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Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 745 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 746 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botánica Venezuelica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 0)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Ajayu Órgano de Difusión Científica del Departamento de Psicología UCBSP     Open Access  
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access   (SJR: 0.386, CiteScore: 1)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Pain (BrJP)     Open Access  
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.532, CiteScore: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos.info     Open Access   (SJR: 0.38, CiteScore: 0)
Cubo. A Mathematical J.     Open Access  
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 0)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DELTA : Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Dementia & Neuropsychologia     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Press J. of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 0)
Diálogo Andino - Revista de Historia, Geografía y Cultura Andina     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Diánoia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dynamis : Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
e-J. of Portuguese History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Economia Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Economia e Sociedade     Open Access  
EconoQuantum     Open Access  
Educação & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Educação e Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.163, CiteScore: 0)
Educação em Revista     Open Access  
Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Educación Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.236, CiteScore: 0)
Educación Médica Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Educación y Educadores     Open Access  
Educar em Revista     Open Access  
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Encuentros     Open Access  
Ene : Revista de Enfermería     Open Access  
Enfermería Global     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 0)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Engenharia Agrícola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
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Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.63
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1517-8382 - ISSN (Online) 1678-4405
Published by SciELO Homepage  [745 journals]
  • Illumina sequencing and assessment of new cost-efficient protocol for
           metagenomic-DNA extraction from environmental water samples

    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the development and assessment of a modified, efficient, and cost-efficient protocol for mDNA (metagenomic DNA) extraction from contaminated water samples was attempted. The efficiency of the developed protocol was investigated in comparison to a well-established commercial kit (Epicentre, Metagenomic DNA Isolation Kit for Water). The comparison was in terms of degree of shearing, yield, purity, duration, suitability for polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing in addition to the quality of next-generation sequencing data. The DNA yield obtained from the developed protocol was 2.6 folds higher than that of the commercial kit. No significant difference in the alpha (Observed species, Chao1, Simpson and PD whole tree) and beta diversity was found between the DNA samples extracted by the commercial kit and the developed protocol. The number of high-quality sequences of the samples extracted by the developed method was 20% higher than those obtained by the samples processed by the kit. The developed economic protocol successfully yielded high-quality pure mDNA compatible with complex molecular applications. Thus we propose the developed protocol as a gold standard for future metagenomic studies investigating a large number of samples.
       
  • Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria reduce aphid population and enhance
           the productivity of bread wheat

    • Abstract: Abstract Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1 tiller−1), and highest plant height (85.8 cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320 m−2), straw yield (8.6 Mg ha−1), and grain yield (4.8 Mg ha−1) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5–38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity.
       
  • Combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorus solubilizing
           bacteria (Bacillus strain MWT 14) improve the performance of bread wheat
           with low fertilizer input under an arid climate

    • Abstract: Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150–100 NP kg ha−1) and half dose (75–50 NP kg ha−1) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate.
       
  • Dynamics and diversity of the bacterial community during the spontaneous
           decay of açai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits

    • Abstract: Abstract The biodiversity and evolution of the microbial community in açai fruits (AF) between three geographical origins and two spontaneous decay conditions were examined by applying culture-independent methods. Culture-independent methods based on 16S rRNA from fifteen samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the most abundant phyla. At the genus level, Massilia (taxon with more than 50% of the sequences remaining constant during the 30 h of decay), Pantoea, Naxibacter, Enterobacter, Raoultella and Klebsiella were identified, forming the carposphere bacterial microbiota of AF. AF is fibre-rich and Massilia bacteria could find a large quantity of substrate for its growth through cellulase production. Beta diversity showed that the quality parameters of AF (pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and lipids) and elemental analysis (C, N, H and C/N ratio) were unable to drive microbial patterns in AF. This research offers new insight into the indigenous bacterial community composition on AF as a function of spontaneous postharvest decay.
       
