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Showing 601 - 737 of 737 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.125, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública     Open Access  
Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Geológica de América Central     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Gerencia y Políticas de Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Habanera de Ciencias Médicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Historia y Sociedad     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín     Open Access  
Revista Integra Educativa     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Bibliotecología     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Revista ION     Open Access  
Revista IUS     Open Access  
Revista Katálysis     Open Access  
Revista Lasallista de Investigación     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.339, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Bioética     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Económico     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Investigación en Matemática Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.171, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Medica de Chile     Open Access   (SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Médica del Hospital Nacional de Niños Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Médica Electrónica     Open Access  
Revista Médica La Paz     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta     Open Access   (SJR: 0.405, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.596, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad     Open Access   (SJR: 0.421, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Mexicana de Economía y Finanzas     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Física     Open Access   (SJR: 0.203, CiteScore: 0)
Revista mexicana de física E     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química     Open Access   (SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Mexicana de Micologí­a     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Sociologí­a     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Musical Chilena     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Odonto Ciência     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Opinión Jurídica     Open Access  
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Paulista de Pediatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
Revista Perspectivas     Open Access  
Revista Pilquen : Sección Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Portuguesa de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Portuguesa de Ortopedia e Traumatologia     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Portuguesa e Brasileira de Gestão     Open Access  
Revista Signos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Revista Universitaria de Geografía     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Cardiologia     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
RGO : Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
RISTI : Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação     Open Access   (SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 1)
RLA : revista de linguistica teorica y aplicada     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Rodriguésia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.734, CiteScore: 2)
SA Orthopaedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Salud Colectiva     Open Access   (SJR: 0.22, CiteScore: 0)
Salud Mental     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Sanidad Militar     Open Access  
São Paulo em Perspectiva     Open Access  
Sao Paulo Medical J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Saúde e Sociedade     Open Access   (SJR: 0.384, CiteScore: 0)
Saúde em Debate     Open Access  
Sba: Controle & Automação Sociedade Brasileira de Automatica     Open Access  
Scientia Agricola     Open Access   (SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 2)
Scientiae Studia     Open Access  
Secuencia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Serviço Social & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexualidad, Salud y Sociedad (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Si Somos Americanos     Open Access  
Signos Filosóficos     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Silva Lusitana     Open Access  
Sociedade & Natureza     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.127, CiteScore: 0)
Sociologia : Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Sociologias     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soldagem & Inspeção     Open Access   (SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
South African Dental J.     Open Access  
South African J. of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African J. of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, CiteScore: 1)
South African J. of Childhood Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African J. of Enology and Viticulture     Open Access   (SJR: 0.301, CiteScore: 1)
South African J. of Industrial Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
South African J. of Occupational Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
South African J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.162, CiteScore: 0)
South African Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.45, CiteScore: 1)
Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Summa Phytopathologica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 0)
Tecnología Química     Open Access  
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access   (SJR: 0.153, CiteScore: 0)
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Tempo     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Tempo Social     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Teología y Vida     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, CiteScore: 0)
Terapia Psicológica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.394, CiteScore: 1)
Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem     Open Access   (SJR: 0.273, CiteScore: 1)
The European J. of Psychiatry (edicion en español)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theologica Xaveriana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.14, CiteScore: 0)
Tinkazos     Open Access  
Tópicos del seminario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Toxicodependências     Open Access  
Trabalho, Educação e Saúde     Open Access  
Trabalhos em Linguistica Aplicada     Open Access  
Trans/Form/Ação - Revista de Filosofia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Transinformação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access   (SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Tydskrif vir Letterkunde     Open Access   (SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ultima Década     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas Philosophica     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access   (SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 1)
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Vaccimonitor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Varia Historia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Veritas : Revista de Filosofí­a y Teología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Vibrant : Virtual Brazilian Anthropology     Open Access  
Visión de futuro     Open Access  
Vniversitas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
West Indian Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Yesterday and Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zoologia (Curitiba)     Open Access  

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Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.193
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ISSN (Print) 0041-4751
Published by SciELO Homepage  [737 journals]
  • The intellectual as educator

