling dry biomass was measured at the seventh germination day. The micro-CT cross-sectional images allowed an efficient spatial characterization of the mechanical damage inside the seeds. On average, mechanically damaged seeds produced seedlings with a length 24% shorter and a dry biomass 65% less than that of the undamaged seeds. We concluded that the micro-CT technique provides an efficient means to inspect mechanically damaged maize seeds and allows for a reliable association with germination response.
  • Maturation, processing and seed storage of Elephantopus mollis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae) is an aromatic medicinal species native to South and Central America with hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and leishmanicidal properties. We evaluated its maturation, ideal harvest moment, processing and seed storage, aiming to contribute to the production of this medicinal plant. We collected flower capitula between 7 and 56 days after anthesis for determination of seed moisture content, seed dry matter accumulation and germination, and correlated these factors with the morphological characters of the capitula. Capitulum processing was conducted with sieves and a seed blower to evaluate the purity, 1,000 seed weight, germination and cultural value of the seeds. The germination potential of seeds stored for 18 months refrigerated and at room temperature and the correlation of these results with those of an accelerated aging test were determined. The ideal harvest moment occurs at 49 days after anthesis and can be identified in the field by the brown coloration of the interfloral bracts. Seeds with cultural value above 80% can be obtained with the use of a 0.59 mm sieve and seed blower. The seeds can be stored cold for 12 months, and the accelerated aging test allows estimation of the viability of the seeds during storage for 18 months.
  • Temporal evaluation of soil chemical attributes after slash-and-burn
           agriculture in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. In Amazonia, the main causes of deforestation are systems based on slash-and-burn agriculture. The objective of this work was to evaluate temporal changes in the soil chemical attributes after the vegetation has been slashed and burned in an area of native forest in the Western Amazon. For this study, four hectares of forest in Cruzeiro do Sul, State of Acre, Brazil, was slashed and burned. The soil in the study area was classified as Ultisol (Argissolo Amarelo Distrófico típico). Soil samples were collected over the course of one year, the first one being collected 16 hours after the burn and the others at 30, 60, 90, 150, 210, 270, and 360 days after the burn. The soil surface layers were more sensitive to fire action. Ashes from vegetation burn increased pH values, basic cations, and C values only in the first months, resulting in higher basal saturation values (V%). The practice of slash-and-burn after 12 months resulted in lower values of pH, Ca, Mg, K, and P and higher values of Al and H, as well as saturation by aluminum in the soil, indicating this practice contributes to the reduction of soil fertility.
  • Heavy metal concentrations and ecological risk assessment of the suspended
           sediments of a multi-contaminated Brazilian watershed

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Metal concentrations in suspended sediments of one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil were measured. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma while Hg and As were analyzed with hydride generation flow injection atomic absorption spectroscopy. Contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn was assessed using pollution indices, ecological risk assessment, statistical multivariate techniques and comparison with sediment quality guidelines. Suspended sediments of the upstream portion of the Ipojuca River are moderately contaminated, especially with Mn and As. On the other hand, sediments of the downstream section are highly contaminated, mainly with Zn, Pb, and As. Furthermore, the mean Ei (potential ecological risk) values of Pb and As showed considerable ecological risk in the downstream cross section. The comparison of our data with sediment guideline values indicated that the concentrations of Mn and Pb in the upstream section of the Ipojuca River pose a risk to sediment-dwelling organisms, while Pb and Zn are the metals of concern in the downstream section.
  • Concentrations of major and trace elements in the soils, edible parts of
           crops and urine of farmers in agroecological communities

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The relationship between soil and health is important for populations that depend on the local environment to meet their nutritional needs. This study aimed to evaluate the concentrations of major and trace elements in the soils, edible parts of crops and urine of farmers in agroecological communities. We collected samples of soil, edible parts of crops and urine of farmers and family members in 23 crop fields in agroecological communities from northeast Brazil. These samples were analyzed to concentrations of Al, As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Zn, and Pb in urine and discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the data. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soils and crops of agroecosystems were below regulatory levels. Farmers living in agroecological communities present most of the essential and toxic elements in urine within the reference ranges. In general, results showed that urinary concentration of toxic elements among farmers and their families were below allowable limits, which may be due to the agroecological practices.
  • Advances in the production of temperate fruits in the tropics

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to review the advances in the production of temperate fruits to determine future research directions that improve production in the tropics. Temperate fruits are no longer only produced in regions characterized by a cold winter period. These fruits are also produced in the sub-tropical and tropical regions characterized by mild winter or even the absence of chilling conditions often required by the tree to break dormancy. Currently, temperate fruit production is possible in certain regions of South America, Africa and Asia that are near to the Equator. However, temperate tree fruit production in tropical regions requires modified techniques to overcome dormancy and allow adequate flowering, growth and productivity. The main approaches taken are the development of cultivars with low chilling requirement, chemical induction of budbreak, interruption of irrigation during the winter period, defoliation, orchard densification, and double pruning. Breeding has become a key tool in the advancement of temperate fruit growing in the tropics, especially with the development of low chilling requirement cultivars.
  • Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni: regression models with mixed effects for
           investigating seed germination data