  • Evaluation of skimmed milk flocculation method for virus recovery from
           tomatoes

    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the elution-concentration methodology based on skimmed milk flocculation from three varieties of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. [globe], Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme [cherry] and hybrid cocktail [grape tomato]) for further monitoring of field samples. Spiking experiments were performed to determine the success rate and efficiency recovery of human norovirus (NoV) genogroup II, norovirus murine-1 (MNV-1) used as sample process control virus and human adenovirus (HAdV). Mean values of 18.8%, 2.8% and 44.0% were observed for NoV GII, MNV-1 and HAdV, respectively with differences according to the types of tomatoes, with lower efficiency for cherry tomatoes. Analysis of 90 samples, obtained at commercial establishments in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro State, revealed 4.5% positivity for HAdV. Bacterial analysis was also performed with no detection of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and fecal coliforms. Data demonstrated that the skimmed milk flocculation method is suitable for recovering HAdV from tomatoes and highlights the need for considering investigation in order to improve food safety.
       
  • Endophytic Bacillus strains enhance pearl millet growth and
           nutrient uptake under low-P

    • Abstract: Abstract Bacterial endophytes are considered to have a beneficial effect on host plants, improving their growth by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of four endophytic Bacillus strains to solubilize iron phosphate (Fe-P), produce siderophores and indole-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro, and to evaluate their plant growth promotion ability in greenhouse conditions by inoculation into pearl millet cultivated in a P-deficient soils without P fertilization, with Araxá rock phosphate or soluble triple superphosphate. All strains solubilized Fe-P and three of them produced carboxylate-type siderophores and high levels of IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Positive effect of inoculation of some of these strains on shoot and root dry weight and the N P K content of plants cultivated in soil with no P fertilization might result from the synergistic combination of multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Specifically, while B1923 enhanced shoot and root dry weight and root N P content of plants cultivated with no P added, B2084 and B2088 strains showed positive performance on biomass production and accumulation of N P K in the shoot, indicating that they have higher potential to be microbial biofertilizer candidates for commercial applications in the absence of fertilization.
       
  • Diversity and communities of culturable endophytic fungi from different
           tree peonies (geoherbs and non-geoherbs), and their biosynthetic potential
           analysis

    • Abstract: Abstract To know more about the potential roles of endophytic fungi in the formation mechanism of Daodi medicinal material, diversity and communities of culturable endophytic fungi in three types of tree peonies were investigated. Endophytic fungi of three types of tree peonies were isolated and identified. The diversity was analyzed. Bayesian trees constructed by MrBayes 3.2.6 after phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences. The endophytic fungi potential for synthesis of natural products was assessed by means of detecting NRPS and PKS gene sequences. In total, 364 endophytic fungi isolates representing 26 genera were recovered from Paeonia ostii ‘Feng Dan’, Paeonia ostii ‘Luoyang Feng Dan’, and Paeonia suffruticosa ‘Luoyang Hong’. More culturable endophytic fungi appeared in P. suffruticosa ‘Luoyang Hong’ (206) compared with P. ostii ‘Feng Dan’ (60) and P. ostii ‘Luoyang Feng Dan’ (98). The fungal community of P. ostii ‘Feng Dan’ had the highest richness and diversity. PKSs and NRPS detection rates of endophytic fungi from P. ostii ‘Feng Dan’ are both the highest among the three types of tree peonies. Results indicate that endophytic fungus is an important factor of Daodi Cortex Moutan forming, and endophytic fungi in peony are related to genuineness of Cortex Moutan.
       
  • Screening of endophytic fungi stored in a culture collection for taxol
           production

    • Abstract: Abstract In this work, four isolates of endophytic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Glomerella cingulata and Nigrospora sphaerica), deposited in the culture collection ‘University Recife Mycologia’ (URM) at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, were characterized for the genes ITS 1 and 4 (region 5.8 S) and evaluated for taxol production.
       
  • Pleurotus spp. cultivation on Brachiaria sp. straw
           treatment with alkaline water

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous alkali-treated Brachiaria straw for the cultivation of appropriate species of oyster mushroom. The substrate used in the cultivation of various Pleurotus spp. was soaked for 20 min by using two different procedures: (i) 0.5–2.0% Ca(OH)2 in 100 L water, and (ii) 50–250 L water. As a result, 1% Ca(OH)2 dissolved in 100 L water and 3.5 kg of Brachiaria straw presented the best production. The most suitable species for the application of the present method were P. pulmonarius and P. sapidus. The success of this technique is directly related to the concentration of Ca(OH)2 and water, the species, and the origin and quality of raw material used as the substrate in the production of oyster mushroom.
       