    • Abstract: Hierdie artikel handel oor die rol van die openbare intellektueel in die opvoeding van die samelewing. Die skrywer toon aan hoe vele skrywers meen dat die idee van die openbare intellektueel sy oorsprong in Antieke Griekeland het, met Protagoras en Sokrates as vermeende voorbeelde. Dit word meer algemeen aanvaar dat openbare intellektuele ʼn moderne verskynsel is. Hulle medieer tussen die publiek en ʼn wêreld van meesal moeilik toeganklike idees. Op die kulturele vlak evalueer hulle die status van die samelewings waartoe hulle behoort, en in die politiek ontwikkel hulle idees wat lei tot politieke aksie. Die skrywer wys veral op die oorgange in intellektuele optrede vanaf moderniteit na postmoderniteit. Hulle verwerp toenemend die outoritêre deklamasie van natuurwette en kulturele vorme, hulle spreek bedenkinge uit oor die houdbaarheid van die kategorie van seker kennis, hulle artikuleer die gefragmenteerdheid van die moderne wêreldbelewing, hulle verwerp toenemend die idee van die selfevidente gegewenheid van verskynsels en vervang dit met die idee van die noodsaak van mediasie via tekens en simbole, en hulle propageer laastens ʼn wêreld waarin Filosofie as die "Vak" wat aan almal verduidelik waarmee hulle "eintlik" besig is, vervang word met die dialoog-soekende en bemiddelende idee van hermeneutiek.The article deals with the public intellectual as educator, particularly in the field of philosophy. Although many claims are made that public intellectuals emanate from ancient times (Protagoras and Socrates particularly come to mind), the literature is mostly inclined to refer to intellectuals as a modern phenomenon. What was striking about the "intellectuals" of ancient Greece, is that their activities amounted to the respective activities of public debating and public dialogue. The Sophists were debaters - people who already had a fixed view that they tried to impose on others. This is to be clearly distinguished from Socratic dialogue, where the interaction starts with a mutual "docta ignorantia", where participants open themselves to learn from each other, and where the interaction reaches a position that is new to both. When viewed as fundamentally a modern phenomenon (post-17th Century), the distinction between cultural (e.g. Ortega y Gasset) and political (e.g. Sartre, Chomsky) intellectuals comes to the fore. This modern origin of the term can be traced to the defenders of Dreyfuss - the intellectueles of 1898. Throughout history, the nature and role of intellectuals has shifted. The author aims to identify such shifts, questioning their impact on the educational role of intellectuals today. For a long time, intellectuals were considered mediators between the worlds of largely inaccessible ideas and values, and of everyday popular beliefs and traditions. This function has epistemological, cultural and political dimensions. On the epistemological level, the public intellectual confronts society with (otherwise inaccessible) ideas/theories by simplifying them (e.g. Einstein's analogies). On the cultural level, the knowledge shared relates to the value and status of the culture the intellectual inhabits (e.g. Hegel on freedom within the state). Politically, intellectuals share ideas linked to political action (e.g. Marxists' insistence on aiding the critical consciousness and facilitating a language to express the predicament of the working class). The shift from a modern to postmodern culture contributed to shifts in style and modus operandi of intellectuals. This transition was precipitated by criticism regarding the possibility of the sovereign, ahistorical, rational subject with unhindered access to itself - that image of the subject that was problematised mainly by the "masters of suspicion", Marx, Nietzsche and Freud. Firstly, Postmodernity rejects authority figures presenting natural laws and cultural forms under the pretence of necessity: instead, Postmodernism embraces contingency and context. Today's intellectuals inhabit a world where a plurality of world views, contexts, and the localised character of truth have replaced the former world of authority and necessity. Secondly, conventional modern intellectuals were comfortable with the category of certainty. This was replaced by admission of fallibility within post-empiricist philosophy of science in the 20th century. Examples include Popper's criticisms of science's "craving to be right" and Einstein's inclusion of predictions that, if proven false, would falsify his general theory of relativity. Rationality thus becomes falsifiability, and the ideal of certainty is replaced by the demand that a theory be corroborated. The author argues that science loses its special status in the implied anarchy of Paul Feyerabend's claim that "anything goes". The postmodern context is, thirdly, characterised by fragmentation. Wittgenstein's philosophical shifts illustrate this: ideas on language in the Tractatus argue that all understandable language shares a single logical form; yet later in Philosophical Investigations he critiques his own ideas, introducing the idea of "language games" and the importance of context. Picasso's Guernica serves as another example of the fragmented nature of the postmodern experience. A fourth aspect the postmodern shift brought about is the self-evident givenness of phenomena to include the requirement that all acquaintance with reality had to be mediated through symbols or language. This is illuminated by thinkers such as Derrida, (for whom nothing exists "outside of text") and Gadamer who claims that "nothing exists outside of language". The fifth shift is that of authoritative claims of expertise to hermeneutics and interpretation. Specifically discussed is Zygmunt Bauman's differentiation between legislators and interpreters, and Richard Rorty's claim that, in a post-philosophical era, philosophy is replaced by hermeneutics. In the modern era, intellectuals functi...
       
  • Gaining knowledge about the complex human lifeworld

    • Abstract: Aanhangers van die regverdigende standpunt vereis dat kennisaansprake as waar bewys moet word, deur 'n beroep op 'n toepaslike epistemologiese outoriteit, 'n vaste verwysingspunt, te doen. Volgens Cilliers verteenwoordig hierdie standpunt die tradisionele ("moderne") manier om kennis te verwerf. In die huidige tydvak, gekarakteriseer deur 'n komplekse leefwêreld (of dit as "postmodern" beskou word of nie), kom so 'n strategie neer op die ontwyking eerder as die bestudering van kompleksiteit. Cilliers verduidelik dat 'n komplekse, oop sisteem, gekenmerk word deur 'n verweefde netwerk van dinamiese interaksies tussen die menigvuldige heterogene komponente (wat ook subsisteme kan vorm) van die sisteem en ander betrokke sisteme. Uit hierde dinamiese interaksies spruit veranderings en herorganisasie van die struktuur, dikwels deur middel van selforganisasie, om nuwe eienskappe te laat ontluik wat bydra tot die funksionering van die sisteem. Uit navorsing toon Damasio dat die mens in wese 'n geïntegreerde komplekse sisteem verteenwoordig met liggaam, brein, sintuie en verstand wat denke en 'n selfbewussyn ontwikkel om in 'n fisiese en sosiale omgewing 'n sinvolle bestaan te voer. Cilliers argumenteer dat aanvaarding van die kompleksiteit van die leefwêreld, voorveronderstel dat dit onmoontlik is om sodanige wêreld ten volle te begryp. Sodanige aanname beteken egter nie dat géén kennis van die leefwêreld ingewin kan word, of dat die inligting vaag is nie. Deur denke verwerf die mens kennis en voeg sinskeppende waarde toe tot sy/haar alledaagse bestaanswêreld; die mens as geesteswetenskaplike het die bykomende verpligting om wetenskaplike kennis oor die menslike leefwêreld te verwerf.Proponents of justificationism are adamant that knowledge claims have to be proven to be true by referring to an appropriate epistemological authority and indisputable foundation of knowledge. However, as such an assumption cannot be justified on rational grounds, it cannot be accepted as knowledge in terms of this criterion of justificationism. Furthermore, according to Cilliers, justificationism ("foundationalism") represents the traditional ("modern") way of gathering knowledge. In the current era (whether regarded as postmodern or not), which is characterised by a complex lifeworld, such a strategy represents avoiding complexity instead of acknowledging and studying it. Cilliers explains that a complex, open system is characterised by an interwoven network of dynamic interactions among numerous heterogeneous components (which can also form subsystems) of the system and other relevant systems. As a result of these dynamic interactions the structure of the system changes and is reorganised, often by means of self-organisation, for new characteristics to emerge and contribute to its functioning. Whether an organism consists of one cell or many, for it to survive necessitates the conversion of suitable nutrients to energy. Such a process involves finding and internally absorbing requisite energy products, converting these to a universal source of energy for physiological processes, removal of waste products and the consumption of the energy to maintain this routine until the end of the life cycle of the organism. Maintaining this process is extremely complicated and demanding as inter alia sufficient quantities of nutrients for example sugars, fats and protein are required, the correct mixture of gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide and an optimal pH-balance need to be maintained. The process to maintain such optimally balanced conditions is called homeostasis and according to Damasio this capability has been transmitted genetically since the development of primitive organisms. Living organisms thrive under optimal homeostatic conditions. Specific mechanisms in the human brain determine the extent of deviations from homeostatic values through comparisons with set chemical parameters, to assess the intensity of a need. Subsequently a particular deviation from the homeostatic value enables other mechanisms in the brain to initiate corrective actions or, depending on the urgency of the response, may effect a "reward" or "punishment". Damasio explains that in the human brain, with a mind, consciousness and the ability to create neurological maps to reflect such internal states, the parameters associated with homeostatic values correspond with observations of pain and pleasure on a conscious level. Furthermore, such observations can be meaningfully associated in the mind with linguistic labels such as pleasure, wellbeing, discomfort and pain in brains that have mastered language. Mind develops by virtue of the activity of special cells, called neurons, which are crucial for the functioning of the brain. Neurons are not essential for the maintenance of basic life processes; this is evident from the existence of simple organisms without neurons. However, in more complex organisms with numerous cells, neurons assist with the control of life processes. Although the composition of neurons to some extent corresponds with that of other body cells, Damasio maintains that neurons differ functionally as well as strategically from other cells. Functionally, neurons are capable of generating electrochemical signals that can alter conditions in other cells, including other neurons. This influence on the condition in cells is the source of activities that cause and control behaviour and eventually also contribute to the creation of mind. Consequently the functional difference is also the base of the strategic difference: neurons exist to serve all other cells in the body and as such assist with the management of life. The human brain is a super system of systems comprising a complex network of billions of neurons, of which those in close proximity are richly interconnected, while a few connections over slightly longer distances also occur. Each system comprises a richly interconnec...
       
