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Showing 601 - 800 of 893 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Clínica de Medicina de Familia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.154, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Antropologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cardiologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Educación     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Entomología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Estadística     Open Access   (SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Matemáticas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.151, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Contabilidade & Finanças     Open Access   (SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Costarricense de Cardiología     Open Access  
Revista Costarricense de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Anestesiología y Reanimación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Cubana de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Cirugía     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Endocrinología     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Enfermería     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Estomatologí­a     Open Access   (SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Hematología, Inmunología y Hemoterapia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Información en Ciencias de la Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Informática Médica     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biomédicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Medicina     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical     Open Access   (SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Oftalmología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Cubana de Ortopedia y Traumatologí­a     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.127, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.262, CiteScore: 0)
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Revista da Faculdade de Educação     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical     Open Access   (SJR: 0.658, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de Administração - RAUSP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Administração Contemporânea     Open Access  
Revista de Administração de Empresas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Administração Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Análisis Económico     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Antropologia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Bioética y Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Biología Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de Ciencia Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Cirugía     Open Access   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Derecho     Open Access   (SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Derecho (Concepción)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Derecho (Coquimbo)     Open Access  
Revista de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Economia Contemporânea     Open Access   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Economía del Caribe     Open Access  
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Economía Institucional     Open Access   (SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Economia Poli­tíca     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Enfermagem Referência     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Estudios Historico-Juridicos     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Filosofia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Filosofía Open Insight     Open Access  
Revista de Geografía Norte Grande     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.251, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de Historia (Concepción)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Historia Americana y Argentina     Open Access  
Revista de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Investigacion Psicologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría     Open Access  
Revista de la Ciencia del Suelo y Nutricion Vegetal     Open Access   (SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access   (SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, UCV     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina (México)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Boliviana de Pediatría     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Española de Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiologia     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad Industrial de Santander. Salud     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Microbiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Nutrição     Open Access   (SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP     Open Access  
Revista de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo     Open Access  
Revista de Osteoporosis y Metabolismo Mineral     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello     Open Access  
Revista de Protección Vegetal     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones     Open Access   (SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.271, CiteScore: 1)
Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.171, CiteScore: 0)
Revista de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
Revista de Sociologia e Polí­tica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.482, CiteScore: 0)
Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical     Open Access  
Revista del Nacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Diacrítica     Open Access  
Revista Direito GV     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões     Open Access   (SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 1)
Revista do Departamento de Psicologia. UFF     Open Access  
Revista do Hospital das Clinicas     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo     Open Access   (SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Dor     Open Access  
Revista Ecuatoriana de Neurología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista EIA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista electrónica de investigación educativa     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Electronica Educare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.117, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.417, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Española de Salud Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.249, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Estudos Feministas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión     Open Access  
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de Tarapaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.125, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Geológica de América Central     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Gerencia y Políticas de Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Habanera de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Historia y Sociedad     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingeniería Biomédica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín     Open Access  
Revista Integra Educativa     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Bibliotecología     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Revista ION     Open Access  
Revista IUS     Open Access  
Revista Katálysis     Open Access  
Revista Lasallista de Investigación     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.339, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Bioética     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Derecho Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Económico     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Hipertension     Open Access   (SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latinoamericana de Investigación en Matemática Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.171, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Medica de Chile     Open Access   (SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Médica del Hospital Nacional de Niños Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Médica del Uruguay     Open Access  
Revista Médica Electrónica     Open Access  
Revista Médica La Paz     Open Access  
Revista Médico-Científica : Luz y Vida     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta     Open Access   (SJR: 0.405, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.596, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad     Open Access   (SJR: 0.421, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Mexicana de Economía y Finanzas     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access   (SJR: 0.203, CiteScore: 0)
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química     Open Access   (SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Mexicana de Micologí­a     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Sociologí­a     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Musical Chilena     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Nutrícias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Odonto Ciência     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Opinión Jurídica     Open Access  
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Paulista de Pediatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Perspectivas     Open Access  
Revista Pilquen : Sección Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Politécnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Portuguesa de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Portuguesa de Ortopedia e Traumatologia     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Portuguesa e Brasileira de Gestão     Open Access  
Revista Republicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Signos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Universitaria de Geografía     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Cardiologia     Open Access  

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Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.193
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0041-4751 - ISSN (Online) 2224-7912
Published by SciELO Homepage  [893 journals]
  • Frans Lion Cachet and the restoration of the Dutch Reformed Church in the
           Zuid-Afrikaansche Republic around 1866

    • Abstract: Die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NG Kerk) en die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk (NH Kerk) in Transvaal of die Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) skei finaal in die jare 1865-1866. Hierdie skeiding word by twee kerkvergaderings voltrek: die Kommissie van die Algemene Kerkvergadering van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk in Junie 1865 op Rustenburg en die Algemene Kerkvergadering van hierdie kerk in Pretoria in November daardie jaar. Agterna beskou het die Kommissievergadering van die Algemene Kerkvergadering op Rustenburg die breuk wat by die Algemene Kerkvergadering in Pretoria plaasgevind het, ingelei. Die twee uitstaande redes vir die breuk, naamlik die naam van die kerk en die plek en gesag van sy belydenisskrifte, is in Junie 1865 bespreek en na die Novembervergadering vir 'n beslissing verwys. Vanaf die kant van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk het hul segsman en voorloper, ds. Frans Lion Cachet, daarop gewys dat die naam van die kerk nie deurslaggewend is nie, maar dat die naam "Hervormd" van die Gereformeerde Kerk in Nederland deur die staatsowerheid met 'n reglement in 1816 aan hom opgelê is. Dit is verkeerd, omdat die kerk self sy naam moet kies. Dieselfde het in die ZAR gebeur waar die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk se naam - as staatskerk - sonder enige kennisgewing aan die kerk in artikel 20 van die ZAR-Grondwet van 1855 -1858 bepaal is. Daarby wou Lion Cachet en die NG Kerk dat die belydenisskrifte van die kerk die Drie Formuliere van Eenheid sal wees wat by die gereformeerde Nasionale Sinode van Dordrecht in 1618-1619 in Nederland aanvaar is. Belydenisse wat aanvaar word omdat die leer daarin vervat in alles met die Skrif ooreenkom. Vir predikante van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk in die ZAR was hierdie blik op die belydenisskrifte onaanvaarbaar. Met ds. Frans Lion Cachet aan die spits het die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in die ZAR in Desember 1866 te Utrecht sy eie koers ingeslaan met sy eerste Algemene Kerkvergadering. Tydens hierdie byeenkoms én by 5 latere algemene vergaderings was ds. Lion Cachet die voorsitter. In 1873 verhuis hy egter uit die ZAR na Nederland. Menslik gesproke, was Lion Cachet die groot dryfkrag agter die herorganisasie van die NG Kerk en sy gemeentes in die ZAR.In 1865-1866 the then Dutch Reformed ("Gereformeerde") Church ("Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk") and the Dutch Reformed ("Hervormde") Church ("Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk") went their separate ways. The latter became the church of the state of the South African Republic ("Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek" of 1852-1902) in its Constitution of 1855-1858. The term "hervormd", however, was taken up in article 20 of the Constitution without consulting the two churches. The separation of the two churches occurred at two meetings: at the Commission of the General Assembly of the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk" in June 1865 and at their General Assembly in November of the same year. At these meetings, Rev. Lion Cachet was the spokesperson of the "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk". The outstanding points of difference were the church's name and accepted confessions of faith. Lion Cachet and the "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk" argued that the church itself should be responsible for its name which, in this case, should be the "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NG Kerk)". The members of the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk (NH Kerk)" were satisfied with the latter name "bestowed upon their chuch by the ZAR". Two points of difference on the relevant confessions, the Three Formulas of Unity namely the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism and Canons of Dordt, were discussed. The chairman of the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk" limited the confessions to article 7 of one of them, the Belgic or Dutch Confession of Faith. These ministers of the "NH Kerk" also refused to sign the Three Formulas of Unity or reformed confessions as based on Scripture. This was unacceptable to Lion Cachet and other delegates of the "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk". The clash between Lion Cachet and his folllowers and the representatives of the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk" was highligthed at the meeting of the Commission of the General Assembly of the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk" in June 1865 in Rustenburg. This meeting introduced the final clash at the General Assembly of the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk" in November 1865 in Pretoria. On the two main issues referred to earlier, the General Assembly refused to accept the viewpoint of Lion Cachet and his supporters, while Lion Cachet could not join a church with the above viewpoints. To him, that constituted a departure from the reformed viewpoint and from the stance of the National Synod of Dordrecht in The Netherlands in 1618-1619 (a well-known reformed synod). The outstanding and direct result of this Synod, according to Lion Cachet, were the acceptance of the Canons of Dordt as a confession with a reformed perspective on election and of the Three Formulas of Unity. Apart from these confessions, the Synod of Dordrecht was also responsible for the well-known church order of Dordt and instrumental in producing the State Translation of the Bible in Dutch in 1637. It proved to be a translation which stimulated Dutch as a written language and which also served as a spiritual guide for the life of reformed people in South Africa in the 1860s. To stabilise the "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk" in the ZAR, Lion Cachet organised a General Assembly of this church in December 1866. It adhered to the name of Dutch Reformed or "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk" and the acceptance of the Three Formulas according to Scripture. Already 8 NG congregations in the ZAR were represented at this meeting. A witness and supporter of Lion Cachet is on record as stating that Lion Cachet was home for only 14 months between January 1866 and January 1869. He travelled a great deal to reorganise the NG Church in the ZAR. The fact that 8 congregations met at the General Assembly of 1866 is proof of his ha...
       
  • &rft.title=Tydskrif+vir+Geesteswetenskappe&rft.issn=0041-4751&rft.date=&rft.volume=">"Reactionary nihilism" in the current era