  • Development of an indirect ELISA based on recombinant capsid protein to
           detect antibodies to bovine leukemia virus

    • Abstract: Abstract Serological testing and culling infected animals are key management practices aiming eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection. Here, we report the development of an indirect ELISA based on BLV recombinant capsid protein (BLVp24r) to detect anti-BLV antibodies in cattle serum. The BLVp24r was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography, and then used to set up the ELISA parameters. The Polysorp ® plate coated with 50 ng of antigen/well and bovine serum diluted 1:100 gave the best results during standardization. Using sera from infected and non-infected cattle we set up the cutoff point at 0.320 (OD450 nm) with a sensitivity of 98.5% and specificity of 100.0%. Then, we tested 1.187 serum samples from dairy (736 samples) and beef cattle (451 samples) with unknown status to BLV. We found that 31.1% (229/736) and 9.5% (43/451) of samples amongst dairy and beef cattle, respectively, had IgGs to BLV. The rate of agreement with a commercial competitive ELISA was 84.3% with a κ value of 0.68. Thus, our BLVp24r iELISA is suitable to detect BLV infected animals and should be a useful tool to control BLV infection in cattle.
       
  • Survey on pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in captive
           cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus)

    • Abstract: Abstract We surveyed healthy captive cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Cloacal swabs were collected from 94 cockatiels kept in commercial breeders, private residencies and pet shops in the cities of São Paulo/SP and Niterói/RJ (Brazil). Three strains of E. coli from each individual were tested for the presence of ExPEC-, APEC- and DEC-related genes. We evaluated the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCMY, blaCTX-M, tetA, tetB, aadA, aphA, strAB, sul1, sul2, sul3, qnrA, qnrD, qnrB, qnrS, oqxAB, aac (6)′-Ib-cr, qepA resistance genes and markers for plasmid incompatibility groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected. E. coli was isolated in 10% of the animals (9/94). Four APEC genes (ironN, ompT, iss and hlyF) were detected in two strains (2/27–7%), and iss (1/27–4%) in one isolate. The highest resistance rates were observed with amoxicillin (22/27–82%), ampicillin (21/27–79%), streptomycin (18/27–67%), tetracycline (11/27–41%). Multiresistance was verified in 59% (16/27) of the isolates. We detected strAB, bla TEM, tetA, tetB, aadA, aphaA, sul1, sul2, sul3 resistance genes and plasmid Inc groups in 20 (74%) of the strains. E. coli isolated from these cockatiels are of epidemiological importance, since these pets could transmit pathogenic and multiresistant microorganisms to humans and other animals.
       
  • Duplex nested-PCR for detection of small ruminant lentiviruses

    • Abstract: Abstract Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) have high genetic variability which results in different viral strains around the world. This create a challenge to design sensible primers for molecular diagnosis in different regions. This work proposes a protocol of duplex nested-PCR for the precise diagnosis of SRLV. The technique was designed and tested with the control strains CAEV Co and MVV 1514. Then, field strains were submitted to the same protocol of duplex nested-PCR. Blood samples of sheep and goats were tested with AGID and nested PCR with specific primers for pol, gag and LTR. The AGID results showed low detection capacity of positive animals, while the nested PCR demonstrated a greater capacity of virus detection. Results demonstrated that LTR-PCR was more efficient in detecting positive sheep samples, whereas gag-PCR allowed a good detection of samples of positive goats and positive sheep. In addition, pol-PCR was more efficient with goat samples than for sheep. Duplex nested PCR performed with standard virus samples and field strains demonstrated that the technique is more efficient for the detection of multiple pro-viral DNA sequences. This study demonstrated a successful duplex nested PCR assay allowing a more accurate diagnosis of SRLV.
       
  • Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with cattle
           infections in southwest China using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST),
           antibiotic resistance and virulence-associated gene profile analysis

    • Abstract: Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae is important human and animal pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of infections. In this study, isolates from cattle nasal swabs samples were identified by 16S rRNA, and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene carrying levels, and multilocus sequence typing of K. pneumoniae isolates. 33 isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated and identified in 213 nasal swabs samples, of which 12 were hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases genes were found in 93.4% of the strains. Of which, TEM was the most prevalent (93.4%), followed by CTX-M and SHV were 57.6% and 39.4%, respectively. A main mutation pattern of quinoloneresistance-determining region, Thr83-Ieu and Asp87-Asn in gyrA and Ser87-Ile in parC, was detected in 33 K. pneumoniae isolates. All the isolates harbored at least two virulence factor genes, with ureA (97.0%) and wabG (91.0%) exhibiting high carriage rates in 33 K. pneumoniae isolates. MLST revealed 7 sequence types, of which 3 STs (2541, 2581 and 2844) were newly assigned. Using eBURST, ST2844 and ST2541 were assigned to new clonal complex 2844. Our study provides evidence and biological characteristics of K. pneumoniae isolates from cattle upper respiratory tract in Southwest China.
       