  • Indigenous knowledge as a protectable cultural heritage asset: Notes on
           the proposed protection of indigenous knowledge in South Africa

    • Abstract: Die Franse skrywer en strukturalistiese antropoloog Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009) se standpunte oor kulturele identiteit en multikulturalisme word sedert die tweede helfte van die twintigste eeu deur Unesco bevorder. Die belang van kulturele identiteit en die implikasies van die beskerming daarvan is ook reeds deur vooraanstaande filosowe soos Will Kymlicka, Charles Taylor, Martha Nussbaum en Jürgen Habermas ondersoek. Die beklemtoning van kulturele identiteit het in die post-onafhanklikheidsera vir Afrika-state belangrik geword. Die begrip inheemsheid is aangegryp om die oorspronklike houers van en aanspraakmakers op kulturele regte te identifiseer, en om kwesbare, gemarginaliseerde en geviktimiseerde kultuurgroepe op grond van hul inheemse status te beskerm. By gebrek aan ʼn aanvaarbare definisie van inheemsheid het die praktyk ontwikkel om inheemse status uit te brei na alle inwoners van Afrika, met die gevolg dat oorspronklik gemarginaliseerde groepe, soos die San, steeds aan voortgesette marginalisering onderworpe is. Suid-Afrikaanse beleidmakers en die wetgewende gesag het die toekenning van inheemse status, veral op die terrein van die intellektuele goederereg, benut om die regte op inheemse kennis aan inheemse gemeenskappe toe te ken, soortgelyk aan die wyse waarop kulturele identiteit in lande soos Botswana beskerm word. Volgens die 2004-beleidsdokument oor inheemse kennis word die eiendomsreg op inheemse kennis as kulturele erfenisbates aan inheemse gemeenskappe verleen. Gevolglik word individue wat as outeurs, ontwerpers en toepassers van sodanige inheemse kennis gebruikmaak se regte ingekort. In hierdie artikel word die implikasies van die beskerming van inheemse kennis as kulturele erfenisbates ondersoek en die beskerming van sodanige kennis op grond van kulturele identiteit bespreek. Daar word ook op die gevare van kulturele relativisme, wat in die beoogde beskerming opgesluit lê, kommentaar gelewer.The protection of indigenous knowledge has received considerable attention in the recent past.The intention of this scrutiny has been to promote the rights of vulnerable indigenous communities by amending existing legislation to regulate the intellectual property embodied in their cultural assets. The manner in which this has been done raises interesting and important questions insofar as a paradigm shift towards cultural relativism can be discerned. Not only can aspects of this change be detected in the policies of international bodies concerned with the regulation of intellectual property, but the growing influence of this point of view is also evident in the South African legislative framework as reflected in recent amendments and proposed amendments to intellectual property legislation on indigenous knowledge. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the rejection of race as a legitimate legal criterion for distinguishing between people has facilitated the vogue for multiculturalism and the international emphasis on cultural identity. In this respect, the structural anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009) has become an influential source of ideas and it has produced a theoretical justification for cultural relativism - an approach accepted and promoted by Unesco since 1952. Lévi-Strauss voiced the idea that the whole of man's existence is permeated with and determined by culture. Other philosophers entered the debate, including Will Kymlicka, Charles Taylor, Martha Nussbaum and Jürgen Habermas. Their main discourse topics centred on the recognition of group rights for protecting cultural identity and the implications of such protective measures. This approach was eventually adopted by various post-independent African states. The original purpose of this line of thought was to protect the authentic holders of cultural rights by focusing on their indigenous status. African states, however, expanded this protection beyond the first original indigenous communities to include all African peoples. As a result, some groups, such as the San, are still marginalised in countries such as Botswana, and it seems as though the South African legislator is treading a similar path. The status of indigenous knowledge forms the basis for affording rights in intellectual property to indigenous communities. In 1996, Hennie Strydom called attention to the serious implications of the increasing support for the philosophy of cultural identity, especially the growing acceptance of cultural relativism. The South African National Heritage Law, which came into being in 1999, clearly shows how closely cultural heritage is aligned with cultural identity and indigenous knowledge. The South African Department of Science and Technology's 2004 policy document followed this approach by emphasising indigenous knowledge as a cultural heritage asset. This policy emanated from the notion that the ownership of intellectual property resides with traditional communities, and it affirmed the contention that African cultural values, which stand juxtaposed against globalisation, provide an imperative for promoting an African identity. Since this frame of reference limits the rights of individuals as authors, designers and appliers of indigenous knowledge, South African scholars have voiced concerns about the material aspects of the policy. Criticism was raised against the implication that the protection of indigenous knowledge can only be accomplished on the basis of cultural relativism. Lesley Green, for example, expressed fear that a "new medievalism" could be cultivated. Against this backdrop, the paradox of equating traditional value frames of knowledge with a rights-based discourse and the possibility that indigenous knowledge was as subject to power plays as other branches of science and history were highlighted. In spite of these concerns, the process of promulgating legislation on indigenous knowledge has progressed to the point where the second Bill on th...
       
