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Showing 1 - 200 of 715 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, CiteScore: 1)
ACIMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Agronómica     Open Access  
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Bioethica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.325, CiteScore: 1)
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.28, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Literaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Medica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Paulista de Enfermagem     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Pediátrica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Human Rights Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 1)
Afro-Asia     Open Access  
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.132, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access  
Aisthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Alfa : Revista de Linguística     Open Access  
Alpha (Osorno)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary J. of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access  
Anales de Medicina Interna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.674, CiteScore: 1)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura     Open Access   (SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Anuario de Historia Regional y de las Fronteras     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - J. of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Neurociencias     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos de Pediatria del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 0)
Argos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.248, CiteScore: 0)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.518, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos de Medicina     Open Access  
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria     Open Access   (SJR: 0.448, CiteScore: 1)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos Internacionais de Otorrinolaringologia     Open Access  
ARS     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.449, CiteScore: 1)
Audiology - Communication Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bakhtiniana : Revista de Estudos do Discurso     Open Access   (SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Biota Neotropica     Open Access   (SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 0)
Boletin Chileno de Parasitologia     Open Access  
Boletín de Filología     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.291, CiteScore: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.476, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.523, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Brazilian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian J. of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 2)
Brazilian J. of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.178, CiteScore: 3)
Brazilian J. of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 0)
Caderno de Estudos     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos de Saúde Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Cadernos de Tradução     Open Access  
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access   (SJR: 0.356, CiteScore: 0)
Cadernos Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caldasia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 0)
CES Medicina     Open Access  
Chilean J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.377, CiteScore: 1)
Chungara (Arica) - Revista de Antropologia Chilena     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 1)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Ciência da Informação     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.383, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e investigación agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencia y Enfermeria - Revista Iberoamericana de Investigacion     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Ciencias Marinas     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access   (SJR: 0.166, CiteScore: 0)
CLEI Electronic J.     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access   (SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 0)
Clinics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
CoDAS     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 0)
Computación y Sistemas     Open Access   (SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 1)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunicación y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 0)
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access   (SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 0)
Correo Científico Médico     Open Access  
Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais     Open Access  
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.609, CiteScore: 1)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Cuadernos.info     Open Access   (SJR: 0.38, CiteScore: 0)
Cubo. A Mathematical J.     Open Access  
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultivos Tropicales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 0)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DELTA : Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada     Open Access   (SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Dementia & Neuropsychologia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Press J. of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 0)
Diálogo Andino - Revista de Historia, Geografía y Cultura Andina     Open Access   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Diánoia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dynamis : Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
e-J. of Portuguese History     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Journal Cover
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.193
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0041-4751
Published by SciELO Homepage  [715 journals]
  • Kontrastiewe en komparatiewe perspektiewe op die Afrikaanse en Nederlandse
           taal- en literatuurstudie

    •  
  • The Western Cape Archives and the beginning of Afrikaans

    • Abstract: Vir die onderhawige ondersoek is gebruik gemaak van die getranskribeerde inhoud van etlike reekse 17de- en 18de-eeuse VOC-dokumente wat in die Wes-Kaapse Argief gehuisves word en sedert 2001 tydens vier omvangryke projekte beskikbaar gestel is en steeds word. Veral die taalmateriaal in die Resolusies van die Politieke Raad, Inventarisse, Vendusierolle en Dagregisters van die Kaapse kommandeurs en goewerneurs bied talryke voorbeelde van taalvorme wat toe gebruik is en behoue gebly het in Afrikaans. In hierdie opsig kan Afrikaans beskou word as bewarea van ou, onbekende of streekswoorde in hedentydse Nederlands. Talle Afrikaanse woorde is afkomstig uit die 17de-eeuse Nederlandse 'boeretaal'. Daar word ook gewys op die invloed van Wes-Europese streekstale, veral Platduits, op die vorming van dit wat later Afrikaans genoem is. Slegs 'n beperkte aantal woorde van Oosterse en Khoi-Khoi-herkoms kom voor, alhoewel Khoi-Khoi-plekname 'n besondere erfenis blyk te wees.The transcribed contents of a number of 17th and 18th century VOC document series vested in the Western Cape Archives were used in the present study. Since 2001 this information was made available during the execution of four extensive transcription projects, of which the VC Daghregister Project is still continuing. The linguistic material in the Resolutions of the Council of Policy, intestate inventories, auction rolls and journals of the Cape Commanders and Governors contains numerous examples of forms used at the time and which became part of the vocabulary of Afrikaans. The language today serves as conservancy of obsolete and dialectal words in modern Dutch. Many Dutch "boeretaal" words remained in Afrikaans. Other Western European dialects, especially Low German, also influenced the language. Although only a few Eastern and Khoi-Khoi borrowed words were noted, the numerous Khoi-Khoi place-names did then and still enrich the landscape. The Western Cape Archives and the beginning of Afrikaans was the title of this keynote paper delivered at the 9th international congress ofthe Southern African Association for Dutch Studies. It is not a theoretical linguistic study, but presents historical language material extracted from documents of the Dutch East-India Company (VOC) written at the Cape of Good Hope and conserved in the Western Cape Archives. The VOC collection is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, which makes it obligatory to conserve the heritage and make it publicly available. Various projects were/ are run: TANAP - Towards a New Partnership, which transcribed the Resolutions of the Political Council. TEPC - Transcription of Estate Papers ofthe Cape of Good Hope (inventories and auction rolls, as well as muster rolls). The VOC Daghregister Project - Transcription of the VOC Journals under the auspices of the Tracing History Trust. Journals missing from the Western Cape collection were photographed in the Nationaal Archief, The Hague, the Netherlands. The VC (verbatim copies) Daghregister Project - The documents were photographed and then transcribed. This project is still continuing. Ever since the first Resolution had been recorded on board the Drommedaris on 30 December 1651, every important event at the Cape of Good Hope was documented until 16 September 1795 when the British first took over the Cape. The Resolutions were written in formal bureaucratic style. Nonetheless, typical Afrikaans forms can be seen, coexisting with many French forms that came to South Africa as part of the 17th century Dutch vocabulary. Here and there, the influence of sailors'vocabulary is clear. The Estate Papers were written by trained scribes as well as "ordinary" people. Many Afrikaans words can be traced to the informal language of the latter rather than standard Dutch. The VOC Journals were written by trained scribes, but in a relaxed style. An entry describing the weather was customary every day. Diminutives are markedly Afrikaans rather than Dutch and there are a few interesting slips of the pen. All VOC officials had to know and use the 17th/18th century Dutch of their time; the Resolutions refer to this language form as "Nederduijtsch" or "Duijtsch". The Commanders and Governors wrote many documents themselves and were all Dutch mother tongue speakers, with only two exceptions. A secretary or "first sworn clerk" was responsible for the documentation in each of the various government departments, assisted by other scribes. The initial Dutch speakers were later joined by writers from the Low Dutch, German and Scandinavian regions. Unwittingly, the authors of the Resolutions, Journals, Inventories and Auction Rolls recorded invaluable clues to the development of Afrikaans and the influence ofthe Khoi-Khoin, slaves from the East, German- and French-speaking people and people from Scandinavia. The paper traces various fascinating case histories of Afrikaans words. When these original sources of historical language material are studied, it is clear that Afrikaans developed from 17th and 18th century Dutch and serves as a conservancy of forgotten, obsolete and dialectal Dutch words.
       
  • Constructions with krijgen and kry. A comparison from a (diachronie)
           constructionist perspective