  • The use of Prevotella bryantii 3C5 for modulation of the ruminal
           environment in an ovine model

    • Abstract: Abstract In the Southern Hemisphere, ruminants are mostly raised in grazing systems where animals consume forage and are supplemented with low amounts of concentrates. Concentrates are usually given separately and are rapidly ingested. This practice leads to changing rumen environment conditions during the day, may alter the rumen microbial metabolism and could affect host performance. The native ruminal Prevotella bryantii strain 3C5 was administered every 48 h to wethers under experimental conditions simulating Southern-Hemisphere feeding to evaluate its potential as a rumen fermentation modulator. The inoculum potential was assessed on day 17. The ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids and ruminal pH were monitored on a 24-h basis 19 days after the beginning of the experiment, and the microbial community structure was assessed by pyrosequencing. The administration of P. bryantii modified the fermentation products and daily pH values compared to the control. The NH3-N concentration in the rumen of treated animals was significantly higher than that of the untreated animals. Modification of the ruminal environment and fermentation pathways was achieved without altering the general structure of the microbial community or the potential methane production. P. bryantii 3C5 could be considered in potential probiotic formulations for ruminants in semi-intensive systems.
       
  • Characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from
           free-range helmeted guineafowl

    • Abstract: Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates from apparently healthy free range helmeted guineafowl were characterized. Most of them had a high frequency of virulence associated genes, multi drug resistance and high pathogenicity. We demonstrated that helmeted guineafowl have potential to transmit antibiotic resistant APEC to other species including humans.
       
  • Antimicrobial effect of copper surfaces on bacteria isolated from poultry
           meat

    • Abstract: Abstract Poultry meat is a food product that usually carries high rates of microbial contamination, including foodborne pathogens. The poultry industry has established different systems to minimize these hazards. In recent years, extensive literature has demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of different contact surfaces made of copper to effectively reduce microbial loads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of copper surfaces on the transmission of two foodborne pathogens – Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes – and a poultry native microbiota bacterial species – Enterobacter cloacae. We also evaluated the impact of the poultry meat matrix on the antimicrobial activity of a copper surface. Our results indicated that copper surfaces reduced the bacterial load quickly (<than 4 min) when the microorganisms were exposed to polished copper surfaces. Even when bacteria were inoculated on copper surfaces soiled with the organic matrix (washing water from poultry carcasses) and survival rates were significantly higher, an antimicrobial effect was still observed. Survival rates of two microorganisms simultaneously exposed to copper did not show significant differences. We found an antimicrobial effect over pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. Results suggest a potential role for copper surfaces in the control of microbiological hazards in the poultry industry.
       
  • Carbon metabolism influenced for promoters and temperature used in the
           heterologous protein production using Pichia pastoris yeast

    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, it is necessary to search for different high-scale production strategies to produce recombinant proteins of economic interest. Only a few microorganisms are industrially relevant for recombinant protein production: methylotrophic yeasts are known to use methanol efficiently as the sole carbon and energy source. Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast characterized as being an economical, fast and effective system for heterologous protein expression. Many factors can affect both the product and the production, including the promoter, carbon source, pH, production volume, temperature, and many others; but to control all of them most of the time is difficult and this depends on the initial selection of each variable. Therefore, this review focuses on the selection of the best promoter in the recombination process, considering different inductors, and the temperature as a culture medium variable in methylotrophic Pichia pastoris yeast. The goal is to understand the effects associated with different factors that influence its cell metabolism and to reach the construction of an expression system that fulfills the requirements of the yeast, presenting an optimal growth and development in batch, fed-batch or continuous cultures, and at the same time improve its yield in heterologous protein production.
       