  • &rft.title=Tydskrif+vir+Geesteswetenskappe&rft.issn=0041-4751&rft.date=&rft.volume=">"Hervormd" or "gereformeerd'": The choice the General Assembly of the
           Dutch Reformed Church had to make in the South African Republic in 1866

    • Abstract: Die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NG Kerk) in Suider-Afrika spruit uit die 17de-eeuse Gereformeerde Kerk in Nederland. In die jare 1855-1858 word die NG Kerk in die Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (1852-1902) se grondwet herdoop tot die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk en aangewys as die kerk van die staat. Die identifisering "Gereformeerd" of "Hervormd" vir hierdie kerk kom op hierdie stadium as wisselterme in die volksmond voor. Die kerk word egter nie geraadpleeg oor die formulering van die grondwet nie en kry nie amptelik kennis daarvan nie. Sommige leraars en lidmate aanvaar hierdie grondwetlike bepaling. Lidmate van die NG Kerk onder leiding van ds. Frans Lion Cachet van die NG Kerk Utrecht, verset hulle egter teen dié reëling. 'n Liberalisering in geloofskwessies en leefwyse in die ou Nederlandse Gereformeerde Kerk wat na die Hervormde Kerk verander word deur die Algemene Reglement wat hy in 1816 van die staatsowerheid ontvang, is die rede vir die afkeuring van die term "Hervormd". In 1866 word 'n eie sinode in die NG Kerk in die Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek gevorm.The Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa, which has congregations within South Africa as well as beyond South African boundaries, is an offspring of the Reformed Church in the Netherlands of the 17th century. The word "Dutch" in its name indicates a link with the Dutch people, the Dutch language and the Netherlands itself, while "Reformed" refers to the church's spiritual heritage. This being a heritage which can be traced back to the Calvinistic reformation of the 16th century and particularly the National Synod of Dordrecht (1618-1619), where it was established that the Three Formulas of Unity would henceforth be the confessions of churches in this tradition. These decisions taken at the Dordrecht Synod had a major influence on both the character and governance of the church. In the 19th century, by means of articles 20 and 23 of the Constitution (1855-1858) of the South African Republic, it was determined that the church of the state would be officially known as the Dutch Reformed Church ("Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk"). In the Dutch of those days two words were alternately used for the notion reformed: "hervormd" and "gereformeerd". However, in the 1860's it became clear that some congregations within the church no longer interpreted the two terms as having the same meaning. While in the said constitution the church of the state was called the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk", in the church itself "Hervormde Kerk" and "Gereformeerde Kerk" were used as synonyms. But in the church of the 1860's people openly associated the designation "Hervormd" with a changed liberal Reformed or "Hervormde" Church in the Netherlands. A change of which its church law of 1816 was an indication. Generally, this liberal change referred to a church in which the Three Formulas as a whole were no longer regarded to be scriptural nor was the Bible believed to be the authentic Word of God. It became a church, then, with which some sincere reformed congregationists no longer wished to be associated. The name "Dutch Reformed Church" ("Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk") in the constitution of the Republic was formulated without consulting the church, a legal assembly or representative body of the church. Moreover, no notice of its name in the constitution was given to the church. In other words, the state named the church without having sought the latter's consent. Some ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church in the Republic accepted this state of affairs, thereby embracing the fact of a new church in a new state with its own name, while others objected to the ruling unilaterally enforced by the constitution of the Republic. However, the latter group did not opt for a separate church and wanted to maintain the relation with the Dutch Reformed Church of the Cape as well as membership of a Dutch Reformed congregation. The Cape Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church of 1842 decided explicitly and officially on the name Dutch Reformed ("Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk"). The same synod was associated with the spirit of the Synod of Dordrecht of 1618-1619. In addition, members of Dutch Reformed congregations in the Cape Colony who had emigrated during and after the Great Trek of 1835-1840 to the South African Republic, wished to stay in their church. The Dutch Reformed congregation of Utrecht of which Frans Lion Cachet became the minister from 1865-1873, spearheaded this movement during the 1860's. The years 1865-1866, and especially 1866, proved to be decisive for members of the Dutch Reformed or Dutch-Afrikaans Church in the Republic with regard both to their differences about the choice between "hervormd" and "gereformeerd" and the impact of such divisive opinions in the church. In 1865 a general assembly of the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk" rejected a proposal by the visiting reverend Cachet to accept the name "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk", together with the wording of the Dordt Synod in 1619 on the acceptance of the Three Formulas. Almost a year later, in December 1866, the first general assembly of the "Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk" was formed and convened in Utrecht, thereby signalling the separation of two Dutch Reformed Churches in the South African Republic. For many years the impression lasted in the latter that the "Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk" did not regard the Three Formulas of (confessional) Unity as totally in accordance with scripture. It was not until the beginning of the 21st century that the two reformed churches agreed to accept each other's ministers and members as if they were their own.
       