    • Abstract: Zowel Nederlands krijgen als Afrikaans kry maken deel uit van verschillende constructies met een verbale aanvulling in de vorm van een voltooid deelwoord of infinitief, waarin krijgen/ kry gedeeltelijk geauxiliariseerd is. Dit artikel gaat vanuit een contrastief en (diachroon) constructiegrammaticaal perspectief in op de formele en semantische eigenschappen van die constructies. Aangetoond wordt dat de Afrikaanse resultatieve constructie met kry + voltooid deelwoord zich verder heeft ontwikkeld dan haar Nederlandse tegenhanger met krijgen + voltooid deelwoord. Daartegenover staat dat in het Nederlands een frequent gebruikt krijgen-passief is ontstaan dat in het Afrikaans niet echt van de grond is gekomen, en dat er in het hedendaagse Nederlands ook aanwijzingen zijn voor productief gebruik van een modale constructie met krijgen + te-infinitief. De data voor het onderzoek komen hoofdzakelijk uit het SoNaR-corpus en het Taalkommissiekorpus.Verbs of getting or receiving are a special sub-class of the verbs of transfer ofpossession in that, unlike more prototypical sub-classes such as verbs of giving and verbs of dispossession, they have a subject which is the tail rather than the head of the main action chain (cf. Newman 2005). Cross-linguistically, they constitute an interesting topic for linguistic analysis for several reasons, including "their susceptibility to semantic extension and also to grammaticalization" (Lenz & Rawoens 2012:1075). The present article presents a corpus-based contrastive study of the basic verbs of receiving of Dutch and Afrikaans, i.e. krijgen and kry, respectively. More specifically, the focus is on a number of different constructions in which krijgen and kry are combined with a main lexical verb in the form of an infinitive or past participle and, thus, have at least partly auxiliarized. Data culled from the SoNaR-corpus of contemporary written Dutch and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy for Arts and Science allow for a comparison of the relative frequencies of these different patterns in present-day Dutch and Afrikaans and of their lexical and semantic ranges. With regard to the constructions in which krijgen and kry are combined with a past participle, it can be observed that, in present-day Dutch, the "passive" krijgen + past participle pattern in which krijgen is typically combined with the past participle of a ditransitive verb (e.g. Hij krijgt een geschenk aangeboden "He is offered a present") occurs over three times more frequently than the "resultative" krijgen + past participle pattern (e.g. Hij krijgt het vuur geblust "He manages to extinguish the fire"). This is an interesting finding because the passive pattern is the younger of the two constructions: its earliest observed examples date back to around the turn of the 19th to 20th Century (cf. Colleman 2015), whereas the resultative krijgen-pattern has been part of the language since at least the 17th Century. Thus, the Dutch krijgen-passive has rapidly overtaken the resultative krijgen-pattern in token frequency. Nothing of this kind has happened in Afrikaans. The Afrikaans corpus data contain just a handful of examples in which kry + past participle seems to encode a passive rather than a resultative meaning, allowing for the conclusion that, even though the construction is not completely inexistent, "passive" kry has not taken off in Afrikaans. The few occurrences ofpassive kry + past participle seem to belong to two different marginal clusters of uses. The resultative kry + past participle pattern, on the other hand, has thrived in Afrikaans: it occurs with a wide variety of lexical verbs in the data, including intransitive and pseudo-transitive verbs (also see Molnárfi 1995, 1997), which are impossible in the equivalent Dutch construction. The difference between Afrikaans and Dutch is not limited to the presence vs. absence in this pattern of intransitive verbs, however: in addition, the Afrikaans construction also occurs with a wider set of transitive predicates, including atelic verbs and verbs which denote an activity that hardly has a noticeable effect on the direct object referent - that is, there are clear indications of host-class expansion in the sense of Himmelmann (2004). In Dutch, by contrast, the resultative krijgen + past participle pattern is still more closely related to the complex-transitive patterns from which it developed, i.e. it is restricted to cases where the subject acts to bring about a change-of-state in the direct object referent. Both krijgen and kry also occur in a pattern with an infinitival rather than participial main verb. In Dutch, this infinitival pattern seems to be developing into a productive pattern encoding a modal meaning of permission or external obligation, at least for some speakers. In present-day Afrikaans, by contrast, kry + te-infinitive is an archaic and unproductive pattern, limited to just a handful of verbs (te doen(e) kry, te make kry, te ete kry, etc.). In this way, the question whether it is Dutch krijgen or Afrikaans kry that has grammaticalized the furthest is impossible to answer, as it is phrased at the wrong level of granularity: some krijgen/kry + main verb patterns have developed further in Dutch than Afrikaans whereas in others, it is the other way around. Thus, the findings from the corpus-based investigation lend added support to the observation that grammaticalization does not merely seize a word, but an entire construction (cf. Lehmann 1992; Himmelmann 2004; Traugott & Trousdale 2013 etc).
       
  • Modal chains in Afrikaans

    • Abstract: Modale (hulp-)werkwoorde (MW'e) kom algemeen in Germaanse tale en variëteite voor in kombinasies van twee of meer in een proposisie of klous, byvoorbeeld Jy sal vinniger moet kan werk. Die doel van hierdie ondersoek is om die beginsels van of beperkings op sulke opeenvolgings in Afrikaans te bepaal. Die hipotese word gestel dat hoe hegter die MW die sinsonderwerp aan 'n predikaat verbind, hoe nader sal die MW aan die hoofwerkwoord staan. Kan, soos in Sy moet kan orrel speel, dui byvoorbeeld op 'n inherente kenmerk van die onderwerp, naamlik die "vermoë" om orrel te speel, en staan gewoonlik die naaste aan die hoofwerkwoord. In epistemiese gebruik, soos in Sy kan moet orrel speel, lewer kan uitspraak oor die waarskynlikheid van die proposisie (naamlik Sy moet orrel speel) in sy geheel en neem dan gewoonlik die eerste posisie in. Die hipotese is vervolgens empiries getoets met verwysing na die MW'e sal/sou en modaal gebruikte gaan, moet/moes, mag, behoort te, wil/wou en kan/kon. Om die voorkoms as sodanig van kettings van hierdie MW'e te bepaal, is hoofsaaklik gebruik gemaak van Taalkommissie-korpus 1.1, maar ook van ander bronne. Daar is bevind dat 8 uit die 15 voorspelde kettings wel voorkom, terwyl van die volgordes wat nie voorspel word nie, slegs'n enkele voorbeeld gevind is, wat die hipotese oor die algemeen bevestig. Die volgorde van mag en behoort (te) ten opsigte van ander MW'e kon egter slegs ten dele bevestig word; dit is byvoorbeeld duidelik dat mag altyd ná sal/sou georden word en behoort (te) altyd voor kan/kon.Sequences of two or more modal auxiliaries in one clause are found in most Germanic languages and varieties, as in Danish, for instance (example and gloss by Brandt 1999:126): An Afrikaans example would be: Nar jeg kommer i skole vil jeg ikke gide skulle kunne laese latin. When I get to school will I not bother should could read Latin Jy sal vinniger moet kan werk. You. SG will quicker must can work "You will have to be able to work more quickly." The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the ordering of Afrikaans modals adhere to a general principle or is constrained in some way. The sequencing of a modal such as kan "can", on the one hand, and of modals with an epistemic (or evidential) function, on the other, may be indicative of such a principle. So is the fact that the modal sal "will" - and similarly Dutch zullen "will" - conventionally occupies the first position. Cognates of the modal kan "can" typically occupy the last position in the chain in various Germanic languages. This modal ascribes a fixed attribute, expressed by the predicate, to the sentential subject. A modal used in epistemic function, e.g. kan "can" in Ben kan 'n Boeing moet vlieg om die werk te kry. Ben can a Boeing must fly to the work to get "Ben may be required to fly a Boeing if he is to get the job." evaluates the probability of the entire proposition and therefore has no special relationship to the sentential subject. This also goes for certain usages of sal "will" and its preterite sou "would", such as prediction, hypotheticals, future tense, and evidentiality as expressed by sou "would": Ben sou 'n vlieënier wees. Ben would a pilot be "Ben is said to be a pilot." There is a sharp functional contrast between epistemic moet "must, should", where a relationship with the sentential subject is completely lacking, and kan "can" when expressing a subject-internal ability, as in Ben moet Boeings kan vlieg. Ben must Boeings be.able.to fly "Ben is expected to have the ability to fly Boeings." While in the case of kan the modal source derives from the sentential subject itself, the modal source related to moet typically has an external nature. In the course of the utterance, i.e. from a discursive point of view, the role assigned to the subject changes: while Ben at first only has a thematic role in relation to moet, it comes to assume a more agentive role in relation to kan. If wil "want to" + kan "can" were to constitute the chain, the modal source remains internal to the subject: it is not fully implemented in the case of wil (i.e. is inchoative), but forms a fixed attribute in the case of kan (i.e. is perfective). In a moet "must" + kan "can" sequence there is both a progression from external to internal source of modality and from inchoative to perfective aspect. In regard to possible orders of modals in chains, it is hypothesized that the position of a particular modal in a chain is a function of the strength of the link forged between the sentential subject and its predicate by the modal in question, where "strength" is defined by the extent to which the source of modality is identical with or internal to the subject and the extent to which the realisation of the source of modality is in the process of coming into effect (inchoative) or has been realised (perfective). While the default assumption in the case of Ben vlieg "Ben isflying" would be factual, the addition ofkan as in Ben kan vlieg "Ben can fly" renders the act of flying counterfactual, and the further addition of moet, as in Ben moet kan vlieg "Ben should be able tofly" in turn renders the ability expressed by kan counterfactual. The factuality expressed by the rightmost verb is therefore cancelled (relativised) by every modal added to the left. A combination of the functional and aspectual relationship of the subject to the modal verb it controls would give rise to the order in Table 1. The actual occurrence of the predicted chains was empirically checked with reference to the Taalkommissiekorpus 1.1 and other sources. The search was restricted to non-negative sequences with two root³ modals, with no clause boundaries between them. Out of 15predicted orders, such as sal moet, moet wil and behoort te kan, eight were attested. However, only one example was found of non-predicted (or converse) root orders such as kan moet and wil mag. The hypothesis is therefore confirmed in general. However, a ...
       
