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Publisher: SciELO   (Total: 727 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 727 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACIMED     Open Access   (SJR: 0.11, h-index: 4)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, h-index: 13)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 3)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.403, h-index: 17)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.212, h-index: 4)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.271, h-index: 14)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, h-index: 2)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Medica Peruana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.159, h-index: 9)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.34, h-index: 12)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.65, h-index: 11)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, h-index: 13)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 2)
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access  
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 5)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.456, h-index: 16)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 34)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.179, h-index: 15)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access  
Análise Social     Open Access  
Analisis Politico     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 22)
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità     Open Access   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 25)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access  
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.136, h-index: 11)
Archivos de Medicina Interna     Open Access  
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 13)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.104, h-index: 4)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.228, h-index: 16)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 2)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 18)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.33, h-index: 29)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.329, h-index: 26)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.298, h-index: 15)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 18)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.357, h-index: 33)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 13)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 4)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access  
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Biocell     Open Access   (SJR: 0.228, h-index: 19)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.437, h-index: 12)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.202, h-index: 4)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, h-index: 2)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de Historia Argentina y Americana Dr. Emilio Ravignani     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 7)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 7)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.685, h-index: 18)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, h-index: 24)
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 28)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 30)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.437, h-index: 25)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.431, h-index: 62)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 31)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 8)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.136, h-index: 5)
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.53, h-index: 12)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 30)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 8)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access  
Bulletin of the World Health Organization     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.395, h-index: 105)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (SJR: 0.209, h-index: 2)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.12, h-index: 4)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 6)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.673, h-index: 45)
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access  
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 2)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.198, h-index: 8)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 10)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 10)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.635, h-index: 23)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.14, h-index: 2)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 5)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.618, h-index: 14)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, h-index: 7)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 17)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 5)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.356, h-index: 17)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.186, h-index: 7)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.47, h-index: 29)
CoDAS     Open Access  
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.131, h-index: 2)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 4)
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access  
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 3)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 10)
Cuaderno urbano     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Educativa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 3)
Cuadernos.info     Open Access  
Cubo. A Mathematical J.     Open Access  
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access  
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (SJR: 0.339, h-index: 13)
DELTA : Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.108, h-index: 3)
Dementia & Neuropsychologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dental Press J. of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 5)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 1)
Diálogo Andino - Revista de Historia, Geografía y Cultura Andina     Open Access  
Diánoia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dynamis : Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-J. of Portuguese History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 11)
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Economia Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.258, h-index: 4)
Economia e Sociedade     Open Access  
EconoQuantum     Open Access  
Educação & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 8)
Educação e Pesquisa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.204, h-index: 6)
Educação em Revista     Open Access  
Educación Matemática     Open Access  
Educación Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 5)
Educación Médica Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 6)
Educación y Educadores     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educar em Revista     Open Access  
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
Electronic J. of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 30)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Encuentros     Open Access  
Ene : Revista de Enfermería     Open Access  
Enfermería Global     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.113, h-index: 1)
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engenharia Agrícola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.505, h-index: 13)
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Ensaio Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 4)
Entomologia y Vectores     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Estudios de Economía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Estudios de historia moderna y contemporánea de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Estudios Filologicos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.12, h-index: 2)
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access  
Estudios internacionales     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
  [SJR: 0.431]   [H-I: 62]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0100-879X - ISSN (Online) 1414-431X
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [727 journals]
  • Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats
           submitted to birth asphyxia

    • Abstract: Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05), and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005). PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex) and TA (cortex/hippocampus) (P<0.005). I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005) and TA (ileum) (P<0.05). I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001). Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.
       
  • Predictors of early treatment discontinuation and severe anemia in a
           Brazilian cohort of hepatitis C patients treated with first-generation
           protease inhibitors

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for adverse events (AE)-related treatment discontinuation and severe anemia among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection, treated with first-generation protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy. We included all patients who initiated treatment with PI-based therapy at a Brazilian university hospital between November 2013 and December 2014. We prospectively collected data from medical records using standardized questionnaires and used Epi Info 6.0 for analysis. Severe anemia was defined as hemoglobin ≤8.5 mg/dL. We included 203 patients: 132 treated with telaprevir (TVR) and 71 treated with boceprevir (BOC). AE-related treatment discontinuation rate was 19.2% and anemia was the main reason (38.5%). Risk factors for treatment discontinuation were higher comorbidity index (OR=1.85, CI=1.05-3.25) for BOC, and higher bilirubin count (OR=1.02, CI=1.01-1.04) and lower BMI (OR=0.98, CI=0.96-0.99) for TVR. Severe anemia occurred in 35 (17.2%) patients. Risk factors for this outcome were lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; OR=0.95, CI=0.91-0.98) for patients treated with TVR, and higher comorbidity index (OR=2.21, CI=1.04-4.67) and ribavirin dosage (OR=0.84, CI=0.72-0.99) for those treated with BOC. Fifty-five (57.3%) patients treated with TVR and 15 (27.3%) patients treated with BOC achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Among patients who received TVR and interrupted treatment due to AE (n=19), only 26.3% (n=5) achieved SVR (P=0.003). Higher number of comorbidities, lower eGFR and advanced liver disease are associated with severe anemia and early treatment cessation, which may compromise SVR achievement.
       
  • Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular
           risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    • Abstract: Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men.
       
  • Effects of lung cancer cell-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation
           in vitro and in vivo

    • Abstract: B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is the most potent immunoinhibitory molecule in the B7 family. In this study, we examined the effects of tumor-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation in lung cancer. The expression of B7-H1 in human adenocarcinoma A549 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were examined by flow cytometry. To assess the in vitro effect of tumor-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation, we isolated T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals, labeled them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester, and co-cultured them with A549 cells in the absence or presence of anti-B7-H1 antibody. For in vivo analysis, LLC cells were subcutaneously injected into mice treated or not with anti-B7-H1 antibody. T-cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo assays was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro, co-culturing T cells with A549 cells significantly inhibited the proliferation of the former compared with the proliferation of T cells alone (P<0.01), and the addition of B7-H1 blocking antibody dramatically reversed the inhibition of T-cell proliferation by A549 cells. Similarly, in mice bearing LLC-derived xenograft tumors, in vivo administration of anti-B7-H1 antibody significantly increased the total number of spleen and tumor T cells compared to levels in control mice that did not receive anti-B7-H1 antibody. Functionally, in vivo administration of anti-B7-H1 antibody markedly reduced tumor growth. Tumor-associated B7-H1 may facilitate immune evasion by inhibiting T-cell proliferation. Targeting of this mechanism offers a promising therapy for cancer immunotherapy.
       
  • Association of terpinolene and diclofenac presents antinociceptive and
           anti-inflammatory synergistic effects in a model of chronic inflammation

    • Abstract: Pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain is usually done by administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs present high efficacy, although side effects are common, especially gastrointestinal lesions. One of the pharmacological strategies to minimize such effects is the combination of drugs and natural products with synergistic analgesic effect. The monoterpene terpinolene (TPL) is a chemical constituent of essential oils present in many plant species, which have pharmacological activities, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The association of ineffective doses of TPL and diclofenac (DCF) (3.125 and 1.25 mg/kg po, respectively) presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the acute (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, after treatment) and chronic (10 days) inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of female Wistar rats (170-230 g, n=6-8). The mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by the Randall Selitto paw pressure test, which determines the paw withdrawal thresholds. The development of edema was quantified by measuring the volume of the hind paw by plethismography. The TPL/DCF association reduced neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the histological analysis of the paw, following a standard staining protocol with hematoxylin and eosin and the counts were performed with the aid of optical microscopy after chronic oral administration of these drugs. Moreover, the TPL/DCF association did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. A possible mechanism of action of the analgesic effect is the involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, because ketanserin completely reversed the antinociceptive effect of the TPL/DCF association. These results suggest that the TPL/DCF association had a synergistic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without causing apparent gastric injury, and that the serotonergic system may be involved in the antinociceptive effect of this association.
       
  • Effect of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency in patients with
           heart disease: a review

    • Abstract: The analysis of ventilatory efficiency in cardiopulmonary exercise testing has proven useful for assessing the presence and severity of cardiorespiratory diseases. During exercise, efficient pulmonary gas exchange is characterized by uniform matching of lung ventilation with perfusion. By contrast, mismatching is marked by inefficient pulmonary gas exchange, requiring increased ventilation for a given CO2 production. The etiology of increased and inefficient ventilatory response to exercise in heart disease is multifactorial, involving both peripheral and central mechanisms. Exercise training has been recommended as non-pharmacological treatment for patients with different chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. In this respect, previous studies have reported improvements in ventilatory efficiency after aerobic exercise training in patients with heart disease. Against this background, the primary objective of the present review was to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in abnormal ventilatory response to exercise, with an emphasis on both patients with heart failure syndrome and coronary artery disease. Secondly, special focus was dedicated to the role of aerobic exercise training in improving indices of ventilatory efficiency among these patients, as well as to the underlying mechanisms involved.
       
  • Fluorescent membrane markers elucidate the association of Borrelia
           burgdorferi
    with tick cell lines

    • Abstract: This study aimed to describe the association of Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. with ixodid tick cell lines by flow cytometry and fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Spirochetes were stained with a fluorescent membrane marker (PKH67 or PKH26), inoculated into 8 different tick cell lines and incubated at 30°C for 24 h. PKH efficiently stained B. burgdorferi without affecting bacterial viability or motility. Among the tick cell lines tested, the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus cell line RA243 achieved the highest percentage of association/internalization, with both high (90%) and low (10%) concentrations of BSK-H medium in tick cell culture medium. Treatment with cytochalasin D dramatically reduced the average percentage of cells with internalized spirochetes, which passed through a dramatic morphological change during their internalization by the host cell as observed in time-lapse photography. Almost all of the fluorescent bacteria were seen to be inside the tick cells. PKH labeling of borreliae proved to be a reliable and valuable tool to analyze the association of spirochetes with host cells by flow cytometry, confocal and fluorescence microscopy.
       
 
 
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