  • C.W.H. van der Post's faith and theocracy as exemplified in Piet Uijs or
           the suffering and struggle of the Voortrekkers in Natal

    • Abstract: Christiaan Willem Hendrik van der Post (1856-1914) was 'n veelsydige skrywer wie se werk teruggaan op ooggetuieverslae uit die voortrekkertyd. Sy boek Piet Uijs of Lijden en Strijd der Voortrekkers in Natal stel dat geloof en regverdigheid deugde is wat nagestreef moet word, selfs al eindig dit in mislukking. Van der Post se werk vertoon 'n teokratiese grondhouding. Dit is die mens se geloofsgehoorsaamheid en edele voorbeeld in moeilike omstandighede wat tel. In intermenslike verhoudings is dit geloofsverbondenheid wat belangrik is; ras speel geen rol in Van der Post se boek nie. Anders as sy Britse tydgenote koester hy geloofsverwagting vir die swart heidense stamme van Suidelike Afrika.Christiaan Willem Hendrik van der Post (1856-1914) was a remarkable writer whose work on the life of Dutch protestant settlers constitutes an important contribution to the understanding of faith and race among the Boers in 19th century South Africa. Unlike the prevailing values of the Victorian age in England, Van der Post's book on the Voortrekker epoch, Piet Uijs or the suffering and struggle of the Voortrekkers in Natal does not in any way endorse or promote a racist outlook on colonial settlement in Africa, but instead tells a story of faith, humility, courage and the rule of law. Van der Post was a man of many talents. He contributed to the Republic of the Orange Free State as a teacher, farmer and historian. In the period before the Anglo-Boer War he established one of the largest law firms in the Free State. He always remained a Dutchman, with a calling in Africa. For many years he was the Dutch consul in the Orange Free State, based in Fauresmith, as well as a member of the "Volksraad" (Parliament) of the Orange Free State for this district and a collaborator of president Steyn. He also served as the "Volksraad's" chairman for a year. During the Boer war he became commandant of the Boer forces in the south and east of the capital Bloemfontein. Even after nearly all his men had surrendered, he continued to fight, reassembled a commando and was eventually captured in the Transvaal. Van der Post was a man of principle. After the war he only returned to the Free State when he could do so without pledging his allegiance to the British Crown. This article argues, departing from his book Piet Uijs, that Van der Post's faith was decisive for his outlook on life. In Voortrekker leader Piet Uijs he recognised similar principles: a reformed conviction that viewed life from a theocratic perspective. God was the sovereign creator to whom all men owed obedience. His Laws were right and following His guidance was commendable, even if obedience did not result in material gain or social success. His chronicle on Piet Uijs shows that faith, humility and righteousness have an intrinsic value that continue to inspire other people and subsequent generations. A true Christian leader is capable of independent judgement on the basis of the principles of God's Word. As far as these were concerned, faith was the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things that could not be seen as yet (Hebrew 11:1). Like the heroes of faith in Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews, it may be said about the main characters of Van der Post's story that "These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth" (Hebrew 11:13, KJV). Van der Post's interpretation of this episode of the Great Trek is a far cry from the nationalistic mythmaking of later generations (e.g. Gustav Preller). Racism does not play a role in this book, and unlike his English Victorian contemporaries, Van der Post cherishes optimistic expectations of faith and ultimate civilisation for the pagan tribes of Africa. His chronicle of Piet Uijs's enterprise ends in a complete failure for the latter, yet it was nonetheless inspirational as a compass of faith, brotherly love and an unselfish commitment to the rule of law.
       
  • The effect of domestic affairs on foreign policy, with specific reference
           to current events in the United States of America