  • &rft.title=Tydskrif+vir+Geesteswetenskappe&rft.issn=0041-4751&rft.date=&rft.volume=">"Dit gaan nog belangrik word": Changes in grammatical future reference
           in Afrikaans

    • Abstract: Toekomsverwysing in Afrikaans kan grammatikaal en leksikaal aangedui word, soortgelyk aan ander Wes-Germaanse tale soos Nederlands en Engels. Die modale hulpwerkwoord sal, afkomstig van Nederlandse zullen, en die hulpwerkwoord gaan, van Nederlandse gaan, word algemeen gebruik vir toekomsverwysing, asook die toekomstige presens waar sinne sonder tempusaanduiding na die toekoms verwys. Die totale gebruiksfrekwensie van gaan toon nie tekens van verandering sedert standaardisering nie, maar die verskillende gebruike het tog nie stabiel gebly nie. Sedert standaardisering het die sintaktiese en semantiese gebruikskontekste van toekomsverwysende gaan uitgebrei, en waar die leksikale item gaan vroeg in die twintigste eeu nog oorwegend as hoofwerkwoord gebruik is, word dit vandag oorwegend as 'n hulpwerkwoord (direkte skakelwerkwoord en toekomsverwysende hulpwerkwoord) gebruik.Future reference in Afrikaans can be indicated both grammatically and lexically, similar to other West-Germanic languages such as Dutch and English. The modal auxiliary sal "shall", from Dutch zullen, and the auxiliary gaan "go", from Dutch gaan, are commonly used for future reference in Afrikaans, as well as the futurate present where sentences without explicit use of tense still refer to the future. The overall frequency of gaan does not show changes in a particular direction since initial standardisation in the early twentieth century, but that does not preclude more subtle changes. The lexical item gaan is used as a main verb on the one hand, but also as two types of auxiliary verbs. The main verb usage includes a concrete reference to movement, as well as a more abstract sense of "being about". The one type of auxiliary usage is as a direct linking verb, and the other as a future auxiliary. While some scholars group these two uses together, there are syntactic and semantic differences that warrant the distinction. Early in the twentieth century, gaan is still used more frequently as a main verb than as an auxiliary, even if the two types of auxiliary uses are put together. In the early twenty first century, however, the auxiliary uses make up two thirds of the overall usage frequency, with future reference as the most frequent function. This shows a significant increase in the use of gaan for future reference. On the other hand, the auxiliary sal shows a decline in frequency. An important difference between using sal and gaan for future reference, is that gaan only expresses epistemic future reference, while sal can also express a more participant oriented modality (which may or may not include future reference). When the instances of sal with participant oriented modality are removed from the data set, it becomes clear that gaan is slowly moving in on the epistemic uses of sal. While sal is still the preferred form in the written data, the increasing use of gaan might be even more pronounced in informal spoken language. The futurate present is also frequently used in Afrikaans, but without tagged corpus data it is difficult to describe in much detail. There is a limited exploration of the instances with future adverbials, and these show a limited increase in usage in the course of the century. Because of the limited extent of the data extraction, these findings remain preliminary. The spread of a change like this often does not proceed at the same pace in different contexts and text types, which is why it is pertinent to explore how the increase in gaan proceeds in more detail. The data suggest that sal is still a more formal variant than gaan, which spreads at a greater tempo in informal text types. Furthermore, the use of gaan to indicate the immediate future rather than a more remote future, as is the case in Standard Dutch, is not reflected in the data from the 1940s onwards. Other expansions in the use of gaan include being used proportionally more frequently in passive and copula constructions, and not just active constructions with agents performing the verbs. It is also increasingly used in intransitive clauses, and with inanimate objects in the clause. All of these expansions, together with the increase in auxiliary usage, further point to the ongoing grammaticalisation of gaan. As is often the case during grammaticalisation, the grammaticalising construction is used increasingly in contexts where other constructions are the preferred option, and it is possible that at the current rate, gaan might overtake sal in certain contexts, even in formal written Afrikaans.
       
  • A substitute for Phèdre or the (un)translatability of intertextual
           references in Jean-Paul Daumas's Le cimetière des éléphants

    • Abstract: Die vertaling van intertekstuele verwysings (van 'n Franse bronteks na 'n Afrikaanse teikenteks) in Jean-Paul Daumas se drama Le cimetière des éléphants (Die olifantbegraafplaas) bied buitengewone uitdagings aan die vertaler. Die betrokke aanhalings is nie voorheen in Afrikaans vertaal nie en sou dus nie as sodanig herkenbaar wees vir die Afrikaanse lesers- en teaterpubliek nie. Die belangrikste intertekstuele verwysings is afkomstig uit Jean Racine se Phèdre en funksioneer as 'n spel-binne-'n-spel-konvensie. Die kreatiewe oplossing wat voorgestel word, is om die herkenbaarheid van die verwysing met die herkenbaarheid van die aktrise te vervang, wie se naam in die drama gebruik word in plaas van die verhoognaam van die (fiktiewe) Franse aktrise. Die drama-aanhalings uit die klassieke repertoire word gekies uit die aktrise se eie lys van produksies, met dien verstande dat dit tematies by die drama aansluit en daar 'n natuurlike oorgang tussen die voorafgaande en daaropvolgende dialoog is. Die transformasie van die streeksrade en die huidige klem op kunstefeesformaat in die seleksie van dramas het gelei tot 'n afskaling in die opvoering van klassieke stukke, wat min geleentheid aan die teaterpubliek bied om vertroud te raak met die dialoog, 'n essensiële aspek van die gebruik van intertekstuele verwysings. Kreatiewe oplossings maak dit moontlik om steeds dramas in vreemde tale, waarin gebruik gemaak word van intertekstuele verwysings, te vertaal en terselfdertyd hulde te bring aan een van die doyennes van die Afrikaanse verhoog.The translation of intertextual references (in this case of a French source text into an Afrikaans target text) in Jean-Paul Daumass'splay Le cimetière des éléphants (The Elephant Graveyard; American translation by Phyllis Zatlin) poses a particular challenge to the Afrikaans translator. None of the references have been translated into Afrikaans and a new translation would thus not be recognizable to the Afrikaans reading and theatre-going public. Daumas uses quotes from the three main genres, poetry, drama and prose, but only the first two are from authentic sources. The quoted lines ofverse are taken from Paul Valéry's well-known poem, Le cimetière marin which echoes the play's cemetery theme. While Zatlin was able to use Cecil Day-Lewis' successful English translation, the Afrikaans translator opted for a quotation from an Ingrid Jonker poem. The seminal intertextual source in the play is Jean Racine's Phèdre, which is quoted three times by the main character and functions as a play within a play. Within a French context, quotations from Phèdre are of course utterly recognizable, not only because it is a prescribed play for students and learners, but because it is still frequently staged. Afrikaans theatre cannot lay claim to any similarly well-known play in a classical register, especially since the 1994 transformation of the various Performing Arts Councils into playhouse management boards put an end to regular exposure to varied repertoires, including classical plays. Although certain Afrikaans alternatives, such as PG du Plessis's Siener in die suburbs, are eminently recognizable, the register does notfit the retired actress in Daumas S play, who has always excelled at aristocratic roles. A creative solution would be to replace audience recognition of the literary reference with their recognition of the actress, whose real name is used in the play instead of the stage name ofthe (fictitious) French actress, Ludivine Putiphar. One of the best-known actresses in South African theatre history is Sandra Prinsloo, who also commissioned the Afrikaans translation of Le cimetière des éléphants. By using her real name as a stage name, the translator is able to glean possible equivalents for Phèdre from her productions in both Afrikaans and English (languages which for the most part are interchangeable to the Afrikaans theatre-goer and the choice of which is left to the future director of the play). Quotations were limited to the classical repertoire of her production list, provided they were thematically linked to Daumas'splay and that there was a natural transition between the quotation and the preceding and following dialogue. After careful consideration, the translator finally took her cue from Zatlin's choice of a Shakespearian equivalent for Phèdre: not Anthony and Cleopatra, as in the case of the American translation (the recognition of which owes much to the 1963 film version, Cleopatra, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton), but Macbeth. Prinsloo played Lady Macbeth in two memorable (English) productions, and it is a well-known still photograph from the Dieter Reible production which inspired the choice of play. As the actress in the play quotes from her iconic play in full costume and matching stage make-up, the image of a dishevelled Prinsloo as Lady Macbeth (reproduced in the article) can only emphasize the transition between boarding-house repartee and the re-enactment of her past glory on stage. As auditory recognition has been replaced with visual recognition, the quotes may be recited in either English or Afrikaans. However, to match Daumas's unilingual source text, the translation is entirely in Afrikaans and features the Eitemal Afrikaans version of Macbeth. Creative solutions enable Afrikaans translators to continue translating foreign plays containing culture-specific intertextual references and, in this case, to pay hommage to one of the doyennes of the Afrikaans stage.
       
  • &rft.title=Tydskrif+vir+Geesteswetenskappe&rft.issn=0041-4751&rft.date=&rft.volume=">An Ecocritical-philosophical perspective on the short story
           "Katvoet"(Riana Scheepers): Humans and nature

    • Abstract: Hierdie navorsing bied 'n ekokrities-filosofiese blik op die verhaal "Katvoet" uit die gelyk-namige kortverhaalbundel deur Riana Scheepers (2009). Die navorsing is interdissiplinêr van aard en betrek die dissipline van filosofie sowel as letterkundige studie. "Katvoet" bevraagteken die antroposentriese perspektief deur alternatiewe perspektiewe te beklemtoon en 'n alterverhaal te skep wat parallel met die antroposentriese verhaal verloop. Die vrou se verhouding met diere en die natuur weerspreek die algemene aannames oor die mens en die natuur en die rol van die natuur in die mens se wêreld. Die vrou verdierlik in die verhaal en hierdie verdierliking skep die weg tot 'n verfrissende en nuwe siening van die absolute binêre opposisies van kultuur en natuur, rasionaliteit en emosies, die mens en die dier, objek en subjek, en "mind" en liggaam. Die vrou se verhouding met die natuur en diere plaas die mens en die natuur op gelyke voet en die natuur word nie onderdruk deur die mens nie. Die verhaal bied ook die geleentheid om die konsep natuur te herdefinieer teen die agtergrond van die verskuiwende verhoudings met die natuur.The purpose of this article is to present an ecocritical-philosophical analysis of Riana Scheepers' short story "Katvoet" (2009). In previous work I have analysed this text with reference to aphenomenological framework (LitNet Academic 13(2):227-252). However, in my view the story offers more possibilities for interpretation. In particular, it may be fruitfully explored in ecocritical terms. To this end, I draw on Alaimo, Hekman, Bennett, Buell, Burton-Christie, Garrard, Iovino, Love, Morton, Warren, as well as some of the prominent Afrikaans academics in the ecocritical field, namely Susan Smith and Susan Meyer. Ifirst outline the differences between the ecocritical framework informing the current as opposed to my earlier phenomenological study. I employ this framework to challenge some of the general Western philosophical ideas that ground Western thought (according to Karen Warren 2015, 2009): 1. the idea that rationality is the ultimate characteristic and faculty of human beings which makes them distinct and superior to animals; 2. the conception of human beings as rational beings with the ability to think logically; 3. a belief in basic binary oppositions, such as mind and body, woman and man, subjectivity and objectivity, culture and nature, and rationality and emotions; 4. the belief in an ontological difference between human beings and animals (Diehm 2003:32-3; Warren 2015; Warren 2009). Ecocriticism and its various manifestations in literature is further discussed. Thereafter the analysis of the short story "Katvoet" is presented in accordance with the above conceptual framework. In the story, the basic assumptions that ground the Western philosophical ideas are critically analysed as they are presented in the story, in order to determine to which degree these ideas are being challenged. What seems to be essential arising from this analysis is that the basic binary oppositions, traditional Western philosophical ideas, the concept of nature and the basic anthropocentric thinking that dominates literature are challenged in this story.
       