    • Abstract: Die uitgangspunt van hierdie artikel is dat geen vorige samelewing in die geskiedenis vergelykenderwys al ooit so nihilisties soos die huidige was nie - waar "nihilisme" die radikale ontkenning van alle intrinsieke waarde beteken. Gevolglik word die samelewing met die enorme uitdaging gekonfronteer om middele, soos onder meer kuns en opvoeding, te vind en te benut om die moontlikheid van 'n sinvolle bestaan oortuigend te artikuleer. Daar word aandag geskenk aan twee soorte nihilisme - reaksionêr en vindingryk - gevolg deur 'n blik op die werk van Erich Fromm oor die verlies aan die "self", asook die werk van Bernard Stiegler, om wat reeds vasgestel is, verder te nuanseer in terme van sy benutting van Donald Winnicott se psigoanalitiese ondersoek na die funksie van "oorgangsvoorwerpe". Stiegler toon aan dat Winnicott se insigte 'n mens in staat stel om die huidige obsessie met mnemo-tegniese apparate soos slimfone te evalueer betreffende hulle dubbelsinnige pharmakon-rol as "oorgangsvoorwerpe" - hulle kan naamlik enersyds as "gif", maar andersyds as "geneesmiddel" funksioneer. Daar word verder na die onlangse werk van Gil Germain oor tegnologie en "begeerte", sowel as Laurent de Sutter se begrip "narkokapitalisme" verwys, waarvolgens daar 'n grootliks onsigbare, maar wydverspreide verband tussen die globale dwelmhandel (veral in kokaïen), die gebruik van antidepressante en verbruikerskapitalisme bestaan. De Sutter se verreikende navorsing bring aan die lig dat 'n grootliks "verdoofde" samelewing nie in staat is om waarde-oordele uit te voer nie; vandaar die haas-volledige houvas van reaksionêre nihilisme op die huidige samelewing, wat met vindingryke nihilisme die hoof gebied moet word.This paper is predicated on the demonstrable belief, that no former society has ever been as nihilistic (denying value or meaningfulness, especially as shown in the way one lives) as the global society of the present, and that the latter therefore faces the enormous challenge, to employ the available means - including the arts and education - to articulate the possibility of a meaningful existence. As point of departure Friedrich Nietzsche's characterisation of two types of nihilism - namely "passive" and "active" nihilism - is briefly noted as two divergent ways to respond to the realisation that value is radically absent, being merely the result of historically established conventions. For example, valued institutions, such as education, religion and science lack inherent justification; they are mere conventions. Nietzsche's "passive" nihilism consists in recognising the axiological abyss of radical nihilism, and shrinks from it, finding refuge in the anaesthetising belief that nothing has changed, and affirming the value of conventions in a reactionary manner. "Active" nihilism, by contrast, while similarly witnessing the chasm of non-meaning, represents a "dancing" on the abyss in the sense of the creation of new values (which can be shared in a community). While recognising the value of Nietzsche's distinction between these varieties of nihilism as countervailing responses to the realisation that value rests on convention alone, they are replaced by "reactionary" nihilism and "resourceful" nihilism respectively, because of the fact that ostensibly "passive" adherence to convention still requires some kind of (reactionary) axiological behaviour, and because no "active" nihilism is capable of creating values ex nihilo; instead, it can at best be resourceful in revitalising intrinsic values, such as love, friendship, nature, communication, and so on, although this is never unproblematical, given cultural and individual differences. The thoroughgoing argument of this paper is that today one is witnessing an alarming increase in "reactionary nihilism", insofar as consumer capitalism encourages and cultivates such a reactionary affirmation of conventional economic practices, instead of the "resourceful nihilism" of constructing new, shareable values in a time that sorely needs them. As an instance of the collapse of values, the work of Erich Fromm in the 1940s on the "loss of the self" in the context of what he called "automaton conformity" is briefly examined, before turning to Bernard Stiegler's penetrating examination of contemporary society in terms of what he - following Marx's diagnosis of worker "proletarianisation" in the 19th century - terms the "proletarianisation" of contemporary consumers. According to Stiegler the latter process marks the loss, on the part of consumers, of their savoir-faire (know-how) as well as their savoir vivre (knowledge of how to live creatively), and he attributes this to the way that consumer capitalism employs mnemo-technical devices such as smartphones, not only to market products, but more fundamentally, to impose "pre-formatted templates" for living on them. Moreover, Stiegler shows, the social and cognitive sciences are complicit in this process through market research, specifically concerning so-called "neuro-marketing". The implications of these developments for the growth of reactionary nihilism are clear, given the economically conventional behaviour inculcated in consumers under these circumstances, and they are reinforced when one scrutinises Stiegler's interpretation of Donald Winnicott's psychoanalytical notion of "transitional objects" and the role they play in the development of infants. "Transitional phenomena" (including objects) such as toys and the songs children sing to themselves when they go to sleep have the function, Winnicott argued, of establishing an "intermediate space" between the mother and the infant, and which Stiegler interprets ontologically as an "immeasurable" space of "consistence" (as opposed to existence), within which the child can find protection, and through which the mother is constituted as mother, and the child as her child. Importantly, this space, inaugurated by transitional objects, is "pharmacological" ...
       
  • Ex-offenders should be appointed as prison wardens: Can South Africa learn
           from this new international trend'

    • Abstract: In die lig van die huidige nypende tekort aan gevangenispersoneel by die Departement Korrektiewe Dienste word opvattinge omtrent die werwing van vrygelate model-oortreders krities ondersoek. As teoretiese raamwerk word 'n kruis-kulturele of vergelykende kriminologiese perspektief sowel as 'n post-Marxistiese metodologie (in die tradisie van Frankfurt Skool Kritiese Teorie), ingespan en daar word ook gepoog om 'n pleidooi vir die belang van hierdie twee perspektiewe vir akademiese kriminologie ter plaatse te lewer. As vertrekpunt word John Braithwaite se belangrike onderskeid tussen hardestigmatiserend-beskamingskulture (Suid-Afrika, die VSA) en integrerend-beskamende kulture (China, Japan) ontleed ten einde die Chinese gesigspunt, wat reeds sedert die vyftigerjare aldaar suksesvol toegepas word in die werwing van gevangenes na vrylating as tronkpersoneel, te ondersoek. China verteenwoordig die een uiterste (integrasie) van die beskamingskultuurkontinuïteit, terwyl die VSA die ander uiterste (stigmatisering) verteenwoordig. Aangesien korrektiewe dienste in die VSA sedert 2018 tot 'n beperkte mate ook begin het met die werwing van vrygelate gevangenes, kan daar tereg van 'n internasionele tendens in die werwing van vrygelate gevangenes as gevangenispersoneel gepraat word. Die vraag wat ondersoek word, is of Suid-Afrika, as 'n hardestigmatiserend-beskamingskultuur met een van die hoogste heroortredingsyfers in die wêreld, se korrektiewe beleidsraamwerk by hierdie bemoedigende integrerende inisiatief kan baat. Terselfdertyd word die hoop uitgespreek dat die hoë vlakke van geweld in ons tronke getemper sou kon word deur die vooruitsig dat vrygelate model-gevangenes hoëprestasielewering tot die Departement se hervormingspogings sal kan toevoeg.In view of the Department of Correctional Services' serious shortage of prison wardens and personnel, I critically investigate the idea of the possibility of recruiting model ex-offenders as prison wardens. Both high levels of violence as well as a critical shortage of personnel in the Department were recently highlighted by South Africa's new Minister of Justice and Correctional Services. Cross-cultural or comparative criminology and post-Marxism (in the tradition of Frankfurt School Critical Theory) are employed as a theoretical framework and methodology respectively. In respect of the latter, the relevant thought of three representatives in this tradition (Horkheimer [first generation], Habermas [second generation] and Žižek [third generation]) are considered in order to build a case for post-Marxism as a credible methodology in South African criminology. By way of example, India, a country with a population of 1.36 billion, has a mere 160 000 sentenced offenders (representing a third of their total prison population), while South Africa, with a population of just short of 60 million has as many inmates (both sentenced and awaiting trial) at 162 000. By the same token, China, the most populous country in the world, published rates of recidivism of between 6-8% at the turn of the century, whilst South Africa has one of the highest rates of re-offending in the world, namely 86-94%. From a Marxist perspective, the argument that a different reality is possible, is demonstrated, but only a cross-cultural or comparative perspective would allow us to see this. Attention is also drawn to the phenomenon of the prison-industrial-complex and the insidious ways in which rationales other than crime could increase our prison population. In this context, the importance of appreciating structural anomalies (poverty, unemployment and deepening inequality amidst affluence) as powerful breeding grounds for crime, rather than simply relying on individual responsibility as the sole driver of crime, is noted and illustrated. One such anomaly is the harsh stigmatizing shaming culture to which returning ex-offenders are subjected. The most daunting of all the obstacles faced by ex-offenders, is the prospect of prolonged unemployment as a result of labelling, among other factors. This well-known labelling perspective in criminology is not conducive to the sustainable rehabilitation and resettlement of ex-offenders in South Africa and it is argued that both anomalous phenomena, such as the prison-industrial-complex and the unjustified stigmatisation of ex-offenders, are some of the more important drivers of our unsustainable rates of crime and recidivism in this country. An attempt is made to justify both cross-cultural or comparative criminology and post-Marxism as valuable perspectives in South African academic criminology. This is something which has historically been neglected in this country. As a point of departure, John Braithwaite's seminal distinction between stigmatising (South Africa, the US) and integrative shaming cultures (China, Japan) is explored in order to appreciate the Chinese view, which has been successfully applied there since the fifties, of recruiting and employing ex-offenders, who comply with the requirements, as prison personnel and wardens. On a continuum of shaming cultures, China would occupy one extreme (integration) while the United States (as a stigmatising shaming culture) would be placed at the other extreme. Since correctional services in the US, as the one extreme on the continuum of shaming cultures, have since 2018 also began embracing the integrative initiative of recruiting and employing ex-offenders as both prison personnel and wardens, it is now possible to speak of a truly international trend in this regard. The question which is addressed in this contribution is whether or not South Africa's corrective policy framework, as a country with a harsh stigmatising shaming culture and one of the highest rates of recidivism in the world, can benefit from this encouraging integrative international initiative. It is submitted that South Africa can benefit from this initiative in thre...
       
  • Positioning self-directed continuing learning skills in twenty-first
           century education

    • Abstract: Selfgerigte leer (SGL) word in een-en-twintigste-eeuse raamwerke as ʼn kritieke vaardigheid vir leerders beskou ten einde hulle te kan voorberei op ʼn onvoorspelbare, snelveranderende opvoedingswêreld, waar gefokus moet word op die eise van die vierde industriële revolusie. Hierby aansluitend behoort 'n geslaagde onderwysstelsel die leemte tussen hoe en wat leerders leer en wat die ekonomie vereis sinvol aan te spreek deur geskooldes toe te rus om vaardighede te ontwikkel wat tersaaklik vir die arbeidsomgewing is. Die rasionaal van hierdie artikel is derhalwe dat opvoedkundige investering in die ekonomie - en daarmee skoling van leerders in voortgesette (lewenslange) SGL - onontbeerlik is en 'n sinvolle onderwysstelsel onderlê.Education must be recognised as an essential instrument in addressing the challenges within the twenty-first century, but it cannot exist in isolation or independently. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the demands for education and training in support of the labour markets. The knowledge-oriented nature of work requires that all individuals must be literate, take responsibility for actions (learning) and learn how to think. High demands are set for the personal skills of individuals as they are responsible for their personal development as well as for establishing their quality of life. Individuals, therefore, need more knowledge and insight, a higher consciousness of the self and a greater ability to motivate the self. High demands are made towards the interpersonal skills of individuals, including, amongst others, empathy (orientation to service delivery) and social skills (communication, conflict management, team building skills, cooperation, initiating change). In the opinion of the authors, transformative and holistic continuing or lifelong self-directed learning is vital to addressing the gap between the knowledge and skills which learners acquire at school and the knowledge and skills which are relevant in the labour market and the twenty-first century. We argue, firstly, that transformative and holistic continuing self-directed learning with its purpose and function is essential for human functioning. Secondly, the connection between transformative and holistic continuing self-directed learning and success requires a change in ways of thinking (a mindshift). Thirdly, transformative and holistic continuing self-directed learning results in successful change in the individual learner. The fourth reason which the authors provide is that transformative and holistic continuing self-directed learning is essential to becoming successful in a labour market context. In addition, we believe that transformative and holistic continuing self-directed learning involves action learning, since individuals must learn while they are thinking about issues and working on real problems to implement real solutions. It can be seen as a systematic process that builds on the experiences, knowledge and skills of individuals, while individuals must also be encouraged to question learning content, which can lead to the creation of new knowledge. The information explosion requires the education system to move from a pervasive teacher-directed approach to a more learner-centred approach to prepare school learners for the labour market and the twenty-first century. The authors support the discourse that education institutions must deliver learners who will have a high degree of self-directedness in learning and become transformed lifelong self-directed individuals who do not merely focus on the product (market) but realise the value of the learning process. Education requires a paradigm shift that includes the relevance of alternative teaching-learning strategies and methods like SDL and problem solving in which learners are functionally immersed in deep thinking and occupied with their learning. The above statement is vital to creating citizens who can think independently, creatively solve problems and assume their positions as contributing citizens of the society. According to the authors, (life-long) SDL is of great importance in filling the gap between the knowledge and skills that learners must master at school on the one hand and the knowledge and skills that are relevant for the labour market and society of the twenty-first century on the other. Education in the twenty-first century should, therefore, be recognised as an important tool for dealing with the challenges of the 21st century, but it cannot be used in isolation (Knowles, Holton & Swanson 2015). Thus, this study indicates that it is essential that the skills that the twenty-first century societies and workplaces demand be developed in schools. In addition, the educational needs, general objectives in the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement of South Africa (CAPS), the twenty-first century skills and the skills needed for individuals to function amidst the fourth industrial revolution should be combined in an effort to contribute to (lifelong) SDL.
       