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. We investigated regression models with mixed effects using generalized linear statistics to evaluate germination data from Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni. Estimates and validation of statistical parameters were conducted using the “gamlss” package in the R software. Generalized linear mixed effects followed the binomial, the beta-binomial and the multinomial distribution with the logit link to explain data based on the following explanatory variables: seed germinator, plastic tray position on every tier of shelves, illuminance conditions (light and darkness) and seed lots. We did not find differences in proportional responses from seed germinators, but we did find differences in the illuminance conditions, plastic tray position on the tiers of shelves in the seed germinators and seed lots. The estimates of the generalized Akaike information criterion (GAIC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), global deviance (GD) and Bayesian information criterion of Schwarz (BIC) indicate similar goodness-of-fit for the binomial and beta-binomial models. All of the models indicate that the position of the germination tray on every tier of shelves and illuminance conditions affected the proportions of normal seedlings. The seed germination in the plastic tray on the uppermost position under fluorescent day light lamps had an effect on the proportion of normal seedlings of Stevia.
  • Consideration of the appropriate variation sources of the statistical
           model and their impacts on plant breeding

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The present work has aimed to assess the consideration of the appropriate variation sources of the statistical model and their impacts on the conclusions plant breeding. The Value for Cultivation and Use test was conducted to assess three common locations (Lages, Ponte Serrada, and Canoinhas) and four non-common locations (Chapecó, Guatambu, Urussanga, and Campos Novos). The grain yields of six bean genotypes were evaluated in order to represent the imbalance between the common and non-common locations. The statistical analysis considered two situations: i) union of the location factors and cultivation years, with a single variation source called environment and ii) decomposition of the mean square values of the two factors, location and year. According to the simplified analysis (environmental variation source), the F test for the genotype factor was highly significant (p = 0.0006). On the other hand, the hypothesis test for the genotype factor was not significant (p = 0.7370) when the decomposition of mean squares was used. The simplified analysis presents some erroneous points, such as the use of a mean residue to test the hypothesis of the genotype factor, since this factor is composed of several sources of variation, and there is no exact F test. However, approximate F tests can be obtained by constructing linear combinations of average squares. This fact notes the relevance of considering the appropriate sources of variation within the statistical model, with a direct impact on the conclusions and recommendations of cultivars with superior performance.
  • Survey of statistical methods applied in articles published in Acta
           Scientiarum. Agronomy from 1998 to 2016

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Statistics is the main science by which researchers validate the results of scientific work, and the choice of an inadequate statistical method may lead to conclusions that are considered questionable by reviewers. This study had the objective of describing the characteristics of the statistical methods used in the papers published in Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy from 1998 to 2016 as part of a a critical analysis of the journal to pinpoint possible failures in the application of these methods. All scientific articles (n = 1,237) published in the journal were surveyed, of which 54.1% addressed areas of crop production. The mean comparison methods were the most commonly used (75.5%) and, consequently, they represented the highest proportion of errors (60.8%) of the authors in the journal.
  • A system to map the risk of infection by Puccinia kuehnii in

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Orange rust caused by the fungus Puccinia kuehnii greatly affects sugarcane and causes millions of tons of losses in production. This condition was first reported in Brazil at the end of 2009. The disease is currently present in most of the countries that produce this crop. The aim of this research was to develop risk maps of P. kuehnii infection using temperature and relative humidity data, provided by 389 automatic weather stations throughout the country. A spatial distribution analysis was carried out to assess the number of daily hours of favorable conditions for spore germination in each region. In the central-south region, where the main sugarcane producing states are concentrated, two distinct periods were observed during the three years studied. Higher favorability occurred from October to April, and lower favorability occurred from May to September. The opposite relation was observed on the coast of the north-eastern region, where conditions were more favorable to the disease from May to September. The validation data were confirmed by the results of Pearson’s correlation between sugarcane orange rust infection under field conditions and the proposed maps. In conclusion, risk maps obtained using data from automatic weather stations could contribute to the monitoring of the risk of infection by sugarcane orange rust.
  • Genetic variability in popcorn synthetic population