  • Disentanglement: The basis of societal and religious freedom

    • Abstract: Omdat die geskiedenis van samelewings en die besinning daaroor dikwels na totalitêre praktyke neig word in hierdie artikel spesifiek die aandag op die betekenis van die ontstrengeling of vertakking van die Westerse samelewingserfenis gevestig. Inleidend word daarom allereers vlugtig na die plek van oortuigingsvryhede in Suid-Afrika gekyk en daarna word dieper ingegaan op die aard en implikasies van differensiasie van die samelewing oor millennia.1The road from traditional societies towards disentangling them in a process of differentiation will be the focus of our attention since without differentiation the societal basis for distinguishing between the state and the various non-political entities will be nonexistent. The situation within South Africa will be briefly mentioned at the beginning and the end of the discussion.The statement ofthe Supreme Court (June 27, 2017) regarding specific religious practices at school does not only support what is stipulated in the Constitution of South Africa, but it is also in harmony with the acknowledgement of academic freedom. In accordance with the above, school governing bodies are entitled to determine the ethos of public schools. What is at stake in all of this is the acknowledgement of both personal freedom and the intrinsic freedom of diverse societal entities. However, the question is whether or not this competence is derived from the state, in the sense that schools are integral parts of the state. This article focuses on some of the main contours of the history of Western civilization. In particular, attention will be given to the difference between traditional (undifferentiated) societies and more recent (differentiated) societies. It will show how the process of societal differentiation changed the close-knit pattern of traditional societies, specifically during the middle ages. Tribal elements, as found in the initial Roman folklaw, still played a role. Kingdoms and empires as well as the guild and manorial systems mediated the eventual transition to a differentiated situation. During the middle ages this process was caught up in the power-struggle between the emperor or king and the pope and the church. Until the latter part of the eleventh century the kings and emperors dominated the scene. Moreover, the role of law was still undifferentiated. What was called secular law was not yet disembedded from general tribal, local, and general customs or from the general custom of royal and imperial households. There was an on-going fusion of religious and political spheres while bishops continued to function as members of the feudal hierarchy. Then from the last part of the eleventh century until the beginning of the fourteenth century the papal revolution emerged. On the one hand it led to developments anticipating the differentiation between church and state while at the same time, on the other hand, it resulted in the papal claims to ultimate authority over society as a whole. The famous doctrine of "two swords" was used to undergird these ideas, although the church still expressed the view that the pope has the authority even to dethrone emperors and kings. The papal ascend to a church dominated society, reached its culmination point in the writing of Boniface VIII known as Una Sancta. Its ultimate claim is that outside the Roman Pontiff there is no salvation. In this context Berman (1983) points out that from a socio-economic perspective the Papal Revolution provided a stimulus for a significant increase in production and trade, even extending to the rise of multiple new cities and towns. It should also be appreciatedfor establishing the first European universities, for the rise of systematic scholarly reflection (theology, philosophy and the science of law) and for a growing social awareness. During the era after the Renaissance a differentiation of society took place through which diverse societal entities emerged, such as artistic creations, scholarly endeavours (universities), schools, economic trade and commerce (the differentiation of the nuclear family and the business enterprise) and of course the origination of the modern state alongside various faith communities. State citizenship is not concerned with the various non-political connections of an individual. Therefore, while reflecting on citizenship one has to disregard these non-political ties because citizenship disregards gender, cultural affiliation, economic position, social status, religious ties and moral convictions. Yet this does not mean that these ties are neglected, because the state has to protect the legal interests entailed in these non-political connections, including personal and collective religious freedoms. Apart from the presence of this multiplicity ofnon-political ties there would not be sufficient legal interests to protect. A just state ought to protect public legal freedoms, personal freedom, and societal freedoms. When "Christian" is equated with the institutional Church we still adhere to the Roman Catholic "churchification" of life which amounts to treating a school as if it were a church denomination. A school without any religious observances may still be Christian, namely when all the subjects taught are presented within the framework of a Christian understanding of reality.
       
  • Forgiveness education in schools as a possible measure to prevent future
           social and emotional pain

    • Abstract: Sosiale onreg word op 'n daaglikse basis teenoor sowel enkelinge as groepe mense en gemeenskappe en selfs nasies gepleeg. In baie sodanige gevalle ervaar diegene teenoor wie die onreg gepleeg is oor lang tye emosionele pyn en word as gevolg daarvan die kliënte van beraders en terapeute. Die kernargument van hierdie artikel is dat heelwat van hierdie emosionele pyn en lyding voorkom kon gewees het indien mense van kleinsaf opgevoed (dit is, toegerus) was om te begryp wat die vra en die gee van vergifnis alles behels, ongeag of die oortreder om vergifnis vra of nie. As 'n mens die taak en funksie van skole deur die lens van die sosiale ruimte- en etiese funksieteorie bekyk, word dit duidelik dat skole as samelewingsverbande toevertrou is met onder meer die unieke funksie om jong leerders toe te rus om ook die ingewikkeldheid van die vra en die gee van vergifnis te kan bemeester. 'n Aansienlike deel van hierdie artikel word afgestaan aan 'n buitelyn van 'n vergifnisonderwysvakkurrikulum wat gevolg kan word deur onderwysers en ander opvoeders om hierdie toerustingsfunksie van die skool tot pedagogiese praktyk te maak.It was assumed for purposes of this article that many of the cases ofpeople seeking counselling as a result of social and emotional pain due to social injustice inflicted upon them could have been prevented if they had been taught how to ask for and to extend forgiveness. (This of course does not imply that forgiveness education will remove all such social and emotional pain.) Children need to be taught how to deal with social injustices such as bullying, thereby saving them social and emotional pain later in their lives. Literature abounds with incidents that require forgiveness. The record of incidents underlines the need for incorporating forgiveness education in formal school programs. As far as could be established, forgiveness education has not yet been incorporated anywhere as a formal school subject. However, provision has been made in many education systems for its inclusion in, for instance, Citizenship Education and other formative subjects. In South Africa it could form part of the Life Orientation and Life Skills programs currently taught in schools. The purpose of this article is to provide school educators (teachers) with guidelines for teaching forgiveness education in schools, if (and when) it is incorporated in the formal curriculum. The rationale for including forgiveness education in the formal school curriculum can be explicated in terms of the social space and ethical function theory. Forgiveness and forgiveness education should occur in the social space resulting from the infliction of a social injury upon a person or group. Forgiveness education in turn should occur in the educational space provided by schools and other pedagogical settings. According to the principle of sovereignty in own sphere, schools are unique in that they embody pedagogical and didactical spaces. The school is firstly pedagogically focused upon the guiding, unfolding, nurturing, forming and developing of the learners to prepare them for a future as mature and responsible adults who understand the process of forgiveness. In this process, schools will secondly typically employ the didactical art and skill of teaching how and when to forgive. The theory also encapsulates the notion that the space in which forgiveness education is to occur should be ethical in that it displays and promotes love, patience and empathy, responsible and accountable interaction with the learners and a deeper understanding among learners as a caring community. According to this perspective, the school approaches forgiveness and forgiveness education as part of the moral development of the learners. Against the backdrop outlined above, the following is suggested as a "syllabus" or "subject curriculum" for forgiveness education: 1. Thefirst step of the forgiveness process to be taught is that a person should understand the context in which the apparent injustice has taken place. Children should be able to distinguish between a no-harm situation and one in which genuine injustice has been inflicted. Actions are always context-sensitive. This is the uncovering phase in which the person becomes aware ofpersonal emotions and of the pain brought about by the actions of another. 2. The second step is to gain insight into the function of anger, dissatisfaction and resentment. The forgiveness process begins with anger and resentment. It is important, however, to distinguish between productive, and sinful and senseless anger. Anger is productive if it helps one understand what has occurred, if one remains in charge of the anger, if the anger does not deteriorate into childish self-centredness, does not destroy the other person and if it helps one in choosing to forgive. The injured person should abjure all forms of reactive anger, that is anger that insists on revenge and retribution, and rather opt for transitional anger, i.e. forward-looking anger rooted in thoughts of well-being for both the injured and the injurer, in empathy for both the self and the other. 3. The third step in the forgiveness process is to realise that the injustice or injury is of a permanent nature. The injury will never disappear and will never be forgotten, and therefore has to be dealt with. 4. The fourth step is to realise that forgiveness begins with oneself and not with the injurer. To forgive is not a token of weakness; forgiveness is always granted from a position of strength because it ultimately results in healing of the self and the other. It liberates one from unhappiness and resentment and is an act of mercy to the self. It now becomes important to distinguish between two kinds of forgiveness: conditional and unconditional, and to realise that it is by far better to forgive unconditionally. 5. The fifth step is an active decision to forgive, a step inspired by empathy for the perpetrator. To forgive is not just to forget ...
       