  • The implementation of inclusive education: International expectations and
           South African realities

    • Abstract: Onderwys vir leerders met leerbehoeftes wat as uitdagend beskou word, het die afgelope 30 jaar beweeg van ʼn benadering van aparte onderwysgeleenthede vir sulke leerders tot die internasionaal ondersteunde benadering van inklusiewe onderwys, naamlik die plasing van alle leerders in hoofstroomskole. Hierdie benadering word sterk gelei deur internasionale organisasies, met inbegrip van die Verenigde Nasies. Deur ʼn sistematiese literatuuroorsig te gebruik, fokus hierdie artikel op internasionale verwagtinge vir die instelling van inklusiewe onderwys soos vervat in internasionale verklarings en verslae, en op die realiteite met betrekking tot die toepassing daarvan in Suid-Afrika. Spesifieke sistemiese elemente van die toepassing van inklusiewe onderwys wat gereeld deur internasionale organisasies gemonitor word, en die realiteite van Suid-Afrikaanse pogings om dit te verwesenlik, word grondig bespreek. Dit word duidelik dat indien begrip vir die komplekse Suid-Afrikaanse kultuurhistoriese agtergrond en huidige sosioëkonomiese situasie nie in ag geneem word nie, die meeste van hierdie internasionaal gestelde elemente nie na verwagting verwesenlik kan word nie. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat unieke raamwerke vir die toepassing van inklusiewe onderwys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks ontwikkel behoort te word wat op die internasionale oorkoepelende doelwit van die reg op onderwys gebaseer is maar wat die uniek Suid-Afrikaanse positiewe, maar ook negatiewe, realiteite in onderwys in berekening bring.Education for learners with learning needs that can be regarded as challenging has changed over the past 30 years from education in separate school and classroom settings, especially for learners with disabilities based on a medical-deficit model, to education based on the internationally accepted belief that every learner has the right to be included in a mainstream classroom and school. This change flowed from a socially constructed view that stumbling blocks in society play an important role in discriminating against those who are regarded as being different. International organisations such as the United Nations and its agency UNESCO have played and are still playing a leading role in this regard. The publication in 1994 of the Salamanca Statement by UNESCO (signed by 92 countries, including South Africa) is regarded as a watershed event in establishing inclusive education as the guiding principle in the development of equitable education for all; the Statement argues that all learners should be accommodated in mainstream schools regardless of, for example, their physical, intellectual or emotional needs and differences or their home language. High-income countries with well-funded, well-established school systems were quick to follow this movement in developing policies and implementation strategies based on international guidelines. Lower-income countries were slower to follow the new approach and in many instances have simply tried to transfer strategies developed in high-resource countries to their own contexts. The focus of this article is to examine critically the implementation of inclusive education in South Africa against the background of international guidelines and efforts by UNESCO to monitor progress. Elements of education systems that are regarded as essential for the implementation of inclusive education and that were monitored for UNESCO's 2020 Global Education Monitoring Report on Inclusion in 2018 are placed within Bronfenbrenner's social-ecological model, in which the interaction between processes at different system levels is emphasised. These elements include laws and policies at national or macro-level, governance and finance at national and provincial levels (macro- and meso-levels), school curricula (macro- and meso-levels), facilities and infrastructure within schools and their communities (micro-levels). The development of inclusive education in South Africa should be seen as a logical outcome of the introduction of full democracy in the country in 1994 and the concomitant expectation that education would be transformed to recognise the rights of all to be educated. As a result, policy development in education, including policy on the development of inclusive education, took human rights as its point of departure, but it soon became apparent that the idealism expressed in policy documents was difficult to realise in practice. In analysing the implementation of inclusive education in South Africa in preparation for the international monitoring process, the following became clear. In the national legal framework, White Paper 6 (2001) is regarded as the point of departure to address inclusive education, the implementation of which is based on the South African Constitution (Republic of South Africa, 1996a) and supports inclusive education for learners with diverse learning needs. However, despite the fact that the White Paper acknowledges a socially constructed view of barriers to learning in an inclusive education system, researchers indicate that recommendations regarding implementation tend to be idealistic and that realities regarding available capacities and resources were not fully taken into account. Furthermore, a strong dependence on the medical-deficit model in the recommendations for learner support by advocating a continuum of support has led to both conflict and ambiguity in the understanding of what inclusive education really means among the members of the general public, teachers, learners and their parents. In connection with governance and finances, UNESCO regards the roles of intersectoral collaborative leadership and adequate funding as crucial. Although South African implementation guidelines since 2001 emphasise the roles of collaboration and participatory leadership, there is insufficient research-based evidence that indicates effective collaboration between different role players and effective leadership regarding the im...
       
  • The teaching of Literature in the Further Education and Training phase
           within the framework of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement

    • Abstract: Letterkunde speel 'n noodsaaklike rol in sowel die kurrikulum as die ontwikkeling van leerders as wêreldburgers. Suid-Afrika is 'n uiters diverse land en dit is 'n moeilike taak om 'n letterkunde-kurrikulum te skep wat aan almal se behoeftes voldoen. 'n Probleem wat dikwels voorkom, is dat die sosiale konteks van die voorgeskrewe werke nie noodwendig in lyn is met dié van alle leerders nie en daarom word sommige leerders uitgesluit en akademies benadeel. Met hierdie ondersoek het ons probeer vasstel of daar 'n groot genoeg verskeidenheid sosiale kontekste in die voorgeskrewe werke aangespreek word om alle leerders in die Verdere Onderwys en Opleiding-fase (VOO) te akkommodeer, sowel as die moontlike verbeteringe wat aangebring kan word. Daar is van kwalitatiewe sowel as kwantitatiewe data-insamelingsmetodes in die vorm van vraelyste en onderhoudvoering gebruik gemaak. Die deelnemers het bestaan uit drie Afrikaans Huistaal VOO-fase onderwysers van verskillende sosiale kontekste asook studente in hul vierde jaar wat die Nagraadse Onderwyssertifikaat (NOS) volg. Vraelyste is aan die NOS-studente uitgedeel en onderhoude is met ʼn deursnit van hierdie studente gevoer. Die meerderheid deelnemers was tevrede met die letterkunde-kurrikulum en is van mening dat die probleem eerder by die lys voorgeskrewe werke lê. Dit wil voorkom asof die poësie-afdeling voorsiening maak vir die meerderheid leerders, maar by die prosawerke word erge probleme ervaar. Daar is bevind dat die Kurrikulum- en Assesseringsbeleidsverklaring (KABV) te voorskriftelik is, dat daar te veel assesserings plaasvind en dat die handboeke nie versoenbaar is met die kurrikulum nie. Indien die aanbevelings in hierdie artikel geïmplementeer sou word, sou die KABV beduidend verbeter kon word."The decline of literature indicates the decline of a nation." These were the wise words of the well-known German writer and philosopher, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). This statement is still relevant, since literature remains vital for the education of world citizens, and should therefore be properly accounted for in the curriculum. In this article we scrutinise the literature section of the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) in order to determine to what extent it provides in the needs of learners in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase from all social contexts and cultures. More specifically, various sections of literature, poetry, prose and drama were examined to determine whether a large enough variety of social contexts were addressed to accommodate all learners and to ensure the effective teaching of literature. South Africa is a very diverse country, with a variety of languages and cultures, and it is a difficult task to create a literature curriculum that meets everyone's needs. A problem that often occurs, is that the social context of the prescribed work does not match that of the learner. The texts taught in classrooms are not necessarily suitable for learners of all social contexts, and as a result some learners are excluded. The consequences may be that such learners cannot identify with the work, feel distant from the content and find it difficult to understand. In this article we focussed on the shortcomings of the CAPS in particular, in order to determine whether it is appropriate for the effective teaching of literature for all learners in the FET phase and where possible improvements can be made. Questionnaires as well as interviews were used, encompassing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The participants consisted of three Afrikaans Home Language FET phase educators from different social contexts in that questionnaires were distributed to an educator of a private school, a model C school and also an ex-FHR school (Former House of Representatives) and these were complemented by interviews. There were also questionnaires distributed to the 24 Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students and interviews were conducted with a cross section of 10% of these students. Although critical of certain aspects of CAPS, the majority of the participants were satisfied with the curriculum. Educators who participated in the investigation were all of the opinion that the CAPS is a clear improvement on the curricula that preceded it. Many participants believed that the problem regarding literature was not part of the curriculum itself, but could rather be ascribed to the list of prescribed works. It seems that the poetry section makes provision for the majority of learners as teachers are afforded the opportunity to choose from a sufficient number of poems, thereby enabling them to cater for learners from different backgrounds. However, the problem lies with the single prescribed prose work, as only one novel is studied annually, thereby preventing teachers from selecting texts that would more adequately appeal to their learners. From the above it may be concluded that while the CAPS as such can be regarded as a suitable curriculum, the sections dealing with literature need further consideration. In this regard revision of the prescribed list, especially in connection with prose, is a recommendation that, in our view, should be considered strongly. The following recommendations are put forward: • The CAPS curriculum is too prescriptive. Greater freedom and autonomy should be given to educators. Educators work with their learners on a daily basis and must be given the freedom and space to make decisions that will benefit their learners. • Too many assessments: Fewer assessments will provide more time for learners to master knowledge. The number of assessments currently prescribed must be revised. • The textbooks are not fully compatible with the curriculum. Several educators believe that the themes are not topical and that their learners struggle to identify with the themes provided in the textbooks. A revision of the themes is thus non-negotiable...
       
  • Behind the scenes. Hendrik Swellengrebel and the Cape Patriot
           Movement

    • Abstract: Hendrik Swellengrebel, geboren aan de Kaap, hereboer, regent en reiziger (Kaap 1776-1777), informeerde, bemiddelde en critiseerde zowel de Kaapse Patriotten als de Compagniesdienaren in Kaapstad en Amsterdam, op basis van een omvangrijke netwerk van correspondenten. Hij was het in principe eens met de klachten van de Kaapse Patriotten over het gebrek aan vrijheid en handelsmogelijkheden, maar hij probeerde de Representanten van de Patriotten de contra-productieve persoonlijke aanvallen jegens de Kaapse bestuurders in te trekken. Tegelijkertijd probeerde hij de Compagniesdienaren zich in te houden in hun reacties op de Patriottenbeweging. De Bewindhebbers van de Compagnie waren conservatieven, tegen alle burgerrechten, en bovendien druk bezig met binnenlandse en buitenlandse problemen. Beslissingen op de memories van de Kaapse Patriotten werden uitgesteld en zelfs Swellengrebels aanbod benoemd te worden tot Gouverneur van de Kaap en de reorganisatie aan de Kaap ter hand te nemen, werd afgewezen, in hoogste instantie door Opperbewindhebber Stadhouder Willem V. Dit artikel beschrijft hoe decennia lang de politiek rondom de Kaap en de Kaapse Patriotten beweging achter de schermen van de Compagnie verliep.Hendrik Swellengrebel, Cape-born Utrecht gentleman, farmer and administrator and visitor at the Cape (1776-1777), functioned as informal informant, mediator and critic of both the Cape Patriot Movement (1778 onwards) and the VOC officials, at the Cape and in Amsterdam, using his extensive network of correspondents, both at the Cape and in the Dutch Republic. In essence, he agreed with the Patriots' complaints about the lack of personal rights and freedom of trade, but he also tried to convince the Representatives of the Patriots Movement (1779) to give up the counter-productive personal invectives against high Company officials. Simultanously Swellengrebel tried to restrain the reactions of the Company administrators. The top officials of the Company were conservatives, afraid of any burgher rights, and too busy with politics in the Dutch Republic and international relations (War with England in 1780-1784). Therefore decisions on the Patriot Requests and even moderate changes were delayed (and therefore creating more burgher actions). Even Swellengrebel's offer to be nominated as Governor and then to reorganise the Cape was opposed, and declined by the Opperbewindhebber Stadholder William V himself. This article describes decades of discussion and policies around the Cape and the Cape Patriots, behind the scenes of the VOC.
       