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The Brazilian popcorn has low genetic variability and the successful development of advanced lines, new popcorn cultivars with high grain yield (GY) and expansion volume (PE) is dependent on parental selection and precise determination of heterotic groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic variability and identify heterotic groups in synthetic populations of popcorn, using diallel crosses. Thus, nine synthetic populations were crossed using complete diallel scheme. The GY and PE traits of 36 hybrids and reciprocals were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 72 treatments and two replicates in two years. The effects of non-additive genes were the most important in the genetic control of these traits, indicating a favorable situation to produce hybrids. The reciprocal effect is mainly due to non-maternal effects for GY and PE. The highest GY values were obtained for the 02 x 08, 04 x 09, 05 x 09, and 01 x 09 crosses and the highest PE were obtained for the 07 x 01 and 03 x 04 crosses. The exploitation of synthetic populations from S3 lines can be an alternative to increase the genetic variability for grain yield and popping expansion in popcorn breeding programs.
  • Self-organizing maps in the study of genetic diversity among irrigated
           rice genotypes

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This study presents self-organizing maps (SOM) as an alternative method to evaluate genetic diversity in plant breeding programs. Twenty-five genotypes were evaluated in two environments for 11 phenotypic traits. The genotypes were clustered according to the SOM technique, with variable topology and numbers of neurons. In addition to the SOM analysis, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering (UPGMA) was performed to observe the behavior of the clustering when submitted to these techniques and to evaluate their complementarities. Genotype ordering according to SOM was consistent with UPGMA results, evidenced by the basic structure of UPGMA groups being preserved in each group of the maps. Regarding genotype arrangement and the group neighbors, maps involving five neurons presented inferior organization efficiency compared to the six-map arrangements in both environments. It was observed that the organization pattern among the rice genotypes evaluated by the maps was complementary to the UPGMA approach, as observed in all scenarios. It can be concluded that self-organizing maps have the potential to be useful for genetic diversity studies in breeding programs.
  • New high-yielding conventional soybean adapted to the states of Goiás,
           Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. This paper aims to present the features of the new soybean cultivar UFUS Milionária, which was developed by the Soybean Improvement Program of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU) through crossing between IAC-100 and Cristalina RCH cultivars, using the Single Seed Descent (SSD) method. UFUS Milionária is resistant to many diseases caused by the fungus, bacteria, and virus. In addition, it also has been proved well-adapted to many Brazilian states, showing high yield even under water deficit conditions and Asian-rust infection; average yield was 4,451 kg ha-1 in 2015/16 growing season.
  • Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense on corn yield and yield
           components in an integrated crop-livestock system

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Inoculation of corn with diazotrophic bacteria reduces the need for nitrogen fertilization and mitigates environmental contamination risks due to the bacteria’s biological nitrogen-fixation capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of corn seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense under different nitrogen levels and post-grazing residual heights. The experiment was performed in two growing seasons and conducted in an integrated crop-livestock system for the 2014/15 and 2015/16. A factorial randomized block experimental design with sub-divided plots and three factors. The main plots varied in post-grazing residual height (0.10, 0.20, 0.30 m, continuous grazing, or no grazing), the subplots varied in inoculation (with or without seed inoculation), and the sub-subplots varied in nitrogen level (0, 75, 150, 225, or 300 kg ha-1 of N). The higher post-grazing residual height associated an A. brasilense and nitrogen fertilization resulted in increased corn biomass and production and yield. At the 300 kg dose of N, the highest grain yield was obtained under different post-grazing heights (10.15 Mg ha-1) and in the absence of the bacterium (10.00 Mg ha-1). Azospirillum brasilense helps plant growth and yield but does not replace the effect of N fertilization.
  • Inoculation of soybean seeds coated with osmoprotector in diferents soil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Bradyrhizobium) is an indispensable technology to increase the productivity of the soybean crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of the inoculation with Bradyrizobium bacteria associated with the osmoprotector coating on different pre-sowing days and the effect of different soil pH on the components of yield, nodulation and grain yield of soybean. Two soybean cultivars were used, sown in two seasons and submitted to soil pH of 5.3 and 6.5. The seeds were inoculated at different pre-sowin periods with Bradyrizobium bacteria in the presence or absence of osmoprotectants. In the cultivar NA 5909RG (pH 5.3), the seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and osmoprotector, at four and seven days of pre-sowing, presented an increase of 10.8% and 8.3% of productivity, in relation to those without osmoprotector. The osmoprotector and the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium increases the number and dry mass of nodules in soil with more acidic pH. The soil of lower acidity is responsible for higher grain yield, compared to the higher acidity, when both were not inoculated. The variable with the greatest explanatory power and contribution in the variability in the data of the experiment is the grain yield.
  • Processing and physical and physiological quality of the native forest
           seeds of Vernonanthura discolor