  • Can the leadership in a once underperforming South African primary school
           within a challenging school context manage to turn the school around'
           A case study

    • Abstract: Hierdie artikel omskryf die bevindings van 'n gevallestudie wat ondersoek het hoe die leierskapskorps by 'n Suid-Afrikaanse primêre skool, teen die agtergrond van 'n uitdagende skoolkonteks, daarin kon slaag om 'n omkeer by die skool te bewerkstellig, onder leiding van dieselfde skoolhoof. 'n Kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg om die belewenisse van die skoolhoof, die skoolbestuurspan en die onderwysers te ondersoek in hulle poging om die skool se akademiese prestasie te verbeter. Die outeurs beweer dat faktore wat nóú saamhang met veragtering in 'n gemeenskap nie noodwendig 'n leierskapskorps sal beweeg om op kreatiewe wyse strategieë te identifiseer wat probleme kan oplos nie. Die bevindings dui daarop dat sodanige onderneming 'n duidelike en gemeenskaplike visie, missie en oortuiginge verg; 'n sisteembenadering wat op die wanfunksionele skoolkultuur afgespits is; asook 'n kollektiewe benadering wat monitering en die aanvaarding van aanspreeklikheid insluit. Die artikel volstaan met die slotsom dat, alhoewel uitdagings binne die skoolkonteks steeds 'n beduidende rol speel, die leierskap en personeel 'n omkeer in 'n skool se prestasie kan bewerkstellig deur met kreatiewe en vernuwende gekontekstualiseerde pogings vorendag te kom.This article describes the findings of a case study that explored how the leadership of a South African primary school succeeded in bringing about a turnaround at the school under the leadership of the same principal and against the background of a challenging school context. Despite efforts to get struggling schools to alter their course, and suggestions from researchers on how to go about performing these processes, this phenomenon still requires extensive attention. Research aimed at improving school performance in deprived communities has shown that such institutions have difficulty functioning successfully as they are handicapped byfactors that are normally absent in schools that perform well. Since the end of "apartheid", the majority of South African schools are regarded as dysfunctional. However, very little information is available regarding how the leadership of similar schools managed to steer their schools in a new direction by transforming the school from an underperforming school to a highly performing entity under the leadership of the same principal. In addition to that, successful leadership in underperforming schools is regarded as an extremely important motive behind scholastic success and learner performance. The current study was governed by the following research question: How has the leadership of a previously underperforming South African primary school managed to transform the school into a highly performing entity, despite numerous challenges' Transformational leadership in Education is a fairly new research area and greater insight into effective leadership, in spite of challenging contexts, can shed light on transformational leadership processes and the effects thereof. For purposes of this study, theory of action is used to develop the research question. According to Duke (2014:81), there are five imperative components of theory of action that promote school turnaround: (1) An awareness of existing problems that require attention; (2) A perception of why such problems and challenges occur; (3) Thorough planning that determines focus and indicates direction; (4) The necessary skills to guide educators in handling the identifiedproblems; and (5) A commitment to guide educators in tackling the identified problems and removing obstacles. The ability of leaders to "read" their schools properly and to adjust their leadership to context-specific needs, will, to a large extent, determine their success. This explains why their leadership strategies must be in line with specific school contexts. A qualitative approach was employed in order to explore the experiences of the principal, school management team and educators in their quest to improve the school's academic performance. With the assistance of an Ekurhuleni district official, a primary school that underperformed in 2009 but thereafter showed significant sustained improvement in learner performance was deliberately selected. This urban primary school in Ekurhuleni is surrounded by slums and informal settlements. Data was collected through one-on-one semi-structured interviews with the principal and two Ekurhuleni district officials, as well as two focus group interviews with school management team members and six educators. The themes that were developed relate to actions concerning transformational leadership in schools as it emerged from the study: A turnaround strategy with the aid of a new vision, mission and convictions: "I have stopped the bus, everything has to change."; A systems approach to the creation of a school culture: "There is an eagerness, a burning desire"; and Collaborative practices and internal accountability: "Collaboration is the key" and Monitoring and accountability "one of the school's key weapons". It was an ah-ha moment for the principal when she realised that firm leadership was an imperative to turn a school around. Researchers have nonetheless found that a school principal cannot create a climate that promotes quality teaching and learning all on his or her own. This principal had committed herself to the process completely and through her example, influenced both educators and learners. This also resulted in her being absolutely "merciless" in her zeal to bring about the school's turnaround. It was important for the principal and management team to be on the same page concerning the school's underperformance as it helped them to work together to bring about the much needed turnaround. The school had realised the importance of a clear vision and mission and the leadership used these two elements to accelerate the turnaround process. The staff reconsidered and amended the school's policies as part of the turnaround process. The ...
       
  • The educator as a self-directed learner and agent

    • Abstract: Selfgerigte Leer (SGL) is onontbeerlik in die onderwys. Onderwysers het 'n belangrike rol om te vervul ter ondersteuning van leerders om die toepaslike vaardighede vir SGL te kan aanleer. Om in staat te wees daartoe om dit te doen moet die onderwyser vertroud wees met SGL en daarop voorbereid en gewillig wees om dit in hul onderrig aan te wend. Die outeur het voorts in die onderhawige artikel geredeneer dat onderwysers die fondament vir SGL moet lê, voortgesette ondersteuning moet bied, leerders moet voorsien van gereedskap vir selfbestuurde leer, n samewerkende leeromgewing moet skep waarin die onderwyser ondersteuning gee deur die leerders se SGL-ervaring aan te moedig, hulle inisiatiewe rakende leer moet fasiliteer en eerder as mentor moet optree as om 'n instrukteur te wees (Guglielmino 2013). Onderwysers moet dus die begeerte by leerders skep om inisiatief aan die dag te lê ten opsigte van hul eie leer, met of sonder die hulp van andere, hul leerbehoeftes te diagnoseer, leerdoelwitte te formuleer, menslike en materiële hulpbronne vir leer te identifiseer, toepaslike leerstrategieë te kies en te implementeer en leeruitkomste te evalueer. Onderwysers kan dus talle voordele put uit SGL. Die verkryging van die nodige vaardighede is afhanklik van die onderwyser se voorbereidheid op en gewilligheid om SGL sy of haar eie te maak.Self-directed Learning (SDL) has been one of the most researched domains of education and the consciousness is spreading that SDL is an essential skill for the 21st century (Nantz & Klaf 2012). Knowles' (1975) research indicates that SDL takes place when individuals (educators and/or learners) take the responsibility for recognizing and identifying learning needs, developing learning goals, discovering learning resources and evaluating the outcomes of their own learning process; thus taking responsibility for directing their own life and learning. Given the above, Knowles (1990) further claims that self-directedness is a characteristic of individuals who are proactive rather than reactive learners; learners who tend to apply SDL in their life-long experiences. Opportunities for SDL exist in numerous instructional approaches and every learning situation holds the probability of developing the necessary skills in educators and learners alike - supportive of SDL (Knowles, Holton III & Swanson 2015). It is believed that SDL will occur in certain learning circumstances, although in other learning circumstances it may not - depending on individuals' (in this case educators') personal characteristics such as attitudes, values and capabilities (Knowles et al. 2015). These attributes tend to determine whether or not SDL will take place in certain learning circumstances (Wang 2013). Through SDL, educators can develop the ability to extend and improve their professional development and ways for managing problems with which they may be faced in their teaching careers. Hence these SDL skills can transform their teaching and the learning in their classrooms into a personalised process during which imperative SDL skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, learning to learn and self-directedness are developed (Kirk, Shih, Smeltzer, Holt & Brockett 2012). Traditional methods of teaching and learning are still alive and well within some classrooms in which SDL skills are not offered to learners. SDL affords learners the opportunity of taking ownership oftheir learning and being self-directed while demonstrating independent thinking, creativity and critical thinking, as envisaged by the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) (Department of Basic Education 2012). The vision for education is that educators need to encourage and model SDL within their classrooms so that learners can develop the ability to use SDL skills with a view to be more self-directed in their learning, which will also benefit their way of living. It is also argued in the article that the success of SDL does not exclusively depend on the self-directedness of the learner and the SDL environment; it also depends on the "guide" (educator) on this journey. In any given learning situation SDL needs to be promoted by an educator who plays a central role whereby he or she provides appropriate guidance to support learners in actively participating in SDL activities. Educators need to be encouraged to promote and foster SDL in their learners and within their classrooms - to make SDL their own. To be able to make SDL their own, educators ought to attain certain characteristics. They must namely: a) take personal responsibility for their teaching and learning; b) set specific goals for their academic, personal, and career endeavours; c) approach teaching and learning from a growing mind-set; d) be determined; e) employ critical thinking; f have control over their strengths and weaknesses; g) be able to ascertain teaching and learning strategies; and h) possess good self-regulation and self-management skills (Knowles et al. 2015). Therefore the self-directed educator needs to be ready and willing to adopt the characteristics of a self-directed learner. A desire needs to exist in the educator to learn and teach which implies self-motivation and preparedness for every learning event. SDL therefore is a life-long process, and self-directed individuals (educators and learners) need to be aware of their own needs (teaching and learning) and interests, to feel self-confident about their skills (teaching and learning), to be skilled in setting their own goals (in teaching and learning), to be capable of selecting strategies for their own teaching and learning, to be capable of being self-motivated, self-disciplined, and to develop self-awareness concerning their strengths and weaknesses in this respect. It was further argued in this article that not only learners need to be granted the opportunity of describing what they are doing in the learning environment - educators also need to become ...
       