  • Redakteursnota

    • Abstract: Hendrik Swellengrebel, geboren aan de Kaap, hereboer, regent en reiziger (Kaap 1776-1777), informeerde, bemiddelde en critiseerde zowel de Kaapse Patriotten als de Compagniesdienaren in Kaapstad en Amsterdam, op basis van een omvangrijke netwerk van correspondenten. Hij was het in principe eens met de klachten van de Kaapse Patriotten over het gebrek aan vrijheid en handelsmogelijkheden, maar hij probeerde de Representanten van de Patriotten de contra-productieve persoonlijke aanvallen jegens de Kaapse bestuurders in te trekken. Tegelijkertijd probeerde hij de Compagniesdienaren zich in te houden in hun reacties op de Patriottenbeweging. De Bewindhebbers van de Compagnie waren conservatieven, tegen alle burgerrechten, en bovendien druk bezig met binnenlandse en buitenlandse problemen. Beslissingen op de memories van de Kaapse Patriotten werden uitgesteld en zelfs Swellengrebels aanbod benoemd te worden tot Gouverneur van de Kaap en de reorganisatie aan de Kaap ter hand te nemen, werd afgewezen, in hoogste instantie door Opperbewindhebber Stadhouder Willem V. Dit artikel beschrijft hoe decennia lang de politiek rondom de Kaap en de Kaapse Patriotten beweging achter de schermen van de Compagnie verliep.Hendrik Swellengrebel, Cape-born Utrecht gentleman, farmer and administrator and visitor at the Cape (1776-1777), functioned as informal informant, mediator and critic of both the Cape Patriot Movement (1778 onwards) and the VOC officials, at the Cape and in Amsterdam, using his extensive network of correspondents, both at the Cape and in the Dutch Republic. In essence, he agreed with the Patriots' complaints about the lack of personal rights and freedom of trade, but he also tried to convince the Representatives of the Patriots Movement (1779) to give up the counter-productive personal invectives against high Company officials. Simultanously Swellengrebel tried to restrain the reactions of the Company administrators. The top officials of the Company were conservatives, afraid of any burgher rights, and too busy with politics in the Dutch Republic and international relations (War with England in 1780-1784). Therefore decisions on the Patriot Requests and even moderate changes were delayed (and therefore creating more burgher actions). Even Swellengrebel's offer to be nominated as Governor and then to reorganise the Cape was opposed, and declined by the Opperbewindhebber Stadholder William V himself. This article describes decades of discussion and policies around the Cape and the Cape Patriots, behind the scenes of the VOC.
       
  • The story of Afrikaans - out of Europe and from Africa, Part 2 by WAM
           Carstens and RH Raidt

    • Abstract: As tweede boekdeel van ʼn geskiedenis van Afrikaans verteenwoordig hierdie publikasie die Afrika-komponent van ʼn omvattende beskrywing, waarvan die Europese herkoms in die eerste deel gedek word. Met inagneming van die tydperk waarin die eerste bewoners van die subkontinent hier woonagtig was, word die tydlyn dan vanaf die middel van die 17de eeu getrek, toe ʼn Suid-Hollandse vorm van Nederlands as kerndialek aan die Kaap geënt is, en oor die volgende eeu en ʼn half blootgestel is aan, en beïnvloed is deur, sprekers van talle ander tale. Die taalkonflik wat ontstaan het vanaf die oorname van die Kaap deur die Britse Ryk, en ʼn taalgebaseerde nasionalisme tot gevolg gehad het, word aan die hand van sosiopolitieke gebeure beskryf. Hiervan was die tweede Anglo-Boereoorlog teen die eeuwending, wat saamval met ʼn skeiding en oorgang tussen twee taalbewegings, ook ʼn keerpunt. ʼn Stryd om erkenning, aanvanklik op die rug van Nederlands, het uiteindelik gelei tot die verampteliking en standaardisering van Afrikaans. Die wisselwerking tussen Afrikaans en die politiek word in hoofstuk 20 beskryf, wat die periode tussen 1948 en 1994 dek, ʼn tydperk wat gelei het tot polarisasie tussen sprekers van Afrikaans van verskillende kleure. In die beoordeling van die agteruitgang van Afrikaans as taal van hoër funksies in die post-1994-periode wys die outeurs op die kompleksiteit van feite en persepsies wat daarmee gepaard gegaan het, en hoe versoening tussen voorheen vervreemde Afrikaanstaliges tot stand gekom het (en kom). Ten slotte word ʼn Janusblik gewerp op sowel die verlede (waarin die rol van alle sprekers van Afrikaans in geskiedskrywing en aktuele gebeure erken word) as die toekoms, met inagneming van wat noodsaaklik is vir die sinvolle voortbestaan van die taal.As part of a two-volume publication, Die storie van Afrikaans - uit Europa en van Afrika (The story of Afrikaans - out of Europe and from Africa), this publication, together with its predecessor, probably represents the most comprehensive historiography of this language ever. It provides a plethora of information, as well as access to a wide variety of resources about Afrikaans. This article links on to Jac Conradie's thorough review of Part 1 (chapters 1-11) in Litnet, and takes cognisance of a general review on the language political aspects of the publication as a whole by Joan Hambidge in Rapport, but concentrates on the content of Part 2 (chapters 12-24). The authors approach the publication under discussion from a number of different perspectives: (1) linguistic, with reference to the nature of language and the development of linguistics as a science, (2) geolinguistic, in providing an overview of the distribution of languages across the world, indicating where Afrikaans fits in, (3) historical-linguistic, in which the "stirps" of Afrikaans within the genealogical classification of languages are traced, and (4) socio-historical, in which history serves as a framework for an understanding of the way Afrikaans came into being as a language of/in this country. The point of departure is the premiss that a form of the Dutch dialect of South Holland was brought to the Cape in the 17th century and formed the basis of what eventually became Afrikaans. Within the theoretical framework of language change, a variety of theories are discussed, on the basis of empirical data. In chapter 12 the prehistory of the native soil of Afrikaans is described. A multi-faceted approach is in evidence here, in which a threefold distinction is made between the paleontological history of the subcontinent, the cultural-historical history of the region, and the specifically linguistic and socio-historical development of Afrikaans. The next chapter chiefly deals with the language conditions in the 17th and the 18th centuries at the Cape, showing how the interaction between social, economic, cultural and political circumstances, on the one hand, and the increasing multilingualism, on the other, determined the evolution of the Cape Dutch lingua franca. The next two chapters describe how Afrikaans spread across the interior of the country and further afield, became increasingly diversified, developed from a vernacular to a cultural language, and, inter alia resulting from political factors, such as British colonialism, became a nationalistic marker of identity and a stimulus for the awakening of Afrikaner nationalism. This would eventually result in the Anglo Boer War, which in various respects represents a turning point in history and a division between (and at the same time a transition between) two language movements. A whole chapter (16) is dedicated to the role of these movements as a process of language sensitisation (in both the 19th and the 20th centuries) in pursuit of the recognition in 1925 of Afrikaans as official language, the subject of the next three chapters. The need for the acquisition of higher functions was the next step, functions such as language of education at all levels, the church, the Bible, the judicature, parliament and politics, the Public Service, economy, advertising, the media, labour, culture and recreation, literature and other forms of art, science and technology. A natural corollary was the standardisation of terminology and appropriate norms of usage for various registers, as in the case of established official languages. Chapter 20 covers the political direction followed during the post-1948 period by the Nationalist Party, and especially the disastrous results regarding the use of Afrikaans as medium for the application of apartheid. This is contrasted by the fortunes of the language (including the loss of functions) in the political dispensation after 1994, and exposes the baseless idealism of multilingualism as guiding principle in the early days. Initially, there were some reason for optimism in this regard, such as the language provisions of the 1996 Constitution...
       
  • Relocate the classroom for the survival of subject jargon in
           Afrikaans

    • Abstract: Afrikaans het grotendeels as onderrigtaal op universiteite verdwyn ten spyte daarvan dat Afrikaans een van die tale is wat die meeste in Suider-Afrika gepraat word en wat gevestigde vaktale het. Afrikaanssprekendes is as wetenskaplikes werksaam in sowel die privaat sektor as staatsinstansies. Afrikaanssprekendes was al vir groot deurbrake in die wetenskap verantwoordelik en talle werk as vakkundiges oorsee, al het hulle hul opleiding op skool en op universiteit in Afrikaans ontvang. Duidelik is mense wat in Afrikaans onderrig is, nie daardeur benadeel nie en kan hulle in elke opsig by internasionale wetenskaplikes kers vashou. Afrikaans as onderrigtaal word tans nog by sekere skole toegelaat, maar die druk op hierdie skole word al hoe groter. Die aantal Afrikaanssprekende onderwysers wat gedwing word om op universiteit in Engels onderrig te ontvang en wat daarna by ʼn Afrikaanse skool klasgee, word al hoe groter. ʼn Alternatief moet gevind word om Afrikaans as taal van die wetenskap en onderrig te laat oorleef, nie slegs vir die behoud van ʼn unieke inheemse taal wat oor eeue heen ontstaan het nie, maar ook vir die behoud van die Afrikaanssprekende gemeenskap en die handhawing van kommunikasie en onderrig binne hierdie gemeenskap, wat almal van kleuter tot akademikus, van boer tot konsultant, van navorser tot onderwyser insluit. Afrikaanse vakinhoud op die internet vir graad R tot universiteit waarby leerders, onderwysers en ouers baat sal vind, word as alternatief vir staatsbeheerde Engelstalige vakonderrig voorgestel.Afrikaans is the only indigenous Southern African language that has been developed to such a level that it can be used as an academic language in any subject, and yet, over the past decade, it has been largely eliminated from the tertiary teaching milieu. According to the latest report released by Stats SA (2018), English is the sixth largest home language and Afrikaans the third largest home language in South Africa, the latter being spoken by approximately 23 million people in Southern Africa. Afrikaans-speaking scientists and technicians educated at colleges and universities where Afrikaans was the language of teaching and learning, work in the private sector and in many parastatals and government institutions, such as the CSIR, ARC, NECSA, the Departments of Water and Sanitation, of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, and of Higher Education and Training, the Parks Board, the Council for Geoscience, and museums. Great scientific breakthroughs have been made by Afrikaans-speaking scientists and many Afrikaans-speaking scientists work as subject specialists overseas, where they are on a par with their international peers. The argument that education in Afrikaans is in some way detrimental to the Afrikaans learner is therefore nonsensical political rhetoric that has no factual basis. Fortunately, Afrikaans is still being taught at some schools in spite of their being subjected to constant and increasing political harassment. The few remaining Afrikaans single-medium schools are accused by government officials of maintaining the hegemony of the pre-1994 Afrikaans government by excluding students who prefer English medium tuition. Anglicising these schools, that comprise only 5% of the schools in South Africa, will hardly make up for the shortage of schools that is taking on critical proportions, especially considering that hundreds of thousands of new learners enter the school system annually. However, a situation far more serious than Afrikaans-language teaching and learning threatens education in South Africa, and that is the incompetence of teachers in certain English medium schools. Many people who insist on being taught in English want access to Afrikaans schools, while they have the opportunity to go to schools in townships where English is the language of teaching and learning. The reason is clear: according to several surveys the literacy and mathematical competency of teachers in these underperforming schools is far below par and the lowest in the world. Parents know this, while Afrikaans medium schools have a reputation of being some of the best-performing schools in South Africa. With the exception of the North-West University, and to a degree at the University of the Free State and the University of Stellenbosch, Afrikaans-speaking students are now forced to receive their tuition in English at all South African universities. This creates the untenable situation that Afrikaans-speaking teachers have to teach Afrikaans-speaking learners in Afrikaans medium schools with an English subject jargon background. Government policy apologists are not concerned about this, and use the "equal misery" argument, believing that the playing field would then be level because everyone (except, of course, English mother tongue speakers) is equally disadvantaged because all are taught in a language other than their own. This Schadenfreude has a sinister overtone in the light of the overwhelming evidence that mother tongue education is far superior to that in another language. The attack on Afrikaans as a language of tuition, labelling it as the "language of the oppressor", ignores the fact that Afrikaans is a unique indigenous language and that the majority of Afrikaans speakers are the descendants of the First People of Southern Africa, who now, ironically and paradoxically, opt for the most colonial of all languages - English. It is clear that the existence of Afrikaans as a fully functional language of science and learning is a threat to the image of government, who has failed dismally in developing subject vocabulary in the other indigenous languages and has allowed the quality of education all over the country to implode. An alternative, away from government control, must be found to ensure the survival of the subject jargon and technical terminology of Afrikaans and their higher-order linguistic contribution to the Afrikaans language. This is important not ...
       