  • Antimicrobial potential of pyroligneous extracts – a systematic review
           and technological prospecting

    • Abstract: Abstract Pyroligneous extract is applied in diverse areas as an antioxidant, an antimicrobial, and an anti-inflammatory agent. The discovery of new cost-effective antimicrobial agents of natural origin remains a challenge for the scientific community. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and a technological forecasting of the existent evidence regarding the use of pyroligneous extract as a potential antimicrobial agent. Studies were identified through an investigation of various electronic databases: PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, Google scholar, and ProQuest. Patents were searched through INPI, Google patents, Espacenet, Patents online, USPTO, and WIPO. The literature on antimicrobial activity of pyroligneous extract are limited given the short duration of studies and variability in study design, use of pyroligneous preparations, and reports on results. However, evidence suggests the potential of pyroligneous extract as a natural antimicrobial agent. The most studied activity was the role of PE as a food preservative. However, pyroligneous extracts are also effective against pathogenic bacteria in the oral microflora and treatment of candidal infections. Further research is needed using standardized preparations of pyroligneous extracts to determine their long-term effectiveness and ability as antimicrobial agents.
       
  • Ethanol production from sweet sorghum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
           DBKKUY-53 immobilized on alginate-loofah matrices

    • Abstract: Abstract Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) using the thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain DBKKUY-53 immobilized in an alginate-loofah matrix (ALM) was successfully developed. As found in this study, an ALM with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 5 mm3 is effective for cell immobilization due to its compact structure and long-term stability. The ALM-immobilized cell system exhibited greater ethanol production efficiency than the freely suspended cell system. By using a central composite design (CCD), the optimum conditions for ethanol production from SSJ by ALM-immobilized cells were determined. The maximum ethanol concentration and volumetric ethanol productivity obtained using ALM-immobilized cells under the optimal conditions were 97.54 g/L and 1.36 g/L h, respectively. The use of the ALM-immobilized cells was successful for at least six consecutive batches (360 h) without any loss of ethanol production efficiency, suggesting their potential application in industrial ethanol production.
       
  • Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food
           industry by-products

    • Abstract: Abstract To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19 g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14 g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45 g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer.
       
  • Comparative proteomic analyses of Hyphozyma roseonigra ATCC 20624
           in response to sclareol

    • Abstract: Abstract Sclareol is an important intermediate for ambroxide synthesis industries. Hyphozyma roseonigra ATCC 20624 was the only reported strain capable of degrading sclareol to the main product of sclareol glycol, which is the precursor of ambroxide. To date, knowledge is lacking about the effects of sclareol on cells and the proteins involved in sclareol metabolism. Comparative proteomic analyses were conducted on the strain H. roseonigra ATCC 20624 by using sclareol or glucose as the sole carbon source. A total of 79 up-regulated protein spots with a >2.0-fold difference in abundance on 2-D gels under sclareol stress conditions were collected for further identification. Seventy spots were successfully identified and finally integrated into 30 proteins. The up-regulated proteins under sclareol stress are involved in carbon metabolism; and nitrogen metabolism; and replication, transcription, and translation processes. Eighteen up-regulated spots were identified as aldehyde dehydrogenases, which indicating that aldehyde dehydrogenases might play an important role in sclareol metabolism. Overall, this study may lay the fundamentals for further cell engineering to improve sclareol glycol production.
       
  • Differential proteomics research of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its
           genome-shuffled saltant for improving fengycin production

    • Abstract: Abstract In the previous study, we used genome shuffling to improve fengycin production of the original strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2–4. After two rounds of genome shuffling, a high-yield recombinant FMB72 strain that exhibited 8.30-fold increase in fengycin production was obtained. In this study, comparative proteomic analysis of the parental ES-2–4 and genome-shuffled FMB72 strains was conducted to examine the differentially expressed proteins. In the shuffled strain FMB72, 50 differently expressed spots (p < 0.05) were selected to be excised and analyzed using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry, and finally 44 protein spots were confidently identified according to NCBI database. According to clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional category analysis and related references, the differentially expressed proteins could be classified into several functional categories, including proteins involved in metabolism, energy generation and conversion, DNA replication, transcription, translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis, cell motility and secretion, signal transduction mechanisms, general function prediction. Of the 44 identified proteins, signaling proteins ComA and Spo0A may positively regulate fengycin synthesis at transcriptional level. Taken together, the present study will be informative for exploring the exact roles of ComA and Spo0A in fengycin synthesis and explaining the molecular mechanism of fengycin synthesis.
       