  • The silent change of the South African constitution

    • Abstract: Die leerstuk van grondwetlike oppergesag soos vervat in artikel 2 van die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet en die opvatting dat konstitusionele verandering slegs kan geskied nadat die streng wysigingsvoorwaardes ingevolge artikel 74 nagekom is, is geloofsversterkend dog ongegrond. Naas tekswysigings van die Grondwet, kan die konstitusie ingrypende veranderings ondergaan terwyl die teks onveranderd bly en die (wan)indruk van konstitusionele stabiliteit wek. Hierdie waarheid word aan die hand van die Suid-Afrikaanse konstitusionele gebeure van die afgelope twee dekades toegelig. Die Suid-Afrikaanse konstitusie het vanweë die uitwerking van politieke kragte talle ingrypende veranderinge ondergaan, sonder dat enige spoor op die teks gelaat is. Vier daarvan is hier ter sake. Die verandering van die kwasi-federale aard van die staat na 'n gesentraliseerde staatsopset; die migrasie van gesag vanuit die amptelike sentra van regerings-gesag na 'n verskeidenheid van nie-amptelike gesagsentra, wat meegebring het dat Suid-Afrika tot aan die einde van die Zuma-termyn 'n wanordelike hibriede regeringsopset geword het; die konstitusionele orde se versinking in 'n patronaatstaat vanweë sogenaamde kaderontplooiing; die staat se verlies aan die monopolie op wettige geweld gepaard met die gedeeltelike verburgerliking en privatisering van die verantwoordelikheid tot selfbeveiliging. Indien gepoog word om die aard van die Suid-Afrikaanse konstitusionele orde slegs met verwysing na die grondwetlike teks te peil, sou hierdie veranderinge verborge gebly het. Daarom is dit noodsaaklik om die bestudering van die konstitusie uit te brei tot die oorweging van politieke kragte, waardeur die eintlike stand van die konstitusie aan die lig kom.Since 1994 South Africa has had a supreme constitution. This is marked by two central characteristics. The first is that the Constitution is the supreme or higher law. All other law, (that is, law outside the constitution) and all conduct, more specifically, governmental conduct must comply with it, failing which it is invalid and without consequence. The second characteristic, logically flowing from the first, is that the Constitution is durable and inflexible, thus allowing it to serve permanently as the criterion for the validity of all law and conduct. To that end, constitutional amendments (in contrast to legislation), are placed beyond the easy reach ofthe legislature. Accordingly, the South African Constitution may only legitimately be amended with the minimum support of two thirds (in the case of section 1, with a 75%) of the members of the National Assembly and six of the nine provincial delegations in the National Council ofProvinces. Because ofthe strict amendment requirements, the Constitution is proclaimed to be entrenched - safeguarded against, andfinally in control of the tumults of political whims and vagaries. The only allowance, (alongside formal amendments) that is made for changes to the so-called supreme Constitution, are those resulting from judicial interpretation. These "changes" are very limited, however. Moreover, they are viewed to be mere overt pronouncements of meanings which have always been latent in the Constitution, rather than actual changes. Events of the decades since the present South African constitution entered into force, however, distinctively disproves the trite doctrine of the supremacy and entrenched status of the constitution. A collection of political forces - all somehow relating to the one-party dominant status of the African National Congress (ANC) government - have profoundly changed the actual state of South Africa's constitution. All this has occurred notwithstanding there not having been any significant amendments to (the text) of the Constitution. Hence, an informal, yet actual constitution has been developing alongside the seemingly stable (text of) the written constitution. Profound changes have been occurring both in the power structure of the constitution as well as its value basis. The present discussion focusses on four changes in the power structure. First, whilst the written constitution essentially provides for a quasi-federal allocation of power among the various levels (spheres) of government, the actual constitution (allowing for the exception of the Western Cape under the government of the opposition, Democratic Alliance) is now distinctively unitary and centralist. This change is the function of a number ofpotent political forces, including the ANC itself being a centralised political movement and the lack of administrative capacity on provincial level. Secondly, South Africa changed into a hybrid state. Thus, instead of governmental power vesting in the relevant constitutionally designated institutions, such as the national legislature (and provincial counterparts), it has migrated to a host of non-constitutional formal and informal formations, including formations within the ANC and around senior figures of the party, (shady) business concerns and others, all causing South Africa to morph into a shadow state in which the actual centres of powers are shared by and dispersed among non-statist power centres. This phenomenon has reached its zenith during the latter era of the Zuma government. Thirdly, whereas the Constitution has detailed provisions requiring a professional public service, the so-called policy of cadre deployment, (pursued by the ANC as part of the general ideology of transformationism and centralised party control), has replaced the formal constitutional position with a new dispensation of a party controlled public service. This deployment of large numbers ofparty cadres, often not suitable for the offices to which they were appointed, has changed the nature of the public service contemplated by the written constitution and has contributed to serious deterioration of the public service. Lastly, and directly related to the former, there has been a notable deterioration of the country's secur...
       
  • Prophesy, myth and delirium: The urgent quest for true knowledge in the
           age of informationalism and knowledge depreciation

    • Abstract: Teen die agtergrond van die agterdog wat gesaai word teen die geesteswetenskappe en die bedreiging van hul posisie, wend hierdie artikel 'n poging aan om iets van die geldigheid en relevansie van geesteswetenskaplike kennis te probeer herwin. Die klem word enersyds geplaas op die fatale en verarmende gevolge van die reduksie van kennis tot die meetbare, weegbare en tasbare en andersyds op die wesenlike onmisbaarheid vir menswees en menslike saamwees van dimensies van kennis, wat ewe geldig is, maar buite die grense van die empiriese val, naamlik die diskoerse van profesie, mite en delirium (waansin). In die belang van menswees word 'n saak uitgemaak vir 'n wyer en dieper opvatting van kennis en wetenskap as die heersende opvatting.In this article, it is emphasised that in the age of informationalism, knowledge has been reduced to a manageable entity for sale in the marketplace. In this process, the knowing activity of the sciences of the spirit in particular is sacrificed in favour of knowledge as an exchangeable economic entity. Such reductionism is deemed to end up in a situation of total disaster and catastrophe that is currently experienced worldwide. Its strategy is that of the development of a sterile engagement of methodological approaches, in compliance with positivism, empiricism, and rationalism, with specified but limited aspects of the real. The objective of this article is the neutralisation of this obsession with methodological approaches with its arrogant claim to produce or deliver the only true and universally acceptable knowledge adequate and able to solve all possible problems. Such a conception of knowledge is questionable due to its extremely limited scope with respect to reality. In order to articulate reality in its fullness it would be necessary that an expanded notion of knowledge be entertained that will include the non-calculable and the non-algorithmic dimensions of the real as well. For this purpose, a revised notion of logic, which will create room for different logics, needs also to be accommodated as proposed by a number of scientists and other thinkers. For this purpose, attention is given to prophesy, myth and delirium as examples of the extra-empirical domains of human understanding and knowing activities. These types of knowledge are contributions to the expanded notion of knowledge and take us far beyond the empirical and the positive, the measureable and the calculable. In order to achieve a full and comprehensive grasp of human understanding, insight, knowing and knowledge we have to move far beyond the mere empirical, factual and calculable. It has been indicated that numerous thinkers, philosophers and scientists from diverse disciplines are taking us in this direction. Issues such as mystery, affectivity, uncertainty, totality, multiplicity, phantasm, imagination, dreamery and infinity cannot be neglected. The contemplation of and reflection on these issues are taking us far beyond the limitations and restrictions set by the restrictive methodological approaches informed by empiricism, positivism, and even rationalism, later on to be amplified by industrialism and economism under the pretention that this is the only sound route to real, valid, true and meaningful knowledge. However, the validity and significance of knowledge are to be brought about on a much wider scale in order for it to offer significant contributions to human individual and social well-being. This can never be guaranteed on the basis of measurement, calculation and verifiable facts alone. For the sciences of the spirit, but also for the sciences in general, to be of any significance to human existence in the world these issues should be carefully articulated and incorporated in the scientific endeavour. In taking them seriously, the road is opened to a new and fuller appreciation of the value and place of dimensions of human knowing and knowledge as it is manifested in prophesy, myth and delirium. New dimensions of understanding, insight, knowing, and thinking, as well as different views on truth and meaning, are to be discovered in the worlds of prophesy, myth and delirium. Ricoeur's distinction between truth as manifestation and truth as verification shows the relevance of testimony and revelation for a more comprehensive understanding as well as experience of truth. Truth can never be exhausted by verifying strategies and can never offer humans adequate expectations to hope for. In a similar way, it is emphasised that myth as a form of human discourse offers imaginative patterns, networks and powerful symbols that suggest ways of interpreting the world and shaping its meaning for humans. Myth is to be seen as a more authentic form of knowledge, untouched by the devastating fanaticism for quantification and objectification. Against all expectations it has been emphasised that the effort to build a science of the normal without being careful to start with the pathological, considered as the immediate given, may end up as ridiculous failures. The acknowledgement of madness as a relevant and significant form of human discourse, far from being totally and only senseless, is a recognition of delirium as a condition for the desire to speak and to know about the truth of the real. Insanity can be the condition for genuineness and authenticity. De Waelhens may be right: the normal is not intelligible without the pathological. From the exploratory work in the article it would seem that prophesy, myth and delirium offer dimensions of human knowing, understanding and insight that is of decisive importance for the full realisation of human knowledge as well as the meaningful fulfilment of human existence.
       