  • Inleiding: Kwesbaarheid in die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing

    • Abstract: Afrikaans het grotendeels as onderrigtaal op universiteite verdwyn ten spyte daarvan dat Afrikaans een van die tale is wat die meeste in Suider-Afrika gepraat word en wat gevestigde vaktale het. Afrikaanssprekendes is as wetenskaplikes werksaam in sowel die privaat sektor as staatsinstansies. Afrikaanssprekendes was al vir groot deurbrake in die wetenskap verantwoordelik en talle werk as vakkundiges oorsee, al het hulle hul opleiding op skool en op universiteit in Afrikaans ontvang. Duidelik is mense wat in Afrikaans onderrig is, nie daardeur benadeel nie en kan hulle in elke opsig by internasionale wetenskaplikes kers vashou. Afrikaans as onderrigtaal word tans nog by sekere skole toegelaat, maar die druk op hierdie skole word al hoe groter. Die aantal Afrikaanssprekende onderwysers wat gedwing word om op universiteit in Engels onderrig te ontvang en wat daarna by ʼn Afrikaanse skool klasgee, word al hoe groter. ʼn Alternatief moet gevind word om Afrikaans as taal van die wetenskap en onderrig te laat oorleef, nie slegs vir die behoud van ʼn unieke inheemse taal wat oor eeue heen ontstaan het nie, maar ook vir die behoud van die Afrikaanssprekende gemeenskap en die handhawing van kommunikasie en onderrig binne hierdie gemeenskap, wat almal van kleuter tot akademikus, van boer tot konsultant, van navorser tot onderwyser insluit. Afrikaanse vakinhoud op die internet vir graad R tot universiteit waarby leerders, onderwysers en ouers baat sal vind, word as alternatief vir staatsbeheerde Engelstalige vakonderrig voorgestel.Afrikaans is the only indigenous Southern African language that has been developed to such a level that it can be used as an academic language in any subject, and yet, over the past decade, it has been largely eliminated from the tertiary teaching milieu. According to the latest report released by Stats SA (2018), English is the sixth largest home language and Afrikaans the third largest home language in South Africa, the latter being spoken by approximately 23 million people in Southern Africa. Afrikaans-speaking scientists and technicians educated at colleges and universities where Afrikaans was the language of teaching and learning, work in the private sector and in many parastatals and government institutions, such as the CSIR, ARC, NECSA, the Departments of Water and Sanitation, of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, and of Higher Education and Training, the Parks Board, the Council for Geoscience, and museums. Great scientific breakthroughs have been made by Afrikaans-speaking scientists and many Afrikaans-speaking scientists work as subject specialists overseas, where they are on a par with their international peers. The argument that education in Afrikaans is in some way detrimental to the Afrikaans learner is therefore nonsensical political rhetoric that has no factual basis. Fortunately, Afrikaans is still being taught at some schools in spite of their being subjected to constant and increasing political harassment. The few remaining Afrikaans single-medium schools are accused by government officials of maintaining the hegemony of the pre-1994 Afrikaans government by excluding students who prefer English medium tuition. Anglicising these schools, that comprise only 5% of the schools in South Africa, will hardly make up for the shortage of schools that is taking on critical proportions, especially considering that hundreds of thousands of new learners enter the school system annually. However, a situation far more serious than Afrikaans-language teaching and learning threatens education in South Africa, and that is the incompetence of teachers in certain English medium schools. Many people who insist on being taught in English want access to Afrikaans schools, while they have the opportunity to go to schools in townships where English is the language of teaching and learning. The reason is clear: according to several surveys the literacy and mathematical competency of teachers in these underperforming schools is far below par and the lowest in the world. Parents know this, while Afrikaans medium schools have a reputation of being some of the best-performing schools in South Africa. With the exception of the North-West University, and to a degree at the University of the Free State and the University of Stellenbosch, Afrikaans-speaking students are now forced to receive their tuition in English at all South African universities. This creates the untenable situation that Afrikaans-speaking teachers have to teach Afrikaans-speaking learners in Afrikaans medium schools with an English subject jargon background. Government policy apologists are not concerned about this, and use the "equal misery" argument, believing that the playing field would then be level because everyone (except, of course, English mother tongue speakers) is equally disadvantaged because all are taught in a language other than their own. This Schadenfreude has a sinister overtone in the light of the overwhelming evidence that mother tongue education is far superior to that in another language. The attack on Afrikaans as a language of tuition, labelling it as the "language of the oppressor", ignores the fact that Afrikaans is a unique indigenous language and that the majority of Afrikaans speakers are the descendants of the First People of Southern Africa, who now, ironically and paradoxically, opt for the most colonial of all languages - English. It is clear that the existence of Afrikaans as a fully functional language of science and learning is a threat to the image of government, who has failed dismally in developing subject vocabulary in the other indigenous languages and has allowed the quality of education all over the country to implode. An alternative, away from government control, must be found to ensure the survival of the subject jargon and technical terminology of Afrikaans and their higher-order linguistic contribution to the Afrikaans language. This is important not ...
       
  • Economic justice: The big challenge - also for Christian
           communities

    • Abstract: Hierdie artikel fokus op die noodsaaklikheid van ekonomiese geregtigheid. Dit geskied na aanleiding van ʼn skrywe van Russel Botman, voormalige dosent in Missiologie aan die Universiteit van Wes-Kaapland asook later aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch. In ʼn skrywe van hom aan die outeur van hierdie artikel ongeveer 21 jaar gelede, dink hy onder andere na oor die moontlikheid van die volgende slagspreuk: "economic justice before upward mobility". Hierdie tema, asook die aard en uitdagings van ekonomiese geregtigheid, word op die spoor van sy gedagtes verder in hierdie bydrae ontgin in belang van soveel kwesbare individue en groepe in haglike omstandighede. Dit kyk veral na die uitdagings van ekonomiese geregtigheid vir die gereformeerde teologie en of die belangrike kenmerke van die eerste Christelike gemeentes nog teenwoordig is, nagestreef en uitgeleef word in die kerk en in die lewens van Christengelowiges.This article focuses on the need for economic justice. This is done in the light of a letter by Russel Botman, former lecturer in Missiology at the University of the Western Cape and later at Stellenbosch University. In the letter - from him to the author of this article - about 21 years ago, he thinks, among other things, about the possibility of the following slogan: "economic justice before upward mobility". This theme, as well as the nature and challenges of economic justice, are further explored in the interest of so many vulnerable individuals and groups in dire circumstances. In particular, it looks at the challenges of economic justice for Reformed theology and whether the important characteristics of the first Christian congregations are still present, pursued and lived out in the church and in the lives of Christian believers. It seems, we have created a world that is so divided, that what is good news for one can be very bad news for another. This is most evident when one thinks about the economy. In South Africa in particular, we had a history before 1994 where the line of division was along colour lines. Today, income inequality, unemployment and poverty, among others, have deepened this historical division. However, we have the belief that somewhere, somehow, something like justice, equity, the protection of good, and opposing evil, exists. In the deepest sense, most of us believe that this kind of justice must be shaped in the ways people live with one another. There is, however, a big gap between justice on one side of the economic divide, and justice on the other side. This theme of economic justice is extremely important and arises for Botman from the perception that injustice is a historical concept that also has economic implications. No human being simply awakens one day with the awareness and knowledge that the existing economic realities represent an injustice. There is a great deal of ecumenical consensus that especially poverty around the world should be condemned as an injustice. According to Botman, there is a growing conviction that this injustice is linked to the nature of the economic system itself. Poverty, just like racism, has a systemic nature. It is an unfair economy that gives birth to poverty. Human beings' actions must spring from a moral life rather than from a particular set of rules. The American theologian and ethicist, Stanley Hauerwas, made a great contribution to character ethics. He advocates a virtue ethic as opposed to duty ethics. According to Hauerwas, the emphasis should therefore be on values, character and humanity rather than on precepts. The article further looks at why early Christianity spread so fast and far. According to the New Testament researchers, Wayne Meeks, Abraham Malherbe and Gerd Theissen, it mainly had to do with addressing the following four issues: poverty, marginalisation, alienation and class inequality. According to Botman, it is clear that early Christianity was understood as the most dynamic alternative to a system of economic injustice. Over the past decades, theological ethics has shifted from a focus on the individual to a spotlight on the larger, broader community. The German theologian, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, in his theology strongly emphasised the congregation and the community as a locus for a world-transforming religious life. Christ is present in this world today in the form of community. Since we have divided the world in such a way that good news for one can mean bad news for another, the final ethical decision on economic justice is made from one of these two positions. In this respect, the Bible makes a special choice for the poor, so much so that the gospel is essentially identified as good news to the poor (Luke 4:18). This presupposes the moral choice to approach the issue of economic justice from the viewpoint of the poor with the intention of bringing good news to them. However, in the confession that God is on the side of the helpless, there can be no difference of opinion in the church of Jesus Christ. The implications of this confession in the pursuit of economic justice and church unity must resound in one voice in the songs, prayers, and sermons of the local congregation if we are to be faithful to the Bible. The relationship between church and society, and in particular the issue of economic justice, is obviously one of the most critical aspects of the church's credible testimony in the modern world.
       
  • Provision of education to vulnerable groups in society

    • Abstract: Die argument van hierdie artikel is dat terwyl daar wyd na onderwys opgesien word as instrument om mense te bemagtig en om die ideale samelewing te skep, kwesbare groepe buite sig van die openbare en akademiese onderwysdiskoers verdwyn het. Die doel van die artikel is om die konsep van kwesbare groepe prominent op die voorgrond van die navorsingsagenda te plaas, wat onderwysvoorsiening aan hierdie groepe sal prioritiseer. Die artikel gee ʼn oorsig van die historiese ontwikkeling van heersende sosiale stratifikasiemodelle en die afwesigheid van kwesbare groepe in hierdie skemas. Die begrip "kwesbare groepe" word verhelder en toepaslike voorbeelde van die stel kwesbare groepe in die samelewing word gelys. Die opkoms van die beskouing van onderwys as oplossing vir die totale samelewingsproblematiek word dan geskets en probleme met dié beskouing word geïdentifiseer. Die gevolgtrekking is dat onderwys die voor die hand liggende instrument is om kwesbare groepe te bemagtig. Die moontlikheidsvoorwaarde hiervoor is dat hierdie groepe en die unieke kontekstuele ekologie van elk van die groepe op die navorsingsagenda van die Sosiale Wetenskappe, veral die Sosiologie van die Opvoedkunde en die Vergelykende Opvoedkunde, geplaas moet word.Currently education is widely looked upon as a panacea for all societal ills and challenges, and the global community is feverishly pursuing the provision of education to all. This article is a position paper defending the thesis that in the crusade of education for all, and the theoretical superstructure directing the discourse about education for all, a set of vulnerable groups in society has become invisible. The aim of this article is to bring this set of vulnerable groups into the map of the public and academic discourse on education and to serve as prolegomena for the drafting of a research agenda for the provision of education to these groups. The article commences with an outline of the historical evolution of models of social stratification dominant in both the public discourse and analyses in the social sciences. The prototype was Marx's model that laid down socio-economic status as the main dimension of social stratification. This dimension was later supplemented by two additional dimensions, with the result that the public and academic discourse about equality has come to be dominated by the so-called trinity of inequality: socio-economic status, gender and race or ethnicity. Through the cracks of this model have fallen a number of vulnerable groups, which have, therefore, disappeared from the public and academic discourse. Vulnerable groups in society can be defined as people who, because of a set of particular circumstances, do not have access to the same set of social support systems to which people typically have access. These systems include family structures (including structures of the extended family), systems of the immediate community in which these people live, governmental structures (such as access to social grants or protection offered by labour laws) and the various forms of capital identified by Bourdieu, namely physical or economic capital, cultural capital and social capital. The article enumerates and briefly discusses the following categories of vulnerable groups (without claiming this list to be exhaustive): refugees, dislodged people or illegal immigrants; the unemployed; street children; people dependent on social grants; parentless or guardianless children; the destitute; domestic workers; the poor; chronically ill people; people living from garbage; and car guards. Against this occurrence of vulnerable people in society, the potential of education as an ameliorative force should be assessed. After being on the fringe of society for centuries (even millennia) and being viewed as of no economic value, the decades after the Second World War suddenly saw an appreciation for the value of education. Causal factors to this new belief include the fact that adult literacy on a world level reached the 50% mark in 1955, the founding of UNESCO and the appearance of the Human Capital and Modernisation Theory. In a short time, education has come to be seen as a solution to every societal ill. Advocates for education can indeed marshal a raft of empirical research supporting their belief. However, the ameliorative societal effect of education is no universal, deterministic law. The societal effect depends on the learner(s) and the contextual ecology (geography, demography, social system, economy, political system and religio- and life philosophical systems) of each case. Therefore, while education appears to be the obvious way to empower people finding themselves to be members of vulnerable categories, for this potential of education to be realised, the explication of the contextual ecology of each of the vulnerable categories should be placed on the Education research agenda, followed by a development plan for education for each group, based on the results of such analyses.
       