    • Abstract: Dat buitelandse beleid as 'n refleksie van binnelandse beleid beskou kan word, blyk oorvloedig uit gesaghebbende uitsprake betreffende die belangrike verhouding tussen buitelandse en binnelandse aangeleenthede. Buitelandse beleid word nie in 'n vakuum geformuleer en uitgevoer nie, maar ontstaan uit, groei en word gevoed deur binnelandse beleid. Daarom kan gestel word dat buitelandse beleid eintlik 'n neweproduk van binnelandse beleid is. Buitelandse beleidmakers moet derhalwe 'n omvattende begrip van hul eie binnelandse omstandighede en beleid hê alvorens 'n buitelandse beleid geformuleer en aanvaar word. Buitelandse beleid is daarop gemik om binnelandse en internasionale doelstellings te bereik en behels gewoonlik 'n uitgebreide reeks stappe waarin binnelandse politiek en faktore 'n belangrike rol speel. Om hierdie rede kan gestel word dat buitelandse beleid bepaal en verfyn word wanneer binnelandse en internasionale rolspelers en groepe saamwerk. Buitelandse beleid is selde suksesvol as dit nie eers tuis aanvaar word nie en in hierdie verband word daar dikwels verwys na 'n tuisgemaakte buitelandse beleid ("a home-grown foreign policy"). In die digitale era vervaag die grens tussen buitelandse en binnelandse aangeleenthede bowendien ook al hoe meer. Met die massiewe aanwending van al die moontlikhede wat hedendaagse digitale tegnologie bied, maak omgewingsbewustes byvoorbeeld wêreldwyd hul stemme dik om besluite op internasionale vlak te beïnvloed en verandering teweeg te bring. Baie van hierdie aktivistiese slagspreuke het nou ook al deel van die terminologie van internasionale verhoudings geword. Nietemin: om 'n land se buitelandse beleid te begryp, moet die binnelandse omstandighede en beleid eers ontleed en verstaan word. 'n Sprekende voorbeeld hiervan is die buitelandse beleid wat president Trump ywerig nastreef.The impact of domestic affairs on foreign policy is becoming increasingly more crucial. The former affects the latter. Indeed, domestic policy substantially influences foreign policy, to the extent that foreign policy depends upon domestic policy. It can therefore be argued that foreign policy is the reflection of domestic policy. Kissinger, for example, held the opinion that foreign policy starts where domestic policy ends. The inter-connections between domestic and foreign affairs are undeniable. Foreign policy can never be detached from the domestic context from which it springs. Moreover, it seldom succeeds if it is not acceptable at home, since without domestic influence there could hardly be a foreign policy. Domestic pressures may take several different forms and the relationship between foreign-policy decision makers and domestic constituencies is shaped in part by the institutions of the society. Foreign policy is formulated neither in a vacuum nor in isolation. It is embedded in national interests and its parameters are always shaped by those interests. With its core rooted in domestic affairs foreign policy is justifiably regarded as an extension of domestic policy, in that it expands from domestic interests. The linkages between the international and national environments are considered crucial in the decision-making process of foreign policy. Consequently, foreign policy decision-makers must have a comprehensive understanding of domestic affairs and policy before formulating and adopting a suitable foreign policy. No country has a foreign policy without any connection to its domestic policy. It is therefore essential that domestic affairs are included in the analysis of foreign policy decision-making and that the influence and consequential impact of domestic affairs on foreign policies be properly assessed. Domestic political calculations undoubtedly influence foreign policy choices - the symbiotic relationship between foreign affairs and domestic issues is a reality. Foreign policies are designed with the aim of achieving complex domestic and international agendas. They usually involve an elaborate series of steps in which domestic politics play an important part. Foreign policies are in most cases designed and finalised through coalitions of domestic and international actors and groups. The domestic political environment to a large extent shapes the entire framework of decision-making, also in an international context. That environment includes all laws enacted and their legislative decisions, and government agencies and lobby groups that influence or restrict individuals or organisations in the society. In the recent past, Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA) has been criticised for being one-dimensional. This resulted in other actors being recognised and together they fit into a new structure which now takes due cognisance of the dimension of domestic policy. FPA has adjusted to the changed circumstances brought about by foreign and domestic events. Globalisation continues to present its own demands, while simultaneously the impact of domestic affairs on foreign policy is becoming increasingly more crucial. Once the domestic factor was included in FPA the influence of the judiciary became ipso facto an actor no longer to be ignored. Domestically, the judiciary has placed its stamp on practically every aspect of human endeavour. This all-important realisation of the inter-relationship of domestic and foreign policy and the resultant relevance of domestic developments for foreign policy decisions, have, inter alia, been addressed by Marijke Breuning, a pre-eminent authority on FPA.¹ The author expands on the domestic constraints within which foreign policy decisions are made, given the fact that domestic constituencies have been shown to influence foreign affairs. At the same time, she focuses on the role and impact of the public, as part of the domestic scene, on the formation of foreign policy options. Other analysts of foreign policy are equally seriously considering the two-way flows which arise from the relationship between the foreign...
       
  • A concise assessment of the (mal)performance of the section 185 Commission
           in relation to the rights of communities

    • Abstract: Die Kommissie vir die Bevordering en Beskerming van die Regte van Kultuur-, Godsdiens- en Taalgemeenskappe voldoen nie aan die verwagting om die regte van gemeenskappe te beskerm nie. Die hoofrede hiervoor is dat die Kommissie nie erns maak met die konsep van regte van gemeenskappe, naas individuele regte nie. Op die keper beskou is die beskerming van gemeenskappe die voorwaarde vir uitoefening van talle oënskynlik eg individuele regte, byvoorbeeld die reg op vryheid van uitdrukking, vryheid van assosiasie, asook regte met betrekking tot taal, kultuur en godsdiens. Dit is belangwekkend dat onlangse ontwikkelings op die gebied van die internasionale reg juis groeiende erkenning verleen aan die beskerming van die integriteit van gemeenskappe ten einde sinvolle beskerming aan individue te verleen. Eerstens vertolk die Internasionale Komitee vir Menseregte die oënskynlik individualisties-geformuleerde artikel 27 van die Internasionale Verbond vir Burgerlike en Politieke Regte (1966) toenemend kollektief ten einde sodoende die klem op die beskerming van gemeenskappe te plaas. Tweedens, vereis die Deklarasie oor die Regte van Persone wat tot Nasionale-, Etniese-, Godsdienstige- en Taalminderhede behoort (1992) van state om daadwerklike stappe te doen om die betrokke minderheidsgemeenskappe te beskerm. Derdens onderskryf die Verenigde Nasies (VN) se Ontwikkelingsverslag ("Development Report") van 2004 breedvoerig die beginsel van kulturele vryheid en word daar van state vereis dat hulle huishoudelike reg die kulturele vryheid van gemeenskappe aktief bevorder. Terselfdertyd keer die Verslag staatsbeleid wat kulturele homogenisering meebring onomwonde af. Dit is noodsaaklik dat Suid-Afrikaanse staatsorgane met inbegrip van die Kommissie van hierdie ontwikkelings kennis neem en dienooreenkomstig optree. Die Kommissie se nalate om juis dit te doen, verklaar in beduidende mate sy eie mislukking.Section 185 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 provides for the establishment of a Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities. The notion of the rights of communities in contrast to the rights of individuals (belonging to such communities) is central to the mandate of the Commission. Thus the very first of the objects of the Commission under section 185(1)(a) is to promote respect for the rights of cultural, religious and linguistic communities. The remainder of section 185 is permeated with the notion of the rights of communities. The same obtains for the legislative instrument, the Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities Act, 24 of 2002, that gives further effect to the relevant constitutional provisions namely, most notably in section 4 and section 5(g) and (i) of the Act. However, the prevalent consensus is that the Commission has been unsuccessful in discharging its responsibilities in relation to community rights. The primary reason is that the Commission has failed to grasp the notion of the rights of communities, thus causing it to be incapable of giving effect to them. This failure is particularly serious especially in view of convincing theoretical arguments in favour of collective rights. It has for example been shown that the existence and recognition of communities are not only essential for cultural, language and religious rights but also for seemingly unequivocal individual rights such as the right to freedom of association and expression. These rights can be exercised only within a communal setting. This point has been demonstrated convincingly by scholars such as Denise Réaume, Rodolfo Stavenhagen and Helen O'Nions and many others. Moreover, there are important developments in international law supporting the recognition of the rights of communities. Three points are significant in this regard. Firstly, although article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is framed in individual-rights terms, the International Commission of Human Rights which oversees the Covenant is increasingly interpreting article 27 in collective terms. This is apparent from the Committee's General Comment 23 and its requiring of states to take positive action towards the protection of the communities individuals belong to as opposed to individual members only. Secondly, there is the Declaration of the Rights of Persons Belonging to National, Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities. Various provisions of this Resolution of the United Nations also require positive action of state governments to protect these communities and not only individual members, for example that "(S)tates shall protect the existence and the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of minorities within their respective territories and shall encourage conditions for the promotion of that identity." Thirdly, there is the United Nations Development Report of 2004, which represents a major step forward in the protection of (minority) cultural communities. The report contains a comprehensive position on the way in which states should organise themselves in order to safeguard communities effectively, including minority communities. Cultural freedom is the guiding principle of the report. Accordingly, policies directed towards the achievement of homogenisation of culturally diverse societies are emphatically condemned while majoritarianism is rejected. The Report highlights the link between human development and cultural freedom, stating that "(c)ultural liberty is central to the capability of people to live as they would like. The advance of cultural liberty must be a central aspect of human development, and this requires going beyond social, political and economic opportunities since they do not guarantee cultural liberty." Accordingly, "(s)tates need to recognize cultural differences in their constitutions, their laws and their ...
       