  • Adam Small: Denker, digter, dramaturg - 'n huldiging

    • Abstract: Teen die agtergrond van die agterdog wat gesaai word teen die geesteswetenskappe en die bedreiging van hul posisie, wend hierdie artikel 'n poging aan om iets van die geldigheid en relevansie van geesteswetenskaplike kennis te probeer herwin. Die klem word enersyds geplaas op die fatale en verarmende gevolge van die reduksie van kennis tot die meetbare, weegbare en tasbare en andersyds op die wesenlike onmisbaarheid vir menswees en menslike saamwees van dimensies van kennis, wat ewe geldig is, maar buite die grense van die empiriese val, naamlik die diskoerse van profesie, mite en delirium (waansin). In die belang van menswees word 'n saak uitgemaak vir 'n wyer en dieper opvatting van kennis en wetenskap as die heersende opvatting.In this article, it is emphasised that in the age of informationalism, knowledge has been reduced to a manageable entity for sale in the marketplace. In this process, the knowing activity of the sciences of the spirit in particular is sacrificed in favour of knowledge as an exchangeable economic entity. Such reductionism is deemed to end up in a situation of total disaster and catastrophe that is currently experienced worldwide. Its strategy is that of the development of a sterile engagement of methodological approaches, in compliance with positivism, empiricism, and rationalism, with specified but limited aspects of the real. The objective of this article is the neutralisation of this obsession with methodological approaches with its arrogant claim to produce or deliver the only true and universally acceptable knowledge adequate and able to solve all possible problems. Such a conception of knowledge is questionable due to its extremely limited scope with respect to reality. In order to articulate reality in its fullness it would be necessary that an expanded notion of knowledge be entertained that will include the non-calculable and the non-algorithmic dimensions of the real as well. For this purpose, a revised notion of logic, which will create room for different logics, needs also to be accommodated as proposed by a number of scientists and other thinkers. For this purpose, attention is given to prophesy, myth and delirium as examples of the extra-empirical domains of human understanding and knowing activities. These types of knowledge are contributions to the expanded notion of knowledge and take us far beyond the empirical and the positive, the measureable and the calculable. In order to achieve a full and comprehensive grasp of human understanding, insight, knowing and knowledge we have to move far beyond the mere empirical, factual and calculable. It has been indicated that numerous thinkers, philosophers and scientists from diverse disciplines are taking us in this direction. Issues such as mystery, affectivity, uncertainty, totality, multiplicity, phantasm, imagination, dreamery and infinity cannot be neglected. The contemplation of and reflection on these issues are taking us far beyond the limitations and restrictions set by the restrictive methodological approaches informed by empiricism, positivism, and even rationalism, later on to be amplified by industrialism and economism under the pretention that this is the only sound route to real, valid, true and meaningful knowledge. However, the validity and significance of knowledge are to be brought about on a much wider scale in order for it to offer significant contributions to human individual and social well-being. This can never be guaranteed on the basis of measurement, calculation and verifiable facts alone. For the sciences of the spirit, but also for the sciences in general, to be of any significance to human existence in the world these issues should be carefully articulated and incorporated in the scientific endeavour. In taking them seriously, the road is opened to a new and fuller appreciation of the value and place of dimensions of human knowing and knowledge as it is manifested in prophesy, myth and delirium. New dimensions of understanding, insight, knowing, and thinking, as well as different views on truth and meaning, are to be discovered in the worlds of prophesy, myth and delirium. Ricoeur's distinction between truth as manifestation and truth as verification shows the relevance of testimony and revelation for a more comprehensive understanding as well as experience of truth. Truth can never be exhausted by verifying strategies and can never offer humans adequate expectations to hope for. In a similar way, it is emphasised that myth as a form of human discourse offers imaginative patterns, networks and powerful symbols that suggest ways of interpreting the world and shaping its meaning for humans. Myth is to be seen as a more authentic form of knowledge, untouched by the devastating fanaticism for quantification and objectification. Against all expectations it has been emphasised that the effort to build a science of the normal without being careful to start with the pathological, considered as the immediate given, may end up as ridiculous failures. The acknowledgement of madness as a relevant and significant form of human discourse, far from being totally and only senseless, is a recognition of delirium as a condition for the desire to speak and to know about the truth of the real. Insanity can be the condition for genuineness and authenticity. De Waelhens may be right: the normal is not intelligible without the pathological. From the exploratory work in the article it would seem that prophesy, myth and delirium offer dimensions of human knowing, understanding and insight that is of decisive importance for the full realisation of human knowledge as well as the meaningful fulfilment of human existence.
       
  • Taalkundige essays - 'n gerf uit die vroegskemer

    • Abstract: Teen die agtergrond van die agterdog wat gesaai word teen die geesteswetenskappe en die bedreiging van hul posisie, wend hierdie artikel 'n poging aan om iets van die geldigheid en relevansie van geesteswetenskaplike kennis te probeer herwin. Die klem word enersyds geplaas op die fatale en verarmende gevolge van die reduksie van kennis tot die meetbare, weegbare en tasbare en andersyds op die wesenlike onmisbaarheid vir menswees en menslike saamwees van dimensies van kennis, wat ewe geldig is, maar buite die grense van die empiriese val, naamlik die diskoerse van profesie, mite en delirium (waansin). In die belang van menswees word 'n saak uitgemaak vir 'n wyer en dieper opvatting van kennis en wetenskap as die heersende opvatting.In this article, it is emphasised that in the age of informationalism, knowledge has been reduced to a manageable entity for sale in the marketplace. In this process, the knowing activity of the sciences of the spirit in particular is sacrificed in favour of knowledge as an exchangeable economic entity. Such reductionism is deemed to end up in a situation of total disaster and catastrophe that is currently experienced worldwide. Its strategy is that of the development of a sterile engagement of methodological approaches, in compliance with positivism, empiricism, and rationalism, with specified but limited aspects of the real. The objective of this article is the neutralisation of this obsession with methodological approaches with its arrogant claim to produce or deliver the only true and universally acceptable knowledge adequate and able to solve all possible problems. Such a conception of knowledge is questionable due to its extremely limited scope with respect to reality. In order to articulate reality in its fullness it would be necessary that an expanded notion of knowledge be entertained that will include the non-calculable and the non-algorithmic dimensions of the real as well. For this purpose, a revised notion of logic, which will create room for different logics, needs also to be accommodated as proposed by a number of scientists and other thinkers. For this purpose, attention is given to prophesy, myth and delirium as examples of the extra-empirical domains of human understanding and knowing activities. These types of knowledge are contributions to the expanded notion of knowledge and take us far beyond the empirical and the positive, the measureable and the calculable. In order to achieve a full and comprehensive grasp of human understanding, insight, knowing and knowledge we have to move far beyond the mere empirical, factual and calculable. It has been indicated that numerous thinkers, philosophers and scientists from diverse disciplines are taking us in this direction. Issues such as mystery, affectivity, uncertainty, totality, multiplicity, phantasm, imagination, dreamery and infinity cannot be neglected. The contemplation of and reflection on these issues are taking us far beyond the limitations and restrictions set by the restrictive methodological approaches informed by empiricism, positivism, and even rationalism, later on to be amplified by industrialism and economism under the pretention that this is the only sound route to real, valid, true and meaningful knowledge. However, the validity and significance of knowledge are to be brought about on a much wider scale in order for it to offer significant contributions to human individual and social well-being. This can never be guaranteed on the basis of measurement, calculation and verifiable facts alone. For the sciences of the spirit, but also for the sciences in general, to be of any significance to human existence in the world these issues should be carefully articulated and incorporated in the scientific endeavour. In taking them seriously, the road is opened to a new and fuller appreciation of the value and place of dimensions of human knowing and knowledge as it is manifested in prophesy, myth and delirium. New dimensions of understanding, insight, knowing, and thinking, as well as different views on truth and meaning, are to be discovered in the worlds of prophesy, myth and delirium. Ricoeur's distinction between truth as manifestation and truth as verification shows the relevance of testimony and revelation for a more comprehensive understanding as well as experience of truth. Truth can never be exhausted by verifying strategies and can never offer humans adequate expectations to hope for. In a similar way, it is emphasised that myth as a form of human discourse offers imaginative patterns, networks and powerful symbols that suggest ways of interpreting the world and shaping its meaning for humans. Myth is to be seen as a more authentic form of knowledge, untouched by the devastating fanaticism for quantification and objectification. Against all expectations it has been emphasised that the effort to build a science of the normal without being careful to start with the pathological, considered as the immediate given, may end up as ridiculous failures. The acknowledgement of madness as a relevant and significant form of human discourse, far from being totally and only senseless, is a recognition of delirium as a condition for the desire to speak and to know about the truth of the real. Insanity can be the condition for genuineness and authenticity. De Waelhens may be right: the normal is not intelligible without the pathological. From the exploratory work in the article it would seem that prophesy, myth and delirium offer dimensions of human knowing, understanding and insight that is of decisive importance for the full realisation of human knowledge as well as the meaningful fulfilment of human existence.
       