  • Vulnerable groups in the informal economy: A case study among car guards
           in Johannesburg's West Rand

    • Abstract: Suid-Afrika se hoë vlakke van motorverwante misdaad en hoë werkloosheid het oor die laaste 25 jaar aanleiding gegee tot die ontwikkeling van ʼn kenmerkende Suid-Afrikaanse praktyk waar mense teen ʼn fooitjie na voertuie by winkelsentrums se parkeerterreine omsien. Mense wat óf hul werk verloor het óf nie ander werk ooit kon kry nie, werk as motorwagte in Suid-Afrika. Hier geniet hulle bitter min, indien enige, van die beskerming wat die arbeidsbedeling aan formele werkers bied. Hulle is dus inderdaad ʼn uiters kwesbare groep in die informele sektor. Hierdie artikel is gegrond op ʼn opname onder 110 motorwagte in Roodepoort en Crown Mines in 2017 met die doel om die sosio-ekonomiese kwesbaarheid van motorwagte te ondersoek. Motorwagte is kwesbaar op beide sosiale- en ekonomiese vlakke. Motorwagte verdien ʼn lae inkomste en moet terselfdertyd ʼn aansienlike gedeelte van hul inkomste aan inkopiesentrums of motorwag-agentskappe betaal. Die gemiddelde motorwag in die opname verdien tussen R7.31 en R21.94 per uur. Die gemiddelde fooi per uur is bereken as R12.60 ten tye van die opname. Die huidige minimum loon per uur in Suid-Afrika is R20. Dit beteken dat die gemiddelde motorwag gemiddeld minder per uur verdien as die wettige minimum loon in die land. As daar in gedagte gehou word dat die bogenoemde syfers boonop bruto bedrae verteenwoordig (die motorwagte moet nog uit hierdie inkomste hul daaglikse fooi aan die motorwagorganisasie of winkelsentrum betaal), is die ekonomiese kwesbaarheid van motorwagte baie duidelik. Hierdie kwesbaarheid word vererger deur die onsekerheid ten opsigte van toekomstige inkomste. Hul werkomstandighede stel hulle bloot aan verskeie gesondheidsrisiko's en hulle is daagliks uitgelewer aan die elemente soos erge hitte en koue. As hulle nie werk nie (as gevolg van byvoorbeeld siekte), verdien hulle geen inkomste nie. Die rol van motorwagagentskappe en die groeiende aantal immigrante in die bedryf is belangrike areas vir toekomstige navorsing.South Africa's high levels of car-related crime and spiralling unemployment have resulted in the development of a distinctive South African practice where people are looking after vehicles in shopping malls' parking sites in exchange for a fee during the last 25 years. People who have lost their work or who never had a formal job in the past could work as a car guard in South Africa. Here, they enjoy little if any of the protection that the labour dispensation provides formal workers. They are therefore indeed an extremely vulnerable group in the informal sector. This article is based on a survey among 110 car guards in Roodepoort and Crown Mines in 2017 with the aim to investigate the socio-economic vulnerability of car guards. Car guards are both socially and economically vulnerable. Besides earning a low income, they are also required to pay a considerable portion of their income to shopping centres or car guard agencies. The average car guard in the survey earns between R7.31 and R21.94 per hour. The average fee per hour was calculated at R12.60 at the time of the survey. The current minimum hourly wage in South Africa is R20. This implies that the average car guard earns less per hour than the official minimum wage in the country. If one keeps in mind that these are gross amounts (the car guards must often pay a daily fee to a car guard organisation from this income), then the economic vulnerability of car guards is obvious. Their economic situation is therefore extremely vulnerable. This vulnerability is worsened by the uncertainty with regard to future income. Their working conditions expose them to various health risks as they are prone to fluctuating weather conditions, such as severe heat and cold, on a daily basis. If they do not work (because of, for example, illness), they earn no income. The researchers identified several possible limitations during the research. In some instances, the language proficiency of the foreign born car guards was indeed a challenge. In these cases, fellow car guards were able to act as interpreters in order to complete the interview. We realise that the sample cannot be used to generalise conclusions for the whole of South Africa. However, the results broadly corroborate the results of surveys in Pretoria (Steyn 2018) and Durban (Foster & Chasomeris 2017). It should be clear that car guards, as is the case with other groupings in the informal economy (e.g. day labourers and waste pickers), experience vulnerability on both social and economic levels. The results of this survey emphasise that a number of questions and uncertainties in terms of the car guard industry remain. These require the attention of researchers. One of the most important points on any future research agenda, will have to be the role of car guard agencies as labour brokers. These brokers apparently take very few risks, yet receive a significant portion of the tips earned by car guards. It is crucial that their role and activities be analysed economically. The second critical aspect requiring further research, is the role of foreign born migrants in the car guard industry in South Africa. This is a conclusion based on this article but also corroborated by the work of Steyn (2018). The mere fact that such a high proportion of car guards in this survey is foreign born, puts a new perspective on the future analysis of the industry. This issue can no longer be ignored. South Africa remains a destination of choice for many immigrants who have to leave their country of origin for political and economic reasons. The renewed economic crisis in, for example, Zimbabwe and the lack of food and employment opportunities in other Southern African countries are push factors which inevitably result in a constant supply of immigrants to South Africa. Once here, they often compete with South African citizens for limited opportunities in the informal economy. These foreign workers are especia...
       
  • Women in mining towns: A case study from Emalahleni

    • Abstract: Suid-Afrikaanse vroue kry toenemend erkenning en word meer gereeld aangestel in prominente openbare posisies. Nogtans kan sekere groepe vroue steeds as kwesbaar beskou word. Australiese literatuur fokus gereeld op die rol van vroue in myndorpe. Suid-Afrikaanse literatuur oor die onderwerp is dun gesaai. Hierdie artikel poog om die leemte in die literatuur te vul deur te fokus op data uit drie verskillende soorte onderhoude wat in 2017 in Emalahleni gevoer is. Dit blyk dat vroulike inwoners van dié myndorp wel as kwesbaar beskryf kan word. Eerstens op ekonomiese gebied, waar hul werkloosheidskoers baie hoër en hul arbeidsmagdeelnamekoers baie laer is as dié van hul manlike eweknieë. Tweedens is hulle baie minder tevrede met hul lewenskwaliteit. Vroue wat aan die hoof van hul huishoudings staan, is baie meer bewus van huishoudelike geweld en gesondheidsprobleme weens besoedeling, en toon baie minder vertroue in hul mede-inwoners.In South Africa, the role of women is increasingly recognised and more and more women are appointed in prominent positions of the public sector. Despite these trends, certain groups of women can still be regarded as vulnerable. The role of women in mining towns is a prominent theme in Australian literature. Without denying the positive economic impact of mining, these studies also focus on the social impact of mining on communities. Lockie et al. (2009) describes the consequences of an influx of "strangers" into mining towns. The communities experience increased levels of crime and lose their earlier sense of belonging. According to Hijkowicz et al. (2011), increased mining activity leads to increased inequality in communities. Some reap the benefits of new and high-paying job opportunities, while others miss out if they are not employed by the mines. The position of women in mining towns is the focus of Sharma (2010). Her findings indicate that women do not benefit from mining activities to the same extent as men do.Their health suffers, and they are deemed to be on a lower level than men. Women are therefore dependent on their male partners both socially and economically. The South African literature, however, until now has mainly ignored the topic of women in mining towns.This article aims to fill this void by focusing on the mining town of Emalahleni. Emalahleni is situated in the province of Mpumalanga. The economy of the town is dependent on coal mining. As a logical outcome, the discovery of coal soon led to the establishment of coal powered power stations as well as steel mills. In 2015, mining contributed 59.8% to the economy of the Emalahleni Local Municipality (Emalahleni Local Municipality 2017). Similar trends as observed in Australian mining towns present themselves here: a growing population, an increased ratio of male to female residents and an unemployment rate (of 23.2%) below the national rate (of 26.5%) in 2015 (Emalahleni Local Municipality 2017); male unemployment stood at 19.2% and female unemployment at 29.8% (StatsSA 2016). Turning to the environment, both air pollution and water pollution are the not so unexpected consequences of increased mining activity. The empirical analysis is based on three different kinds of interviews conducted during 2017. Qualitative interviews with local stakeholders identified the following issues in the community: high levels of domestic violence, alcohol and drug abuse, school children acting as drug mules, health problems due to air pollution, high levels of unemployment amongst women, as well as low expectations of obtaining jobs in future amongst school girls. Two separate structured questionnaires were used in obtaining information from individual residents and Emalahleni households. Information resulting from the questionnaires indicates that women from this specific mining town can indeed be regarded as vulnerable - both in terms of their economic status and their perceptions regarding quality of life as expressed by themselves. Compared to their male counterparts, female residents of Emalahleni have a lower labour force participation rate, and a concomitant higher unemployment rate, while those who do receive a monthly salary earn much less than male employees in similar or comparable jobs. Moreover, women are mostly excluded from the lucrative job opportunities in the mining sector: 60% of interviewed males are employed by mines, while only 2% of interviewed females could confirm the same. Women in Emalahleni are therefore considered to be economically vulnerable. Based on a seven-point scale, female partners of male mining employees were generally found to be less satisfied with their quality of life than females heading their own households. Considering specific aspects of their lives, female heads of households are more concerned about domestic violence, the negative consequences of air pollution, and the lack of increase in household welfare. It is, therefore, concluded that women living in Emalahleni can be regarded as vulnerable based on opinions they hold about their quality of life.
       