  • Bioconversion of waste cooking oil glycerol from cabbage extract to lactic
           acid by Rhizopus microsporus

    • Abstract: Abstract Glycerol from spent oil was processed by transesterification for biodiesel production. Although glycerol contains many types of impurities, it can be used as a C-source for lactic acid production by fungi, such as Rhizopus microsporus. In this study, we found that wild type R. microsporus (LTH23) produced more lactic acid than the mutant strains on cabbage glycerol media (CG media). More lactic acid was produced on CG media than on cabbage extract media (C media) by about two-fold in batch fermentation conditions. In addition, we found that lactic acid production in a fed-batch process was also slightly higher than in a batch process. To study the combined effects of pH, urea, and glycerol waste concentration on lactic acid production, a response surface methodology was used. The optimum pH, urea, and glycerol waste concentrations were pH 6.5, 3.75 g/L, and 17 g/L, respectively. The maximum lactic acid production predicted by this equation model was 4.03 g/L.
       
  • First report of the production of a potent biosurfactant with
           α,β-trehalose by Fusarium fujikuroi under optimized conditions of
           submerged fermentation

    • Abstract: Abstract Biosurfactants have many advantages over synthetic surfactants but have higher production costs. Identifying microorganisms with high production capacities for these molecules and optimizing their growth conditions can reduce cost. The present work aimed to isolate and identify a fungus with high biosurfactant production capacity, optimize its growth conditions in a low cost culture medium, and characterize the chemical structure of the biosurfactant molecule. The fungal strain UFSM-BAS-01 was isolated from soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and identified as Fusarium fujikuroi. To optimize biosurfactant production, a Plackett–Burman design and a central composite rotational design were used. The variables evaluated were pH, incubation period, temperature, agitation and amount of inoculum in a liquid medium containing glucose. The partial structure of the biosurfactant molecule was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. F. fujikuroi reduced surface tension from 72 to 20 mN m−1 under the optimized conditions of pH 5.0, 37 °C and 7 days of incubation with 190 rpm agitation. The partial identification of the structure of the biosurfactant demonstrated the presence of an α,β-trehalose. The present study is the first report of the biosynthesis of this compound by F. fujikuroi, suggesting that the biosurfactant produced belongs to the class of trehalolipids.
       
  • Phenotype-driven strategies for screening Candida parapsilosis complex for
           molecular identification

    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, phenotypic methods presented >80% agreement with the molecular identification of 59 Candida parapsilosis complex. Growth at 15% NaCl or pH 7.0 significantly reduced cfu-counts of Candida orthopsilosis, suggesting these conditions may support the development of phenotypic methods for the differentiation of the cryptic species of C. parapsilosis complex.
       
  • Bacteremia and meningitis caused by OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter
           baumannii – molecular characterization and susceptibility testing for
           alternative antibiotics

    • Abstract: Abstract Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection is a concern in developing countries due to high incidence, few therapeutic options, and increasing costs. Objective: Characterize and analyze the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates and evaluate clinical data of meningitis and bacteremia caused by this microorganism. Methods: Twenty-six A. baumannii isolates from 23 patients were identified by MALDI-TOF and automated methods and genotyped using pulsed field genotyping electrophoresis. Clinical data and outcomes were evaluated. Susceptibility of isolates to colistin, tigecycline, meropenem, imipenem, and doxycycline was determined. Results: Mortality due to A. baumannii infections was 73.91%; all patients with meningitis and 7/8 patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia died. All isolates were susceptibility to polymyxin (100%; MIC50, MIC90: 1 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL) and colistin (100%; MIC50, MIC90: 2 µg/mL, 2 µg/mL), and 92% were susceptible to tigecycline (MIC50, MIC90: 1 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL) and doxycycline (MIC50, MIC90: 2 µg/mL, 2 µg/mL). bla OXA-23 was identified in 24 isolates. Molecular typing showed 8 different patterns: 13 isolates belonged to pattern A (50%). Conclusion: Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infections mortality is high. Alternative antimicrobial therapy (doxycycline) for selected patients with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infection should be considered.
       