  • Experiences, challenges and successes: Early-reading comprehension
           practices in resource-constrained settings with children from
           linguistically diverse backgrounds

    • Abstract: Leerderprestasie in geletterdheid in die vroeë grade in Suid-Afrika bly laag wanneer dit gemeet word aan 'n aantal nasionale en internasionale assesseringsprogramme. Hierdie artikel fokus op vroeë leesbegrip en verskaf bevindinge uit fokusgroeponderhoude met Grondslagfase-onderwysers oor leespraktyke wat gebruik word wanneer lees in hulpbronbeperkte omgewings onderrig word. Onderwysers getuig oor hoe hulle die onderrig van lees ervaar, asook wat hulle uitdagings en moontlike oplossings is om sukses te verseker. Die huidige studie dui op 'n gebrek aan leesbegripinstruksie in die vroeë grade. Dit bevestig verder dat onderwysers in staat is om nuwe woordeskat en klanke in 'n sekere mate bekend te stel, maar hul repertoire om 'n verskeidenheid begripsvaardighede aan leerders te onderrig, is beperk en min aanduidings dat leerders met begrip kan lees, word opgemerk. Hierdie studie toon aan dat leesinstruksie in 'n ontwikkelende, hulpbronbeperkte omgewing, nie bevredigend gedoen word nie.Against a contextual background of deprivation, South Africa is constantly placed at the bottom of achievement when compared to participating countries in large-scale assessments of reading competency. In an attempt to address the reasons underlying such under-achievement, this paper seeks to provide evidence gleaned from selected Foundation Phase teacher focus group interviews about the reading practices that are employed when teaching reading in resource deprived environments to children from linguistically diverse backgrounds. Given South Africa's poor performance in reading assessments, the research questions focussed, firstly, on the challenges reported when working in resource-constrained settings, with the added complexity of linguistic diversity amongst learners; secondly, the reading strategies and the solutions teachers suggest when teaching these learners were observed and critically evaluated against a backdrop of national and international studies on reading. Focus group interviews were conducted at two resource constrained schools in township settings in the Gauteng province. Each focus group consisted of six Foundation Phase teachers, who are currently teaching students between Grades 1 and 3. The teachers varied in ages between 24 and 64. All the participating teachers were female and had previously received training as Foundation Phase teachers. Atlas.ti was used for the content analysis of the data and by means of open coding, we created codes, indicated by subtitles such as "Reading challenges", "Reading strategies" and "Solutions to problems". As each code was created, the programme used it to detect the relevant content in the interviews, which was then tagged with the code name. In this way, it was easy to determine what various participants had commented on different topics during the interviews in the data analysis. One of the most commonly mentioned reading-specific challenges occurs when learners are supposed to "read", since it would appear that they are not really reading, but rather relying on their memory. Sometimes learners even "read" without having any books in front of them. It is easy for the learners to memorise what they have read from the graded readers, since words and phrases are often repeated in these readers. Often learners are also "reading" the pictures, therefore reading what they think based on what is happening in the pictures. Furthermore, due to the absence of decoding skills, learners do not know how to construct sentences, and are therefore also experiencing problems with writing. The lesson plans provide ready made assessments where little effort or evidence of skill mastery is expected of learners. In terms of resource specific challenges, teachers paint a social context where many learners live in shacks without electricity, and are likely to come from abusive families where drugs and illegal gambling are commonplace. The two schools that participated in this study serve many families who come from different regions of the country or other countries like Malawi and Zimbabwe. Learners therefore find themselves in classrooms where the LoLT is mainly Sepedi or isiZulu, languages that many of them do not understand. Teachers described the lack of parental support in terms of parents who do not get involved in their children's schoolwork, who do not help children with their homework and where there is no culture of reading at home that could be cultivated, for example, by parents who themselves read or who buy books or newspapers. Class sizes posed another resource specific constraint. Teachers reported that their classes are too big to pay attention to all individuals while reading. The number of learners fluctuates between 35 and 46 students per class. Teachers indicated that when teaching reading, they mostly start a lesson with phonics, progress to using pictures, after which they then proceed to words, and thereafter sentences. Great emphasis is placed on the difference between the vowels and consonants. The teacher also breaks up the word in syllables and let students repeat those in order to enhance easier reading. Posters that accompany the textbooks are also used, specifically to teach tenses and plurals. Pictures seem to be the most important strategy, and are reportedly used by all the teachers. Teachers also emphasise that they frequently explain what they regard as difficult words, followed by questions on what should be prior knowledge. Only then the story is read and explained. Thereafter they let the class join in a reading chorus after which they ask them questions based on the story. Questioning is an important strategy, happening at any time during the reading process.The use of flashcards is widely practised and usually done when teachers put flashcards on the wall to aid with word recognition and learners reading all the words they did, for example, in the first term. The teachers start with words on flashcards on Monday ...
       