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The objective was to study the processing of Vernonanthura discolor seeds, evaluating their physical and physiological qualities and defining parameters for purity analysis and determine the weight of one thousand seeds. The seeds extracted from the infructescences were processed in a blower, testing combinations of openings of the calibration valve and the side air passage. After processing, the seeds went through water content determination, germination tests, first count of the germination test, purity analysis, weight of one thousand seeds and percentage of full seeds. Compared to the control, seeds processed in a regulated blower with the calibrator valve in position 10 plus three 360° turns of side air passage obtained an approximately three-fold increase in germination and vigour and had 96% purity. We conclude that the processing of V. discolor seeds was best done by combining the rubbing of the seeds on circular sieves (1.8 and 1.6 mm in diameter) and then passage in an adjusted seed blower (calibration valve in position 10 plus three 360° turns of side air passage). The weight of one thousand seeds is 0.500 g, and the working sample for purity analysis must be 1.3 g.
  • Enhancement of the antioxidant capacity and reduction of chilling injury
           in ‘Douradão’ peaches refrigerated under pre-storage and modified

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pre-storage for 24h and 48h and different modified atmosphere packaging-MAP treatments (using low-density polyethylene - LDPE) on the antioxidant compounds and the postharvest quality of ‘Douradão’ peaches under cold storage. The peaches were submitted to the following treatments: a control (no packaging or pre-storage) and pre-storage for 24h or 48h at 25ºC combined with passive MAP (LDPE 60 µm or 80 µm). After the application of the treatments, the fruits were stored at 0ºC for 30 days plus 3 days at 25ºC to simulate marketing conditions. The results showed that on the simulated marketing period, all the treatments (except for the control) reduced woolliness and internal browning. Furthermore, both pre-storage and LDPE MAP enhanced the polygalacturonase (PG) activity, the levels of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. Thus, these results suggest that the pre-storage associated with LDPE packaging increases the shelf life of peaches by up to 30 days under cold storage.
  • Synergy between cadmium and zinc in bean plants cultivated in multi
           contaminated soils

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Agricultural species are subjected to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which are the main limitations to crop production. In this context, contamination by trace elements is characterized as an abiotic stress that represents an environmental problem. Due to the physical and chemical similarities between cadmium and zinc, these elements may interact in the environment and may cause antagonistic or synergistic effects. In this way, physiological mechanisms to exclude, detoxify or compartmentalize trace elements that are in excess are crucial for plant survival when exposed to high concentrations of these elements. In this way, the aim of this study was to understand the physiological responses of Phaseolus vulgaris plants subjected to increasing doses of Cd and Zn for 21 days in different soil, Cambisol and Latosol. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, and APX; hydrogen peroxide content; lipid peroxidation; chlorophyll index; photosynthetic rate; stomatal conductance; and transpiration were analysed. The data obtained showed a specific behaviour of Phaseolus vulgaris plants in each soil analysed. Moreover, it was observed that interactions between both elements resulted in a synergistic effect, negatively affecting all of the parameters analysed.
  • Spatial variability of soil physical-hydric attributes under bovine
           trampling in agreste of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. Soils under pastures suffer physical modifications, in greater or lesser intensity, via the action of animal trampling. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the spatial dependence of soil physical attributes under bovine trampling. The trial was performed at Roçadinho Farm, Agreste of Pernambuco, Brazil, in a 40 x 40 m paddock that was managed with continuous stocking by bovines and 12 AU ha-1 stocking rate. Soil samples were collected before and after grazing using a 6 x 6 m grid, totaling 36 sampling points. At each point, the bulk density, total porosity, moisture, soil penetration resistance at 0.00 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, and 0.20 - 0.30 m depth were estimated, as was the hydraulic conductivity on the saturated soil surface. Descriptive statistics and geostatistics supported the data analysis. A normal distribution was verified for all variables, which were scored as either low or high variability in terms of the variation coefficient. The physical attributes (density, total porosity, moisture, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity) of the soil sampled presented a strong spatial dependence before and after grazing.
  • Geochemical signatures and weathering rates in soils derived from
           different granites in contrasting climatic locations

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT. We studied the mineralogical properties and chemical composition of different granites using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled with scanning electron microscopy to understand the relationship between granite signatures and soil characteristics, including weathering patterns and soil fertility status. The discriminant analysis (DA) was based on soil physical and chemical properties and was used to differentiate soils developed from I- and S-type granites across contrasting climatic conditions in northeast Brazil. The DA identified the highest values of organic carbon, clay and plant nutrients as key variables to recognize soil profiles derived from I-type granites. In contrast, the greater sand contents and Al saturation distinguished soils developed from S-type granites. These results were related to the mineralogical characteristics of each granite type, such as a high percentage of silica-bearing minerals in the S-type granites. The highest concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, and P in I-type granites were found in feldspars, amphiboles, and apatite. These elements account for the majority of nutrients derived in their soil profiles. However, it seems that the harsh conditions of the humid tropical environment equalized the effect of the rocks on weathering rates-the difference in chemical index of alteration is more extreme in the dry region.
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