  • Non-viral microbial keratitis in adults: clinical and laboratory aspects

    • Abstract: Abstract This study compares patients with and without non-viral microbial keratitis in relation to sociodemographic variables, clinical aspects, and involved causative agent. Clinical aspects, etiology and therapeutic procedures were assessed in patients with and without keratitis that were diagnosed in an Eye Care Center in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: (a) cases: 64 patients with non-viral microbial keratitis diagnosed at biomicroscopy; and (b) controls: 47 patients with other eye disorders that were not keratitis. Labor activity related to agriculture, cattle raising, and contact lens use were all linked to keratitis occurrence (p < 0.005). In patients with keratitis, the most common symptoms were pain and photophobia, and the most frequently used medicines were fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (34.4%), amphotericin B (31.3%), and natamycin (28.1%). Microbial keratitis evolved to corneal perforation in 15.6% of cases; transplant was indicated in 10.9% of cases. Regarding the etiology of this condition, 23 (42.2%) keratitis cases were caused by bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 12.5%), 17 (39.1%) by fungi (Fusarium spp., 14.1% and Aspergillus spp., 4.7%), and 4 (6.3%) by Acanthamoeba. Patients with keratitis present with a poorer prognosis. Rapid identification of the etiologic agent is indispensable and depends on appropriate ophthalmological collection and microbiological techniques.
       
  • Accuracy of heparin binding protein: as a new marker in prediction of
           acute bacterial meningitis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Background: Cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture is the gold-standard for confirmation of acute bacterial meningitis, but many cases are not culture confirmed. Antibiotics reduce the chance of a microbiological diagnosis. Objective to evaluate efficacy of Heparin-binding protein in diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Patients: 30 patients diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis, 30 viral meningitis, and 30 subjects with normal CSF findings. Design: Diagnosis was based on history, clinical criteria, CSF examination, latex agglutination & culture, and sensitivities and response to therapy. HBP was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent technique in both serum & CSF. Results: Cerebrospinal fluid HBP levels averaged 0.82 ± 0.3 ng/mL in controls, 3.3 ± 1.7 ng/mL in viral and 174.8 ± 46.7 ng/mL in bacterial meningitis. Mean serum level was 0.84 ± 0.3 ng/mL in the controls, 3.7 ± 1.9 ng/mL in viral, and 192.2 ± 56.6 ng/mL in bacterial meningitis. Both HBP levels were significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis. Cut-offs of 56.7 ng/ml and 45.3 ng/ml in cerebrospinal fluid & serum showed 100% overall accuracy. Even in patients who received prior antibiotics, remained elevated. Conclusion: Serum Heparin-binding protein serves as a non-invasive potential marker of acute bacterial meningitis even in partially treated cases.
       
  • A high prevalence of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 co-infections in
           cervical biopsies from southern Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT HPV types 16 and 18 were studied in paraffin-fixed cervical biopsy collected in southern Brazil. HPV 16, HPV 18 and co-infection HPV 16/18 were identified in 10/57 (17.5%), 4/57 (7%) and in 43/57 (75.4%) samples, respectively. Southern Brazil has one of the highest prevalence rates of HPV 16/18 reported.
       
  • Detection of virulence and β-lactamase encoding genes in Enterobacter
           aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates from Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes have been increasingly reported as important opportunistic pathogens. In this study, a high prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates from Brazil, harboring several β-lactamase encoding genes was found. Several virulence genes were observed in E. aerogenes, contrasting with the E. cloacae isolates which presented none.
       
  • Antifungal activity of Gallesia integrifolia fruit essential oil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC–MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides.
       
  • Biocontrol potential of saline- or alkaline-tolerant Trichoderma
           asperellum mutants against three pathogenic fungi under saline or alkaline
           stress conditions

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Salinity and alkalinity are major abiotic stresses that limit growth and development of poplar. We investigated biocontrol potential of saline- and alkaline-tolerant mutants of Trichoderma asperellum to mediate the effects of salinity or alkalinity stresses on Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis (PdPap poplar) seedlings. A T-DNA insertion mutant library of T. asperellum was constructed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system; this process yielded sixty five positive transformants (T1–T65). The salinity tolerant mutant, T59, grew in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) containing up to 10% (1709.40 mM) NaCl. Under NaCl-rich conditions, T59 was most effective in inhibiting Alternaria alternata (52.00%). The alkalinity tolerant mutants, T3 and T5, grew in PDA containing up to 0.4% (47.62 mM) NaHCO3. The ability of the T3 and T5 mutants to inhibit Fusarium oxysporum declined as NaHCO3 concentrations increased. NaHCO3 tolerance of the PdPap seedlings improved following treatment with the spores of the WT, T3, and T5 strains. The salinity tolerant mutant (T59) and two alkalinity tolerant mutants (T3 and T5) generated in this study can be applied to decrease the incidence of pathogenic fungi infection under saline or alkaline stress.
       