  • Weer 'n spelreël

    • Abstract: Leerderprestasie in geletterdheid in die vroeë grade in Suid-Afrika bly laag wanneer dit gemeet word aan 'n aantal nasionale en internasionale assesseringsprogramme. Hierdie artikel fokus op vroeë leesbegrip en verskaf bevindinge uit fokusgroeponderhoude met Grondslagfase-onderwysers oor leespraktyke wat gebruik word wanneer lees in hulpbronbeperkte omgewings onderrig word. Onderwysers getuig oor hoe hulle die onderrig van lees ervaar, asook wat hulle uitdagings en moontlike oplossings is om sukses te verseker. Die huidige studie dui op 'n gebrek aan leesbegripinstruksie in die vroeë grade. Dit bevestig verder dat onderwysers in staat is om nuwe woordeskat en klanke in 'n sekere mate bekend te stel, maar hul repertoire om 'n verskeidenheid begripsvaardighede aan leerders te onderrig, is beperk en min aanduidings dat leerders met begrip kan lees, word opgemerk. Hierdie studie toon aan dat leesinstruksie in 'n ontwikkelende, hulpbronbeperkte omgewing, nie bevredigend gedoen word nie.Against a contextual background of deprivation, South Africa is constantly placed at the bottom of achievement when compared to participating countries in large-scale assessments of reading competency. In an attempt to address the reasons underlying such under-achievement, this paper seeks to provide evidence gleaned from selected Foundation Phase teacher focus group interviews about the reading practices that are employed when teaching reading in resource deprived environments to children from linguistically diverse backgrounds. Given South Africa's poor performance in reading assessments, the research questions focussed, firstly, on the challenges reported when working in resource-constrained settings, with the added complexity of linguistic diversity amongst learners; secondly, the reading strategies and the solutions teachers suggest when teaching these learners were observed and critically evaluated against a backdrop of national and international studies on reading. Focus group interviews were conducted at two resource constrained schools in township settings in the Gauteng province. Each focus group consisted of six Foundation Phase teachers, who are currently teaching students between Grades 1 and 3. The teachers varied in ages between 24 and 64. All the participating teachers were female and had previously received training as Foundation Phase teachers. Atlas.ti was used for the content analysis of the data and by means of open coding, we created codes, indicated by subtitles such as "Reading challenges", "Reading strategies" and "Solutions to problems". As each code was created, the programme used it to detect the relevant content in the interviews, which was then tagged with the code name. In this way, it was easy to determine what various participants had commented on different topics during the interviews in the data analysis. One of the most commonly mentioned reading-specific challenges occurs when learners are supposed to "read", since it would appear that they are not really reading, but rather relying on their memory. Sometimes learners even "read" without having any books in front of them. It is easy for the learners to memorise what they have read from the graded readers, since words and phrases are often repeated in these readers. Often learners are also "reading" the pictures, therefore reading what they think based on what is happening in the pictures. Furthermore, due to the absence of decoding skills, learners do not know how to construct sentences, and are therefore also experiencing problems with writing. The lesson plans provide ready made assessments where little effort or evidence of skill mastery is expected of learners. In terms of resource specific challenges, teachers paint a social context where many learners live in shacks without electricity, and are likely to come from abusive families where drugs and illegal gambling are commonplace. The two schools that participated in this study serve many families who come from different regions of the country or other countries like Malawi and Zimbabwe. Learners therefore find themselves in classrooms where the LoLT is mainly Sepedi or isiZulu, languages that many of them do not understand. Teachers described the lack of parental support in terms of parents who do not get involved in their children's schoolwork, who do not help children with their homework and where there is no culture of reading at home that could be cultivated, for example, by parents who themselves read or who buy books or newspapers. Class sizes posed another resource specific constraint. Teachers reported that their classes are too big to pay attention to all individuals while reading. The number of learners fluctuates between 35 and 46 students per class. Teachers indicated that when teaching reading, they mostly start a lesson with phonics, progress to using pictures, after which they then proceed to words, and thereafter sentences. Great emphasis is placed on the difference between the vowels and consonants. The teacher also breaks up the word in syllables and let students repeat those in order to enhance easier reading. Posters that accompany the textbooks are also used, specifically to teach tenses and plurals. Pictures seem to be the most important strategy, and are reportedly used by all the teachers. Teachers also emphasise that they frequently explain what they regard as difficult words, followed by questions on what should be prior knowledge. Only then the story is read and explained. Thereafter they let the class join in a reading chorus after which they ask them questions based on the story. Questioning is an important strategy, happening at any time during the reading process.The use of flashcards is widely practised and usually done when teachers put flashcards on the wall to aid with word recognition and learners reading all the words they did, for example, in the first term. The teachers start with words on flashcards on Monday ...
       
 
 
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