  • Kultuurvryheid en selfbestuur: Keuses van klein groepe
           wêreldwyd

    • Abstract: Teen die agtergrond van die agterdog wat gesaai word teen die geesteswetenskappe en die bedreiging van hul posisie, wend hierdie artikel 'n poging aan om iets van die geldigheid en relevansie van geesteswetenskaplike kennis te probeer herwin. Die klem word enersyds geplaas op die fatale en verarmende gevolge van die reduksie van kennis tot die meetbare, weegbare en tasbare en andersyds op die wesenlike onmisbaarheid vir menswees en menslike saamwees van dimensies van kennis, wat ewe geldig is, maar buite die grense van die empiriese val, naamlik die diskoerse van profesie, mite en delirium (waansin). In die belang van menswees word 'n saak uitgemaak vir 'n wyer en dieper opvatting van kennis en wetenskap as die heersende opvatting.In this article, it is emphasised that in the age of informationalism, knowledge has been reduced to a manageable entity for sale in the marketplace. In this process, the knowing activity of the sciences of the spirit in particular is sacrificed in favour of knowledge as an exchangeable economic entity. Such reductionism is deemed to end up in a situation of total disaster and catastrophe that is currently experienced worldwide. Its strategy is that of the development of a sterile engagement of methodological approaches, in compliance with positivism, empiricism, and rationalism, with specified but limited aspects of the real. The objective of this article is the neutralisation of this obsession with methodological approaches with its arrogant claim to produce or deliver the only true and universally acceptable knowledge adequate and able to solve all possible problems. Such a conception of knowledge is questionable due to its extremely limited scope with respect to reality. In order to articulate reality in its fullness it would be necessary that an expanded notion of knowledge be entertained that will include the non-calculable and the non-algorithmic dimensions of the real as well. For this purpose, a revised notion of logic, which will create room for different logics, needs also to be accommodated as proposed by a number of scientists and other thinkers. For this purpose, attention is given to prophesy, myth and delirium as examples of the extra-empirical domains of human understanding and knowing activities. These types of knowledge are contributions to the expanded notion of knowledge and take us far beyond the empirical and the positive, the measureable and the calculable. In order to achieve a full and comprehensive grasp of human understanding, insight, knowing and knowledge we have to move far beyond the mere empirical, factual and calculable. It has been indicated that numerous thinkers, philosophers and scientists from diverse disciplines are taking us in this direction. Issues such as mystery, affectivity, uncertainty, totality, multiplicity, phantasm, imagination, dreamery and infinity cannot be neglected. The contemplation of and reflection on these issues are taking us far beyond the limitations and restrictions set by the restrictive methodological approaches informed by empiricism, positivism, and even rationalism, later on to be amplified by industrialism and economism under the pretention that this is the only sound route to real, valid, true and meaningful knowledge. However, the validity and significance of knowledge are to be brought about on a much wider scale in order for it to offer significant contributions to human individual and social well-being. This can never be guaranteed on the basis of measurement, calculation and verifiable facts alone. For the sciences of the spirit, but also for the sciences in general, to be of any significance to human existence in the world these issues should be carefully articulated and incorporated in the scientific endeavour. In taking them seriously, the road is opened to a new and fuller appreciation of the value and place of dimensions of human knowing and knowledge as it is manifested in prophesy, myth and delirium. New dimensions of understanding, insight, knowing, and thinking, as well as different views on truth and meaning, are to be discovered in the worlds of prophesy, myth and delirium. Ricoeur's distinction between truth as manifestation and truth as verification shows the relevance of testimony and revelation for a more comprehensive understanding as well as experience of truth. Truth can never be exhausted by verifying strategies and can never offer humans adequate expectations to hope for. In a similar way, it is emphasised that myth as a form of human discourse offers imaginative patterns, networks and powerful symbols that suggest ways of interpreting the world and shaping its meaning for humans. Myth is to be seen as a more authentic form of knowledge, untouched by the devastating fanaticism for quantification and objectification. Against all expectations it has been emphasised that the effort to build a science of the normal without being careful to start with the pathological, considered as the immediate given, may end up as ridiculous failures. The acknowledgement of madness as a relevant and significant form of human discourse, far from being totally and only senseless, is a recognition of delirium as a condition for the desire to speak and to know about the truth of the real. Insanity can be the condition for genuineness and authenticity. De Waelhens may be right: the normal is not intelligible without the pathological. From the exploratory work in the article it would seem that prophesy, myth and delirium offer dimensions of human knowing, understanding and insight that is of decisive importance for the full realisation of human knowledge as well as the meaningful fulfilment of human existence.
       
  • Foute en probleme

    • Abstract: Teen die agtergrond van die agterdog wat gesaai word teen die geesteswetenskappe en die bedreiging van hul posisie, wend hierdie artikel 'n poging aan om iets van die geldigheid en relevansie van geesteswetenskaplike kennis te probeer herwin. Die klem word enersyds geplaas op die fatale en verarmende gevolge van die reduksie van kennis tot die meetbare, weegbare en tasbare en andersyds op die wesenlike onmisbaarheid vir menswees en menslike saamwees van dimensies van kennis, wat ewe geldig is, maar buite die grense van die empiriese val, naamlik die diskoerse van profesie, mite en delirium (waansin). In die belang van menswees word 'n saak uitgemaak vir 'n wyer en dieper opvatting van kennis en wetenskap as die heersende opvatting.In this article, it is emphasised that in the age of informationalism, knowledge has been reduced to a manageable entity for sale in the marketplace. In this process, the knowing activity of the sciences of the spirit in particular is sacrificed in favour of knowledge as an exchangeable economic entity. Such reductionism is deemed to end up in a situation of total disaster and catastrophe that is currently experienced worldwide. Its strategy is that of the development of a sterile engagement of methodological approaches, in compliance with positivism, empiricism, and rationalism, with specified but limited aspects of the real. The objective of this article is the neutralisation of this obsession with methodological approaches with its arrogant claim to produce or deliver the only true and universally acceptable knowledge adequate and able to solve all possible problems. Such a conception of knowledge is questionable due to its extremely limited scope with respect to reality. In order to articulate reality in its fullness it would be necessary that an expanded notion of knowledge be entertained that will include the non-calculable and the non-algorithmic dimensions of the real as well. For this purpose, a revised notion of logic, which will create room for different logics, needs also to be accommodated as proposed by a number of scientists and other thinkers. For this purpose, attention is given to prophesy, myth and delirium as examples of the extra-empirical domains of human understanding and knowing activities. These types of knowledge are contributions to the expanded notion of knowledge and take us far beyond the empirical and the positive, the measureable and the calculable. In order to achieve a full and comprehensive grasp of human understanding, insight, knowing and knowledge we have to move far beyond the mere empirical, factual and calculable. It has been indicated that numerous thinkers, philosophers and scientists from diverse disciplines are taking us in this direction. Issues such as mystery, affectivity, uncertainty, totality, multiplicity, phantasm, imagination, dreamery and infinity cannot be neglected. The contemplation of and reflection on these issues are taking us far beyond the limitations and restrictions set by the restrictive methodological approaches informed by empiricism, positivism, and even rationalism, later on to be amplified by industrialism and economism under the pretention that this is the only sound route to real, valid, true and meaningful knowledge. However, the validity and significance of knowledge are to be brought about on a much wider scale in order for it to offer significant contributions to human individual and social well-being. This can never be guaranteed on the basis of measurement, calculation and verifiable facts alone. For the sciences of the spirit, but also for the sciences in general, to be of any significance to human existence in the world these issues should be carefully articulated and incorporated in the scientific endeavour. In taking them seriously, the road is opened to a new and fuller appreciation of the value and place of dimensions of human knowing and knowledge as it is manifested in prophesy, myth and delirium. New dimensions of understanding, insight, knowing, and thinking, as well as different views on truth and meaning, are to be discovered in the worlds of prophesy, myth and delirium. Ricoeur's distinction between truth as manifestation and truth as verification shows the relevance of testimony and revelation for a more comprehensive understanding as well as experience of truth. Truth can never be exhausted by verifying strategies and can never offer humans adequate expectations to hope for. In a similar way, it is emphasised that myth as a form of human discourse offers imaginative patterns, networks and powerful symbols that suggest ways of interpreting the world and shaping its meaning for humans. Myth is to be seen as a more authentic form of knowledge, untouched by the devastating fanaticism for quantification and objectification. Against all expectations it has been emphasised that the effort to build a science of the normal without being careful to start with the pathological, considered as the immediate given, may end up as ridiculous failures. The acknowledgement of madness as a relevant and significant form of human discourse, far from being totally and only senseless, is a recognition of delirium as a condition for the desire to speak and to know about the truth of the real. Insanity can be the condition for genuineness and authenticity. De Waelhens may be right: the normal is not intelligible without the pathological. From the exploratory work in the article it would seem that prophesy, myth and delirium offer dimensions of human knowing, understanding and insight that is of decisive importance for the full realisation of human knowledge as well as the meaningful fulfilment of human existence.
       
 
 
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