  • Molecular methods for diversity assessment among xanthomonads of Bulgarian
           and Macedonian pepper

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Bacterial spot is an important disease of pepper in Bulgaria and Macedonia. For characterization of Xanthomonas species associated with bacterial spot, 161 strains were collected from various field pepper-growing regions. Among them, 131 strains were identified as Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and 30 as Xanthomonas vesicatoria using species-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To assess the genetic diversity of the strains, two methods (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Repetitive Element Palindromic-Polymerase Chain Reaction) were applied. Discriminatory index was calculated and analysis of molecular variance was carried out.Combined random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the X. euvesicatoria strains with primers CUGEA-4 and CUGEA-6 had greater discriminative power (0.60) than repetitive element palindromic-polymerase chain reaction with ERIC and BOX A1R primers, which makes this method applicable for strain diversity evaluation. Discrimination among the X. vesicatoria strains was achieved by the use of ERIC primers and only for the Bulgarian strains. The results demonstrated that X. euvesicatoria was more diverse than X. vesicatoria and heterogeneity was observed mainly in the Bulgarian populations. According to the analysis of molecular variance, genetic variations in X. euvesicatoria were observed among and within populations from different regions, while the differences between the two countries were minor. Following the principal coordinates analysis, a relation between the climatic conditions of the regions and a genetic distance of the populations may be suggested.
       
  • Rio Negro virophage: Sequencing of the near complete genome and
           transmission electron microscopy of viral factories and particles

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Rio Negro virophage (RNV) was co-isolated with a strain of mimivirus named sambavirus, from Brazilian Amazon. We report the near complete genome sequence of RNV, the first virophage isolated in Brazil. We also present new microscopical data demonstrating that RNV particles have similar dimensions to that described to sputnik virophages.
       
  • JMT-1: a novel, spherical lytic halotolerant phage isolated from Yuncheng
           saline lake

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This work described a novel halotolerant phage, JMT-1, with a spherical morphology. JMT-1, which was isolated from a hypersaline lake, could produce clear plaques on Chromohalobacter sp. LY7-3. The purified virions are spherical, have no visible tail, and are about 30–50 nm in diameter. JMT-1 has a wide host range, and this study showed that the phage can infect at least five halophilic bacteria. The proteins of JMT-1 were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and six proteins were detected. Results show that JMT-1 is a bacteriophage with a linear double-stranded DNA. Meanwhile, the genome is approximately 23 kb in length and is sensitive to the restriction endonucleases Bam I, EcoR I, Hind III and Kpa I. JMT-1 has a high titer, approaching 1.5 × 109 pfu/mL after dilution to 10−6 pfu/mL. The phage is also sensitive to chloroform but not to temperature, pH, and lowered salt concentration. JMT-1 is a spherical lytic halotolerant phage with a wide host range and has the tolerance to specific extreme environments. These data could provide references for studying phage resources in extreme environments and would also provide the useful methods for isolation and identification of other valuable phage in the salt lake environment.
       
  • Influence of iron and copper on the activity of laccases in Fusarium
           oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt in tomato plants. In this work we analyze the influence of metal salts such as iron and copper sulphate, as well as that of bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic acid (iron chelator) and bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (copper chelator) on the activity of laccases in the intra (IF) and extracellular fractions (EF) of the wild-type and the non-pathogenic mutant strain (rho1::hyg) of F. oxysporum. The results show that laccase activity in the IF fraction of the wild and mutant strain increased with the addition of iron chelator (53.4 and 114.32%; respectively). With copper, it is observed that there is an inhibition of the activity with the addition of CuSO4 for the EF of the wild and mutant strain (reduction of 82 and 62.6%; respectively) and for the IF of the mutant strain (54.8%). With the copper chelator a less laccase activity in the IF of the mutant strain was observed (reduction of 53.9%). The results obtained suggest a different regulation of intracellular laccases in the mutant strain compared with the wild type in presence of CuSO4 and copper chelator which may be due to the mutation in the rho gene.
       
 
 
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