  • &rft.title=Tydskrif+vir+Geesteswetenskappe&rft.issn=0041-4751&rft.date=&rft.volume=">"Eventually I ended up on the street; it's a hard life": Challenges
           experienced by vulnerable women who abuse alcohol or drugs

    • Abstract: Daar is wêreldwyd ʼn toename in die misbruik van alkohol- en/of dwelms. Dit is veral kwesbare vroue wat alkohol of dwelms misbruik, wat gespesialiseerde behandeling benodig. Die doel van die studie was om die uitdagings wat hierdie groep vroue die hoof moet bied, te ondersoek. Die ekologiese perspektief is as teoretiese raamwerk gekies. ʼn Kwalitatiewe studie met ʼn eksplorerende en beskrywende aard is gedoen om dié doel van die studie te bereik. Vyftien deelnemers is gewerf as steekproef vir die studie deur ʼn nieregeringsorganisasie. Die onderhoude wat met hulle gevoer is, is getranskribeer en in vyf temas verdeel, naamlik traumatiese kinderjare, teenspoed in die volwasse lewe, uitdagings in die omgewing, gebruik van alkohol of dwelms om die lewe te hanteer, en hoop. Data-verifikasie is ook gedoen. Etiese klaring is vir die studie verkry. Die gevolgtrekking van die studie is dat kwesbare vroue wat alkohol of dwelms misbruik, verskeie uitdagings in die gesig staar en gespesialiseerde intervensie benodig. Daar word aanbeveel dat meer navorsing gedoen word oor hierdie kwessie.There are a significant number of people who live under the breadline in South Africa. Especially women and children are vulnerable when they end up on the streets, owing to a number of reasons such as economic hardship and unemployment. Women are also often caregivers of their young children and to seek fulltime employment is not always feasible. Several of these vulnerable women resort to alcohol or drug abuse as a means to at least temporarily cope with their problems. It is usually social workers who render services to vulnerable groups and in this instance to vulnerable women. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges experienced by vulnerable women who abuse alcohol or drugs, in order to improve service rendering by social workers. There is an increase worldwide in the abuse of harmful substances. Although statistics indicate that more men than women succumb to substance abuse, affected women often do not seek help, owing to several factors such as the stigma attached thereto, and the lack of sufficient services to assist them. Research indicates that economic hardship could contribute to substance abuse. Little research has been done on the unique challenges facing vulnerable women who are prone to substance abuse. These women often end up on the street, heightening the risks of their falling prey to violence and sexual assault. The ecological perspective was chosen as a theoretical framework for this study as the different systems could shed light on the research question: "What are the challenges of vulnerable women who resort to substance abuse'" Stressful situations could contribute to a life of substance abuse. Especially women who leave their families for a life on the streets are suffering emotional stress. The three levels of the ecological perspective that were utilised were the micro, meso and macro levels. A qualitative approach of an exploratory nature was chosen to meet the goal of the study, namely to explore the challenges facing vulnerable women succumbing to alcohol and drugs as a last resort. An NGO was approached to collect a sample of 15 participants. Criteria for inclusion were that the participants had to be women; over 21 years old; had to have used alcohol and/or drugs during the course of the study or six months prior to the study; had to be sober during the interviews; and had to be clients of the NGO that delivered the sample. Data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were recorded with the permission of the participants and transcribed by the researcher. Ethical clearance was obtained for the study. The data were analysed and categorised into relevant themes. Data verification was also done by member checking and the use of an independent coder. The study was limited in that only a small sample was used and that it was done only in the Western Cape. Theme 1 concerned a traumatic childhood. All participants had lived through a traumatic childhood and still struggled in adulthood to work through different issues. Significantly, a number of the participants' own family members were directly or indirectly responsible for the childhood trauma. Theme 2 pertained to difficulties in adulthood varying from subjecting to violence, being cheated on, having been victims of rape, serving jail terms, living on the streets, and attempting suicide. Closely related to theme 2, are challenges in the environment (theme 3). Notable stumbling blocks pertained to participants living with sickness, relationship challenges, gang violence, hunger and conflict with the police. The abuse of alcohol or drugs, as well as the misuse of pain killers as a coping mechanism was identified as theme 4. One of the participants also struggled with a dual diagnosis of bipolar disorder and substance use disorder. Hope was identified as the 5th theme. Despite the listed challenges, some participants still retained a flicker of hope and resilience, wishing to improve their lives and reclaim custody of their children. It can be concluded that vulnerable women who abuse alcohol or drugs face several challenges and that specialised intervention is needed to help them to come to terms with childhood trauma, adversities in adult life, challenges in the environment and, in addition to all of the above, with substance dependency. More research is recommended, specifically focused on vulnerable women who succumb to substance abuse.
       
  • The problem of father absenteeism in South Africa:A possible solution
           according to Biblical guidelines

    • Abstract: 'n Oplossingsgerigte benadering word voorgestel as moontlike bydrae om die maatskaplike probleem van vaderafwesigheid in Suid-Afrika te probeer bekamp. Gebroke gesinne is een van die grootste oorsake en gevolge wat lei tot die verhoogde kwesbaarheid van kinders. Kinders in nood, veral as hulle in sorg geplaas word, maak deel uit van 'n uiters kwesbare groep persone wat nie genoegsame ondersteuning kry nie. Artikel 150 van die Kinderwet bepaal juis dat 'n kind die sorg, beskerming en ondersteuning van beide ouers benodig, anders openbaar die kind gedrag wat nie beheer kan word nie en kan sy of haar fisieke, geestelike en maatskaplike welsyn ernstig hierdeur benadeel word. Daarom is dit kritiek belangrik om te verstaan dat die afwesigheid van ʼn ouer binne ʼn gesinstelsel ʼn vakuum in die ouerskaprol veroorsaak, ʼn negatiewe invloed op die gesin het en veral kwesbare kinders se vermoë om doeltreffend te funksioneer nadelig beïnvloed. In Suid-Afrika is die uitdaging van vaderafwesigheid 'n maatskaplike probleem wat in die meeste gemeenskappe voorkom. Die belangrikheid van vaderskap in die samelewing word egter dikwels nie belangrik geag nie. Daarom is dit geensins verbasend dat die afwesigheid van 'n vader in 'n gesin ʼn toenemende verskynsel en neiging in baie gemeenskappe is nie, nie net in Suid-Afrika nie, maar wêreldwyd.In this paper a solution-orientated approach is proposed as a suggested contribution to help fight the social problem of father absenteeism in South Africa, since the issue of absent fathers is becoming a serious local problem. Increasingly, children are growing up without a father figure and as a result become vulnerable in society. Broken families and absent fathers are major causes and effects resulting in children's vulnerability - the state of exposure to the possibility of being harmed, self-harmed and contemplating suicidal thoughts. Examples of vulnerable children are those who do not receive the love and care of one or both parents, who may, therefore, struggle with basic skills such as how to handle emotions, trust and interpersonal relationships. Moreover, they may lack self-knowledge and engage in risky behaviour. The absence of a parent within a family system causes a vacuum in the parenthood role and has a negative influence on the ability of the family to function efficiently. The number of children living without their fathers has increased unabatedly during the almost two decades of democracy in South Africa. The absence of a father has been constructed as socially detrimental and a dilemma for most children in South Africa, as the lack of a father figure means the child has no positive male role model. Father absence not only has a severe impact on family life, but constitutes a social trend of widespread concern, akin to major diseases such as HIV/Aids. Research has shown that a dysfunctional family life is a major societal problem, with father absence and fatherlessness at the centre thereof. The following statistics reflect disturbing factors related to father absence in South Africa: 63% of suicides originate from fatherless homes; 70% of juveniles in state-operated institutions come from fatherless homes; 80% of rapists motivated by displaced anger grew up in fatherless homes; 40% of all children in the country do not live with their biological fathers; 85% of children with behavioural problems come from homes where the father is absent; 90% of homeless children originate from fatherless homes; and 71% of children who do not finish school have absent fathers. Father absence is a tendency and world-wide phenomenon in many communities. Statistically, there is a tendency akin to a "fatherhood disease" globally and a rapid increase in single-parenting. Fathers' absence is the ultimate cause for the rising incidence of single mothers, vulnerable children and child-headed households in South Africa. Single-parent households have become the norm in South Africa where the "typical" child is raised by the mother only. The abovementioned problems are devastating to families, who may blame God for ills and misfortunes in their lives. Parents are a gift from God to children, but numerous children have been raised in families where fathers have been neglecting their responsibilities. The society in South Africa at present seemingly is unable to acknowledge the importance of fatherhood. However, father absence holds many negative consequences for families and communities, and many families experience a difficult family life because of it. Themes such as Biblical parenting, mentors and mentoring, Christian values, missional fatherhood, fatherhood from a Biblical perspective, the views of mothers and adolescents on the important role of the father within a family context were examined with regard to the problem of father absence. The findings arrived at in the context of these themes contributed towards a practical component, namely the Fatherhood Training and Equipping Programme "Dad become fully you", which was developed in 2011 to be utilised in the field of community engagement. The programme was compiled from my research and studies in collaboration with FAMSA (Families South Africa). The programme constituted one of the strengths and core responsibilities of the research because the main aim thereof was to train and equip fathers and to restore the indispensable role of the father within the family context. In 2015, the same programme with a different theme, "A life beyond iron bars", was started at the Potchefstroom Remand Detention Facility (Potchefstroom Correctional Services). The aim of the programme was to train and equip, motivate, inspire and empower fathers in prison, according to the following guideline in the White Paper on Corrections in South Africa, Chapter 3 (3.3.7): "… creation of an environment in which offenders are encouraged to discard negative and destructive values and replace them with posi...
       
  • Book reviews

    • Abstract: 'n Oplossingsgerigte benadering word voorgestel as moontlike bydrae om die maatskaplike probleem van vaderafwesigheid in Suid-Afrika te probeer bekamp. Gebroke gesinne is een van die grootste oorsake en gevolge wat lei tot die verhoogde kwesbaarheid van kinders. Kinders in nood, veral as hulle in sorg geplaas word, maak deel uit van 'n uiters kwesbare groep persone wat nie genoegsame ondersteuning kry nie. Artikel 150 van die Kinderwet bepaal juis dat 'n kind die sorg, beskerming en ondersteuning van beide ouers benodig, anders openbaar die kind gedrag wat nie beheer kan word nie en kan sy of haar fisieke, geestelike en maatskaplike welsyn ernstig hierdeur benadeel word. Daarom is dit kritiek belangrik om te verstaan dat die afwesigheid van ʼn ouer binne ʼn gesinstelsel ʼn vakuum in die ouerskaprol veroorsaak, ʼn negatiewe invloed op die gesin het en veral kwesbare kinders se vermoë om doeltreffend te funksioneer nadelig beïnvloed. In Suid-Afrika is die uitdaging van vaderafwesigheid 'n maatskaplike probleem wat in die meeste gemeenskappe voorkom. Die belangrikheid van vaderskap in die samelewing word egter dikwels nie belangrik geag nie. Daarom is dit geensins verbasend dat die afwesigheid van 'n vader in 'n gesin ʼn toenemende verskynsel en neiging in baie gemeenskappe is nie, nie net in Suid-Afrika nie, maar wêreldwyd.In this paper a solution-orientated approach is proposed as a suggested contribution to help fight the social problem of father absenteeism in South Africa, since the issue of absent fathers is becoming a serious local problem. Increasingly, children are growing up without a father figure and as a result become vulnerable in society. Broken families and absent fathers are major causes and effects resulting in children's vulnerability - the state of exposure to the possibility of being harmed, self-harmed and contemplating suicidal thoughts. Examples of vulnerable children are those who do not receive the love and care of one or both parents, who may, therefore, struggle with basic skills such as how to handle emotions, trust and interpersonal relationships. Moreover, they may lack self-knowledge and engage in risky behaviour. The absence of a parent within a family system causes a vacuum in the parenthood role and has a negative influence on the ability of the family to function efficiently. The number of children living without their fathers has increased unabatedly during the almost two decades of democracy in South Africa. The absence of a father has been constructed as socially detrimental and a dilemma for most children in South Africa, as the lack of a father figure means the child has no positive male role model. Father absence not only has a severe impact on family life, but constitutes a social trend of widespread concern, akin to major diseases such as HIV/Aids. Research has shown that a dysfunctional family life is a major societal problem, with father absence and fatherlessness at the centre thereof. The following statistics reflect disturbing factors related to father absence in South Africa: 63% of suicides originate from fatherless homes; 70% of juveniles in state-operated institutions come from fatherless homes; 80% of rapists motivated by displaced anger grew up in fatherless homes; 40% of all children in the country do not live with their biological fathers; 85% of children with behavioural problems come from homes where the father is absent; 90% of homeless children originate from fatherless homes; and 71% of children who do not finish school have absent fathers. Father absence is a tendency and world-wide phenomenon in many communities. Statistically, there is a tendency akin to a "fatherhood disease" globally and a rapid increase in single-parenting. Fathers' absence is the ultimate cause for the rising incidence of single mothers, vulnerable children and child-headed households in South Africa. Single-parent households have become the norm in South Africa where the "typical" child is raised by the mother only. The abovementioned problems are devastating to families, who may blame God for ills and misfortunes in their lives. Parents are a gift from God to children, but numerous children have been raised in families where fathers have been neglecting their responsibilities. The society in South Africa at present seemingly is unable to acknowledge the importance of fatherhood. However, father absence holds many negative consequences for families and communities, and many families experience a difficult family life because of it. Themes such as Biblical parenting, mentors and mentoring, Christian values, missional fatherhood, fatherhood from a Biblical perspective, the views of mothers and adolescents on the important role of the father within a family context were examined with regard to the problem of father absence. The findings arrived at in the context of these themes contributed towards a practical component, namely the Fatherhood Training and Equipping Programme "Dad become fully you", which was developed in 2011 to be utilised in the field of community engagement. The programme was compiled from my research and studies in collaboration with FAMSA (Families South Africa). The programme constituted one of the strengths and core responsibilities of the research because the main aim thereof was to train and equip fathers and to restore the indispensable role of the father within the family context. In 2015, the same programme with a different theme, "A life beyond iron bars", was started at the Potchefstroom Remand Detention Facility (Potchefstroom Correctional Services). The aim of the programme was to train and equip, motivate, inspire and empower fathers in prison, according to the following guideline in the White Paper on Corrections in South Africa, Chapter 3 (3.3.7): "… creation of an environment in which offenders are encouraged to discard negative and destructive values and replace them with posi...
       
  • Eerste kouefronte na 80: Stygende waters 1 Julie 2018

    • Abstract: 'n Oplossingsgerigte benadering word voorgestel as moontlike bydrae om die maatskaplike probleem van vaderafwesigheid in Suid-Afrika te probeer bekamp. Gebroke gesinne is een van die grootste oorsake en gevolge wat lei tot die verhoogde kwesbaarheid van kinders. Kinders in nood, veral as hulle in sorg geplaas word, maak deel uit van 'n uiters kwesbare groep persone wat nie genoegsame ondersteuning kry nie. Artikel 150 van die Kinderwet bepaal juis dat 'n kind die sorg, beskerming en ondersteuning van beide ouers benodig, anders openbaar die kind gedrag wat nie beheer kan word nie en kan sy of haar fisieke, geestelike en maatskaplike welsyn ernstig hierdeur benadeel word. Daarom is dit kritiek belangrik om te verstaan dat die afwesigheid van ʼn ouer binne ʼn gesinstelsel ʼn vakuum in die ouerskaprol veroorsaak, ʼn negatiewe invloed op die gesin het en veral kwesbare kinders se vermoë om doeltreffend te funksioneer nadelig beïnvloed. In Suid-Afrika is die uitdaging van vaderafwesigheid 'n maatskaplike probleem wat in die meeste gemeenskappe voorkom. Die belangrikheid van vaderskap in die samelewing word egter dikwels nie belangrik geag nie. Daarom is dit geensins verbasend dat die afwesigheid van 'n vader in 'n gesin ʼn toenemende verskynsel en neiging in baie gemeenskappe is nie, nie net in Suid-Afrika nie, maar wêreldwyd.In this paper a solution-orientated approach is proposed as a suggested contribution to help fight the social problem of father absenteeism in South Africa, since the issue of absent fathers is becoming a serious local problem. Increasingly, children are growing up without a father figure and as a result become vulnerable in society. Broken families and absent fathers are major causes and effects resulting in children's vulnerability - the state of exposure to the possibility of being harmed, self-harmed and contemplating suicidal thoughts. Examples of vulnerable children are those who do not receive the love and care of one or both parents, who may, therefore, struggle with basic skills such as how to handle emotions, trust and interpersonal relationships. Moreover, they may lack self-knowledge and engage in risky behaviour. The absence of a parent within a family system causes a vacuum in the parenthood role and has a negative influence on the ability of the family to function efficiently. The number of children living without their fathers has increased unabatedly during the almost two decades of democracy in South Africa. The absence of a father has been constructed as socially detrimental and a dilemma for most children in South Africa, as the lack of a father figure means the child has no positive male role model. Father absence not only has a severe impact on family life, but constitutes a social trend of widespread concern, akin to major diseases such as HIV/Aids. Research has shown that a dysfunctional family life is a major societal problem, with father absence and fatherlessness at the centre thereof. The following statistics reflect disturbing factors related to father absence in South Africa: 63% of suicides originate from fatherless homes; 70% of juveniles in state-operated institutions come from fatherless homes; 80% of rapists motivated by displaced anger grew up in fatherless homes; 40% of all children in the country do not live with their biological fathers; 85% of children with behavioural problems come from homes where the father is absent; 90% of homeless children originate from fatherless homes; and 71% of children who do not finish school have absent fathers. Father absence is a tendency and world-wide phenomenon in many communities. Statistically, there is a tendency akin to a "fatherhood disease" globally and a rapid increase in single-parenting. Fathers' absence is the ultimate cause for the rising incidence of single mothers, vulnerable children and child-headed households in South Africa. Single-parent households have become the norm in South Africa where the "typical" child is raised by the mother only. The abovementioned problems are devastating to families, who may blame God for ills and misfortunes in their lives. Parents are a gift from God to children, but numerous children have been raised in families where fathers have been neglecting their responsibilities. The society in South Africa at present seemingly is unable to acknowledge the importance of fatherhood. However, father absence holds many negative consequences for families and communities, and many families experience a difficult family life because of it. Themes such as Biblical parenting, mentors and mentoring, Christian values, missional fatherhood, fatherhood from a Biblical perspective, the views of mothers and adolescents on the important role of the father within a family context were examined with regard to the problem of father absence. The findings arrived at in the context of these themes contributed towards a practical component, namely the Fatherhood Training and Equipping Programme "Dad become fully you", which was developed in 2011 to be utilised in the field of community engagement. The programme was compiled from my research and studies in collaboration with FAMSA (Families South Africa). The programme constituted one of the strengths and core responsibilities of the research because the main aim thereof was to train and equip fathers and to restore the indispensable role of the father within the family context. In 2015, the same programme with a different theme, "A life beyond iron bars", was started at the Potchefstroom Remand Detention Facility (Potchefstroom Correctional Services). The aim of the programme was to train and equip, motivate, inspire and empower fathers in prison, according to the following guideline in the White Paper on Corrections in South Africa, Chapter 3 (3.3.7): "… creation of an environment in which offenders are encouraged to discard negative and destructive values and replace them with posi...
       
  • Allerlei

    • Abstract: 'n Oplossingsgerigte benadering word voorgestel as moontlike bydrae om die maatskaplike probleem van vaderafwesigheid in Suid-Afrika te probeer bekamp. Gebroke gesinne is een van die grootste oorsake en gevolge wat lei tot die verhoogde kwesbaarheid van kinders. Kinders in nood, veral as hulle in sorg geplaas word, maak deel uit van 'n uiters kwesbare groep persone wat nie genoegsame ondersteuning kry nie. Artikel 150 van die Kinderwet bepaal juis dat 'n kind die sorg, beskerming en ondersteuning van beide ouers benodig, anders openbaar die kind gedrag wat nie beheer kan word nie en kan sy of haar fisieke, geestelike en maatskaplike welsyn ernstig hierdeur benadeel word. Daarom is dit kritiek belangrik om te verstaan dat die afwesigheid van ʼn ouer binne ʼn gesinstelsel ʼn vakuum in die ouerskaprol veroorsaak, ʼn negatiewe invloed op die gesin het en veral kwesbare kinders se vermoë om doeltreffend te funksioneer nadelig beïnvloed. In Suid-Afrika is die uitdaging van vaderafwesigheid 'n maatskaplike probleem wat in die meeste gemeenskappe voorkom. Die belangrikheid van vaderskap in die samelewing word egter dikwels nie belangrik geag nie. Daarom is dit geensins verbasend dat die afwesigheid van 'n vader in 'n gesin ʼn toenemende verskynsel en neiging in baie gemeenskappe is nie, nie net in Suid-Afrika nie, maar wêreldwyd.In this paper a solution-orientated approach is proposed as a suggested contribution to help fight the social problem of father absenteeism in South Africa, since the issue of absent fathers is becoming a serious local problem. Increasingly, children are growing up without a father figure and as a result become vulnerable in society. Broken families and absent fathers are major causes and effects resulting in children's vulnerability - the state of exposure to the possibility of being harmed, self-harmed and contemplating suicidal thoughts. Examples of vulnerable children are those who do not receive the love and care of one or both parents, who may, therefore, struggle with basic skills such as how to handle emotions, trust and interpersonal relationships. Moreover, they may lack self-knowledge and engage in risky behaviour. The absence of a parent within a family system causes a vacuum in the parenthood role and has a negative influence on the ability of the family to function efficiently. The number of children living without their fathers has increased unabatedly during the almost two decades of democracy in South Africa. The absence of a father has been constructed as socially detrimental and a dilemma for most children in South Africa, as the lack of a father figure means the child has no positive male role model. Father absence not only has a severe impact on family life, but constitutes a social trend of widespread concern, akin to major diseases such as HIV/Aids. Research has shown that a dysfunctional family life is a major societal problem, with father absence and fatherlessness at the centre thereof. The following statistics reflect disturbing factors related to father absence in South Africa: 63% of suicides originate from fatherless homes; 70% of juveniles in state-operated institutions come from fatherless homes; 80% of rapists motivated by displaced anger grew up in fatherless homes; 40% of all children in the country do not live with their biological fathers; 85% of children with behavioural problems come from homes where the father is absent; 90% of homeless children originate from fatherless homes; and 71% of children who do not finish school have absent fathers. Father absence is a tendency and world-wide phenomenon in many communities. Statistically, there is a tendency akin to a "fatherhood disease" globally and a rapid increase in single-parenting. Fathers' absence is the ultimate cause for the rising incidence of single mothers, vulnerable children and child-headed households in South Africa. Single-parent households have become the norm in South Africa where the "typical" child is raised by the mother only. The abovementioned problems are devastating to families, who may blame God for ills and misfortunes in their lives. Parents are a gift from God to children, but numerous children have been raised in families where fathers have been neglecting their responsibilities. The society in South Africa at present seemingly is unable to acknowledge the importance of fatherhood. However, father absence holds many negative consequences for families and communities, and many families experience a difficult family life because of it. Themes such as Biblical parenting, mentors and mentoring, Christian values, missional fatherhood, fatherhood from a Biblical perspective, the views of mothers and adolescents on the important role of the father within a family context were examined with regard to the problem of father absence. The findings arrived at in the context of these themes contributed towards a practical component, namely the Fatherhood Training and Equipping Programme "Dad become fully you", which was developed in 2011 to be utilised in the field of community engagement. The programme was compiled from my research and studies in collaboration with FAMSA (Families South Africa). The programme constituted one of the strengths and core responsibilities of the research because the main aim thereof was to train and equip fathers and to restore the indispensable role of the father within the family context. In 2015, the same programme with a different theme, "A life beyond iron bars", was started at the Potchefstroom Remand Detention Facility (Potchefstroom Correctional Services). The aim of the programme was to train and equip, motivate, inspire and empower fathers in prison, according to the following guideline in the White Paper on Corrections in South Africa, Chapter 3 (3.3.7): "… creation of an environment in which offenders are encouraged to discard negative and destructive values and replace them with posi...
       
 
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